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  • Schimmer, Robyn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Department of Informatics, Umeå university.
    Orre, Carljohan
    Öberg, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Danielsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Digital Person-Centered Self-Management Support for People With Type 2 Diabetes: Qualitative Study Exploring Design Challenges2019In: JMIR Diabetes, ISSN 2371-4379, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 1-10, article id 10702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Self-management is a substantial part of treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Modern digital technology, being small, available, and ubiquitous, might work well in supporting self-management. This study follows the process of developing a pilot implementation of an electronic health (eHealth) service for T2D self-management support in primary health care. The use of digital health, or eHealth, solutions for supporting self-management for patients with T2D is increasing. There are good examples of successful implementations that can serve as guides in the development of new solutions. However, when adding person-centered principles as a requirement, the examples are scarce.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore challenges that could impact the design of a person-centered eHealth service for T2D self-management support. The study included data collection from multiple sources, that is, interviews, observations, focus groups, and a Mentimeter (interactive presentation with polling) survey among stakeholders, representing various perspectives of T2D.

    Methods: A user-centered design approach was used to exploratively collect data from different sources. Data were collected from a workshop, interviews, and observations. The different data sources enabled a triangulation of data.

    Results: Results show that user needs related to an eHealth service for person-centered T2D self-management support are multifaceted and situated in a complex context. The two main user groups, patients and diabetes specialist nurses, express needs that both diverge and converge, which indicates that critical design decisions have to be made. There is also a discrepancy between the needs expressed by the potential users and the current work practice, suggesting more attention toward changing the organization of work to fully support a new eHealth service.

    Conclusions: A total of three overarching challenges—flexible access, reducing administrative tasks, and patient empowerment—each having a significant impact on design, are discussed. These challenges need to be considered and resolved through careful design decisions. Special attention has to be given to the patient user group that could greatly impact current work practice and power structures at the primary care unit. A need for further studies investigating patient needs in everyday life is identified to better support the implementation of technology that does not give specific attention to organizational perspectives but instead approach design with the patient perspective in focus.

  • Khash-Erdene Battogtokh, Khash-Erdene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    DO ‘THEY’ DESERVE TO – BE SLAVES?: A case study on media presentation of benefit cheat and labor right violation in Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses text on Swedish trade union newspaper Arbetet about taking advantage of immigrants of home service corporation Enklare Vardag.The theoretical framework consists of theories about critical discourse analysis. The analysis is done by employing Norman Fairclough's CDA model, combined with other tools of critical linguistics.The aim is to detect how the idea of ‘othering' and common sense on power relations between employees and employers marries and divorces with each other in this context on benefit cheat. And to define how the signifier and signified work together in the constructed subject position of the cheater in citizens and media representation. To identify that, interviews of different groups of wardship workers speculations towards the article are included. Aside from a "cheater", understanding of common - sense ground in society and media within the field of immigration, labor´s right incorporate the analysis purpose.The chosen article is analyzed from contradicting perspectives of benefit cheat discourse that often supports with right-wing media and criticizes welfare state and on the other hand criticism towards power relation between capitalistic oppression of the working class.

  • Vilardi, Stefano
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    A geoarchaeological study on two Norwegian boat graves: Soil analysis and an attempt of forensic work strategy and thinking in the interpretation of the results2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following paper is the final thesis of two years long experimental work conducted on two different collections of soil samples coming from two different Norwegian archaeological sites. In particular, the first collection of soil samples comes from an identified boat grave from the Viking Age (eg Sykehus area Kristiansand County, Vest-Agder). The second one comes also from a boat grave from Vestfold region in Hejmdaljordet archaeological site. Both the collections of samples have been analysed with geochemical methods (phosphate extraction and determination, magnetic susceptibility and loss on ignition), NIR (Near-InfraRed) spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. Although the contexts are different, a comparison between them has been attempted. In particular, the first boat grave presented a very altered and spoiled conditions because of different disturbance actions coming from atmospheric factors but also human actions such as looting or burning, that have not permitted the discovery of significant archaeological findings. Conversely, the second boat grave presented more favourable conditions and also a discrete preservation. In fact, it was possible to recover the belongs of the dead, such as fragments of the belt, a sword and the rivets surrounding the boat. Thanks to the wide series of analysis conducted on soil samples and to an accurate comparison between the two boat graves, it has been possible to detect the presence of high concentration of organic matter (eventual presence of the human body), a high level of magnetic susceptibility (eventual presence of metallic components detected in the soil), detection of specific chemical elements in the soil that could attest the eventual presence of items within the graves and finally, a general report of the possible anthropological impact by the light spectra measurements, through the use of spectroscopy. All the results collected have been interpreted using a forensic work strategy which concerns the detailed analysis of anomalies found in the soil texture and chemical composition. Further, a significant number of tests that could prove the presence of human body in the grave and the eventual reasons of the bad preservation and lack of archaeological (most in the eg Sykehus case) information detected in the context (disturb actions represented by looting and burning). Finally, a series of maps have been created to show with clearness the results of the study.

  • Hultberg, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Gamification - Den moderna tidens pedagogik: En studie av gamification som pedagogisk teori och praktik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Gamification används idag i flertalet verksamheter för att öka motivation och engagemang. Det är en pedagogisk metod som idag ses vara ett komplement till övrigt pedagogiskt arbete. Gamification brukas i många spektra; utbildning, e-handel, sjukvård, hotellbranschen och mer. Däremot har gamification som begrepp utforskats svagt. Tidigare forskning har behandlat hur enskilda spelifierade element skapar effekt hos verksamheter men inte påvisat hur begreppet kan skapa påverkan på människor som nyttjar gamification via flertalet beståndsdelar. Vissa menar att gamification som forskningsämne behandlats svagt. Vissa forskare anser dessutom att gamification borde ses som pedagogisk lärteori och som ett pedagogiskt arv. Studiens syfte var att analysera och förstå begreppet gamification genom en analys av tidigare forskning kring gamification och pedagogik. Syftet innefattade även analys av existerande gamification-plattformar på marknaden för att påvisa vilka pedagogiska lärteorier som appliceras i dessa. Resultatet visade att ju fler existerande relationer mellan spelifierade element i en gamification-plattform, desto närmre låg plattformen gentemot gamification som pedagogisk lärteori. Det gav även upphov till en agnostisk plattform vilket i sin tur skapade möjlighet till en holistisk design som ser till både individ- och verksamhetsmål i större mån. Slutligen kunde det påvisade resultatet redovisa hur gamification knyter ihop olika teorier kring motivation och gamification som pedagogisk lärteori. Studiens metoddiskussion presenterar även ett alternativt analysverktyg för gamification baserat på visualiseringar av spelelementariska relationer.

