umu.sePublications
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• Jonsson, Ulf
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
Psychological Treatment of Depression in People Aged 65 Years and Over: A Systematic Review of Efficacy, Safety, and Cost-Effectiveness2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 8, e0160859Article in journal (Refereed)

Objectives Depression in elderly people is a major public health concern. As response to antidepressants is often unsatisfactory in this age group, there is a need for evidence-based non-pharmacological treatment options. Our objectives were twofold: firstly, to synthesize published trials evaluating efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of psychological treatment of depression in the elderly and secondly, to assess the quality of evidence. Method The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAL, Scopus, and Psyc-INFO were searched up to 23 May 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological treatment for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms in people aged 65 years and over. Two reviewers independently assessed relevant studies for risk of bias. Where appropriate, the results were synthesized in meta-analyses. The quality of the evidence was graded according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Results Twenty-two relevant RCTs were identified, eight of which were excluded from the synthesis due to a high risk of bias. Of the remaining trials, six evaluated problem-solving therapy (PST), five evaluated other forms of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), and three evaluated life review/reminiscence therapy. In frail elderly with depressive symptoms, the evidence supported the efficacy of PST, with large but heterogeneous effect sizes compared with treatment as usual. The results for life-review/reminiscence therapy and CBT were also promising, but because of the limited number of trials the quality of evidence was rated as very low. Safety data were not reported in any included trial. The only identified cost-effectiveness study estimated an incremental cost per additional point reduction in Beck Depression Inventory II score for CBT compared with talking control and treatment as usual. Conclusion Psychological treatment is a feasible option for frail elderly with depressive symptoms. However, important questions about efficacy, generalizability, safety and cost-effectiveness remain.

• Dahlin, Lars B.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
Case report: Intraneural perineurioma of the sciatic nerve in an adolescent - strategies for revealing the diagnosis2016In: Clinical Case Reports, E-ISSN 2050-0904, Vol. 4, no 8, 777-781 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Diagnosis of intraneural conditions can be revealed by a combination of clinical examination, electrophysiology, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and targeted fascicular biopsy with subsequent microscopic analyses.

• Arenz, Stefan
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
The stringent factor RelA adopts an open conformation on the ribosome to stimulate ppGpp synthesis2016In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 44, no 13, 6471-6481 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Under stress conditions, such as nutrient starvation, deacylated tRNAs bound within the ribosomal A-site are recognized by the stringent factor RelA, which converts ATP and GTP/GDP to (p)ppGpp. The signaling molecules (p) ppGpp globally rewire the cellular transcriptional program and general metabolism, leading to stress adaptation. Despite the additional importance of the stringent response for regulation of bacterial virulence, antibiotic resistance and persistence, structural insight into how the ribosome and deacylated-tRNA stimulate RelA-mediated (p)ppGpp has been lacking. Here, we present a cryo-EM structure of RelA in complex with the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome with an average resolution of 3.7 angstrom and local resolution of 4 to > 10 angstrom for RelA. The structure reveals that RelA adopts a unique 'open' conformation, where the C-terminal domain (CTD) is intertwined around an A/T-like tRNA within the intersubunit cavity of the ribosome and the N-terminal domain (NTD) extends into the solvent. We propose that the open conformation of RelA on the ribosome relieves the autoinhibitory effect of the CTD on the NTD, thus leading to stimulation of (p)ppGpp synthesis by RelA.

• Forouhi, Nita G.
Umeå University. Lund University, Malmö, Sweden. Umeå University.
Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study2016In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 13, no 7, e1002094Article in journal (Refereed)

Background Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, a-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77-0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with.-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs. Conclusions These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they highlight that the most abundant n6-PUFA (LA) is inversely associated with T2D. The detection of associations with previously less well-investigated PUFAs points to the importance of considering individual fatty acids rather than focusing on fatty acid class.

• Public defence: 2016-11-18 09:00 Sal A, 9tr, by 1D,, Umeå
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
Towards the Limits – Climate Change Aspects of Life and Health in Northern Sweden: studies of tularemia and regional experiences of changes in the environment2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Background

Indigenous peoples with traditional lifestyles worldwide are considered particularly vulnerable to climate change effects. Large climate change impacts on the spread of infectious vector-borne diseases are expected as a health outcome. The most rapid climate changes are occurring in the Arctic regions, and as a part of this region northernmost Sweden might experience early effects. In this thesis, climate change effects on the lives of Sami reindeer herders are described and 30 years of weather changes are quantified. Epidemiology of the climate sensitive human infection tularemia is assessed, baseline serologic prevalence of tularemia is investigated and the disease burden is quantified across inhabitants in the region.

Methods

Perceptions and experiences of climate change effects among the indigenous Sami reindeer herders of northern Sweden were investigated through qualitative analyses of fourteen interviews. The results were then combined with instrumental weather data from ten meteorological stations in a mixed-methods design to further illustrate climate change effects in this region. In two following studies, tularemia ecology and epidemiology were investigated. A total of 4,792 reported cases of tularemia between 1984 and 2012 were analysed and correlated to ecological regions and presence of inland water using geographical mapping. The status of tularemia in the Swedish Arctic region was further investigated through risk factor analyses of a 2012 regional outbreak and a cross-sectional serological survey to estimate the burden of disease including unreported cases.

Results

The reindeer herders described how the winters of northern Sweden have changed since the 1970s – warmer winters with shorter snow season and cold periods, and earlier spring. The adverse effects on the reindeer herders through the obstruction of their work, the stress induced and the threat to their lifestyle was demonstrated, forcing the reindeer herders towards the limit of resilience. Weather data supported the observations of winter changes; some stations displayed a more than two full months shorter snow cover season and winter temperatures increased significantly, most pronounced in the lowest temperatures. During the same time period a near tenfold increase in national incidence of tularemia was observed in Sweden (from 0.26 to 2.47/100,000 p<0.001) with a clear overrepresentation of cases in the north versus the south (4.52 vs. 0.56/100,000 p<0.001). The incidence was positively correlated with the presence of inland water (p<0.001) and higher than expected in the alpine and boreal ecologic regions (p<0.001). In the outbreak investigation a dose-response relationship to water was identified; distance from residence to water – less than 100 m, mOR 2.86 (95% CI 1.79–4.57) and 100 to 500 m, mOR 1.63 (95% CI 1.08–2.46). The prevalence of tularemia antibodies in the two northernmost counties was 2.9% corresponding to a 16 times higher number of cases than reported indicating that the reported numbers represent only a minute fraction of the true tularemia.

Conclusions

The extensive winter changes pose a threat to reindeer herding in this region. Tularemia is increasing in Sweden, it has a strong correlation to water and northern ecoregions, and unreported tularemia cases are quite common.

• Feldman, Inna
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Salut Programme: a universal health promotion intervention for parents and children-protocol of a register-based retrospective observational study2016In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 8, e011202Article in journal (Refereed)

Introduction: There is inadequate evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Salut Programme aims to reach all parents and children in the Vasterbotten County of Sweden with a combination of health promotion interventions initiated during pregnancy and continued over the childhood period. This study protocol describes an effectiveness study and an economic evaluation study, where the ongoing Salut Programme is compared to care-as-usual over the periods of pregnancy, delivery and the child's first 2 years of life. Methods: A register-based retrospective observational study design will be used with existing data sources with respect to exposures and outcomes. Outcomes of interest are clustered at 3 points: around the child's birth, 1 month after the child's birth and 2 years after the child's birth. We will simulate an experiment by retrospectively identifying and comparing children and their parents in the geographical areas where the Salut Programme was implemented since 2006 and onwards, and the areas where the Programme was not implemented before 2009. Outcomes will be analysed and compared for the premeasure period, and the postmeasure period for both groups. Our analysis combines difference-in-difference estimation with matching. A complementary analysis will be carried out on the longitudinal subsample of mothers who gave birth at least once during each of the time periods. The economic evaluation aims to capture the wider societal costs and benefits of the Salut Programme for the first 2 years of the children's lives. Incremental costs will be compared with incremental health gains and the results will be presented as a cost-consequence analysis. Ethics and dissemination: The Regional Ethical Review Board in Umea has given clearance for the Salut Programme research (2010-63-31M). No individual's identity will be revealed when presenting results. This study will provide information that can guide decision-makers to allocate resources optimally.

