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  • Calla, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Hedenström, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Konflikten mellan svinn och slut-i-hyllan: En kvalitativ studie om hanteringen av färskvaror i dagligvaruhandelns försörjningskedja2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I följande studie behandlas dagligvaruhandelns försörjningskedja och dess färskvarusortiment. Det har teoretiskt visats att dagligvaruhandeln är en bransch som präglas av osäker efterfrågan som medfört höga lagernivåer och svinn i kedjan. Utifrån en identifierad problematik kring hantering av färskvaror i en bransch kantad av osäker efterfrågan, riktar sig studien till att besvara problemformuleringarna; “Hur hanteras osäker efterfrågan inom färskvarusortimentet i dagligvaruhandelns försörjningskedja?” samt “Hur kan höga lagernivåer och svinn minskas inom dagligvaruhandelns försörjningskedja utan att det resulterar i slut-i-hyllan-problematik i färskvarusortimentet?”. Utifrån dessa problematiseringar beskrivs studiens syfte som; att undersöka hur konsekvenserna av osäker efterfrågan såsom höga lagernivåer och svinn kan reduceras. Detta trots färskvarors karaktär och aktörers önskan att tillgodose efterföljande leds efterfrågan och undvika slut-i-hyllan. För att undersöka denna konflikt är ett delsyfte i studien att skapa förståelse för hur osäker efterfrågan hanteras av olika aktörer i dagligvaruhandelns försörjningskedja.

    För att besvara dessa problemformuleringaroch uppfylla det angivna syftet, har en abduktiv ansats använts samt en kvalitativ metodik. Detta har resulterat i semistrukturerade intervjuer med aktörer i olika delar av dagligvaruhandelns försörjningskedja. Såväl producenter, grossister och butiker har medverkat i studien. Detta för att studiens skall kunna bidra med en helhetsbild över försörjningskedjan och hur den osäkra efterfrågan hanteras i denna.

    Utifrån studiens resultat visas det att den osäkra efterfrågan som påvisats teoretiskt, inte återfinns i samma omfattning i praktiken gällande aktörernas ordinarie sortiment av färskvaror. Vad som däremot framkom var att kampanjprodukter, innehar desto mer osäkerhet och efterfrågan för dessa är svårare att uppskatta. Resultatet visade att aktörerna hanterar dessa osäkerheter genom att prognostisera efterfrågan samt genom viss informationsdelning mellan parterna. Resultatet visade även att samtliga aktörer i regel föredrar att lagerhålla färskvaror som kan riskera att resultera i svinn snarare än att riskera slut-i-hyllan och brist till kund. Detta visade sig vara en uppfattning som sträckte sig över samtliga led av försörjningskedjan, med undantaget för dyrare produkter som aktörerna menar blir för dyra att lagerhålla och riskera att slänga. Den hållbara vinkel som studien även antagit, visar att det krävs ekonomiska incitament för att aktörerna ska genomföra hållbara aktiviteter.

  • Ekman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Ziani, Miriam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Opinionsledare inom Youtube: En multimetodlogisk studie som undersöker Youtubers agerande som opinionsledare inom skönhetsindustrin2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvalitativa studie undersöker svenska skönhetsprofiler inom Youtube och deras inverkan på konsumentbeteendet. Användandet av sociala medier har förändrat hur företag med konsumenter och konsumenter med andra konsumenter interagerar med varandra. I kombination med konsumenters avtrubbade inställning till de traditionella promotionverktyg har sociala medier blivit en av de viktigaste plattformarna för företag att vara aktiva på. En av dessa plattformar är Youtube, en videodelningstjänst där privatpersoner och företag kan skapa kanaler. Profiler inom Youtube eller som de i studien kommer benämnas, Youtubers har ökat sitt inflytande på konsumenten så pass att de numera överstiger den påverkan som traditionella celebriteter tidigare hade. Därav kan de anses som den moderna tidens opinionsledare vilket även innebär att de attraherar företagen till att vilja använda dem som förespråkare för sina varumärken. Företagens användande av Youtubers är framförallt påtaglig inom skönhetsindustrin. Samarbetets utformning sker ofta genom att företagen skickar gratis produkter till prominenta skönhetsprofiler i utbyte att de ska prata om varumärket på sin kanal.

    Trots att det finns flertal exempel på samarbeten av denna karaktär så finner vi ingen vetenskaplig forskning kring marknadsföring genom Youtubers. Studiens betydelse för forskningsområdet blir därför att undersöka gapet mellan diverse teoretiska angreppssätt och det empiriska data som framkommit. Det empiriska bidraget består huvudsakligen av intervjuer med respondenter med intresse för skönhet och kompletteras därefter med författarnas egna observationer. Studiens frågeställning blir därmed:

    Hur agerar Youtubers inom skönhetsindustrin som opinionsledare? 

    I studiens resultat framkom det olika användningsområden för de svenska skönhetskanalerna på Youtube. Ett för underhållande syfte och ett för informationssökande av produkter. För de olika syftena användes olika Youtubekanaler. Utifrån studien kan det utläsas att profilerna för dessa kanaler påverkar konsumentbeteendet genom två dimensioner. Dessa dimensioner är att inhysa förtroende och attrahera genom att stimulera konsumentens rationella eller emotionella omdöme. Studien bidrar med en matris där man utifrån dessa dimensioner kan kartlägga var på en skala en Youtubers huvudsakliga övertygelse ligger. Matrisen kan användas för kosmetikaföretag som vill nyttja denna typ av promotion med ändamål om att kunna avgöra vilken Youtuber som är lämpligast passande för dem.

  • Bergström, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Om geografiska informationssystem (GIS) och dess tillämpningar inom barncancerforskning: Ett fokus på GIS i forskningen om barnleukemi och dess etiologi2011Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to summarize the literature about geographic information systems (GIS) and its applications in childhood cancer research. The main focus was to examine how GIS has been contributing to the research of childhood leukemia and its etiology. Since this is one of the diseases that can be connected to a public health issue, a thorough exploration of different areas outside the childhood cancer area had to be considered. Areas such as epidemiology and environmental health were two of the most relevant sources of literature. The etiology behind childhood leukemia has been studied for several decades, but the risk factors that cause this disease still remain largely unknown, and the results have been inconsistent. Since the 1990's, one of the methods to identify potential spatial clusters of childhood leukemia has been the use of GIS. This software has the ability to layer multiple risk factors in relation to the diagnosed children and thereafter visualize potential clusters on a map. The evaluation of the literature resulted in five topics which included most of the studies that has utilized GIS in their research of childhood leukemia. These five topics with its connected risk factors were: electromagnetic fields, ionizing radiation, air pollution, agricultural pesticides and hazardous waste sites. Even though few of the studies showed statistic significant clusters when connecting a potential risk factor with childhood leukemia, a majority of them didn't present any evidence about a causal relationship, which indicates a need of further research.   

  • Abramsson, Evelina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Grind, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Skattning av kausala effekter med matchat fall-kontroll data2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Andersson Haglund, Therése
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Fröken Babe och Herr Kontroll: En multimodal textanalys ur ett ideationellt perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Forsberg, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Kommunen och tillväxten: En systemisk-funktionell analys av Luleå kommuns roll i kommunens texter om tillväxt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examensarbete undersöker jag hur Luleå kommun framställs på kommunens webbsida. Under min praktik på Luleå kommun våren 2017 fick jag en chans att se kommunens arbete på nära håll och även diskutera kommunens viktigaste kommunikationsfrågor med anställda, och det är utifrån dessa erfarenheter jag har valt inriktningen för denna undersökning. Materialet består av 6 webbtexter som har publicerats på kommunens hemsida under fliken 10 000 nya Luleåbor. Materialet valdes efter en närläsning av kommunens varumärkesplattform med syfte att identifiera hur kommunen själva uttrycker att de vill uppfattas. För att analysera webbtexterna har jag använt en systemisk-funktionell metod där jag har tittat närmare på hur ideationella betydelser som rör kommunen uttrycks i texterna. Syftet är att undersöka om kommunen framställs som en aktiv eller passiv deltagare och som en kommun som, i enlighet med ett utvalt påstående ur varumärkesplattformen framställs som en kommun som “bidrar till en hållbar tillväxt”.

     

    Resultatet visar att kommunen visserligen framställs i en aktiv roll när kommunen förekommer i texter, men att vissa faktorer samtidigt påverkar bilden av kommunen som en kommun som aktivt bidrar till en hållbar tillväxt. Vissa av de lexikogrammatiska valen i texterna verkar istället göra arbetet med tillväxten och kommunens roll i det otydlig. Passiva processer används exempelvis i större utsträckning för att informera om byggandet av bostäder i kommunen än processer i aktiv form med en tydlig agent. Att förstå kommunens roll i tillväxtarbetet ställer därmed vissa krav på förkunskaper hos läsaren.