  • Rappe, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Implementering av lågaffektivt bemötande som förhållningssätt: En analys av erfarenheter från svenska grundskolor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lågaffektivt bemötande är ett förhållningssätt som implementerats i många svenska skolor de senaste åren som en metod för att hantera konfliktsituationer och barn med problemskapande beteende. Under senaste året har det pågått en diskussion inom skolan och även i media om det kan vara så att förhållningssättet orsakar problem i skolmiljön istället för att komma tillrätta med dem. Försvararna menar att det är ett felaktigt användande av förhållningssättet som ligger till grund för de ordningsproblem som en del kopplar till implementeringen av lågaffektivt bemötande.Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur implementationen av förhållningssättet kan gå till och hur det senare fungerar för de pedagoger som arbetar med det samt vilka resultat de upplever i skolmiljön. För att skapa kunskap om frågeställningen har en kvalitativ metod använts vid undersökningen där semistrukturerade individuella intervjuer har genomförts på fyra olika skolor och resultatet tematiserats och presenterats. Resultatet av studien visar att den grupp som fått bäst resultat har arbetat med ett metodologiskt och långsiktigt förhållningssätt i implementationen där personalen genom studiecirkel utbildat sig och skapat en gemensam strategi för att arbeta med förhållningssättet där de hanterar både konfliktsituationer och arbetet efteråt för att skapa en lärande process för att undvika att hamna i liknande situationer. Ytterligare en slutsats är att det är viktigt att arbeta med kommunikationen mot anhöriga så att en förståelse skapas för vad arbetssättet innebär.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-11 09:00 Hörsalen Snäckan, Östersund
    Tydén, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Heparin-binding protein and organ failure in critical illness2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: For patients severely ill enough to require care in an intensive care unit (ICU), both the disease itself (e.g. bacteria in the blood in sepsis or fractures after trauma) and effects of the immune system can cause circulatory, pulmonary, or renal dysfunction. Leukocytes play a dominant role in the immune system.  When activated they release a range of small proteins with different properties Heparin-binding protein (HBP) being one of these proteins, has many functions, including to increase vascular permeability. Heparin-binding protein causes plasma leakage from blood vessels into surrounding tissue (oedema), which can lead to  organ dysfunction depending on the site and degree of oedema formation. Increased concentration of HBP in plasma is associated with failing circulation and lung function in subgroups of critically ill patients.

    Aims: We investigated the possibility of using concentration of HBP in plasma for predicting circulatory, respiratory or renal failure in an ICU population with mixed diagnosis. We assessed concentration of HBP in alveoli in ventilator induced lung injury (VILI), and finally assessed elimination of HBP in urine and effluent fluid from continuous dialysis.

    Methods: In Papers I and II, HBP concentration in plasma was measured in 278 patients on admission to ICU. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and acute kidney injury (AKI) stage were recorded daily. In Paper III HBP concentration in bronco-alveolar fluid was measured in a pig model of ventilatory induced lung injury, in 16 healthy volunteers and in 10 intubated ICU patients. In Paper IV plasma and urine concentration of HBP was measured in 8 healthy volunteers and 20 burn ICU patients. In addition, HBP was sampled in plasma and effluent fluid in 32 ICU patients on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT).

    Results: In Paper I, patients developing circulatory failure (circulatory sub-score of SOFA = 4) had higher plasma concentration of HBP compared to those who did not (median(IQR)ng/ml) (63.5(32–105) vs 36.4(24–59)) p<0.01), and patients developing respiratory failure (P:F ratio < 27) had higher HBP concentration than those who did not (44.4(30-109) vs 35.2(23-57) p<0.01). Discriminatory capacity was (ROC AUC (95%CI)) (0.65 (0.54–0.76)) for circulatory failure and (0.61(0.54–0.69)) for respiratory failure. In Paper II, patients developing renal failure (AKI stage 2-3) had higher plasma concentration of HBP compared to those who did not (72.1 (13.0–131.2) vs 34.5 (19.7–49.3) p<0.01). Discriminatory capacity for AKI stage 3 was 0.68(0.54-0.83) (ROC AUC (95%CI)). In the subgroup with severe sepsis, it was  0.93 (0.85–1.00). In Paper III, HBP concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage was higher in pigs subjected to injurious ventilation over 6 hours ventilation compared to controls (1144(359–1636) vs 89(33–191) p=0.02) (median(IQR)ng/ml). The median HBP concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage from healthy volunteers was 0.90(0.79– 1.01) compared to 1959(612–3306) from intubated ICU patients (p < 0.01).In Paper IV, renal clearance of HBP was 0.19 (0.08-0.33) in healthy individuals and 0.30 (0.01-1.04)  (median, IQR, ml/min)  in burn ICU patients. Clearance of HBP was higher in burn patients with increased cystatin C (0.45(0.15-2.81) vs. 0.28(0.14-0.55) p=0.04). Starting CRRT did not alter plasma concentration of HBP (p=0.14). Median HBP concentration in effluent fluid on CRRT was 9.1 ng/ml (7.8-14.4).

    Conclusions: Papers I and II:There is an association between high concentration of HBP in plasma on ICU admission and circulatory, respiratory and renal failure. For the individual patient, the predictive value of a high HBP concentration is low, with the possible exception of renal failure in septic patients. Paper III:HBP concentration in alveoli increases in pigs subjected to injurious ventilation. HBP concentration in alveoli of intubated ICU patients ventilated protectively is elevated to similar levels, a factor of approximately 1000 times higher than the concentration seen in healthy controls. Paper IV:In healthy study participants, renal clearance of HBP is low. In critically ill burn patients with impaired renal function, clearance of HBP is increased. Starting CRRT in critically ill patients does not alter plasma concentration of HBP. Still, HBP is found in the CRRT effluent fluid, and concentration does not appear to be dependent on plasma concentration.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-11 13:00 KBE301 (Lilla hörsalen), KBC-huset, Umeå
    Myrstener, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lake sedimentary archives of medieval mining and smelting in Sweden: tracking environmental changes from site to landscape2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the environmental impact of the industrial age is massive, including climate change, pollution, microplastics and habitat loss, our influence reaches further back than many recognize. In Sweden, an early and important activity with large potential impact was the mining and smelting of iron, copper and silver ores over the last ~800 years. This occurred in a mineral rich region called Bergslagen, where thousands of smelters and forges and tens of thousands of mines produced the metal riches central to the growth of both local and national economies.