Drivers, Barriers and Implementation of Social Sustainable in Supply chain: A qualitative study of SMEs2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The Social dimension of Sustainability and SCM (supply chain management) are two concepts that have been discussed over the last decade. Nowadays, the increasing integration of social sustainability into SCM becomes an evolving area. The main purpose of this master thesis is to gain better understanding of what are the drivers and barriers for implementing social sustainability inthesupply chainin the context of SMEs. In order to get a deep understanding of how these practices are implemented, we proposed asecondresearch questionto understand the efforts that companieshave made on implementing social sustainability and how far are their implementations of different social sustainability practices.The study involves four different organizations with operations in three different countries, respectively: Romania, Sudan and Namibia. As for the choice of theories for this thesis, we have chosen relevant concepts, such as Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM), Social Sustainability, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and thestakeholder theory.After systematically review of current literature in social sustainabilitysupply chain management, we discoveredthat there is a gap in research sincethere are limited studies concerning thedrivers and barriers for the adoption of social dimension inSSCM,and also how social sustainability managerial practices are actually implemented in SMEs.In order to fulfil the purpose of the thesis, a qualitative method study has been conducted. By using a qualitative research method, we aim to get comprehensive information related to the perceptions of different organizational employees, such as CEO(chief executive officer), supply chain managers, legal advisers, or executive directors. Through the semi-structured interviews, we gained a deeper understanding of the drivers and barriers that organizations face when trying to implement social sustainability in the supply chain. Our interview guide was divided into four major themes, respectively: Social Sustainability in Supply Chain Management, Stakeholders, Drivers and Barriers, and Implementation.The findings of the study revealed that there are numerous motivators for and barriers to social SSCM implementation. Stakeholders such as customers, community and NGOs were reported by respondents as driving forces for the integration of social sustainabilitypractices in their companies. We also found that government influence is a strong driver for improving socialsustainable practices for companies. The government can also use tools such as market incentives (e.g. grants and incentives) or direct regulations to strengthen SSCM adoption. However, the lack of regulation may reduce the pace of social SSCM adoption. We believe that building health and sustainable relations with all kinds of internal and external stakeholders is important when implementing social sustainable in supply chainin SMEs.

The Business Model of Biotech SMEs: How do biotech SMEs cope with the industry’s challenges?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The purpose of this study was to investigate how biotech SMEs structure their business model to deal with the industry’s challenges. The first step was to lay a theoretical foundation of the business model and clarify ambiguities surrounding the business model concept. This lead to the Business Model Canvas, which was used as tool of analysis for this thesis. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with companies, experts and cluster managers, following the nine building blocks of the Business Model Canvas.

The results showed that two typologies of business models could be seen, which we divided in pharmaceutical biotech SMEs and non-pharmaceutical biotech SMEs. Both business models face challenges of research and development process, but to different degrees. Pharmaceutical biotech SMEs deal with long, costly and risky research process, which results in a research-centered business model. During the research period, these companies don’t generate revenues through sales. Non-pharmaceutical biotech SMEs on the other hand, face less harsh research and development processes, which allows them to market their products faster and generate revenue from sales. This results in a more customer-centric business model than the pharmaceutical biotech SMEs.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). BioMediTech, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). BioMediTech, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
Genetic Screen in Drosophila Larvae Links ird1 Function to Toll Signaling in the Fat Body and Hemocyte Motility2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 7, e0159473Article in journal (Refereed)

To understand how Toll signaling controls the activation of a cellular immune response in Drosophila blood cells (hemocytes), we carried out a genetic modifier screen, looking for deletions that suppress or enhance the mobilization of sessile hemocytes by the gain-of-function mutation Toll(10b) (Tl-10b). Here we describe the results from chromosome arm 3R, where five regions strongly suppressed this phenotype. We identified the specific genes immune response deficient 1 (ird1), headcase (hdc) and possibly Rab23 as suppressors, and we studied the role of ird1 in more detail. An ird1 null mutant and a mutant that truncates the N-terminal kinase domain of the encoded Ird1 protein affected the Tl-10b phenotype, unlike mutations that affect the C-terminal part of the protein. The ird1 null mutant suppressed mobilization of sessile hemocytes, but enhanced other Tl-10b hemocyte phenotypes, like the formation of melanotic nodules and the increased number of circulating hemocytes. ird1 mutants also had blood cell phenotypes on their own. They lacked crystal cells and showed aberrant formation of lamellocytes. ird1 mutant plasmatocytes had a reduced ability to spread on an artificial substrate by forming protrusions, which may explain why they did not go into circulation in response to Toll signaling. The effect of the ird1 mutation depended mainly on ird1 expression in hemocytes, but ird1-dependent effects in other tissues may contribute. Specifically, the Toll receptor was translocated from the cell membrane to intracellular vesicles in the fat body of the ird1 mutant, and Toll signaling was activated in that tissue, partially explaining the Tl-10b-like phenotype. As ird1 is otherwise known to control vesicular transport, we conclude that the vesicular transport system may be of particular importance during an immune response.

Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. nstituto Gulbenkian de Sciencia, Oeiras, 2780–156 Oeiras, Portugal. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. EMV Immunology, BMC, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; ISIM- Immunology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
A New Mouse Model That Spontaneously Develops Chronic Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 7, e0159850Article in journal (Refereed)

Here we characterize a new animal model that spontaneously develops chronic inflammation and fibrosis in multiple organs, the non-obese diabetic inflammation and fibrosis (N-IF) mouse. In the liver, the N-IF mouse displays inflammation and fibrosis particularly evident around portal tracts and central veins and accompanied with evidence of abnormal intrahepatic bile ducts. The extensive cellular infiltration consists mainly of macrophages, granulocytes, particularly eosinophils, and mast cells. This inflammatory syndrome is mediated by a transgenic population of natural killer T cells (NKT) induced in an immunodeficient NOD genetic background. The disease is transferrable to immunodeficient recipients, while polyclonal T cells from unaffected syngeneic donors can inhibit the disease phenotype. Because of the fibrotic component, early on-set, spontaneous nature and reproducibility, this novel mouse model provides a unique tool to gain further insight into the underlying mechanisms mediating transformation of chronic inflammation into fibrosis and to evaluate intervention protocols for treating conditions of fibrotic disorders.

• Public defence: 2016-11-11 13:00 NUS 1D - Tandläkarhögskolan, Hörsal D, Umeå
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
Characteristics of nearside car crashes: an integrated approach to side impact safety2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Introduction: Approximately 1.25 million people globally are killed in traffic accidents yearly. To achieve the UN Global Goal of a 50% reduction of fatal and serious injuries in 2020 a safer infrastructure, as well as new safety technologies, will be needed. Side crashes represent 20% of all serious and 25 % of fatal injuries. The overall aim of this thesis is to provide guidelines for improved side impact protection. First, by characterizing nearside crashes and injury outcome, including injuries from the farside occupant, for non-senior and senior front seat occupants. Second, to determine whether the WorldSID dummy provides opportunities for improved in-crash occupant protection. And third, by relating in-crash occupant protection to pre-crash countermeasures, to explore a holistic approach for side crashes using the integrated safety chain from safe driving to crash.

Methods: NASS/CDS data for both older and modern vehicles was used to provide exposure, incidence, and risk for fatal injury as well as detailed injury distribution and crash characteristics. The WorldSID dummy was compared to Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in impactor tests at high and low severities to demonstrate the possibilities of this tool. Crash tests were performed to evaluate WorldSID crash test dummy assessments of injuries found in the NASS/CDS data. The integrated safety chain was used to demonstrate how to evaluate occupant protection in side crashes from a larger perspective, involving infrastructure and Automated Emergency Braking.

Result: Most side crashes occur at intersections. The head, thorax, and pelvis are the most frequently injured body regions, and seniors have a higher risk for rib fractures compared to non-seniors. The WorldSID dummy response was similar to the PMHS response at the higher impact speed, but not at the lower. In conjunction with improved airbags infrastructural change, and the use of Automated Emergency Braking, can effectively reduce the number of fatalities and injured occupants in side impacts.