  • Wallert, John
    et al.
    Tomasoni, Mattia
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Held, Claes
    Predicting two-year survival versus non-survival after first myocardial infarction using machine learning and Swedish national register data2017In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 17, 99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Machine learning algorithms hold potential for improved prediction of all-cause mortality in cardiovascular patients, yet have not previously been developed with high-quality population data. This study compared four popular machine learning algorithms trained on unselected, nation-wide population data from Sweden to solve the binary classification problem of predicting survival versus non-survival 2 years after first myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: This prospective national registry study for prognostic accuracy validation of predictive models used data from 51,943 complete first MI cases as registered during 6 years (2006-2011) in the national quality register SWEDEHEART/RIKS-HIA (90% coverage of all MIs in Sweden) with follow-up in the Cause of Death register (> 99% coverage). Primary outcome was AUROC (C-statistic) performance of each model on the untouched test set (40% of cases) after model development on the training set (60% of cases) with the full (39) predictor set. Model AUROCs were bootstrapped and compared, correcting the P-values for multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni method. Secondary outcomes were derived when varying sample size (1-100% of total) and predictor sets (39, 10, and 5) for each model. Analyses were repeated on 79,869 completed cases after multivariable imputation of predictors. Results: A Support Vector Machine with a radial basis kernel developed on 39 predictors had the highest complete cases performance on the test set (AUROC = 0.845, PPV = 0.280, NPV = 0.966) outperforming Boosted C5.0 (0.845 vs. 0. 841, P = 0.028) but not significantly higher than Logistic Regression or Random Forest. Models converged to the point of algorithm indifference with increased sample size and predictors. Using the top five predictors also produced good classifiers. Imputed analyses had slightly higher performance. Conclusions: Improved mortality prediction at hospital discharge after first MI is important for identifying high-risk individuals eligible for intensified treatment and care. All models performed accurately and similarly and because of the superior national coverage, the best model can potentially be used to better differentiate new patients, allowing for improved targeting of limited resources. Future research should focus on further model development and investigate possibilities for implementation.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-10 10:00 Hörsal G, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Fowler, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Methods for improving covariate balance in observational studies2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to the field of causal inference, where the main interest is to estimate the effect of a treatment on some outcome. At its core, causal inference is an exercise in controlling for imbalance (differences) in covariate distributions between the treated and the controls, as such imbalances otherwise can bias estimates of causal effects. Imbalance on observed covariates can be handled through matching, where treated and controls with similar covariate distributions are extracted from a data set and then used to estimate the effect of a treatment.

    The first paper of this thesis describes and investigates a matching design, where a data-driven algorithm is used to discretise a covariate before matching. The paper also gives sufficient conditions for if, and how, a covariate can be discretised without introducing bias.

    Balance is needed for unobserved covariates too, but is more difficult to achieve and verify. Unobserved covariates are sometimes replaced with correlated counterparts, usually referred to as proxy variables. However, just replacing an unobserved covariate with a correlated one does not guarantee an elimination of, or even reduction of, bias. In the second paper we formalise proxy variables in a causal inference framework and give sufficient conditions for when they lead to nonparametric identification of causal effects.

    The third and fourth papers both concern estimating the effect an enhanced cooperation between the Swedish Social Insurance Agency and the Public Employment Service has on reducing sick leave. The third paper is a study protocol, where the matching design used to estimate this effect is described. The matching was then also carried out in the study protocol, before the outcome for the treated was available, ensuring that the matching design was not influenced by any estimated causal effects. The third paper also presents a potential proxy variable for unobserved covariates, that is used as part of the matching. The fourth paper then carries out the analysis described in the third paper, and uses an instrumental variable approach to test for unobserved confounding not captured by the supposed proxy variable.

  • Rutgersson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lära språket via handen: Fyra slöjdlärares erfarenheter av språkutveckling2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studies syfte har varit att utveckla kunskapen om hur slöjdlärare gör för att hjälpa framförallt nyanlända elever med deras språkutveckling. Jag använde kvalitativa halvstrukturerade intervjuer med fyra slöjdlärare som har ett stort engagemang i nyanlända elever och deras kunskapsutveckling. Jag valde ut informanterna med stor omsorg, då syftet var att ta reda på hur lärare som är extra engagerade gör för att kunna se hur det kan vara möjligt att öka språkutvecklingen via slöjden. Slöjdlärarna i undersökningen visar sig arbeta relativt likartat och försöker aktivt arbeta med flera olika metoder för att ge eleverna möjlighet att utveckla sitt språk. Eftersom språket och kulturen spelar en stor roll i deras undervisning har jag valt att tolka mitt resultat genom sociokulturell teori. Man kan utläsa att lärarna saknar fortbildning i hur de bäst ska lära ut språket. Därför önskar de få bättre kunskap och ett samarbete med andra lärare och i synnerhet med Svenska som andra språk lärarna (SVA) och hemspråkslärare för att samverka när eleverna lär sig det svenska språket. 

  • De Widt, Dennis
    University of Exeter.
    DUTCH HORIZONTAL MONITORING: The Handicap of a Head Start2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report outlines the Dutch model of Horizontal Monitoring (HM), which is widely regarded as one of the first examples of a cooperative compliance program. It describes how, since 2005, the Netherlands Tax and Customs Administration (NTCA) developed a monitoring regime that has significantly altered the relationship between the Dutch tax authority and corporate taxpayers. The report demonstrates that under HM the attitude of both corporates and tax administrators has shifted from an adversarial ‘them and us’ relationship, to one stronger characterised by cooperation. Despite the widely identified benefits of HM, including increased ability of corporates to acquire fiscal certainty, the monitoring regime faces major challenges. It has proven particularly difficult to quantify the model’s impact on revenue collection and the tax authority’s administrative resources. The report concludes that if HM is to subsist, it is vital to increase formalisation and transparency of the risk monitoring techniques as applied by the tax authority, and develop more advanced metrics than have been available hitherto.

  • Ahlberg, Jane
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Dannvik, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder: En litteraturstudie om omvårdnadsåtgärder vid Anorexia nervosa.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Anorexia nervosa är en ätstörning som debuterar i allt yngre ålder och kan yttra sig på olika sätt beroende på individen. Detta leder till att det inte finns ett enkelt svar på hur sjukdomen ska behandlas. Det ställer krav på både kunskap och erfarenhet hos sjuksköterskorna för att förstå komplexiteten av anorexia nervosa, vilket är nödvändigt för att uppnå ett lyckat behandlingsresultat.

     

    Syfte: Syftet är att beskriva sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder vid behandling av anorexia nervosa hos unga kvinnor.

     

    Metod: En litteraturstudie grundad på åtta kvalitativa artiklar. Artiklarnas resultat har granskats, analyserats och sammanställts för att besvara syftet. Databassökningen har genomförts i Cinahl, Pubmed samt PsykInfo.

     

    Resultat: Sammanfattningen av artiklarnas resultat bildade tre kategorier som beskriver de omvårdnadsåtgärder sjuksköterskorna använder: 1) Bygga och upprätthålla en god relation till patienten, 2) Säkerställa viktökning och 3) Återställa ett normalt ätbeteende.  

     

    Slutsats: Litteraturstudien beskriver hur behandlingen påverkas av hur sjuksköterskorna genomför omvårdnaden. Att skapa en god relation till patienten är en avgörande komponent för att lyckas med viktökning och en beteendeförändring hos patienten.   

     

    Nyckelord: Anorexia nervosa, behandling, kvinnor, omvårdnad, ungdomar

  • Vahlberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Verification of Risk Algorithm Implementations in a Clearing System Using a Random Testing Framework2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Clearing is keeping track of transactions until they are settled. Standardized derivatives such as options and futures can be cleared through a clearinghouse if you are a clearing member. The clearinghouse step in as an intermediary between trades and manages all occurring counterparty risk. To be able to keep track of all transactions and also monitor members risk exposure a clearinghouse use advanced clearing software. Counterparty risk is mainly handled by collecting collateral from each clearing member, the initial collateral that a clearinghouse require from a member trading with derivatives, is called initial margin. Initial margin is calculated by a risk algorithm incorporated in the clearing software. Cinnober Financial Technology delivers clearing solutions to clearinghouses world wide, software providers to the _nancial industry have high demands on software quality. Ensuring high software quality can be done by performing various types of software testing.

    The goal of this thesis is to implement an extendable random testing framework that can test risk algorithm implementations that are part of a clearing system under development by Cinnober. By using the implemented framework, we aim to verify if the risk algorithm SPAN calculates fair initial margin amount. We also intend to increase the quality assurance of the risk domain that is responsible for all risk calculations.

    In this thesis we implement a random testing framework suitable for testing risk algorithms. Furthermore, we implement a framework extension for SPAN that is used to test the SPAN algorithm's initial margin calculations. The implementation consist of two main parts, the _rst being a random generation entity that feeds the clearing system with randomized input data. The second part is a veri_cation entity called test oracle, it is responsible for verifying the SPAN algorithm's calculation results.

    The random testing framework for risk algorithms was successfully implemented. By running the SPAN extension of the framework, we managed to _nd four issues related to the accuracy of the SPAN algorithm. This discovery led to the conclusion that the current SPAN algorithm implementation does not calculate fair initial margin. It also led to an immediate increase of quality assurance because the issues will be corrected. As a result of the frameworks extensible characteristics, long term quality also increases.