    In this thesis, I and collaborators present data from >30 lakes in Bergslagen and its surroundings with the aim to identify and track both the metallurgical activities themselves and the environmental impacts associated with this early agricultural-metallurgical society. The results indicate that the metallurgical activities can be traced using multiproxy sediment analyses including charcoal particles from the blast furnace and other metallurgical activities at the sites, metals from the ores (Pb, Zn, Cu, Hg) and indicators of erosion associated with activity at the site or damming and rechanneling of streams. We show a widespread pattern of a spread of mining and smelting throughout Bergslagen from ~1250 CE, including activities at Moshyttan close to Nora, Gammalkroppa close to Filipstad, a hitherto unknown blast furnace close to Norberg, the copper mines in Falun and the mine and smelters at Gladhammar. A notable exception to this medieval pattern is evidence from Garpenberg of copper mining already from the 4thcentury BCE. This widespread, medieval expansion of metallurgy occurred during a time of few written sources, and indicates that this was a period of technological proliferation in Sweden.

    The environmental effects of these activities were wide-ranging. Pollen-inferred vegetation reconstructions (using REVEALS) indicate a minor decline in forest cover (~10–15%) starting in the 12th and 13th centuries when the first metallurgical activities were established. The loss of forest accelerated from the 16th century, likely driven by the greatly increasing metal production at this time which required substantial amounts of charcoal. No site was totally deforested, however, and inferred forest cover is between 40 and 60% at all sites associated with metallurgy, indicating that the documented efforts to produce a sustainable yield of charcoal were largely successful. The remaining forests were likely substantially changed as historical documents and maps indicate an intensive short-rotation (~60 years) forestry was common in the region, and cadastral maps from the late 17th century indicate extensiveforest areas were ‘young’. The area of cultivated land and open land plants benefitted by grazing (e.g. Poaceae) also increased indicating an expanded agriculture from the 12th century and especially from the 16th century.

    The expanded land use and forestry coincided with a decreasing spectrally-inferred lake-water total organic carbon (LW-TOC) in all studied lakes, in line with other studies, contributing to the notion that the current increase in LW-TOC observed in contemporary environmental monitoring has an underlying historical component. The decrease in LW-TOC indicated for the lakes was generally ~25% during the early land use and metallurgy but lowest values (~50% of background concentrations) were generally reached in the early–mid 20th century concurrent with increasing industrial acid deposition, which is an important driver of terrestrial carbon export. Many lakes also experienced an increase in pH (0.3–0.5 units) associated with the land use and metallurgy, but the effects are similar to the ‘cultural alkalization’ commonly observed in lakes outside of Bergslagen. One important exception is the lakes surrounding Falun where previous research had shown that the massive mining and smelting of sulfide ores contributed to a decrease in pH of ~0.5 in many near-by lakes prior to modern industrial acid deposition.

    Taken together, the most important environmental effects of the medieval and early modern mining and metallurgy were driven by the host of supporting activities that produced charcoal and food for the mines, smelters and workers at the sites. The changes in forest composition and water quality have implications for our understanding of reference conditions and the long history of human impacts even in this small corner of Europe.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-11 13:00 Sal B, Tandläkarhögskolan, 9 tr, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå
    Mellner, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Studies on the complications and prediction of mortality after hip fracture surgery2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An elderly patient who sustains a hip fracture has increased morbidity and mortality. Scandinavia presents the highest incidence annually of hip fractures worldwide. 

    Femoral neck fracture (FNF) of the hip accounts for 50% of all hip fractures in geriatric patients. Intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric femoral fracture accounts for the other 50%. Hip fracture patients are plagued with a high 1-year mortality rate ranging from 8% to 36%. Complications of hip fracture surgery after arthroplasty generally include periprosthetic fracture (PPF), periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), and dislocation. 

    Treatent regarding FNF has improved in the last decade. Arthroplasties are currently the standard treatment for displaced FNFs in the elderly. The surgical treatment of PPF can be technically demanding, with a high frequency of complications due to deep infection, dislocation and intraoperative fractures. Some prosthetic designs have been reported.

    PJIs are associated with prolonged antibiotic treatment, multiple revision surgeries, prolonged hospital stays, late aseptic loosening and poor functional outcome for the patients. A widely accepted treatment of choice for acute deep PJIs comprises debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR).

    There are currently several models for predicting mortality with the aim of identifying and optimizing patients at risk. The Sernbo score was initially developed as a guidance tool for the orthopedic surgeon in decision making in hip fracture surgery.

    Study I: This was a prospective cohort study of patients with FNFs treated with hemiarthroplasty or total arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to compare the risk for PPF between the straight, highly, polished, tapered (CPT) stem and the matte anatomic SPII stem. It was found that the CPT stem imposed a higher risk of postoperative PPF.

    Study II: This was a retrospective multicenter cohort study of patients with FNFs treated with total or hemiarthroplasty. The aim of this study was to compare the risk for PPF between the straight, highly polished, tapered Exeter stem and the matte anatomic SPII stem. It was found that Exeter stem imposed a higher risk of sustaining a PPF.

    Study III: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients treated with a primary hip arthroplasty (hemi- or total hip) for a displaced FNF. The primary aim of this study was to identify the frequency of PJI and to evaluate the success rate of DAIR. The secondary aim was to analyze the risk factors for developing PJI. It was found that DAIR had a high short- term success rate and that the need for repeated bandage changes indicates an increased risk of PJI and should prompt early surgical intervention.

    Study IV: This was a retrospective study with the aim of validating the Sernbo score for predicting mortality after hip replacement for a displaced FNF in elderly patients. The Sernbo score (based on age, habitat, walking aids and mental state) can be used to stratify patients into groups with different one-year mortality rates. The score can be calculated using information obtained during routine orthopedic patient assessments.The Sernbo score was found to identify patients at high risk of dying in the first postoperative year.