Conclusion: Future focus for side impact protection should be on intersection crashes, improved occupant protection for senior occupants, and protection for and from the farside occupant, reducing injury risk to the head, thorax, and pelvis. The WorldSID dummy has the ability to reproduce humanlike responses in lateral and oblique impacts. However, at a low crash severity, chest deflection could be underestimated, which must be taken into consideration when evaluating, for example, pre-crash inflated side airbags. Analyzing nearside crashes using the integrated safety chain shows that speed management by means of roundabouts is an efficient countermeasure reducing the number of injurious crashes, as well as reducing variations in crash severity. In combination with an Automated Emergency Braking a large part of side crashes could be avoided or crash severity mitigated. Rather than developing structures and airbags for high-speed crashes, it is important to consider alternative countermeasures. Hence the need for an integrated approach to side impacts.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
Overcoming Barriers: Adolescents' Experiences Using a Mobile Phone Dietary Assessment App2016In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 4, no 3, e92Article in journal (Refereed)

Background: The use of new technology has the potential to increase participation rates in dietary studies and improve the validity of collected dietary data. However, to evaluate the usability of developed dietary methods, qualitative studies of participants’ experiences and perceptions are needed.

Objective: To explore adolescents’ experiences using a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app, with a focus on factors that could affect their recording of dietary intake.

Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with 75 participants who had used a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app in a quantitative evaluation study. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and the theoretical framework of Self Determination Theory was applied.

Results: The adolescents’ use of the mobile phone dietary assessment app was characterized by their struggle to overcome several perceived barriers. Facilitators that helped adolescents complete the method were also identified. Motivation was found to be an important facilitator, and intrinsically motivated participants completed the method because they found it fun to use. The autonomous extrinsically motivated participants completed the method for the greater good, in order to contribute to the study. The controlled extrinsically motivated participants completed the method to get a reward or avoid punishment. Amotivated participants did not complete the method. More motivated participants were assumed to be more able to overcome barriers and needed less facilitators.

Conclusions: Future studies that examine the recording of food intake should include systematic efforts that aim to minimize identified barriers and promote identified facilitators. Further research should specifically aim at studying methods for (and effects of) increasing intrinsic motivation by supporting autonomy, competence, and relatedness among adolescents asked to participate in dietary studies.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Wyner-Ziv Video Coding using Hadamard Transform and Deep Learning2016In: International Journal of Advanced Computer Sciences and Applications, ISSN 2158-107X, E-ISSN 2156-5570, Vol. 7, no 7, 582-589 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Predictive schemes are current standards of video coding. Unfortunately they do not apply well for lightweight devices such as mobile phones. The high encoding complexity is the bottleneck of the Quality of Experience (QoE) of a video conversation between mobile phones. A considerable amount of research has been conducted towards tackling that bottleneck. Most of the schemes use the so-called Wyner-Ziv Video Coding Paradigm, with results still not comparable to those of predictive coding. This paper shows a novel approach for Wyner-Ziv video compression. It is based on the Reinforcement Learning and Hadamard Transform. Our Scheme shows very promising results.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
Telework: Experiences of technostress in telework environments.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The adoption and use of information and communication technology (ICT) solutions in companies are on the rise and with this rise comes several health effects. One kind of these health effects, called technostress affects employees and self-employees while using ICT for telework. The aim of this study has been to create a deeper understanding of the factors that are stressing employees and self-employees that has the opportunity to work flexible work hours using ICT. A qualitative research method including interviews has been used to gather data for this thesis. My findings suggests that awareness of the stress factors in different areas makes it easier to avoid getting affected by them. These stress areas are (1) reachability, (2) ICT and flexible work hours, (3) Work, information and technology overload and (4) Separation between work and leisure. I expect that this study will contribute to broadening the awareness of these stress factors.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
Design Togetherness, Pluralism and Convergence2016In: Proceedings of DRS 2016: Design + Research + Society : Future-Focused Thinking / [ed] Peter Lloyd and Eric Bohemia, London: Design Research Society , 2016, Vol. 10, 4029-4044 p.Conference paper (Refereed)

We describe an inquiry into how we relate to each other in design, as we design. In particular, we are interested in to what extent, and in what ways, we acknowledge diversity in knowledge, experience, and skill. We have conducted a series of project courses within design education to make students explore different ways of doing design together. Our findings point to two main tendencies: towards cultures of pluralism, of coming together as who we are; and cultures of representation, of coming together as what we are. This points to important issues related to how methodology and process structure the way we perceive and relate to each other. Indeed, in a disciplinary methodological framework ultimately oriented towards convergence and the making of a final design, how do we evolve and engage with that which must not converge to a single point but where difference and diversity must be acknowledged?

• Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
Acute effects of breaking up prolonged sitting on fatigue and cognition: a pilot study2016In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 2, e009630Article in journal (Refereed)

Objectives: To compare the acute effects of uninterrupted sitting with sitting interrupted by brief bouts of light-intensity walking on self-reported fatigue, cognition, neuroendocrine biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk markers in overweight/obese adults.

Design: Randomised two-condition crossover trial.

Setting: Laboratory study conducted in Melbourne, Australia.

Participants: 19 overweight/obese adults (45–75 years).

Interventions: After an initial 2 h period seated, participants consumed a meal-replacement beverage and completed (on 2 days separated by a 6-day washout period) each condition over the next 5 h: uninterrupted sitting (sedentary condition) or sitting with 3 min bouts of light-intensity walking every 30 min (active condition).

Primary outcome measures: Self-reported fatigue, executive function and episodic memory at 0 h, 4 h and 7 h.

Secondary outcome measures: Neuroendocrine biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk markers (blood collections at 0 h, 4 h and 7 h, blood pressure and heart rate measured hourly and interstitial glucose measured using a continuous glucose monitoring system).

Results: During the active condition, fatigue levels were lower at 4 h (−13.32 (95% CI −23.48 to −3.16)) and at 7 h (−10.73 (95% CI −20.89 to −0.58)) compared to the sedentary condition. Heart rate was higher at 4 h (4.47 (95% CI 8.37 to 0.58)) and at 7 h (4.32 (95% CI 8.21 to 0.42)) during the active condition compared to the sedentary condition. There were no significant differences between conditions by time for other variables. In the sedentary condition, changes in fatigue scores over time correlated with a decrease in heart rate and plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and an increase in plasma dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG).

Conclusions: Interrupting prolonged sitting with light-intensity walking breaks may be an effective fatigue countermeasure acutely. Fatigue levels corresponded with the heart rate and neuroendocrine biomarker changes in uninterrupted sitting in this pilot study. Further research is needed to identify potential implications, particularly for the occupational health context.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
Is it too late?: Investigating implications of late introduction of a user-centered approach in design processes2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