  • Ward, Mackenzie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Gruffman, tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Entrepreneurial Intention: The awakening of new businesses2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Krug, Dominik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Far Above Far Beyond2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to explore what the brand Land Rover could stand for in the future. The brands rich history of exploring unconquered terrain earned it admiration and desirability all around the world. Further extending it's reach onto new worlds is within reach. In the 2030s the first manned missions to Mars are planned. The first arrivers will have exploration vehicles, that are limited in range and capability. To really explore the planet, vehicles with greater off-road capability and range will be needed. The vehicles also need to allow the expedition crews to stay in the vehicle for longer periods comfortably and also offer extended life support on multi-week long journeys.With this project I am exploring possible answers to face the harsh conditions on Mars. Furthermore, the vehicle and it's features project a vision of what a future off-road driving experience could be.

  • Holst, Mikkel Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Vidal-Quadras, Maite
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Larsson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Song, Jie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Hubert, Madlen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Blomberg, Jeanette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Lundborg, Magnus
    Landström, Maréne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Lundmark, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Clathrin-Independent Endocytosis Suppresses Cancer Cell Blebbing and Invasion2017In: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 20, no 8, 1893-1905 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular blebbing, caused by local alterations in cellsurface tension, has been shown to increase the invasiveness of cancer cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms balancing cell-surface dynamics and bleb formation remain elusive. Here, we show that an acute reduction in cell volume activates clathrinindependent endocytosis. Hence, a decrease in surface tension is buffered by the internalization of the plasma membrane (PM) lipid bilayer. Membrane invagination and endocytosis are driven by the tension- mediated recruitment of the membrane sculpting and GTPase-activating protein GRAF1 (GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1) to the PM. Disruption of this regulation by depleting cells of GRAF1 or mutating key phosphatidylinositol- interacting amino acids in the protein results in increased cellular blebbing and promotes the 3D motility of cancer cells. Our data support a role for clathrin-independent endocytic machinery in balancing membrane tension, which clarifies the previously reported role of GRAF1 as a tumor suppressor.

  • Carrasco-Lopez, Cristian
    et al.
    Hernandez-Verdeja, Tamara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Departamento de Biolog´ıa Medioambiental, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Perea-Resa, Carlos
    Abia, David
    Catala, Rafael
    Salinas, Julio
    Environment-dependent regulation of spliceosome activity by the LSM2-8 complex in Arabidopsis2017In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 45, no 12, 7416-7431 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spliceosome activity is tightly regulated to ensure adequate splicing in response to internal and external cues. It has been suggested that core components of the spliceosome, such as the snRNPs, would participate in the control of its activity. The experimental indications supporting this proposition, however, remain scarce, and the operating mechanisms poorly understood. Here, we present genetic and molecular evidence demonstrating that the LSM2-8 complex, the protein moiety of the U6 snRNP, regulates the spliceosome activity in Arabidopsis, and that this regulation is controlled by the environmental conditions. Our results show that the complex ensures the efficiency and accuracy of constitutive and alternative splicing of selected pre-mRNAs, depending on the conditions. Moreover, miss-splicing of most targeted pre-mRNAs leads to the generation of nonsense mediated decay signatures, indicating that the LSM2-8 complex also guarantees adequate levels of the corresponding functional transcripts. Interestingly, the selective role of the complex has relevant physiological implications since it is required for adequate plant adaptation to abiotic stresses. These findings unveil an unanticipated function for the LSM2-8 complex that represents a new layer of posttranscriptional regulation in response to external stimuli in eukaryotes.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 13:00 Flexhallen on Bildmuseet's lower floor, Umeå
    Holmstedt, Janna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Umeå Academy of Fine Arts. Malmö Faculty of Fine and Performing Arts.
    Are you ready for a wet live-in?: explorations into listening2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Listen. If I ask you to listen, what is it that I ask of you—that you will understand, or perhaps obey? Or is it some sort of readiness that is requested? What occurs with a body in the act of listening? How do sound and voice structure audio-visual-spatial relations in concrete situations?

    This doctoral thesis in fine arts consists of six artworks and an essay that documents the research process, or rather, acts as a travelogue as it stages and narrates a series of journeys into a predominantly sonic ecology. One entry into this field is offered by the animal “voice” and attempts to teach animals to speak human language. The first journey concerns a specific case where humanoid sounds were found to emanate from an unlikely source—the blowhole of a dolphin. Another point of entry is offered by the acousmatic voice, a voice split from its body, and more specifically, my encounter with the disembodied voice of Steve Buscemi in a prison in Philadelphia. This listening experience triggered a fascination with, and an inquiry into, the voices that exist alongside us, the parasitic relation that audio technology makes possible, and the way an accompanying voice changes one’s perceptions and even one’s behavior. In the case of both the animal and the acousmatic, the seemingly trivial act of attending to a voice quickly opens up a complex space of embodied entanglements with the potential to challenge much of what we take for granted. At the heart of my inquiry is a series of artworks made between 2012 and 2016, which constitute a third journey: the performance Limit-Cruisers (#1 Sphere), the praxis session Limit-Cruisers (#2 Crowd), the installations Therapy in Junkspace, Fluorescent You, and “Then, ere the bark above their shoulders grew,” and the lecture performance Articulations from the Orifice (The Dry and the Wet).

    The relationship between what is seen and heard is being explored and renegotiated in the arts and beyond. We are increasingly addressed by prerecorded and synthetic voices in both public and private spaces. Simultaneously, our notions of human communication are challenged and complicated by recent research in animal communication. My work attempts to address the shifts and complexities embodied in these developments. The three journeys are deeply entwined with theoretical inquiries into human-animal relationships, technology, and the philosophy of sound. In the essay, I consider as well how other artistic practices are exploring this same complex space. What I put forward is a materialist and concrete approach to listening understood as a situated practice. Listening is both a form of co-habitation and an ecology. In and through listening, I claim, one could be said to perform in concert with the things heard while at the same time being changed by them.

  • Bocquier, Philippe
    et al.
    Sankoh, Osman
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Are health and demographic surveillance system estimates sufficiently generalisable?2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, no 1, 1-3 p., 1356621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sampling rules do not apply in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) that covers exhaustively a district-level population and is not meant to be representative of a national population. We highlight the advantages of HDSS data for causal analysis and identify in the literature the principles of conditional generalisation that best apply to HDSS. A probabilistic view on HDSS data is still justified by the need to model complex causal inference. Accounting for contextual knowledge, reducing omitted-variable bias, detailing order of events, and high statistical power brings credence to HDSS data. Generalisation of causal mechanisms identified in HDSS data is consolidated through systematic comparison and triangulation with national or international data.

  • Thelaus, Johanna
    et al.
    Lindberg, Anna
    Thisted Lambertz, Susanne
    Byström, Mona
    Forsman, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Hans
    Knutsson, Rickard
    Båverud, Viveca
    Bråve, Andreas
    Jureen, Pontus
    Lundin Zumpe, Annelie
    Melefors, Öjar
    Network Experiences from a Cross-Sector Biosafety Level-3 Laboratory Collaboration: A Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics2017In: Health Security, ISSN 2326-5094, Vol. 15, no 4, 384-391 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics (FBD) is a network that fosters collaboration among the 4 agencies with responsibility for the laboratory diagnostics of high-consequence pathogens, covering animal health and feed safety, food safety, public health and biodefense, and security. The aim of the network is to strengthen capabilities and capacities for diagnostics at the national biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) laboratories to improve Sweden's biopreparedness, in line with recommendations from the EU and WHO. Since forming in 2007, the FBD network has contributed to the harmonization of diagnostic methods, equipment, quality assurance protocols, and biosafety practices among the national BSL-3 laboratories. Lessons learned from the network include: (1) conducting joint projects with activities such as method development and validation, ring trials, exercises, and audits has helped to build trust and improve communication among participating agencies; (2) rotating the presidency of the network steering committee has fostered trust and commitment from all agencies involved; and (3) planning for the implementation of project outcomes is important to maintain gained competencies in the agencies over time. Contacts have now been established with national agencies of the other Nordic countries, with an aim to expanding the collaboration, broadening the network, finding synergies in new areas, strengthening the ability to share resources, and consolidating long-term financing in the context of harmonized European biopreparedness.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 17:00 Sal D, 9 tr, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå
    Pilebro, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    The heart in hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis: clinical studies on the impact of amyloid fibril composition2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Hereditary transthyretin amyloid (ATTRm) amyloidosis is a systemic disease mainly affecting the peripheral nervous system and the heart. The disease is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with a varying penetrance. It is caused by mutations in the transthyretin (TTR) gene. Today more than 100 disease causing mutations are known. The V30M mutation that is endemic in northern Sweden is the best studied and comprises the majority of the reported disease cases in the world. In ATTRm amyloidosis caused by the V30M mutation two distinct sub populations are seen, one with disease onset early in life and a mainly neuropathic disease and the other with late onset disease and both neuropathic disease and a progressive cardiomyopathy. These phenotypical findings have in Swedish patients been tied to differences in amyloid fibril composition. Generally, patients with early onset disease have amyloid fibrils containing only full length transthyretin (type B) whereas patients with late onset disease have amyloid containing both full length and fragmented transthyretin (type A). Until recently, the only available treatment for the disease has been liver transplantation. Patients with type A fibrils, especially males, have significantly worse survival after liver transplant due to progressive amyloid cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, it appears that type A fibrils may be the most common finding in other mutations.