    Study V: This was a retrospective registry study. All patients who sustained a hip fracture and registered in “Rikshöft” (a Swedish database for hip fracture) were included. The aim of this study was to validate the Sernbo score for predicting mortality after hip fracture in elderly patients on a registry-based level. It was found that the Sernbo score can be used to stratify patients into groups with different one-year mortality rates.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-11 13:00 E04, R-1, Umeå
    Ekhtiari Bidhendi, Elaheh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    SOD1 prions transmit templated aggregation and fatal ALS-like disease2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons. The resulting paresis begins focally, usually in one muscle, and spreads contiguously, leading to muscle wasting, progressive paralysis and eventually death. 90% of all ALS cases are sporadic, with no genetic background (sALS), while 10% are hereditary or familial (fALS). The first identified cause of ALS was mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), which are found in 3-6% of the ALS patients. Mutations in SOD1 confer a cytotoxic gain of function on the enzyme. Cytosolic inclusions containing aggregated SOD1 in motor neurons are a hallmark of ALS, both in patients and transgenic (Tg) mice carrying mutant human SOD1s (hSOD1). These inclusions have also been reported in sporadic and familial ALS cases without SOD1 mutations, suggesting a broader role of this protein in the ALS pathology. However, the mechanism of SOD1 misfolding and aggregation, and their contribution to the disease pathogenesis, is unclear.

    Our research group has recently identified two structurally different strains of hSOD1 aggregates (denoted A and B) in the central nervous system of Tg murine models expressing full-length hSOD1 variants.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate if the SOD1 aggregation is a collateral byproduct in the process of the disease, or if it drives ALS pathogenesis. In addition, this work investigates the spreading characteristic of the disease in vivo.

    Human SOD1 A and B seeds were prepared from spinal cords of terminally ill hSOD1 Tg mice by ultracentrifugation through a density gradient. Minute amounts of the aggregate seeds were micro-inoculated into the lumbar spinal cord of asymptomatic recipient Tg mice, overexpressing G85R mutant hSOD1 (hSOD1G85R). Mice inoculated with A or B aggregates developed early-onset fatal ALS-like disease, becoming terminally ill around 100 days after inoculation. This is nearly 200 days earlier than hSOD1G85R Tg mice inoculated with a control preparation or non-inoculated mice. Concomitantly, exponentially growing templated hSOD1 aggregation developed in the recipient mice, spreading all along the neuraxis. The pathology provoked by the A and B strains differed in aggregation growth rates, disease progression rates, aggregate distribution along the neuraxis, rates of weight loss, end-stage amounts of aggregates, and histopathology.

    Next, we explored the existence of mutant hSOD1 aggregates with prion-like properties in the spinal cord of ALS patients.  To this end, aggregate seeds were prepared from the spinal cord of the autopsy material of an ALS patient carrying the hSOD1G127X truncation mutation, as well as from mice transgenic for the same mutation. The aggregates showed a strain A-like core structure. Inoculation of both the murine and human derived seeds into the lumbar spinal cord of hSOD1 expressing mice efficiently transmitted strain A aggregation, propagating rostrally throughout the neuraxis and causing premature fatal ALS-like disease. The inoculation of human or murine control seeds had no effect. The potency of the ALS patient-derived seed was exceedingly high, and the disease was initiated under conditions plausible to exist also in the human motor system. These results demonstrate for the first time, the presence of hSOD1 aggregates with prion-like properties in human ALS.

    We extended the exploration of hSOD1 prion mechanisms by inoculating another recipient mouse line, with wild-type-like stability and essentially normal SOD activity. Mice that are hemizygous for the hSOD1D90A transgene insertion do not develop ALS pathology and have normal murine lifespans (>700 days). Homozygous mice develop ALS-like disease around 400 days-of-age. Interestingly, inoculations of both strain A and B seeds into the lumbar spinal cord of hemizygous hSOD1D90A mice induced progressive hSOD1 aggregations and premature fatal ALS-like disease after around 250 and 350 days, respectively. In contrast, hemizygous hSOD1D90A mice inoculated with a mouse control seed died from senescence-related causes at ages beyond 700 days.

    Altogether, data in this thesis shows that the hSOD1 aggregate strains are ALS transmitting prions, suggesting that prion-like growth and spread of hSOD1 aggregation is the core pathogenic mechanism of SOD1-induced ALS.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-11 13:00 Europa hörsalen, Conference Center Wallenberg, Gothenburg
    Mendoza-Garcia, Patricia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). University of Gothenburg.
    Harnessing the power of model systems to investigate regulation of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase function2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), initially identified as a translocation partner in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), has been described in a number of tumors such as neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma is a neural crest derived malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, understanding regulation of ALK transcription and activity in the context of normal neural crest development might highlight abnormal events contributing to neuroblastoma initiation. The use of vertebrate model systems has been very important for studying in detail the pathways activated during neural crest development, their contribution to neuroblastoma and the identification of therapeutic targets.

    Using a yeast one-hybrid approach, we identified Odd-paired (Opa) as a potential transcription factor modulating Alk expression in the Drosophila visceral mesoderm (VM) (Paper I). Opa promotes Alk expression in the VM in combination with Bagpipe (Bap) and Biniou (Bin) through binding to the here identified AlkEB9 enhancer region.

    In a subsequent paper, we identified ALKAL1 and ALKAL2 as the activating ligands for the human ALK (Paper II). Using a combination of in vitro and cell culture assays we show that the ALKAL proteins can bind and activate human ALK. Moreover, ALKAL proteins can “super-activate” mutant ALK, highlighting a putative role for the ALKALs/ALK axis in neuroblastoma.

    The third paper shows in vivo evidence of ALKAL activity during zebrafish neural crest development (Paper III). We identified and characterized three zebrafish Alkal proteins and demonstrated their ability to activate human and zebrafish ALK family RTKs. Zebrafish Alkals activate the ALK-related receptor leukocyte tyrosine kinase (LTK) in the neural crest to promote iridophore development.

    In the last paper, we employed the DamID approach on the Drosophila VM and identified the transcription factor Kahuli (Kah) as an Alk transcriptional target in this tissue (Paper IV). We also addressed the in vivo iv Kah role during embryogenesis and showed that Kah is required for normal midgut invaginations and formation of the body wall musculature.