With the increasing number of digital applications being developed today, the demand on smooth processes and satisfied end users increase along with it. In software development the focus on functionality is central in any process and is the factor determining whether or not the application is functional. However, even if a product is functional it does not mean that it is easy to use, hence providing a satisfying user experience. The purpose of this paper is to study whether or not there are any implications regarding the user experience when a user-centered approach is not applied from the beginning of any give process, taking the variety of methodologies available in regard. The paper is supposed to provide an initial insight into the problems regarding application of user-centered design in the development of digital artifacts. This is a qualitative study where six practicing interaction designers where interviewed regarding their experiences in processes where they had been involved from the start and projects where they had been involved at a later stage, and what, if any, differences there were. The results showed that there is in fact a difference in how the respondents viewed the different scenarios, with the most significant difference being that the impact they had decreased the further down the line they were introduced to the project, as well as the value of user tests drastically decreased. Budget and deadline were two important aspects that were pointed out as being the deciding factor when dealing with changes in a project where late introduction of user-centered design had occurred.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
Avoiding the Most Common ERP Challenges with Agile Methodologies2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) systems benefits to organizations are well known around the world. However, ERP implementation projects are complex, expensive and risky. A recent report that was conducted in 2016 shows that these projects have a quite high failure rate and an average cost of several million dollars per project. Many ERP implementation projects are still executed using waterfall or similar methodologies. While the usage of waterfall methodology in IT projects is decreasing, agile methodologies usage is growing. Agile methodologies have solved many challenges that traditional methodologies like waterfall did not solve in IT projects. This paper aims to find if the current most common ERP implementation challenges can be mitigated or solved by applying agile methodologies or techniques. The study suggests agile solutions for the most common ERP implementation projects challenges. These solutions aim to improve the ERP product selection process, the requirements collection process and the communications process during the ERP implementation project.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
Complete replication-competent adenovirus 11p vectors with E1 or E3 insertions show improved heat stability2016In: Virology, ISSN 0042-6822, E-ISSN 1096-0341, Vol. 497, 198-210 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
Modifying Older Adults' Daily Sedentary Behaviour Using an Asset-based Solution: Views from Older Adults2016In: AIMS public health, ISSN 2327-8994, Vol. 3, no 3, 542-554 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Objective: There is a growing public health focus on the promotion of successful and active ageing. Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB) in older adults are feasible and are improved by tailoring to individuals' context and circumstances. SB is ubiquitous; therefore part of the tailoring process is to ensure individuals' daily sedentary routine can be modified. The aim of this study was to understand the views of older adults and identify important considerations when creating a solution to modify daily sedentary patterns. Method: This was a qualitative research study. Fifteen older adult volunteers (mean age = 78 years) participated in 1 of 4 focus groups to identify solutions to modify daily sedentary routine. Two researchers conducted the focus groups whilst a third took detailed fieldnotes on a flipchart to member check the findings. Data were recorded and analysed thematically. Results: Participants wanted a solution with a range of options which could be tailored to individual needs and circumstances. The strategy suggested was to use the activities of daily routine and reasons why individuals already naturally interrupting their SB, collectively framed as assets. These assets were categorised into 5 sub-themes: physical assets (eg. standing up to reduce stiffness); psychological assets (eg. standing up to reduce feelings of guilt); interpersonal assets (eg. standing up to answer the phone); knowledge assets (eg. standing up due to knowing the benefits of breaking SB) and activities of daily living assets (eg. standing up to get a drink). Conclusion: This study provides important considerations from older adults' perspectives to modify their daily sedentary patterns. The assets identified by participants could be used to co-create a tailored intervention with older adults to reduce SB, which may increase effectiveness and adherence.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Bo på Lantgård: Vilka är gästerna och hur kan föreningen attrahera nya medlemmar?2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

In this report I have examine what tourists seek when they want a holiday on a farm, and how the Swedish organization Bo på Lantgård (Stay at Farm) can attract more members.  The study was done by a survey that was e-mailed to all members of Bo på Lantgård and they had around two weeks to answer before the survey closed. I got a 57 % response. The result I got was that people who staying while on business trip and families with children were the largest two groups of guests on the farms and the marketing should be directed towards these. My second question, how Bo på Lantgård can get more members, was summarized by the current members in three big parts; the association has to be better at marketing, improve their website and have a cheaper membership.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Ekosystemtjänster: En studie kring hur medvetna Järvafältets besökare är om ekosystemtjänster.2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The aim of this study was to examine how aware people are of ecosystem services. The study was restricted to Järvafältet in Stockholm, where a good mapping of the ecosystem services has been done. The questions this report will focus on are; 1) do visitors of Järvafältet know what ecosystem services are? 2) are visitors aware of the ecosystem services that Järvafältet is contributing with? The study was done as a survey, with questions focusing on the ecosystem services that are available on Järvafältet. Through a number of statements about what ecosystem services are considered to contribute with, the survey examined the degree to which the visitors agreed with the statements, but also if they knew what ecosystem services are. A total of 65 people answered the survey and the responses showed that 28 % did know what ecosystem services are. Statements regarding regulating ecosystem services had more ‘do not know’ answers than other types of ecosystem services. The questions about providing services had most varied response, with nearly as many ‘do not know’ and ‘agree’ answers. Most of the questions were about cultural ecosystem services, and on those statements the majority answer ‘agree’ or ‘agree completely’. To conclude; the survey showed that most of the visitors did not know what ecosystem services are. However, the responses indicate that visitors still have paid attention to ecosystem services, even if the visitors were unaware of the term ecosystems services.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Betydelsen av skyddad natur: Människors upplevelse och uppfattning av naturskyddade områden2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The aim of this report is to find out how people in Sweden experience nature conservation areas and how it affects their wellbeing when in contact with this areas. The study examines the purpose of visitors in nature protected areas and how mental fatigue can be decreased from nature conservation. Furthermore the study explores impressions from visitors to these areas and the attitude against non-protected areas versus protected areas. The report was based on an online survey which 277 persons participated in.  The answers in the survey were then compared to other similar surveys, since the most other studies are more than 10 years, changes in people’s attitudes could be found. The study shows that visiting nature conservation areas affects people positively and gives recovery from mental exhaustion. A lot of the participants said that they want more protected areas in Sweden, mainly for the biodiversity to thrive but also to preserve nature for the next generations. The most common feeling after visiting a nature protected area was relaxation, which also most people said was their main reason for a visit to protected areas.

Key words: Nature conservation, mental fatigue, nature protected areas, health effects.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Sälturism i Umeås skärgård: Dess förutsättningar och problem2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Seal-based tourism in the Umeå archipelago

Its possibilities and problems

Marcus Vidberg

Abstract

Seal-based tourism is something that can be found throughout the world, including Sweden, which led to the question of why there is a lack of it in the region of Umeå. Studying the ecological conditions in the area has led to the conclusion that the Umeå archipelago has all the prerequisites for establishing a seal-based activity, meaning that there are more circumstances surrounding the possibilities of seal-based tourism. To fully understand the topic, one needs to study it from several different points of view, including the ecological, economical and socio-cultural aspects. There are a lot of different opinions surrounding the seals that need to be taken in to account before one reaches a conclusion. Furthermore it is also necessary to study the topic of tourism; globally, locally and its development. With a growing demand for nature-based tourism around the world, shouldn’t it be possible to establish a seal-based one in the Swedish north? The report also studies the already established operations throughout Sweden, to try to understand why the activities are located in some regions but not in others. The conclusion that has been reached in this report is that the ecological circumstances for a seal-based tourism exists in the Umeå archipelago, but a seal-based operation might find its biggest straits to be the economical and socio-cultural conditions.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Naturum Vålådalen i samarbete med lokala turistföretag?: Om erfarenheter från naturum Kullaberg, ekoturism och eventuell certifiering2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Naturum Vålådalen in cooperation with locally based tourism companies Experiences from Kullaberg, ecotourism and a possible certification

This study aimed to examine how the visitor center naturum Kullaberg managed to implement a cooperation with the commercial guide company Kullabergsguiderna and to see if it was possible to apply that working model on the visitor center naturum Vålådalen and the surrounding ecotourism companies. Furthermore this report tried to define the concept of ecotourism and look closer on the certification system. The main method of this study was based on interviews with relevant parties. The result showed that theoretically it's possible to implement a cooperation between local ecotourism companies and naturum Vålådalen. To manage a cooperation between an authority and an external commercial company you will need to do a public procurement or make sure that there will be no competition or financial compensation. The study of ecotourism and certification showed that the definition has and still is being reinterpreted and that it is hard to maintain a credible certification. The results showed that in most cases, there is a difference between ecotourism and sustainability, this reports means that ecotourism should contain sustainability and also preservation and interpretation of the local community. This reports definition of ecotourism is: a sustainable activity that both support and anchor its operation in the local area, where both its nature and culture values are being preserved, managed and mediated. The three pillars of sustainability should be reoccurring in the business and something that every visitor should be able to take part of.

Compliance with IAS 36, paragraph 134: The influence of company characteristics on companies' compliance level2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The standard concerning the impairment testing for goodwill is often considered to be one of the most difficult standards in IFRS to comply with, which is largely due to the subjective and complex nature of the standard. Despite, the obvious issues with the standard it has remained fairly unaltered since its implementation back in 2005.

The purpose of this research was to investigate to what extent companies listed on NASDAQ OMX Stockholm comply with the disclosure requirements in IAS 36, paragraph 134. This research also intended to answer whether there is an association between the companies’ compliance level and certain company characteristics, more specifically company size, profitability, goodwill intensity and industry type. The study also considered how time affected the compliance level.

We devised hypotheses for each of the company characteristics, and these were formulate with both previous research and theory in mind. The theories that were utilized in this study were the agency theory, the political cost theory and the cost-benefit theory. The hypotheses that lacked a concrete linkage to one of the theories were instead justified using the reasoning’s found in pre-existing disclosure studies.