    This thesis work aims to in depth investigate the impact amyloid fibril composition has on cardiac manifestations of the disease and on the outcome of available and novel modalities for cardiac amyloid imaging.

    Methods The four studies included in the thesis were done as part of the on going clinical research at the Swedish centre for transthyretin amyloidosis in Umeå.  Patients in whom amyloid fibril composition had been determined were included. Available echocardiographic data were analysed to find predictors for left ventricular hypertrophy and systolic function as measured by strain analysis in a large cohort of 105 patients (paper I). Serial 12-lead electrocardiograms from 98 patients were gathered and retrospectively interpreted and analysed to investigate the impact of amyloid fibril composition and disease progression on frequency and development of ECG abnormalities (paper IV).  DPD scintigraphy, cardiac biomarkers, clinical data and echocardiograms were analysed in a cohort of 53 consecutive patients. to assess the impact of amyloid fibril composition on the outcome of DPD scintigraphy and its relationship with cardiac hypertrophy. (paper II). To evaluate the usefulness of positron emission tomography (PET) using the amyloid specific tracer PIB, 10 patients, five with each fibril type, were selected and examined. The patients selected had a similar age of onset and similar echocardiographic findings (paper III).

    Results Paper I: Type A fibrils, male gender and age were independent factors associated with increased LV thickness. The distribution of amyloid fibril composition did not differ between the sexes, but in patients with type A fibrils, females had lower median cardiac wall thickness (p<0.01and better left ventricular septal strain (p=0.04).The gender differences were not apparent in patients with type B fibrils.

    Paper II: Ninety-seven per cent of patients with type A fibrils had pathological cardiac DPD uptake compared to none of the patients with type B fibrils. Among patients with normal septal thickness, none of 15 patients with type B fibrils had positive scintigraphy compared with 2 out of 2 with type A fibrils (P<0.01) Cardiac biomarkers, demographic data and cardiac biomarkers were significantly different, but could not differentiate between type A and type B fibrils in individual patients.

    Paper III: All patients had pathological cardiac PIB retention. In patients with type B fibrils the retention was significantly higher (p<0.01) than in patients with type A fibrils. Based on the selection criteria, no significant differences were seen in various echocardiographic measurements.

    Paper IV: All patients had a high prevalence of AV-blocks, LAH and anterior infarction pattern. Patients with type A fibrils had significantly more electrocardiographic abnormalities compared to those with type B fibrils, both at an early stage of diseases and at later follow up.

    Conclusion Type A fibrils are associated with more pronounced cardiac involvement, which appear to be more severe in males than in females. In study II we showed that DPD scintigraphy appears to be a very good tool for non-invasive determination of amyloid fibril composition. Papers III and IV show that patients with type B amyloid have cardiac involvement even without echocardiographic or DPD-scintigraphic evidence of amyloid cardiomyopathy and that ECG abnormalities are common irrespectively of amyloid fibril composition, and increase with time for both groups. 

  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 13:00 Hörsal F, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Hentschel, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    Sångsituationer: en fenomenologisk studie av sång i musikämnet under grundskolans senare år2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores how the phenomena of ”singing situations” are made visible through pupils and music teachers' experiences of music education in a Swedish school, through an existential philosofical gender perspective. A basic point of departure in the thesis is that singing development is possible to evolve for all humans, similar to the latest curriculum for the music subject in elementary school in Sweden. The thesis can be positioned within four research areas: gender research in Swedish school, vocal- and voice research, gender related music education research and gender related music education research on singing. The latter research area constitutes the area in which the present dissertation is closest positioned to. Several researchers whose research is positioned in the area of gender related music education research expresses the need for more research similar to their own contributions.

     

    Within the study, five field visits have been conducted over two years involving seventyone students and five music teachers. The study includes observations and interviews, as well as sound recording and notes, and has focused solely on singing situations - situations in which singing appears in the participants' experiences in different ways. It was of research interest to meet pupils with experience of voice changes during puberty, as the majority of previous research presents the voice change as an experience that primarily or only boys experience. A very limited minority of research investigates how girls experience the voice change during puberty. The empirical data has been analyzed through seven phenomenological steps.

     

    The overall results show that all students sing and that many enjoy singing in school, with exception for one girl. The teachers' basic starting point in their teaching is to treat singing ability as possible to develop for all students. According to the teachers' basic view of singing ability as transcendence, the result shows that different gendered normative and structural aspects surround the pupils and teachers. The results also show how these aspects impacts pupils choices in the singing situations, and that some students are given greater opportunities to transcend in their vocal learning than others. The results are discussed through themes that arise within the results, mainly: subjective and intersubjective experience through singing, habitual singing, norms of restraint and imitation, girls' and boys' singing situations, views on the singing body as factuality or freedom in relation to gender, as well as the creation of alternative rooms in singing situations. 

  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 09:00 Vårdvetarhuset, Aulan, Umeå
    Svedmark, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Neck pain in women: effect of tailored treatment and impact of work environment2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Musculoskeletal pain is a common problem in the working population. In Sweden, 40% of women and 30% of men report suffering from neck and shoulder pain weekly. The underlying cause for neck pain is often not known and the treatment is commonly guided by the individual’s symptoms. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how to receive the best effect based on the individual’s symptoms and functional limitations, and therefore this has been scarcely evaluated in research. Furthermore, the impact of work exposure and stress on long-term treatment for persons with neck pain is not clear.

    Aims: To develop (paper 1) and to evaluate a decision model for tailored treatment in women with neck pain (paper 2). Moreover, to determine if risk factors at work and stress influence intermediate and long-term treatment results (paper 3). Further, to investigate if changes in self-reported pain and disabilities are associated with changes of physical test outcomes of the neck and shoulder region after treatment (paper 4).

    Methods: In an RCT, 120 working women with non-specific neck pain were randomized to three different groups – tailored treatment (TT), non-tailored treatment (NTT) or treatment-as-usual (TAU) for an 11 weeks intervention with short-term, intermediate-term and long-term follow-ups. The TT group was guided by a decision model with cut-off levels to indicate impairments. The NTT group received two established treatment components randomly from those not indicated, and TAU group did not receive any treatment within the study. The RCT primary outcomes were self-reported neck pain and neck disability. A linear mixed model was used for analysing the effects. One week after the end of intervention work exposure and stress were assessed at a work-place visit and associations to treatment results were tested for, and mixed models were used to estimate longitudinal associations. Associations between self-reported neck problems and physical outcomes were estimated with univariate and multiple regressions analysis.

    Results: No differences between TT and NTT were revealed for neck pain and disability. In comparison to TAU, the TT and NTT groups both showed improvements at short-term follow-up, but not at intermediate and long-term follow-up. High stress level and low self-estimated control at work were associated with more pain and disability at the intermediate and long-term follow-ups. After intervention and at the intermediate-term follow-up, reduced neck pain, disability and frequency of symptoms were associated with increased peak speed of head rotation and cervical range of motion.

    Conclusion: Tailored treatment according to the decision model was not superior to the non-tailored treatment in women with non-specific neck pain. One explanation for this can be the weak relationships found between neck pain and disability and physical test outcomes. Further, perceived stress and psychosocial work exposure were associated with self-reported neck problems and should be taken into account to optimize the effects in neck pain rehabilitation.

  • Oftedal, Bjorg
    et al.
    Kolltveit, Beate-Christin Hope
    Zoffmann, Vibeke
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Graue, Marit
    Learning to practise the Guided Self-Determination approach in type 2 diabetes in primary care: A qualitative pilot study2017In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 4, no 3, 134-142 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe how diabetes nurses in primary care experience the process of learning to practise the person-centred counselling approach Guided Self-Determination among adults with type 2 diabetes. Design: A descriptive qualitative design. Method: Data were collected in 2014-2015 by means of individual interviews with four diabetes nurses at two points in time. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Three themes that reflect nurses' processes in learning to use the Guided Self-Determination approach were identified: (1) from an unfamiliar interaction to cracking the code; (2) from an unspecific approach to a structured, reflective, but demanding approach; and (3) from a nurse-centred to a patient-centred approach. The overall findings indicate that the process of learning to practise Guided Self-Determination increased the nurses' counselling competence. Moreover, the nurses perceived the approach to be generally helpful, as it stimulated reflections about diabetes management and about their own counselling practices.

  • Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Zetterberg, Lena
    Hellström, Karin
    Gustås, Pia
    Högberg, Hans
    Sjöström, Rita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Psychometric evaluation of the canine brief pain inventory in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to osteoarthritis2017In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 1751-0147, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 59, 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To evaluate intervention, implement evidence-based practice and enhance the welfare of dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA), access to valid, reliable and clinically relevant outcome measures is crucial for researchers, veterinarians and rehabilitation practitioners. The objectives of the present study were to translate and evaluate psychometric properties, in terms of internal consistency and construct validity, of the owner-reported measure canine brief pain inventory (CBPI) in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to OA. Results: Twenty-one owners of clinically sound dogs and 58 owners of dogs with pain related to OA were included in this observational and cross-sectional study. After being translated according to the guidelines for patient-reported outcome measures, the CBPI was completed by the canine owners. Construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis, by repeating the principal component analysis and by assessing for differences between clinically sound dogs and dogs with pain related to OA. Internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach's a. Confirmatory factor analysis was not able to confirm the factor-structure models tested in our sample. Principal component analysis showed a two-component structure, pain severity and pain interference of function. Two components accounted for 76.8% of the total variance, suggesting an acceptable fit of a two-component structure. The ratings from the clinically sound dogs differed from OA dogs and showed significantly lower CBPI total sum. Cronbach's a was 0.94 for the total CBPI, 0.91 for the pain severity and 0.91 for the pain interference of function. Conclusions: The results indicate that the translated version of the CBPI is valid for use in the Swedish language. The findings suggest satisfying psychometric properties in terms of high internal consistencies and ability to discriminate clinically sound dogs from OA dogs. However, based on the confirmatory factor analysis, the original factor structure in the CBPI is not ideally suited to measure pain related to OA in our sample and the hypothesis of the presented two-factor structure was rejected. Further research needs to be conducted to determine whether the original psychometric results from CBPI can be replicated across different target groups and particularly with larger sample size.

  • Båmstedt, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    A cost-precision model for marine environmental monitoring, based on time-integrated averages2017In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 189, no 7, 354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing marine monitoring programs are seldom designed to detect changes in the environment between different years, mainly due to the high number of samples required for a sufficient statistical precision. We here show that pooling over time (time integration) of seasonal measurements provides an efficient method of reducing variability, thereby improving the precision and power in detecting inter-annual differences. Such data from weekly environmental sensor profiles at 21 stations in the northern Bothnian Sea was used in a cost-precision spatio-temporal allocation model. Time-integrated averages for six different variables over 6 months from a rather heterogeneous area showed low variability between stations (coefficient of variation, CV, range of 0.6-12.4%) compared to variability between stations in a single day (CV range 2.4-88.6%), or variability over time for a single station (CV range 0.4-110.7%). Reduced sampling frequency from weekly to approximately monthly sampling did not change the results markedly, whereas lower frequency differed more from results with weekly sampling. With monthly sampling, high precision and power of estimates could therefore be achieved with a low number of stations. With input of cost factors like ship time, labor, and analyses, the model can predict the cost for a given required precision in the time-integrated average of each variable by optimizing sampling allocation. A following power analysis can provide information on minimum sample size to detect differences between years with a required power. Alternatively, the model can predict the precision of annual means for the included variables when the program has a pre-defined budget. Use of time-integrated results from sampling stations with different areal coverage and environmental heterogeneity can thus be an efficient strategy to detect environmental differences between single years, as well as a long-term temporal trend. Use of the presented allocation model will then help to minimize the cost and effort of a monitoring program.

  • Lindgren, Rebecka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Persson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Skynda, jag måste hinna!: En litteraturstudie som belyser sjuksköterskors upplevelser av arbetsrelaterad stress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lack of time and support in the work environment are factors that

    causes occupational stress. The experience of stress is individual and correlates to the individual’s life situation and genetic prerequisites. Occupational stress can lead to a situation where nurses experience that patient safety is at risk. This is an important subject to study because of the reasons stated above.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to shed light on nurse’s experience of occupational stress. Method: This study is based on a systematical literature study, containing nine qualitative scientific articles, which were analyzed and quality checked. The data is collected from two databases – CINAHL and PsycINFO.

    Result: Lack of time, support and recourses in the workplace is described as the main reasons when it comes to the experience of occupational stress. The main category in the result is called “The feeling of insufficiency”. Nurses experiences is described thru three subcategories; “Insufficient resources and lack in employer’s leadership”, “The Collegial interplays impact on the experienced stress-level” and “A stress-filled professions impact on a personal level”

    Conclusion: Occupational stress can have negative consequences in nurse’s ability to give proper care and it effects nurses on a personal level. To shed light on this problem is important to create coping-strategies and change clinical nursing in a way that enhance the profession and the quality of care.

    Key words: Occupational stress, nurses, experiences 

  • Asan, Noor Badariah
    et al.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt.
    Shah, Syaiful Redzwan Mohd
    Rydberg, Anders
    Blokhuis, Taco J.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Augustine, Robin
    Intra-body microwave communication through adipose tissue2017In: Healthcare technology letters, E-ISSN 2053-3713, Vol. 4, no 4, 115-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human body can act as a medium for the transmission of electromagnetic waves in the wireless body sensor networks context. However, there are transmission losses in biological tissues due to the presence of water and salts. This Letter focuses on lateral intra-body microwave communication through different biological tissue layers and demonstrates the effect of the tissue thicknesses by comparing signal coupling in the channel. For this work, the authors utilise the R-band frequencies since it overlaps the industrial, scientific and medical radio (ISM) band. The channel model in human tissues is proposed based on electromagnetic simulations, validated using equivalent phantom and ex-vivo measurements. The phantom and ex-vivo measurements are compared with simulation modelling. The results show that electromagnetic communication is feasible in the adipose tissue layer with a low attenuation of approximate to 2 dB per 20 mm for phantom measurements and 4 dB per 20 mm for ex-vivo measurements at 2 GHz. Since the dielectric losses of human adipose tissues are almost half of ex-vivo tissue, an attenuation of around 3 dB per 20 mm is expected. The results show that human adipose tissue can be used as an intra-body communication channel.

  • Kallin, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Unelid, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Marknadsföring och schysst käk, ett gott mål med hållbar eftersmak: En studie om marknadsföring av hållbarhet, konsumtion och studenters restaurangval2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbarhet i kontext av konsumtion och företagande är ett aktuellt och väl omdiskuterat ämne inom politiken och den moderna samhällsekonomin i världen. Konsumtionen är central för samhällets tillväxt tillika det som orsakat de sociala, ekologiska och ekonomiska problemen i världen idag. Företag har ett ansvar att främja hållbar utveckling genom hållbart företagande med ett fokus på samtliga tre perspektiv. Konsumenten har även den en skyldighet, i sitt konsumtionsbeteende att agera hållbart i sina val och beslut. Vi ser ett gemensamt ansvar, där kunskap och medvetenhet om klimathotet bör tas på största allvar av såväl företag som konsument. Med forskningsfrågan Hur kan marknadsföring användas för att påverka studenternas kännedom om, och attityd till att välja hållbara restauranger? utfördes en enkätstudie under våren 2017 på uppdrag av Gotthards Krog belägen i centrala Umeå, för att utforska studenters hållbara konsumtionsbeteende.

    Tidigare forskning har fokuserat mycket på demografiska variabler för att förklara miljövänligt konsumentbeteende, men har de senaste 10-15 åren i större grad skiftat till att utforska psykografiska förklaringsvariabler i samband med förändrade paradigm. I en snabbföränderlig värld finns nu ett behov av att förstå de beteenden som präglar unga klimatmedvetna konsumenter som har framtiden i sin hand.

    I en deduktiv ansats och med hjälp av teorier som triple bottom line (TBL), value-belief-norm theory (VBN) och goal framing theory som teoretiskt ramverk konstruerar vi en konceptuell modell för hypotesprövning mot fem hypoteser, med val av hållbara restaurangkoncept som slutlig beroende variabel. Till grund för resultatet ligger en webbaserad enkät (n=219) med 36 frågor (femgradig likert-skala) om marknadsföring som kommunicerar hållbarhet, kännedom, attityder och konsumentbeteende där studenter vid Umeå Universitet är vår urvalspopulation.

    Resultatet visade på att starka samband mellan kunskap och marknadsföring som kommunicerar hållbarhet föreligger, som grund för val av hållbara restauranger. Studien bidrar bl.a. till forskning kring hållbar marknadssegmentering genom en breddning av särskilda kontextuella karaktärsdrag för målgruppen studenter, samt vilka kompromisser studenter gör vid hållbar konsumtion. Något man som företagare bör vara medveten om vid planering av både CSR-arbete och marknadsstrategi.

  • Koukalova, Alena
    et al.
    Amaro, Mariana
    Aydogan, Gokcan
    Gröbner, Gerhard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Williamson, Philip T. F.
    Mikhalyov, Ilya
    Hof, Martin
    Sachl, Radek
    Lipid Driven Nanodomains in Giant Lipid Vesicles are Fluid and Disordered2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 5460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a fundamental question in cell biology and biophysics whether sphingomyelin (SM)-and cholesterol (Chol)-driven nanodomains exist in living cells and in model membranes. Biophysical studies on model membranes revealed SM and Chol driven micrometer-sized liquid-ordered domains. Although the existence of such microdomains has not been proven for the plasma membrane, such lipid mixtures have been often used as a model system for 'rafts'. On the other hand, recent super resolution and single molecule results indicate that the plasma membrane might organize into nanocompartments. However, due to the limited resolution of those techniques their unambiguous characterization is still missing. In this work, a novel combination of Forster resonance energy transfer and Monte Carlo simulations (MC-FRET) identifies directly 10 nm large nanodomains in liquid-disordered model membranes composed of lipid mixtures containing SM and Chol. Combining MC-FRET with solidstate wide-line and high resolution magic angle spinning NMR as well as with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy we demonstrate that these nanodomains containing hundreds of lipid molecules are fluid and disordered. In terms of their size, fluidity, order and lifetime these nanodomains may represent a relevant model system for cellular membranes and are closely related to nanocompartments suggested to exist in cellular membranes.