    Together, this thesis highlights the importance of ALK receptor signaling during development in vertebrate and invertebrate models. Further, it shows that ALKAL signaling via the activation of the ALK family receptors are involved in neural crest development.

  • Lundell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    UPPLEVELSE AV FYSISK AKTIVITET FÖR PERSONER MED KRONISKT OBSTRUKTIV LUNGSJUKDOM (KOL) EFTER FYSI0TERAPEUTISKA INSATSER I PRIMÄRVÅRDEN2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning:Introduktion: Lungrehabilitering är en evidensbaserad rekommenderad del av omhändertagandet av personer med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom (KOL). Fysioterapeutiska interventioner vid lungrehabilitering kan vara patientutbildning och träning, vilka har visat på positiva effekter. Dock saknas det studier om hur personer med KOL upplever dessa interventioner inom primärvård.Syfte: Studien syftar till att utforska upplevelse av fysisk aktivitet för personer med kroniskt obstruktiv sjukdom (KOL) efter att ha deltagit i lungrehabilitering med fysioterapeutiska interventioner i form av träning alternativt patientutbildning eller en kombination av dessa inom primärvården.Metod: Studien tillämpade bekvämlighetsurval ur pågående primärvårdsverksamhet på en vårdcentral. Deltagarna hade erhållit träning i grupp och/eller patientutbildningen ”Aktiv med KOL”. Intervjuer genomfördes med fyra kvinnor och fem män i åldrarna 67–81 år. Materialet analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys enligt Graneheim och Lundman.Resultat: I resultatet framkom fem kategorier: ny kunskap ger motivation, träningsintervention påverkar aktivitetsnivå och stimulerar följsamhet, att få till fysisk aktivitet som en del av vardagen, drivkrafter till fysisk aktivitet samt andfåddhet och smärta begränsar utförandet av fysisk aktivitet. Det övergripande temat för alla intervjuer var ”att vilja vara fysiskt aktiv trots upplevda symtom”.Slutsats: I enlighet med temat visade studien på att deltagarna hade acceptans för symtom inklusive andnöd vid fysisk aktivitet. I studien framkom också acceptans inför det som krävs av individen själv i att ta ansvar för sin fysiska aktivitetsnivå. Mer forskning behövs för att studera interventionernas effekt över tid.

  • Andersson, Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Perceptions on the use of home telemonitoring in patients with COPD2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is a growing interest in how technology can be used in order to provide efficient healthcare.

    Aim: The aim is to explore perceptions on the use of home telemonitoring in patients with COPD.                                                                                                                            

    Method: Semi-structured individual interviews were carried out with eight women and five men who were part of a larger project aiming to develop and evaluate a telemonitoring system. Participants were interviewed after having used the system for two to four months. Interview transcripts were analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The analysis resulted in the theme a transition towards increased control and security and the categories: facing enablers or barriers, increasing control over the disease, providing easy access to care and affecting technical confidence or concern. Participants expressed initial feelings of insecurity, both in practical aspects using the telemonitoring system as well as regarding their disease. The telemonitoring system could reinforce and confirm the participants´ feelings of their current state of health, and the practical management of the telemonitoring system became easier with time.    

    Conclusion: Telemonitoring can be a valuable complement to healthcare with the potential to contribute to equity in care. However, in order to improve further development and implementation of telemonitoring, several actions are needed such as improved patient education and the use of co-creation. Additional research is needed particularly in the design of user-friendly systems as well as tools to predict which patients are most likely to find the equipment useful as it may result in reduced costs and increased empowerment. 

  • Gashi, Nathalie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Måluppfyllelse, smärta och livskvalitet efter fysioterapeutiska interventioner hos patienter med långvarig smärta2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Fysioterapeutiska interventioner har effekt för att minska smärtintensitet och bidra till förbättrad kroppsmedvetenhet hos patienter med långvarig smärta. Ingen fysioterapeutisk intervention har visat sig vara mer effektiv än någon annan för att minska smärtintensitet. Inkludering av behandlingsmål och fokus på livskvalitet kan bidra till förbättrade behandlingsresultat. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att utvärdera om det finns skillnader i hur patienter med långvarig smärta självskattar måluppfyllelse, upplevd smärta och livskvalitet efter olika fysioterapeutiska interventioner. Metod: En tvärsnittsstudie med enkät som datainsamlingsmetod. Primärt utfallsmått var måluppfyllelse (GAS), sekundära utfallsmått var smärta (NRS) och livskvalitet (SF-36). Interventionsgrupperna delades in i; Basal kroppskännedom (BK), Joanne Elphinstone Movement Systems (JEMS), gymträning, stabilitetsträning och annat. Resultat: Fyrtiosex deltagare (78% kvinnor) rekryterades konsekutivt via distriktsrehabiliteringsenheterna alternativt via brev. Medelålder 53 år (SD ±16). En smärtduration på 1-5 år var vanligast förekommande i hela studiepopulationen. Ingen statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan interventionsgrupperna påvisades vid analys med Kruskal-Wallis H-test. Skattningarna visade på högst skattad måluppfyllelse hos interventionsgruppen BK. Högst skattat medianvärde av allmänna hälsouppfattningar hos interventionsgruppen gymträning. Högst skattat medianvärde av genomsnittlig smärta hos interventionsgruppen JEMS. Slutsats: Studien påvisade inga statistiska skillnader mellan interventionsgrupperna men en viss variation i utfallen. Framtida större studier vore önskvärt för att verifiera resultaten i denna studie.

  • Staaf, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Motorisk aktivitet och ledrörlighet hos barn med Cerebral Pares i Uganda2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Cerebral Pares (CP) är den vanligaste motoriska funktionsnedsättningen i högin­komstländer. Barn med CP har alltid en avvikande motorik och utvecklar ofta nedsatt passiv led­rörlighet (PROM). Kunskap om motorik och ledrörlighet hos barn med CP i låginkomstländer är begränsad.

    Syfte: Att beskriva grovmotorisk kapacitet, motoriskt utförande i var­dagsmiljö och ledrörlighet hos barn med CP i Uganda i förhållande till motorisk nivå, samt undersöka sam­band mellan passiv ledrörlighet, motorisk kapacitet och motoriskt ut­förande i vardagsmiljö.