The necessary data was collected from companies’ annual reports, which we accessed from either Business Retriever or directly from the companies’ official websites. An own interpretation of IAS 36, paragraph 134 was made in order to able to assess each company on equal terms. The collected data was then transferred to a disclosure index in order to get a compliancy score for each company investigated.

The empirical findings of this research showed that two out of five hypotheses were significantly associated with the companies’ compliance level. The analysis rejected hypotheses related to profitability, goodwill intensity and industry type. The findings however showed that both year and company size are associated with the compliance level. The positive association between compliance and year, implies that compliance increases as companies get more accustomed to the standard. The findings further suggest that larger companies comply better with standard because they are under more political pressure and more inclined to please their stakeholders.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
Coronary Artery Calcification Is Related to Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study2016In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, 1261582Article in journal (Refereed)

Objective. A long-term follow-up of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to evaluate factors related to coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods. All 22 eligible patients (4 males/18 females, mean age 65 years, and RA-duration 30-36 years) from the original (baseline; n = 39) study of atherosclerosis were included. Inflammation, cardiovascular risk factors, and biomarkers were measured at baseline. At follow-up 13 years later, CAC was assessed by computed tomography (CT) and the grade of inflammation was measured. Multivariate analysis of differences between patients with low (0-10) and high CAC (>10) was done by orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS). Results. Ten patients had CAC 0-10 and 12 had >10 (range 18-1700). Patients with high CAC had significantly higher ESR (24.3 versus 9.9 mm/h) and swollen joint count (2 versus 0). The OPLS models discriminated between patients having high or low CAC. With only baseline variables, the sensitivity was 73% and the specificity 82%. The model that also included inflammatory variables from follow-up had a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85%. Exclusion of baseline intima media thickness and plaque from the latter model modestly reduced the accuracy (sensitivity 80% and specificity 83%). Conclusions. CAC is related to inflammation in patients with RA.

The Impact of Financial Performance on SMEs Utilization of Trade Credit: A Descripto-Explanatory Study of the Swedish Market2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Debt and financial leverage have for long been a well debated topic in managerial finance since the revolutionizing theories developed by Modigliani & Miller.  Researchers have for many consecutive years reviewed the relationship between the choices of financing and its impact on financial performance. However, many of the theories developed have gained critique due to their limited applicability to small- and medium-sized enterprises, since they often neglect market imperfections. More specifically, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have fewer available sources of funds compared to larger corporations, making existing traditional theories of capital structure inadequate. They thus have to turn to more alternative sources of funding, namely trade credit. This implies the possibility of a reverse causation where capital structure may be a byproduct of financial performance for SMEs.

This field is not sufficiently researched yet, in particular with regards to the Swedish market. Hence, the goal of this degree project is to fill an existing research gap that concerns the impact of financial performance on the usage of trade credit for SMEs based in Sweden. Empirical evidence about SMEs financing decisions forms the basis for answering the research question, which asks: How does the financial performance of SMEs in Sweden affect their usage of trade credit?

For this purpose, the investigation builds upon a five-year time frame (2010-2015) where approximately 19 910 Swedish SMES comprise the scrutinized sample population. Certain criteria have been defined in order to establish the population, allowing the authors to maneuver this degree project accordingly.

In order to examine the relationship between financial performance and its effect on the usage of trade credit, different financial performance indicators are considered and statistically analyzed through a multiple regression model. Additionally, other determinants of capital structure are utilized as control variables to reinforce the explanatory power. Based on 115 091 observations, the majority of outcomes reveal a negative relationship between Swedish SMEs financial performance and their usage of trade credit. Nevertheless, positive relationships are observed with regards to return on equity, long-term debt-to-equity and size. Essentially, the study is able to answer the given research question and demonstrate that financial performance affects SMEs’ usage of trade credit. Additionally, the findings demonstrate that traditional capital structure theories poorly explain small-and medium-sized enterprises financing decisions.  Conclusions are of great benefit for SMEs’ managers in search of optimal capital structure.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
Open studio - Design for participatory art in the museum2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

How could public institutions like art museums open up a conversation with their audience? The intent of the project was to explore the influence and potential of digitalization in the physical space of a non-commercial public institution, if the audience and the institution would both benefit from technology, if the political structure of the institution would become more democratic and if the audience would take the initiative and be willing to generate their own voice in the institution.

The project took an explorative approach starting with questioning the status-quo, understanding the design context, analyzing, proposing and validating design directions in the end. The result was considered as the very first proposal and suggestion of how art museums could keep themselves relevant in the digital era.

The result is a service called <open studio>. It enables visitors to contribute to and interact with a virtual exhibition constructed by the creations they made in workshop programs in the art museum. It provides an overtime engagement with the visitors by illustrating the invisible dimension of time in tangible creations on a digital canvas.

Project website: http://www.openstudio.io

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Undersökning av energieffektivisering av klimatskal på ett bostadshus2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

I detta examensarbete har en analys genomförts som visar hur energiförbrukningen ändras utifrån fyra olika tjocklekar av tilläggsisolering. Även en analys av ett fönsterbyte och en kombination av ett fönsterbyte och tilläggsisolering har gjorts. Analysen har genomförts med hjälp av ett simuleringsprogram som heter IDA – ICE. Analysen ska sedan användas som underlag för Skebo vid kommande projekt för renovering av fastigheten.

För att kunna göra denna analys har Skebo tillhandahållit information och data om husets skick och energiförbrukning. De värden som Skebo inte kunnat tillhandhålla har antagits eller så har schablonvärden används. Byggnaden testades där tilläggsisoleringen hade fyra olika tjocklekar. Den första isoleringen var 50 mm och stegades sedan upp med 50 mm tills den nåde 200 mm. Det som gick att avläsa ur resultatet var att mellan 100 mm -150 mm avtog tilläggsisoleringens effekt. Då måste det läggas mer kostnader på att fixa köldbryggor i klimatskalet istället.

Resultatet visade att ett fönster byte skulle ge en lika bra energibesparing som en 150 mm tilläggsisolering. Det visade sig även om både fönster och tilläggsisolering gjordes så blev energibesparingen likvärdig jämfört med om varje individuell åtgärd adderats. Vid normala fall brukar det ej vara så, eftersom alla energieffektiviseringar påverkar varandra och vid en kombination av åtgärderna brukar dessa bli mindre tillsammans än summan av varje enskild åtgärd.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Institute of Biosciences and Medical Technology, BioMediTech, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Institute of Biosciences and Medical Technology, BioMediTech, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Institute of Biosciences and Medical Technology, BioMediTech, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
Transdifferentiation and Proliferation in Two Distinct Hemocyte Lineages in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae after Wasp Infection2016In: PLoS Pathogens, ISSN 1553-7366, E-ISSN 1553-7374, Vol. 12, no 7, e1005746Article in journal (Refereed)

Cellular immune responses require the generation and recruitment of diverse blood cell types that recognize and kill pathogens. In Drosophila melanogaster larvae, immune-inducible lamellocytes participate in recognizing and killing parasitoid wasp eggs. However, the sequence of events required for lamellocyte generation remains controversial. To study the cellular immune system, we developed a flow cytometry approach using in vivo reporters for lamellocytes as well as for plasmatocytes, the main hemocyte type in healthy larvae. We found that two different blood cell lineages, the plasmatocyte and lamellocyte lineages, contribute to the generation of lamellocytes in a demand-adapted hematopoietic process. Plasmatocytes transdifferentiate into lamellocyte-like cells in situ directly on the wasp egg. In parallel, a novel population of infection-induced cells, which we named lamelloblasts, appears in the circulation. Lamelloblasts proliferate vigorously and develop into the major class of circulating lamellocytes. Our data indicate that lamellocyte differentiation upon wasp parasitism is a plastic and dynamic process. Flow cytometry with in vivo hemocyte reporters can be used to study this phenomenon in detail.