  • Evaldsson, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energieffektiv uttorkning av betongkonstruktioner2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thick concrete structures ability to dry out is essential whilst casting in situ. Usually contractors work with tight timetables which means there is no time to dispense. Extensive planning and reducing the drying time for the concrete structures is essential. The main reason is that most materials applied to the concrete do not combine very well with moisture which, of course, is a big problem due to the fact that concrete to a big extent consists of water.

     

    A reduced amount of water – and an increased amount of cement causes a faster process of hydration which means that a larger portion of the concretes water will bind to the cement particles and thus reducing the structures relative humidity drastically post casting. Another option whilst using concrete with a more balanced ratio between the water and cement (above 0,45) is to control the climate in which the structure is set to dry in. This would be done by using heating fans which heats the air whilst simultaneously reducing the airs relative humidity.

     

    This bachelor´s thesis compares the options featured above. The comparison considers the methods efficiency, costs and environmental impact (measured in CO2-emissions). The study has regarded a typical case scenario in which a thick concrete structure is set to be cast. The result of the study was that self-drying concrete is the most appropriate choice seen from all perspectives. The use of diesel fuel was shown to be the worst option. The diesel fuelled method had the pre-eminently highest rates of CO2-emissions and also the highest costs. 

  • Tideman, Magnus
    et al.
    La Trobe University, Melbourne; Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Lövgren, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Szönyi, Kristina
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Intellektuell funktionsnedsättning och arbete2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Personer med funktionsnedsättning tillhör de grupper i samhället som har svårast att etablera sig på arbetsmarknaden. Flera olika faktorer har betydelse för möjligheterna att få ett arbete. Studier pekar på att det handlar om individuella förutsättningar och förmågor men också om omgivningsrelaterade faktorer som lagstiftning, tillgång till individuellt utformat och långsiktigt stöd, arbetsgivares attityder med mera. Majoriteten av unga vuxna med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning i Sverige står utanför arbetsmarknaden. 22 procent har förvärvsarbete i någon utsträckning, oftast med någon form av lönesubvention till arbetsgivaren. Om andelen personer med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning, särskilt kvinnor, i arbete ska öka behöver mer hänsyn tas till faktorer på olika nivåer, och till hur de samspelar. Mer kunskap behövs om vad personer med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning själva upplever som främjande för etablering på arbetsmarknaden, samt hur olika stödsystem påverkar möjligheterna till arbete.

  • Tan, Biyue
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Biomaterials Division, Stora Enso AB, Nacka SE-13104, Sweden.
    Grattapaglia, Dario
    Martins, Gustavo Salgado
    Ferreira, Karina Zamprogno
    Sundberg, Björn
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Evaluating the accuracy of genomic prediction of growth and wood traits in two Eucalyptus species and their F-1 hybrids2017In: BMC Plant Biology, ISSN 1471-2229, E-ISSN 1471-2229, Vol. 17, 110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Genomic prediction is a genomics assisted breeding methodology that can increase genetic gains by accelerating the breeding cycle and potentially improving the accuracy of breeding values. In this study, we use 41,304 informative SNPs genotyped in a Eucalyptus breeding population involving 90 E. grandis and 78 E. urophylla parents and their 949 F-1 hybrids to develop genomic prediction models for eight phenotypic traits-basic density and pulp yield, circumference at breast height and height and tree volume scored at age three and six years. We assessed the impact of different genomic prediction methods, the composition and size of the training and validation set and the number and genomic location of SNPs on the predictive ability (PA). Results: Heritabilities estimated using the realized genomic relationship matrix (GRM) were considerably higher than estimates based on the expected pedigree, mainly due to inconsistencies in the expected pedigree that were readily corrected by the GRM. Moreover, the GRM more precisely capture Mendelian sampling among related individuals, such that the genetic covariance was based on the true proportion of the genome shared between individuals. PA improved considerably when increasing the size of the training set and by enhancing relatedness to the validation set. Prediction models trained on pure species parents could not predict well in F-1 hybrids, indicating that model training has to be carried out in hybrid populations if one is to predict in hybrid selection candidates. The different genomic prediction methods provided similar results for all traits, therefore either GBLUP or rrBLUP represents better compromises between computational time and prediction efficiency. Only slight improvement was observed in PA when more than 5000 SNPs were used for all traits. Using SNPs in intergenic regions provided slightly better PA than using SNPs sampled exclusively in genic regions. Conclusions: The size and composition of the training set and number of SNPs used are the two most important factors for model prediction, compared to the statistical methods and the genomic location of SNPs. Furthermore, training the prediction model based on pure parental species only provide limited ability to predict traits in interspecific hybrids. Our results provide additional promising perspectives for the implementation of genomic prediction in Eucalyptus breeding programs by the selection of interspecific hybrids.

  • Kokkonen, Heidi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Cardiovascular risk factors predate the onset of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis: a nested case-control study2017In: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 19, 148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to evaluate the impact of factors related to CVD, such as smoking, lipid levels, hypertension, body mass index (BMI) and diabetes, in individuals prior to the onset of symptoms of RA. Methods: A nested case-control study was performed including data from 547 pre-symptomatic individuals (i.e. individuals who had participated in population surveys in northern Sweden prior to onset of symptoms of RA, median time to symptom onset 5.0 (interquartile range 2.0-9.0) years) and 1641 matched controls. Within the survey, health examinations prior to symptom onset were performed, blood samples were analysed for plasma glucose and lipids, and data on lifestyle factors had been collected with a questionnaire. CVD risk factors were extracted and further analysed with conditional logistic regression models for association with subsequent RA development, including hypertension, apolipoprotein (Apo) B/ApoA1 ratio, BMI, diabetes and smoking habits. Results: Smoking and BMI >= 25 (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.86 (1.48-2.35) and OR = 1.28 (1.01-1.62), respectively) were associated with increased risk for future RA development. In women, elevated ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (OR = 1.36 (1.03-1.80)) and smoking (OR = 1.82 (1.37-2.41)) were significantly associated with being pre-symptomatic for RA, whilst in men smoking (OR = 1.92 (1.26-2.92)) and diabetes (OR = 3.62 (95% CI 1.13-11.64)) were significant. In older (> 50.19 years) individuals, only smoking (OR = 1.74 (1.24-2.45)) was significantly associated with increased risk of future RA, whereas in younger individuals the significant factors were elevated ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (OR = 1.39 (1.00-1.93)), BMI >= 25.0 (OR = 1.45 (1.04-2.02)) and smoking (OR = 2.11 (1.51-2.95)). Pre-symptomatic individuals had a higher frequency of risk factors: 41.5% had >= 3 compared with 30.4% among matched controls (OR = 2.81 (1.78-4.44)). Conclusions: Several risk factors for CVD were present in pre-symptomatic individuals and significantly associated with increased risk for future RA. These factors differed in women and men. The CVD risk factors had a greater impact in younger individuals. These results urge an early analysis of cardiovascular risk factors for proposed prevention in patients with early RA.

  • Larsson, Albin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    NOx-reducerande åtgärder vid låg last av en fastbränslepanna med ureabaserat SNCR-system: Inverkan av körsätt och praktiska åtgärder2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SCA Obbola AB is a kraft pulp mill that produces and sells packaging paper. The steam demand is covered by a recovery boiler and a solid fuel boiler (consists of two parallel solid fuel furnaces and a boiler). Adjustments in steam production are foremost made by the solid fuel boiler. Previously made energy-reducing measures at the mill has lowered the steam demand which forces the solid fuel boiler to low steam production. The solid fuel boiler produces over 25 GWH/year and is therefor bound by the Swedish nitrous oxide charge, but is also restricted to a monthly mean value of 70 mg/MJ. This mean value was exceeded in July 2016, which is thought to be a result of forced limitation in steam production. NOx emissions are reduced secondarily by an urea-based SNCR-system where its efficiency depends on several parameters, foremost sufficiently high flue gas temperatures.

    This work has identified parameters that effects foremost hydrogen-based combustion emission from the solid fuel boiler. This was achieved by evaluating historical data and by conducting tests during operation of the solid fuel boiler, which was planned and evaluated using a software called MODDE. Emission reducing measures and recommended ways to operate the boiler was then presented from the collected data.

    Practical measures including down-winding supply machinery of secondary air and replacement of urea injection showed no tendencies in reducing NOx emissions. However, complete shut down of one the furnaces produced at least 100 °C higher flue gas temperatures produced from the active furnace. Low NOx emissions was noted when secondary air was supplied from machinery with original speed. therefor, during stretched periods with low steam production, it's recommended that: Only one furnace should be active as steam producer, urea should be injected at its original placement in the flue gas chamber close the furnace and that secondary air should be supplied by machinery with original speed. Comparison test made in this work showed that this way of operating the solid fuel boiler could reduce NOx emissions with 45 % compared to mean NOx emissions at low steam production in July 2016.