    Metod: Studien är en deskriptiv tvärsnittsstudie med en populationsbaserad inklusion. Barnen klassificerades med Gross motor function classification system-Extended and Revised (GMFCS-E&R). Grovmotorisk kapacitet bedömdes med Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66) och motoriskt utförande bedömdes med Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-mobility (PEDI-rörelseförmåga). PROM mättes med goniometer.

    Resultat: Nittiotre barn från området Iganga-Mayuge HDSS i Uganda inkluderades, 40 flickor och 53 pojkar i åldern 2-17 år. Medianvärdet av referenspercentilen på GMFM-66 var 23 (25th–75th:3–30). Medianvärdet för skalpoäng på PEDI-rörelseförmåga var 65 poäng. Nedsatt PROM förekom i höftabduktion hos 15% av barnen, i knäextension hos 13% och i dorsalflexion hos 40%. Korrelation förekom mellan GMFCS-E&R och GMFM-66 (rs=0.894,p<.001), mellan GMFCS-E&R och PEDI-rörelseförmåga (rs=0.859,p< .001). Både GMFM-66 och PEDI-rörelseförmåga korrelerade med höftabduktion (rs=.443,p<.001)(rs=.441,p<.001) samt med knäextension (rs=.329,p=.002)(rs=.356,p<.001), men inte med dorsalflexion (rs=.108)(rs=.181).

    Slutsats: Barnens grovmotoriska kapacitet var lägre än förväntat hos barn med CP i Uganda i förhållande till ålder och motorisk nivå. Grovmotorisk kapacitet och utförande uppvisade ett högt samband, endast ett lågt samband med ledrörlighet i höftabduktion och knäextension. 

  • Frisk, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy. -.
    Lower limb muscle function in children and adolescents with Fontan circulation: A cross-sectional study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Impaired isometric muscle strength and muscle endurance in adults with Fontan circulation has previously been reported. However, the knowledge if corresponding impairment is present in children and adolescents with Fontan circulation is scarce.

    Aim: The aim was to examine the isometric muscle strength and muscle endurance of the lower limbs in children and adolescents with Fontan circulation in comparison to age and sex matched controls.

    Method: In this cross-sectional study 43 children and adolescents (6-18 years) with Fontan circulation and 43 controls were included. Isometric knee extension and plantar flexion muscle strength was assessed using dynamometry (Newton:N). Unilateral isotonic heel-lift until exhaustion was used for evaluation of lower limb muscle endurance. Analysis on group level (n=43) and for the subgroups 6-12 years (n=18) and 13-18 years (n=25) was performed.

    Results: On group level the children and adolescents with Fontan circulation had impaired isometric plantar flexion strength for the left leg compared to controls (393.9±181.1N vs. 492.5±241.6N, p=0.04). In addition, they had impaired isometric knee extension strength bilaterally (right 222.8±101.1N vs. 293.0±164.9N, p=0.02, left 220.7±102.7N vs. 279.5±159.1N, p=0.05). In contrast, lower limb muscle endurance did not differ. In subgroup analysis, the impaired isometric strength was only present in the group of adolescents.

    Conclusion: Adolescents with Fontan circulation had impaired isometric muscle strength compared to controls. However, no corresponding differences were found in children. Further, lower limb muscle endurance did not differ. This implies that the impaired isometric muscle strength may develop during adolescence whereas the impaired muscle endurance may occur later.

  • Larsson, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Synthesis of divalent sialic acid conjugates targeting coxsackievirus A24 variant2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Tete, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Immunodetection studies to characterize the FtsHi3protease in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Goa, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Högkänsliga barns anpassningsförmåga i förskolan: En studie om hur förskolepedagoger som är bekanta med begreppet högkänslighet ser på högkänsliga barns anpassningsförmåga samt hur de i sin tur bemöter de högkänsliga barnet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Högkänslighet är någonting som under senare år uppmärksammats i media. Kortfattat innebär högkänslighet att individen tar in fler intryck och bearbetar dem på ett djupare plan än andra. Högkänsliga individer kan ha lätt för att känna av sinnesstämningar och blir lätt påverkade av andras känslor. Vid för mycket stimulans blir högkänsliga individer lätt överstimulerade vilket kan leda till att de beter sig på sätt som inte alltid är socialt accepterat. De spenderar mycket tid och energi åt att bearbeta intryck och blir därav lätt utmattade och behöver tid för att skärma av. Den här studien fokuserar främst på det högkänsliga barnet och hur de anpassar sig i en förskolemiljö. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur pedagoger, upplever att högkänsliga barn anpassar sig i förskolans miljö samt hur pedagogerna bemöter behoven hos barn som är högkänsliga. För att göra studien möjlig har tre forskningsfrågor konstruerats. Studien har undersökt hur pedagoger ser på högkänslighet i sitt yrke, hur de anser att högkänsliga barn anpassar sig i förskolan samt hur de i sin tur bemöter de högkänsliga barnets behov. För att få en övergripande bild om hur pedagogerna ser på högkänslighet har Arons begrepp DOES används för att utsöndra begreppet och därefter landa i en övergripande uppfattning. Studien är baserad på åtta kvalitativa intervjuer med pedagoger som besitter medvetenhet kring begreppet högkänslighet och är yrkesverksamma inom förskolan. Varje intervju har transkriberats och analyserats genom kodning, tematisering och summering där varje enskildintervju bidragit med nya berikade infallsvinklar kring ämnet, det gick även att urskilja gemensamma infallsvinklar som tematiserades och presenterades i uppsatsens resultatkapitel. Ett framträdande resultat av studien var att högkänslighet bör uppmärksammas mer för att i sin tur tidigt kunna identifieras hos barn. Ett annat av intervjuerna framträdande resultat, var att pedagogens bemötande syntes vara betydande för huruvida det högkänsliga barnet anpassar sig i förskolans miljö. Om pedagogens bemötande gick i linje med barnets behov skulle denne ha goda förutsättningar att anpassa sig i en förskolemiljö.

  • Dobler, G.
    et al.
    Bestehorn, M.
    Antwerpen, M.
    Överby, Anna K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Complete Genome Sequence of a Low-Virulence Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Strain2016In: Microbiology Resource Announcements, ISSN 2576-098X, Vol. 4, no 5, article id e01145-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report here the complete genome sequence (GenBank accession no. KX268728) of tick-borne encephalitis strain HB171/11, isolated from an Ixodes ricinus tick from a natural focus where human neurological disease is rare. The strain shows unique characteristics in neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence.