• Public defence: 2016-11-14 12:00 Flexhallen, Umeå
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Umeå Academy of Fine Arts.
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Umeå Academy of Fine Arts.
Hur blir du en framgångsrik tiggare i Sverige?: en undersökning av tiggandets och givandets bilder 2011 till 20162016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

My first encounter with a begging person led me to spend five years investigating the new situation regarding begging and giving in Sweden. The premise is that every-day actions and reactions to another person can be made visible through aesthetics with ethical underpinnings. My investigation takes place mainly in the urban landscape and in the media. The images always constitute the point of departure for the reasoning and for the staged works. Images that separate as well as connect bodies. Which images are at play in the social choreography of begging and giving? In this context, how can images be activated in new ways? How can new images be generated? Begging is a call to social interaction, and regardless of whether the giver interacts socially with the begging person on the street, the giver is implicated in the asymmetrical value systems of the European Union. In my first staged work I hire a professional market researcher to find out how a beggar in Sweden should behave to be successful. This becomes a film that I then show opposite another film in which begging people talk about how givers give. This is followed by a number of staged works and an interdisciplinary theoretical discussion involving, among others, Judith Butler, Sara Ahmed, and Hannah Arendt, as well as a number of artistic works concerning how images – and bodily actions – are linked to the social image and the body politics. The arrangement of the choirs in the staged work The Chorus of Begging and The Chorus of Giving, indicates a space for social interaction and thus demonstrates a different order that demands different actions in terms of language, movement, and attitude toward each other. It’s a social choreography: when the choirs rehearsed and sung together a political form emerged. My hope is to make visible a space for action between the begging and the giving that can be used for continued ethical negotiations and new staged works.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Emotion and timing: -How emotional Valence and Arousal affect subjective time estimates for short and long durations2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Earlier studies suggest that emotion affects long duration estimates of 3-7 seconds and more, but how emotions affect shorter events is not well known. The aim of the thesis was to investigate how emotion, in terms of emotional Valence and Arousal, affects subjective time estimates of short (sub-second) and long (half-a-minute) durations. Participants (N= 26) were exposed to neutral and emotive video clips resembling the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Bradley, 1995) while making time discrimination judgments (short duration estimates: PSE). Afterwards they made long duration estimates (Long Time Estimates: LTE) and ratings of Valence and Arousal of every video clip. Significant results were that Arousal affected LTE estimates, with longer LTE estimates, the higher the Arousal level. The results indicate that Arousal, but not Valence, affects subjective time perception both of short and long durations.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Biomass utilization for energy purposes in Kenya: Fuel characteristics and thermochemical properties2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

About forty percent of the world´s population, mostly inhabitants of countries with developing economies, rely on the traditional usage of biomass for energy purposes. The major negative consequences are environmental and health effects. Additionally, the most remarkable social consequence is rural poverty which is directly linked to lack of access to electricity. This places the questions related to biomass utilization for energy production at the core of global welfare.The present work was performed as a part of a larger research project funded by Formas and which involves Swedish and Kenyan partners. The aim of this study was to gather basic knowledge about the characteristics of relevant biomass from sub-Saharan Africa, more specifically from Kenya. Eight different types of biomass, including agroforestry trees, agricultural residues and water hyacinth, were evaluated according to fuel characteristics and thermochemical properties. Ultimate and proximate analyses of the collected biomass were carried out, in addition to heating values analyses. Moreover, the biomass was pelletized and a thermogravimetric analysis was performed in a single pellet reactor. Finally, the composition of the residual ashes was determined. The results show that there was a large variation in the fuel characteristics and thermochemical behaviour of the studied agricultural residues and water hyacinth biomass types, whereas agroforestry trees had rather similar properties and thermochemical behaviour when combusted at the same temperature. In addition, results from the ash composition analyses showed large differences among the studied biomass types, which can be used to better predict and solve problems related to the combustion of these biomass types.

• Briones-Vozmediano, Erica
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. b Grupo de Investigación en Salud Pública, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Espa˜na.
Discursos profesionales sobre la violencia del compañero íntimo: implicación en la atención de las mujeres inmigrantes en España2016In: Gaceta Sanitaria, ISSN 0213-9111, Vol. 30, no 5, 326-332 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Objective: 1) to examine the discourses of professionals involved in the care of female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV), with emphasis on how they describe the immigrant women, the perpetrators and their own responsibility of care; and 2) to compare these discourses with the other professions involved in caring for these women (social services, associations and police and justice). Methods: Qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 43 professionals from social services, associations and the police and judicial systems. A discourse analysis was carried out to identify interpretive repertoires about IPV, immigrant women and their aggressors, their culture and professional practices. Results: Four interpretive repertoires emerged from professional discourses: "Cultural prototypes of women affected by IPV", "Perpetrators are similar regardless of their culture of origin", "Are victims credible and the perpetrators responsible?" and "Lack of cultural sensitivity of professionals in helping immigrant women in abusive situations". These repertoires correspond to preconceptions that professionals construct about affected women and their perpetrators, the credibility and responsibility they attribute to them and the interpretation of their professional roles. Conclusions: The employment of IPV-trained cultural mediators in the services responsible for caring for the female victims, together with cultural training for the professionals, will facilitate the provision of culturally sensitive care to immigrant female victims of intimate partner violence. (C) 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L.U.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
The decapping activator Edc3 and the Q/N-rich domain of Lsm4 function together to enhance mRNA stability and alter mRNA decay pathway dependence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae2016In: Biology Open, ISSN 2046-6390, Vol. 5, no 10, 1388-1399 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

The rate and regulation of mRNA decay are major elements in the proper control of gene expression. Edc3 and Lsm4 are two decapping activator proteins that have previously been shown to function in the assembly of RNA granules termed P bodies. Here, we show that deletion of edc3, when combined with a removal of the glutamine/asparagine rich region of Lsm4 (edc3Δ lsm4ΔC) reduces mRNA stability and alters pathways of mRNA degradation. Multiple tested mRNAs exhibited reduced stability in the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant. The destabilization was linked to an increased dependence on Ccr4-mediated deadenylation and mRNA decapping. Unlike characterized mutations in decapping factors that either are neutral or are able to stabilize mRNA, the combined edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant reduced mRNA stability. We characterized the growth and activity of the major mRNA decay systems and translation in double mutant and wild-type yeast. In the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant, we observed alterations in the levels of specific mRNA decay factors as well as nuclear accumulation of the catalytic subunit of the decapping enzyme Dcp2. Hence, we suggest that the effects on mRNA stability in the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant may originate from mRNA decay protein abundance or changes in mRNPs or alternatively may imply a role for P bodies in mRNA stabilization.

Effective Events: A quantitative study analyzing if event marketing can help business students find a potential employer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The main object of this thesis is to study and explore if students at Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE) can find potential employers though Event Marketing (EM). The authors will analyze EM as a tool for interaction and information, and if these tools will help students gain more knowledge about companies that can make them more interesting as potential employers. Previous research was found regarding both EM and Employer Branding (EB), however there was little research found on how they can be used together. There was also little research to be found from business students point of view since in both EM and EB the previous research had rather been done from a company standpoint. Therefore, with the aim to fill these research gaps the following research question was formulated:

Does event marketing help business and economics students find potential employers?

The study uses a deductive research design with a quantitative research strategy, and the data was collected using a self-completing questionnaire. The authors adopted objectivism and positivism as their research philosophical standpoints. The sample was drawn though multi-stage cluster sampling, the samples selected contained 384 students enrolled at USBE and 132 replies was received and analyzed. The questions in the online self-completing questionnaire were designed to measure variables such as information and interaction.

Findings indicate that EM does help Umeå business and economics students find new potential employers. However, students do not feel that they learn that much about new companies, they do not feel that they are interacting with companies and they do not feel that they are gaining more knowledge about a company at an event.