  • Långström, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Comparing Multivariate Regression Methods For Compositional Data: Through Simulation Studies & Applications2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Compositional data, where measurements are vectors with each component constituting a percentage of a whole, is abundant throughout many disciplines of science. Consequently, there is a strong need to establish valid statistical procedures for this type of data. In this work the basic theory of the compositional sample space is presented and through simulation studies and a case study on data from industrial applications, the current available methods for regression as applied to compositional data are evaluated. The main focus of this work is to establish linear regression in a way compatible with compositional data sets and compare this approach with the alternative of applying standard multivariate regression methods on raw compositional data. It is found that for several data sets, the difference between 'naive' multivariate linear regression and compositional linear regression is negligible; while for others (in particular where the dependence of covariates is not strictly linear) the compositional regression methods are shown to be stronger.

  • Karlsson, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    The Oka-Weil Theorem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We give a proof of the Oka-Weil theorem which states that on compact, polynomially convex subsets of Cn, holomorphic functions can be approximated uniformly by holomorphic polynomials.

  • Helmersson, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Annuity Divisors2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the differences and similarities between the discrete annuity divisor of the income pension compared to the continuous annuity divisor of the premium pension in Sweden. First discrete and continuous annuity divisors are compared and found to be equivalent given the same underlying mortality.

    The income divisor is based on observed mortality in a period setting while the premium divisor which is based on projected mortality in a cohort setting. The expected performance of the two methods is studied by constructing prediction intervals based on Lee-Carter models with either a Binomial or Poisson distribution. Prediction intervals are constructed using either residual bootstrap or parametric bootstrap. The premium annuity divisor is found to outperform the income annuity divisor, there is a large risk that the latter underestimates the future mortality.

  • Tefera, Basazinew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Effects of derivative use on firm value: Evidence from Nordic financial firms2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Financial firms are carrying more risks than non-financial firms as they are operating with highly liquid assets. Use of derivatives is one of hedging techniques used in protecting firms from such kind of risks. There has been considerable discussion in academia of whether or not derivative usage can be considered to be value relevant. This is a question, which relate to both risk management and value maximization perspectives in terms of theory, but also discussions in regards to hedging irrelevance (M&M) and arbitrage theory as well:

    Does the use of derivatives affect listed Nordic financial firms’ market value, if so how?

    Thereby, the main purpose of this thesis is to find out whether or not there a relationship between derivative use and firm value, which would be evidenced from sample taken from listed Nordic financial firms. In addition to this main purpose, this thesis furthermore sets out to answer whether geographical diversification and firm size contribute toward the effect of derivative use on firm value.

    Moreover, to answer the research question, a positivist philosophical standpoint with objectivist viewpoint taken, which subsequently leads the author to utilize quantitative methods and statistical analysis to the data collected for this study. Here, different panel models are fitted to the data to account effects that exist within it. To explain the findings, a theoretical framework is built upon two main theories and prior literatures. Here, on the theories such as M&M theory as well as arbitrage theory are dealt with. On the prior literatures, different scholars finding on the derivative use and firm value relationship discussed.  

    After looking at the results and the analysis, one can draw the conclusion that there is a positive relationship between derivative usage and firm value. The analysis this thesis took the entire 96 Nordic financial firms sample for study period of four years (2012-“015), and from this sample size 80% found derivative users and the rest are non-users. Further, the study result and analysis lead the author to conclude that derivative usage has a positive impact on Nordic financial firms’ value.  

    Overall, this thesis can find evidence for a value-relevance of derivative usage to firm value in the Nordic markets. Essentially, Tobin’s Q ratio used as a proxy for firm value and panel data model has been used in the analysis. The test result of the study shows that there is a positive statistically and economically significant derivative use premium for Nordic financial firms.

    Keywords: Risk management; Hedging; Derivatives; Derivatives use; Firm value

  • Matilda, Sundholm
    et al.
    Braunander, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    If you Snooze you lose:: A qulalitative study of how comapnies can use social media to enhance customer-based brand equity2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of technology and Internet has not only impacted the way we live our daily lives; it has also changed how business is conducted. Traditional marketing strategies have transformed according to the new digital area where social media is used as a marketing channel to a greater extent than ever. Social media marketing is particularly efficient in terms of branding and it can make information about brands more accessible to customers and increase brand awareness.

    The concept of customer-based brand equity has been extensively researched, but the topic of social media marketing and its impact on the dimensions of customer-basedbrand equity has not been researched. Therefore, we sawan opportunity to include other dimensions of customer-based brand equity and examine the impact social media marketing have on them. The main purpose of this study is to develop a deeper knowledge of how managers can use SMM to build up and strengthen CBBE. More specifically, our purpose with this research is to study how the SMM activities entertainment, interaction, trendiness, customization and eWOMeffect the four dimensions of CBBE, brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand associationsandperceived quality.

    In order to fulfill the purpose of this thesis, a qualitative study has been conducted. We have conducted semi-structured interviews with five representatives of brands and two customers to each brand. By interviewing both the representatives of the brands and their customers enable us to gain a deeper understanding of how social media marketing activities influence customer-based brand equity.

    The empirical result showed that social media platforms are widely used as a marketing channel amongst the brands and that companies incorporate social media into their marketing strategy. The five social media marketing activities did at least affect one of the aspects of customer-based brand equity each. The main purpose why customers follow brands on social media is to get brand-related information, be inspired and interact with the brands. Influencer marketing was particular efficient when it comes to raising brand awareness and brand associations. When brands interact with their customers on social media, it does enhance brand loyalty and they should have a frequency of 2-3 posts a week. A customized message on social media can make the customer more loyal. The result also showed that loyal customers are likely to spread positive eWOM and recommend the brand to others.

    In conclusion, the empirical findings from our study have some theoretical implications as well as managerial implications. Our research contributes with a holistic framework on the effect social media marketing have on customer-based brand equity. Finally, the result should guide marketing managers in how they should adjust the process of enhancing customers’ perceptions of the brand to the new, digital Environment.

  • Eckerskog, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Let's play fair - en jämförelse av Fair Use och svenska undantagsregler applicerat på Let's Play2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Jonasson, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Är fundamentalism det nya F-ordet?: En intervjustudie med gymnasieelever om fundamentalism2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om fundamentalism där fokuset kommer vara på hur gymnasielever resonerar kring ämnet samt vilken syn eleverna har om hur fundamentalism behandlas i skolan. Detta är en intervjustudie som är genomförd med hjälp av en hermeneutisk metod, metoden handlar kort om att tolka vad personen verkligen menade. Uppsatsen behandlar även historien kring fundamentalism, definitioner, karaktärsdrag och hur man arbetar med ämnet i skolan med fokus i religionsundervisningen. Målet med uppsatsen är att få en förståelse om hur elever uppfattar ämnet för att förbereda mig själv som framtida lärare. Det man slutligen kan se i uppsatsen är att större delen av elever inte har någon kännedom om fundamentalism och många har inte ens hört talas om begreppet tidigare. De få elever som hade hört om fundamentalism var antingen intresserade i religionsämnet eller troende inom någon religion. Dessutom var det endast en av de medverkande som hade behandlat fundamentalism i skolvärlden.

  • Brostedt, Love
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture.
    Restructuring Suburbia: Introducing Social Space in a Spatially Disperse Neighbourhood2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Density is more about an experienced nearness to functions and activities than buildingsbeing physically close to each other. Density is interaction, and the intensity of itdepends on accessibility to the functions and activities of the built environment.

    The current planning, continuing the thoughts of the modernist, are a threat to publichealth and the environment, as sprawling settlements demand more resources forinfrastructure and time spent commuting between home and work, taking up the timeto spend with family and friends.

    The suburban planning principles of the Swedish housing estate unit have graduallytransformed the suburban neighbourhoods into dispersed, disconnected islands, wheresocial life is inhibited in the mere configuration of space.

    Legibility of the urban environment is important regarding orientation and navigation,but also to understand the underlying meanings of spaces and places. The urbanstructure should be easily read to be understandable in the choices of everyday life.

    How we understand the boundaries and transitions of our surrounding affects howspaces are used. Unclear territorial interfaces, like the open space landscape ofmodernist planning feels too exposed to be appropriated. If activities should take placein the outdoor environment, there must be a certain quality to the spaces that areinviting and promote interaction between people.

    The suburban housing estate neighbourhoods can be developed to promote thisinteraction, providing spaces where the different layers of social life can take place, fromthe private home – through mediating interfaces of front yards, indoor collective spaceand collective gardens – to the public realm of the streets, pathways and parks.

    The thesis studies the suburban neighbourhood Årsta in eastern Uppsala, whichshows the signs of a disperse suburban housing estate in its configuration of buildings,withdrawn from the streets, turning inward away from the public spaces.

    By adding built volume within the existing structure of the open yards, the boundariesbetween the public and the private spaces can be clearly defined and new activatedspaces can be created. Many fronts towards the streets and paths make people meet inevery-day life and new types of spaces can be used to set a framework for interactionbetween residents as well as outsiders. Such spaces can also work as a buffer betweenpublic life and the private dwelling, e.g. a collective garden mediates the space inbetween a pedestrian path and an inner yard.