  • Andersson, Catarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Formative assessment: and the component of adjusted teacher instruction2017In: Proceeding of the Tenth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (CERME10) / [ed] Dooley, T Gueudet, G, Dublin: DCU Institute of Education and ERME , 2017, p. 3419-3426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This theoretical paper is based on an empirical study where the framework of formative assessment by Wiliam and Thompson was used to analyze teachers' use of formative assessment in their mathematics classroom practice. The paper argues for treating a component named Adjusted Teacher Instruction (ATI) as a key strategy in complement to the five key strategies in the original framework. ATI is a significant component in formative assessment, but also particularly challenging for teachers to implement in their classroom practice. Treating ATI as a key strategy could facilitate the analysis of teachers' use of formative assessment activities and enhance the understandings about what kind of ATIs are most useful for whom under what conditions. Extended understandings about effective formative assessment activities are important in decisions about what formative assessment to include in teacher education and in-service training for teachers.

  • Svensson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Öhrman, Caroline
    Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bäckman, Stina
    Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Edvin
    Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Elin
    Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Byström, Mona
    Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lärkeryd, Adrian
    Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Myrtennäs, Kerstin
    Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Per
    Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Qu, Ping-hua
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Scholz, Holger C.
    Forsman, Mats
    Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Complete Genome Sequence of Francisella guangzhouensis Strain 08HL01032(T), Isolated from Air-Conditioning Systems in China2015In: Microbiology Resource Announcements, ISSN 2576-098X, Vol. 3, no 2, article id e00024-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the complete genome sequence of Francisella guangzhouensis strain 08HL01032(T), which consists of one chromosome (1,658,482 bp) and one plasmid ( 3,045 bp) with G+C contents of 32.0% and 28.7%, respectively.

  • Eriksson, Carolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lindfeldt, Magdalena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Studie och yrkesvägledning som ämne - möjliga effekter?2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study illustrates how study and career counsellors look at study and career guidance as possible subject in primary school with the name of ‘Future Choice ́. Just now, an investigation is being conducted in the Ministry of education regarding a development of existing study and career guidance. Survey responses from active study and career counsellors in different communities in the middle part of Sweden have been analyzed. Most of them are positive and mean they would like to teach a subject called ‘Future Choice ́. However, the responses of the survey shows that it requires both organizational and economical changes if the subject ‘Future Choice’ will become a reality.

  • Ebbare, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Att välja för framtiden: Manliga gymnasieelevers upplevelser av självdiciplin2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Självdisciplin har tidigare presenterats som en viktig förmåga vid exempelvis valprocesser, beslutsfattanden och påföljande utföranden. En relevant förmåga för studie- och yrkesvägledare då dessa funktioner inkluderas i vägledaruppdraget. Det primära syftet med den fenomenologiinspirerade studien var att belysa elevernas perspektiv och kartlägga unisona drag i manliga gymnasieelevers upplevelser av självdisciplin. De tio informanterna var i åldrarna 17–19 år och läste tredje alternativt andra året på högskoleförberedande program. De semistrukturerade intervjuerna varade i genomsnitt 35 minuter och meningskoncentrerades för fortsatt analys. Resultatet porträtterade självdisciplin som en prioritering av (1) nödvändiga ageranden för att nå (2) uppsatta mål med (3) positiva utfall. Graden av upplevd självdisciplin kan styras av (4) störande moment, (5) intressenivå, (6) vanor, (7) social påverkan och (8) främjande strategier. Fenomenet praktiseras i (9) utbildningssammanhang och upplevs ha en direkt inverkan på individers (10) framtida yrkeskarriärer. I diskussionsavsnittet behandlas resultatet i relation till vägledarnas uppdrag och tidigare forskning.

  • Dobossy, Beata
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Loggbokens roll i slöjdundervisningen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Loggboken har en etablerad tradition inom grundskoleundervisningen i Sverige där den används på många olika sätt och med olika syften. Litteraturen betonar vikten av att välja den loggboksform som främjar de önskade syftena för undervisningen. Forskningen om loggböckernas utformning och användning inom slöjdundervisningen är dock begränsad. Syftet med detta arbete är att bilda kunskap om slöjdlärares användning av loggboken som en undervisningsmetod för elever i grundskolans slöjdundervisning.

    För att besvara studiens frågeställningar har en enkätundersökning gjorts där 101 frivilliga enkätsvar samlats in digitalt från slöjdlärare med olika materialinriktning och stadieindelning. På grund av det begränsade urvalet kunde inte enkätundersökningens resultat generaliseras. Undersökningen visar dock hur loggböcker används och kan användas inom slöjdpraxis. Respondenternas uppfattningar om loggboksarbetets för- och nackdelar har kartlagts. Skillnader gällande loggbokens former och användning utifrån stadieindelning respektive materialinriktning har påvisats. Betydelsen av att anpassa arbetssättet med loggböcker till olika gruppers och enskilda elevers förutsättningar har betonats. Förslag på olika metoder för att rationalisera lärarnas loggbokskommentarer har beskrivits och diskuterats. Resultatet visar att det inte finns någon enhetlig metod som kan tillämpas oberoende av olika påverkansfaktorer för undervisningen. Loggboksarbetet behöver snarare utformas med tanke på dess syfte och med hänsyn till arbetets förutsättningar. Undersökningen visar vidare att det formativa arbetssättet med loggböcker kan effektiviseras och inte bör vara ett alltför betungande krav.

    Vidare forskning behövs för att nyansera bilden av slöjdloggböckers användning och för att få ytterligare förståelse för hur metoden kan nyttjas på bästa sätt.

  • Nyström, Joe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Jämställdhet? Hjärna det!: En studie om neurologiska och biologiska könsskillnader och dess inverkan på musikämnet och den svenska skolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines in Swedish teacher education often neglected areas to increase the understanding for the essential differences between the two sexes and furthermore: how these differences affect us from an evolutionary and biological perspective. The study investigates previous research within the area - particularly evolution, neurology, hormones and genetics that affects our behavior. It also scrutinizes theories of social construction which primarily lodged the foundation for learning within the last century and served as explanation model for how human beings turn out in life. Research is analyzed regarding how music may be perceived differently and how they may affect stereotypical choices regarding instrument and other preferences. Also, the study evaluates research regarding how the Swedish school is designed to uphold gender equality in their goals and in their national curriculum. Finally, conclusions whether the Swedish school is providing enforcement regarding scientific regulations, which the law demands from it – in this case biological factors – are being looked at.