The findings contribute to the research field of business administration. Specifically, the merging of EB and EM and how it is perceived from a student´s point of view rather than from a company’s perspective. The students do believe that events are an effective way to meet companies, however the empirical results from event attendees show differently. The theories within the subject and the answers from students regarding if they believe in EM or not are counterintuitive. Therefore, this study opens up possibilities for future research.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
Low use of statins for secondary prevention in primary care: a survey in a northern Swedish population2016In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 17, 110Article in journal (Refereed)

Background: Cholesterol-lowering therapy with statins is recommended in established cardiovascular disease (CVD) and should be considered for patients at high cardiovascular risk. We surveyed statin treatment before first-time myocardial infarction in clinical practice compared to current guidelines, in patients with and without known CVD in primary care clinics with general practitioners (GPs) on short-term contracts vs. permanent staff GPs. Methods: A total of 931 patients (345 women) in northern Sweden were enrolled in the study between November 2009 and December 2014 and stratified by prior CVD, comprising angina pectoris, revascularisation, ischaemic stroke or transitory ischaemic attack, or peripheral artery disease. Primary care clinics were classified by the proportion of GP salaries that were paid to GPs working on short-term contracts: low (0-9 %), medium (10-39 %), or high (>= 40 %). We used logistic regression to identify determinants of statin treatment. Results: Among patients with prior CVD, only 34.5 % received statin treatment before myocardial infarction. The probability of statin treatment decreased with age (>= 70 years OR 0.30; 95 % CI 0.13-0.66) and female gender (OR 0.39; 95 % CI 0.20-0.78) but increased in patients with diabetes (OR 3.52; 95 % CI 1.75-7.08). Among patients with prior CVD, the type of primary care clinic was not predictive of statin treatment. In the entire study cohort, 17.3 % of patients were treated with statins; women < 70 years old were more likely to receive statin treatment than women >= 70 years old (OR 3.24; 95 % CI 1.64-6.38), and men >= 70 years old were twice as likely to be treated with statins than women of the same age (OR 2.22; 95 % CI 1.31-3.76) after adjusting for diabetes and CVD. Overall, patients from clinics with predominantly permanent staff GPs received statin therapy less frequently than those with GPs on short-term contracts. Conclusions: In patients with prior CVD we found considerable under-treatment with statins, especially among women and the elderly. Methodologies for case findings, recall, and follow-up need to be improved and implemented to reach the goals for CVD prevention in clinical practice.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
"Styrelsearbetet kan ju inte vara det som lockar mest": En kvalitativ studie om avsaknaden av unga organisationsledare inom idrotten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Sport clubs has identified that they having a high average age of their boards and has difficulties inrecruiting young people. Participation and influence is one of the sport’s purposes, but the concepts areambiguous when young people has a different meaning for the concepts than sport has. If young peopleare excluded from boards the sport clubs will not fulfill their most important purpose and developmenttend to decreases. This study has studied the motives of young people to engage in sport boards and whatperceptions chairman of the sports associations have about young organization leaders. By interviews withyoung organization leaders and chairmans of various sports clubs have problems with the lack of youngpeople in sports boards surveyed identified. The study aims to inform what motivate and what experiencesfrom board appointments young people have and find out what basic assumptions chairmans have ofyoung people. The results show that young people sitting in a sports board says that they have chosen toengage in the work of the board because of to be involved in the development of sport. They think it is funand good experience for future jobs. Lack of time was anything negative to board work generated in. Thechairmen believe that it is good if there are younger people in the board, but it is difficult to recruit youngpeople to the board. It is important to have diversity in a board to develop and improve the sports club.Because of that, it was found that young people feel they are a part of the board but there is an lack ofknowledge of young organization leaders and these claims are explained by generational difference.

• Public defence: 2016-11-04 09:00 Hörsal D, Umeå
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
Rift Valley fever: consequences of virus-host interactions2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne virus which has the ability to infect a large variety of animals including humans in Africa and Arabian Peninsula. The abortion rate among these animals are close to 100%, and young animals develop severe disease which often are lethal.

In humans, Rift Valley fever (RVF) presents in most cases as a mild illness with influenza-like symptoms. However, in about 8% of the cases it progresses into a more severe disease with a high case fatality rate. Since there is such a high abortion rate among infected animals, a link between human miscarriage and RVFV has been suggested, but never proven.

We could in paper I for the first time show an association between acute RVFV infection and miscarriage in humans. We observed an increase in pregnant women arriving at the Port Sudan Hospital with fever of unknown origin, and several of the patients experienced miscarriage. When we analysed their blood samples for several viral diseases we found that many had an acute RVFV infection and of these, 54% experienced a miscarriage. The odds of having a miscarriage was 7 times higher for RVFV patients compared to the RVFV negative women of which only 12% miscarried. These results indicated that RVFV infection could be a contributing factor to miscarriage.

RVFV is an enveloped virus containing the viral glycoproteins n and c (Gn and Gc respectively), where Gn most likely is responsible for the initial cellular contact. The protein DC-SIGN on dendritic cells and the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate has been suggested as cellular receptors for RVFV, however other mechanisms are probably also involved in binding and entry. Charge is a driving force for molecular interaction and has been shown to be important for cellular attachment of several viruses, and in paper II we could show that when the charge around the cells was altered, the infection was affected. We also showed that Gn most likely has a positive charge at a physiological pH.

When we added negatively charged molecules to the viral particles before infection, we observed a decreased infection efficiency, which we also observed after removal of carbohydrate structures from the cell surface.

Our results suggested that the cellular interaction partner for initial attachment is a negatively charged carbohydrate. Further investigations into the mechanisms of RVFV cellular interactions has to be undertaken in order to understand, and ultimately prevent, infection and disease.

There is currently no vaccine approved for human use and no specific treatments for RVF, so there is a great need for developing safe effective drugs targeting this virus. We designed a whole-cell based high-throughput screen (HTS) assay which we used to screen libraries of small molecular compounds for anti-RVFV properties. After dose-response and toxicity analysis of the initial hits, we identified six safe and effective inhibitors of RVFV infection that with further testing could become drug candidates for treatment of RVF. This study demonstrated the application of HTS using a whole-cell virus replication reporter gene assay as an effective method to identify novel compounds with potential antiviral activity against RVFV.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Diffusion in fractal globules2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis

Recent experiments suggest that the human genome (all of our DNA) is organised as a so-called fractal globule. The fractal globule is a knot--free dense polymer that easily folds and unfolds any genomic locus, for example a group of nearby genes. Proteins often need to locate specific target sites on the DNA, for instance to activate a gene. To understand how proteins move through the DNA polymer, we simulate diffusion of particles through a fractal globule. The fractal globule was generated on a cubic lattice as spheres connected by cylinders. With the structure in place, we simulate particle diffusion and measure how their mean squared displacement ($\langle R^2(t)\rangle$) grows as function of time $t$ for different particle radii. This quantity allows us to better understand how the three dimensional structure of DNA affects the protein's motion. From our simulations we found that $\langle R^2(t)/t\rangle$ is a decaying function when the particle is sufficiently large. This means that the particles diffuse slower than if they were free. Assuming that $\langle R^2(t) \rangle \propto t^\alpha$ for long times, we calculated the growth exponent $\alpha$ as a function of particle radius $r_p$. When $r_p$ is small compared to the average distance between two polymer segments $d$, we find that $\alpha \approx 1$. This means the polymer network does not affect the particle's motion. However, in the opposite limit $r_p\sim d$ we find that $\alpha<1$ which means that the polymer strongly slows down the particle's motion. This behaviour is indicative of sub-diffusive dynamics and has potentially far reaching consequences for target finding processes and biochemical reactions in the cell.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Simulation based exploration of a loading strategy for a LHD-vehicle2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Optimizing the loading process of a front loader vehicle is a challenging task. The design space is large and depends on the design of the vehicle, the strategy of the loading process, the nature of the material to load etcetera. Finding an optimal loading strategy, with respect to production and damage on equipment would greatly improve the production and environmental impacts in mining and construction.

In this thesis, a method for exploring the design space of a loading strategy is presented. The loading strategy depends on four design variables that controls the shape of the trajectory relative to the shape of the pile. The responses investigated is the production, vehicle damage and work interruptions due to rock spill. Using multi-body dynamic simulations many different strategies can be tested with little cost. The result of these simulations are then used to build surrogate models of the original unknown function. The surrogate models are used to visualize and explore the design space and construct Pareto fronts for the competing responses.

The surrogate models were able to predict the production function from the simulations well. The damage and rock spill surrogate models was moderately good in predicting the simulations but still good enough to explore how the design variables affect the response. The produced Pareto fronts makes it easy for the decision maker to compare sets of design variables and choose an optimal design for the loading strategy.

• Public defence: 2016-11-04 10:00 KB3B1, Umeå
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
Phenolics, Nitrogen, and Biotic Interactions: A Study of Phenylpropanoid Metabolites and Gene Expression in the Leaves of Populus tremula.2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

European aspen (Populus tremula) is a fast growing tree species, rich in phenolic compounds. Defense theories suggest that soil nitrogen greatly influence plant allocation togrowth and defense; however, the allocation priorities are not well understood. Further,although foliar phenolic compounds are considered defensive, specialist organisms may positively associate with and alter them. There are two classes of phenolics in aspen,condensed tannins (CTs) and salicinoids. They are likely to shape the interactions of themany organisms, for example, herbivorous insects and endophytic fungi and three-way interactions among host genotype, specialist herbivores and endophytic fungi could be greatly altered by aspen geno- and chemotypes’ responses to soil nitrogen.