  • Oesterle, Pierre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Uptake and translocation ofcommon antibiotics in plants: Laboratory experiment and real-case study ofKwazulu-Natal, South Africa’s wastewater system2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Widerberg, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Synthesis of ring-fused 2-pyridones with potential antibiotic properties2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Kamte, Stephane L. Ngahang
    et al.
    Ranjbarian, Farahnaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Campagnaro, Gustavo Daniel
    Nya, Prosper C. Biapa
    Mbuntcha, Hélène
    Woguem, Verlaine
    Womeni, Hilaire Macaire
    Tapondjou, Léon Azefack
    Giordani, Cristiano
    Barboni, Luciano
    Benelli, Giovanni
    Cappellacci, Loredana
    Hofer, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Petrelli, Riccardo
    Maggi, Filippo
    Trypanosoma brucei Inhibition by Essential Oils from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Traditionally Used in Cameroon (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus)2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 7, 737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile components produced by the plant secondary metabolism and consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and, to a minor extent, of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. They are exploited in several fields such as perfumery, food, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics. Essential oils have long-standing uses in the treatment of infectious diseases and parasitosis in humans and animals. In this regard, their therapeutic potential against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has not been fully explored. In the present work, we have selected six medicinal and aromatic plants (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea, and Echinops giganteus) traditionally used in Cameroon to treat several disorders, including infections and parasitic diseases, and evaluated the activity of their essential oils against Trypanosma brucei TC221. Their selectivity was also determined with Balb/3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line) cells as a reference. The results showed that the essential oils from A. indica, A. daniellii, and E. giganteus were the most active ones, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 15.21, 7.65, and 10.50 mu g/mL, respectively. These essential oils were characterized by different chemical compounds such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Some of their main components were assayed as well on T. brucei TC221, and their effects were linked to those of essential oils.

  • Jönsson, Anna K.
    et al.
    Lövborg, Henrik
    Lohr, Wolfgang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ekman, Bertil
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Institute of Public Health, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Increased Risk of Drug-Induced Hyponatremia during High Temperatures2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 7, 827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between outdoor temperature in Sweden and the reporting of drug-induced hyponatremia to the Medical Products Agency (MPA). Methods: All individual adverse drug reactions (ADR) reported to MPA from 1 January 2010 to 31 October 2013 of suspected drug-induced hyponatremia and random controls were identified. Reports where the ADR had been assessed as having at least a possible relation to the suspected drug were included. Information on administered drugs, onset date, causality assessment, sodium levels, and the geographical origin of the reports was extracted. A case-crossover design was used to ascertain the association between heat exposure and drug-induced hyponatremia at the individual level, while linear regression was used to study its relationship to sodium concentration in blood. Temperature exposure data were obtained from the nearest observation station to the reported cases. Results: During the study period, 280 reports of hyponatremia were identified. More cases of drug-induced hyponatremia were reported in the warmer season, with a peak in June, while other ADRs showed an opposite annual pattern. The distributed lag non-linear model indicated an increasing odds ratio (OR) with increasing temperature in the warm season with a highest odds ratio, with delays of 1-5 days after heat exposure. A cumulative OR for a lag time of 1 to 3 days was estimated at 2.21 at an average daily temperature of 20 degrees C. The change in sodium per 1 degrees C increase in temperature was estimated to be -0.37 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.02, -0.72). Conclusions: Warm weather appears to increase the risk of drug-induced hyponatremia.

  • Madelene, Mikaelsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Upprepad läsning: En interventionsstudie i studieväg 1 i utbildningen svenska för invandrare2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether repeated reading can enhance reading fluency for students with little or no education, studying Swedish tuition for immigrants. The work was based on the question: Is there any difference in learning effects / degree of learning, depending on whether the repeated reading is done individually with the special education teacher, with a peer in the classroom, or individually conducted silent reading? To investigate that, three interventions were done: repeated reading individually with the special education teacher, repeated reading in pairs and individual silent reading of literary books. The students who had repeated reading individually with special education teachers improved their word decoding skills compared to the other two intervention groups. The students who had repeated reading with a peer in the classroom improved their word decoding skills more than the silent reading group. Students who had individual silent reading improved mainly their reading speed. The results showed that none of the groups improved both of the components of reading fluency, decoding and reading speed. The conclusion is that more studies are needed to find methods that enhance reading skills and test materials that work for low-educated students in Swedish tuition for immigrants.

  • Grönlund, Sophie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Schytt, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The use of data in social media marketing: An explorative study of data insights in social media marketing2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The marketing possibilities on the Internet is growing and so are social media marketing. The budget devoted for marketing activities on social media is constantly increasining every year and the time users are spending on social media is also increasing. Among the increasing activities comes a vast amount of data which create endless of opportunities for companies to optimize their marketing activities. In marketing the most important has always been to know your customers and how to reach out to them. The Internet and data that comes with it has made it possible for companies to get to know their customers even better and to reach them with more precision if data is correctly used.

     

    A gap was identified from the litterature search which showed that it is not always clear how to utilize social media for marketing and it is not easy to analyze and interpret the data derived from social media. This has lead to a lack of knowledge on how data can be used for social media activities. From the identified gap regarding data usage in social media marketing, a research question was formulated:

     

    “How is data used in brand’s strategies for social media?”

     

    A qualitative research design conducting semi-structured interviews was used to examine the research question. A purposeful sample of eleven respondents, defined as experts within the research field, from ten different companies was selected. A pilot study was carried out to get insights in the identified gap, to set a base for the theoretical framework, and to optimize the interview questions. All respondents represented agencies except for the respondent in the pilot study.

     

    Academics and business communities are interested in how data is used in marketing purposes and therefore it was elaborated further in this thesis to how data can be used in social media activities. Branding activities are becoming more engaged with its customers, thus marketers need to keep up to date with the new and emerging trends. Furthermore, the aim was to explore how data is used in social media marketing and how data affect decisions in social media strategies.

     

    The results found in this study shows that data is used to define audiences on social media and to enable a greater reach of the messages for the audiences. The audience is defined by data analysis mostly based on consumer behavior in social media. To achive reach marketers use programmatic buying tools, which are based on data and ultimatley enables conversions among the audience. Data is also analyzed by opinion mining where data insights can show what topics customers are engaged in. Data insights can further give direction on how content can encourage engagement among the targeted audience. Lastly, the result shows that it is important to have knowledge about how to analyze, interpret, and use data insights in order to create successful social media activites.

  • Fernando, Nelly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The Role of Gold in an Investment Portfolio: An empirical study on diversification benefits of gold from the perspective of Swedish investors2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human interaction with gold can be traced far back in history, and throughout history, the metal has been both worshipped and fought for. People almost intuitively place a high value on this yellow metal and gold has always had a special place in the human heart. Nonetheless, the question many irresolute investors seek the answer to today is whether gold deserves a special place in their investment portfolios. The main purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether gold is an appropriate diversifier for Swedish investors, and to find the optimal weight of gold in a Swedish equity portfolio. Corresponding properties of other precious metals silver and platinum were also investigated for comparative purposes. One of the reasons for augmented interest in investing in gold is the perceived risk in the economy. The theoretical framework for the study was Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT). The insight of MPT is that efficient diversification handles the risk better than individual assets. Risk management is especially crucial in an era of heightened economic, financial and political uncertainty as today. At the same time, rising correlation among traditional diversifiers make diversification more difficult. Gold, influenced by its history as a currency, has often taken the role as an inflation hedge and a portfolio stabilizer during turbulent financial markets. Inflation hedge assets like gold should be negatively correlated with the market and should give the best diversification benefits in a portfolio. This indicates that gold may be an appropriate diversifier in an equity portfolio. The study took the perspective of Swedish investors, and a Swedish equity index was therefore used as proxy for a well-diversified portfolio. Registry data for past prices of assets over a period of 47 years were obtained via a study published on the official website of the Swedish central bank and Thomson Reuters Datastream. Excess returns were then calculated and processed to obtain descriptive and inferential statistics. The optimal weights of gold and the other precious metals in an investment portfolio were calculated under the optimization framework of maximization of the Sharpe ratio where reward to volatility is highest. The calculations were performed for eight different holding periods. Results show near 0, or weak positive correlations between Swedish domestic equity and gold during the examined periods. On stand-alone basis, gold is superior to other precious metals in most of the studied periods, but all three precious metals have potential to function as diversifiers in an investment portfolio that is only devoted to Swedish domestic equities. Therefore, weightings of 9% gold, 12% silver and 9% platinum are preferred to improve the performance of the Swedish equity portfolio. However, the Sharpe ratio does not take into account the ethics of investing and possible environmental and social consequences. Therefore, the suggested allocation of gold in this study may not be a sustainable investment at long term. 

  • Ljungren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Data-driven design for sustainable behavior: A case study in using data and conversational interfaces to influence corporate settlement2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction with digital products and interfaces concern more and more of human decision-making and the problems regarding environmental, financial and social sustainability are consequences much due to our behavior. The issues and goals of sustainable development therefore implies how we have to think differently about digital design. In this paper, we examine the adequacy of influencing sustainable behavior with a data-driven design approach, applying a conversational user interface. A case study regarding the United Nation’s goals of technological development and economic distribution was conducted, to see if a hypothetical business with a proof-of-concept digital product could be effective in influencing where companies base their operations. The test results showed a lack of usability and influence, but still suggested a potential with language-based interfaces. Even though the results could not prove anything, we argue that leveraging data analysis to design for sustainable behavior could be a very valuable strategy. A data-driven approach could enable ambitions of profit and user experience to coincide with those of sustainability, within a business organization.