Firstly, I focused on the allocation of carbon to growth and defense in aspen genotypes with varied tannin content in response to nutrient addition. Nitrogen promoted plant growth and suppressed foliar CT levels. At the molecular level expression of genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway (PPP) decreased under low additions of N (equivalent to 15kg/ha), whereas genes at the beginning and at the end of the pathway increased in response to high levels of N (~150 kg/ha). Aspens high in CTs displayed consistently stronger PPP gene expressions compared to CT-low aspens, and correlations between PPP genes and phenolic products varied with tannin content, as an effect of leaf age, in response to N enrichment, and individually with genotype. More negative correlations (indicative of allocation trade-offs) between PPP gene expressions and phenolic products were found in aspen genets with low tannin levels compared to aspens with inherently high tannin levels.

Secondly, I studied the connection between foliar phenolic compounds and endophytic fungi in the presence and absence of a specialist herbivorous beetle (Chrysomela tremula) and as an effect of soil nitrogen addition. Richness and abundance of fungal endophytes associated with aspen genotypes and phenolic profile, however this specificity disappeared in the presence of the leaf beetles. Herbivory both enhanced endophyte richness andabundance in the leaves and it also increased in response to nitrogen addition.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
Pricing of European Options with Subjective Probability: Ambiguity aversion in the options market during the European sovereign debt crisis2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

This essay develops an option pricing formula where the market participantsare assumed to not follow a uniform approach with respect to uncertainty thatarises under extreme market events. By using a continuous Choquet randomwalk for modeling asset dynamics, as well as including marginal utility, an optionprice kernel is obtained- this is opposed to the unique price that arises inthe standard MMBS framework. By numerically backsolving for the ambiguityparameter, the impact of investor ambiguity aversion can be estimated fromobserved market option prices. This method is applied on European call optionswhere the underlying assets are various European bank equities observedduring the European sovereign debt crisis from late 2009 through early 2011.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
Temperaturreglerande löparkläder2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Dagens träningskläder har generellt en statisk funktion, antingen värmer, isolerar eller ventilerar de. Vid vinterträning förstärks oftast sommarkläder med t.ex. underställ.

Idag utgår träningskläder från en lager på lager princip, då varje lager har en funktion, lagret närmast kroppen, ska transportera bort väta, nästa lager värmer och isolerar, medan sista lagret skyddar mot yttre omständigheter, t.ex. regn och vind. Det är en effektiv princip, men den tar inte hänsyn till varierande förhållanden, eller kroppens fysiologiska förändringar under ett träningspass.

Träning i kallt väder är i de flesta fall ingen hälsofara, men kroppen får kämpa mer för att hålla uppe kroppstemperaturen vilket påverkar prestationsförmågan. Sänkt kroppstemperatur ökar risken för skador och sänker prestationsförmågan, men kan även leda till allvarligare konsekvenser i kombination med utmattning.

Människokroppen adapterar sig lättare till varmt väder, vilket har fördelar, om man är van vid varmt väder så ökas blodvolymen och man svettas mindre, vilket bidrar till att upprätthålla saltnivån i kroppen. Kroppen har svårare att adaptera sig till kyla, och det ger varken samma resistens eller fördelar.

Att kontrollera kroppstemperatur har fördelar vid motionsträning, förhöjd kroppstemperatur påverkar inte hjärtats pumpvolym, men orsakar höjd puls vilket i sin tur leder till att pumpvolymen per slag minskas och sänker effektiviteten. 1)

Klädsel i varierande förhållanden är viktigt inte bara för att hålla värme utan även kunna vara flexibel och hålla kroppstemperaturen stabil.

1 )         Joel Douglas Trinity, Matthew Daleon Pahnke, Joshua Floyd Lee, and Edward F. Coyle. Interaction of Hyperthermia and Heart Rate on Stroke Volume during Prolonged Exercise. J Appl Physiol published 1 July 2010

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
HLR-hjälp för hemmiljö2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Sudden cardiac arrest is still today one of the most common cause of death. In Sweden there is around 10 000 victims of sudden cardiac arrest each year. AED’s (Automatic external defibrillators) are becoming more and more common each year, but these AED’s are placed on public spaces and workplaces. But how can the concept a public AED be applied in a home environment. This project explores those possibilities aimed at sparsely populated areas where it can take longer for ambulance to arrive.

During the project I talked to both professional's within emergency healthcare, heart patients and other people otherwise engaged in this particular topic or product to gain valuable information. During my research it became clear that CPR is far more important when it comes to saving lives. By performing CPR before defibrillation you gain a wider time frame and increase the chance of survival.

The result is a more compact and more aesthetically pleasing in both form and colour in order for it to fit the home environment. It also takes into account the importance of CPR by making the AED teach CPR visually for the user. Since the survival rate increases if you perform CPR before defibrillator. The result is also integrated with a service called SMS lifesavers in order to promote awareness and a community for saving lives during sudden cardiac arrest.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
Gaffeltruck för ökad säkerhet, ergonomi och hälsa2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Transportation of cargo is crucial for the functioning of our society. In order to reach end customers road transportation with truck is required.

Heavy road transportation has increased. More than half of all truck drivers work with customer deliveries. These drivers can have up to 50 stops per day. The goods can weigh more than 1000 kg. The handling is done manually with a pallet truck. The varying context makes the work particularly heavy for the driver.

Loading and unloading is the most dangerous work a truck driver performs. The arms, back and legs are most vulnerable in this stressful job, according to "Löntagaren" nr 4/2006.

The goal of the project was to design a new product which can replace the pallet truck in order to improve the safety and ergonomics.

• Public defence: 2016-11-04 10:00 Humanisthuset Hörsal E, Umeå
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
Mellan akademi och lärarprofession: integrering av vetenskapliga och professionella mål för lärarutbildningens examensarbeten2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

• Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
Curious Cuisine: Bringing culinary creativity home2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

How could culinary science and technology educate us about food through engagement and reflection? In this project, I proposed to uncover opportunities for design intervention within our near-future scenarios of cooking and eating in a home environment. My intent has been to use interaction design methodology to form social practices that turn the process of making and eating food more pleasurable and inspiring, while developing one’s individual knowledge, without being didactic and prescriptive.

The hypothesis has been that culinary science simplified, combined with today’s data-driven technologies, have the potential to foster creativity and experimentation among hobby cooks. The aim has been to discover the consequences of cloud data and connected technologies on experimentation, which is inherently driven by human intuition. My approach has been to explore what behaviors such data-driven systems designed for eliciting creativity could possess, and what kind of inspiration the science of flavor could bring into everyday cooking.

The result is a set of design principles for how creative cooking explorations can be fostered through tangible and embodied experiences. It is manifested in a concept that creates a ‘culinary safe zone’ by encouraging experimentation, presenting information on demand, but without overshadowing the cook’s intuition. The concept Curious Cuisine allows non-professional cooks to create their own unique dishes; to explore ingredient pairings, preparation techniques, and fine-tuning flavors.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Curiosity seen as motivation for information gain in open and neurotic individuals2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The  aim  of  the  current  study  was  to investigate  if  Openness  –  to  –  Experience  and  Neuroticism  personality  traits  are associated with curiosity. This will help us to estimate whether knowledge expansion is dependent on a person’s personality and which trait is more willing to invest time on learning.  The  experiment  consisted  of  two  different  sessions.  To estimate  curiosity, 40 subjects first performed a word-synonymy task, where Shannon’s (1948) entropy was estimated  and the result of which lead to the measurement  of uncertainty.  Then in a second session, participants had the option to request for feedback between a few alternative  options  at  a  cost  (time),  and  they  were  also  required  to  estimate  their satisfaction  about  the  answer  on  a  valence  rating  scale.  Finally, participants  were screened  for  personality  traits.  Neurotic  individuals  appeared  to  be  more  willing  in investing time on feedback request, in contrast to open individuals.