    The results show that biological differences between males and females may influence human behavior to a greater degree than earlier predictions, and that the Swedish school is mostly founded on a social constructionist point of view. These results indirectly question the Swedish National Agency for Education’s definition of equality, which paradoxical may lead to equity. Or, equality by outcome. Which do not take biological sex differences, or even individual differences into account.

  • Strömberg, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The role of the military: A study in how civil-military cooperation is formed during CBRN incidents2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Europe is currently in a stage of increased military spending due to greater insecurity in the region. Previous studies claim that one consequence of such an increase may be greater reliance on the military in matters that had previously been handled by civil agencies. Are societies in Europe facing a change in which the military will be more involved in crisis incident response? The purpose of this study is to examine if the role of the military in a society depends on the level of militarization of the country. With the foundational question of why the military has different roles within different societies, this study focuses on civil-military cooperation (CIMIC) dealing with CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radioactive and Nuclear)-related issues, in order to investigate the possible relationship between CIMIC and militarization. Empirical data from countries with high- and low levels of militarization are collected, and thereafter analyzed and categorized into “ideal types” of CIMIC. The forms of each country are then compared and put in the context of militarization in order to answer the foundational question. This study initiates the closing of a research gap regarding examination and analysis of the relationship between militarization and CIMIC during CBRN incident response. Additionally, this study marks the initial development of a method, including new “ideal types”, that enables the comparison of CIMIC, opening new doors for analysis of civil-military cooperation.

  • Storsjö, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Med likvärdighet som uppdrag i gymnasieskolan: En kvalitativ studie om likvärdigheten ur ett rektorsperspektiv2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Guan, Jikui
    et al.
    Umapathy, Ganesh
    Yamazaki, Yasuo
    Wolfstetter, Georg
    Mendoza-Garcia, Patricia
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Instititute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pfeifer, Kathrin
    Mohammed, Ateequrrahman
    Hugosson, Fredrik
    Zhang, Hongbing
    Hsu, Amy W
    Halenbeck, Robert
    Hallberg, Bengt
    Palmer, Ruth H
    FAM150A and FAM150B are activating ligands for anaplastic lymphoma kinase2015In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 4, article id e09811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aberrant activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been described in a range of human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma (Hallberg and Palmer, 2013). Vertebrate ALK has been considered to be an orphan receptor and the identity of the ALK ligand(s) is a critical issue. Here we show that FAM150A and FAM150B are potent ligands for human ALK that bind to the extracellular domain of ALK and in addition to activation of wild-type ALK are able to drive 'superactivation' of activated ALK mutants from neuroblastoma. In conclusion, our data show that ALK is robustly activated by the FAM150A/B ligands and provide an opportunity to develop ALK-targeted therapies in situations where ALK is overexpressed/activated or mutated in the context of the full length receptor.

  • Bui, Thinh Quang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    ANALYSIS OFMERCURY THIOL COMPLEXESBY LC ICP-MS2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Efosa, Alohan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Exploring the Role of Building Modeling and Drones in Construction.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Andersson, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Rydberg, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    TRÄNING OCH UPPLEVELSE AV TRÄNINGSINFORMATION TILL MOTIONSVANA GRAVIDA KVINNOR SOM TRÄNAR PÅ HÖGINTENSIV NIVÅ2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women exercises more now than before, and many of them become pregnant. Exercise during pregnancy has many health benefits. Most advice about exercise during pregnancy is about exercise at a moderate intensity and prevention of pregnancy complications. Some women exercise more than these recommendations. There are advice and recommendations for elite athletes and research on high intensity exercise during pregnancy. Although it is unclear if these advice reaches pregnant women who exercises at a high intensity level.

    Objective: To examine if the amount of exercise changed during pregnancy for healthy women who exercised at a high intensity level, how they had perceived the information about exercise during pregnancy they had received and where they got the information from.

    Participants: Eighteen women (23–37 years) participated in the study. Criteria for inclusion were first time pregnancy, pregnant in the third trimester up until four weeks postpartum, pregnancy without complications and exercise at a high intensity at least three times a week during at least one year before and up until the pregnancy, either cardio, strength or both.

    Method: The participants answered an online survey with 23 questions. The questions were about amount of exercise during pregnancy and the information about exercise the women had received during pregnancy.

    Results: Most of the women decreased their amount of exercise during pregnancy and many of the women lacked adequate information to be able to exercise at desired level. Information about exercise came mainly from midwifes.

    Conclusion: The amount of exercise in healthy exercising pregnant women have decreased during pregnancy at the same time as the women lacked adequate information about exercise. The women received information about exercise mainly from midwifes. It cannot be said if the lack of information has affected the amount of exercise but that would be interesting to investigate further in future studies. Continued research about high intensity exercise during pregnancy is needed to be able to give adequate information to pregnant women who exercises at a high intensity.

  • Nyström, Emelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Wickbom, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Olika motivationsregleringar och fysisk aktivitet: En tvärsnittsstudie som undersöker samband mellan olika typer av motivation och fysisk aktivitetsnivå, samt jämför köns- och åldersskillnader2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Swedish population does not meet the recommendations for 150 minutes physical activity per week, even though the health benefits from being physically active is well known. Lack of motivation is a variable that contributes to this problem and results in insufficiently physical activity. This study aimed to explore differences in types of motivation and physical activity level, and also see if there is any differences between gender and age.

    Methods: Participants (n = 251) between 18-64 years of age completed an online survey, based on Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and The Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ).

    Results: ANOVA showed significant differences between type of motivation and activity level. The high-active group had more motivation to physical activity than less active groups. Women had more introjected regulation than men, while men had more identified regulation than women. People between 18-24 showed significant more extrinsic regulation.

    Conclusion: Based on the findings, it is difficult to define which motivation type that main contributes to physical activity, but there are indications that all types of motivation is important for being physically active. Future research could do a more extended investigation on a wider population to get a deeper insight.

  • Kronlund, Jesper
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Palm, Matilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Effekten av submaximala Benböj på Countermovement Jump with Arm Swing: Tvärsnittsstudie på aktiva bollidrottare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The vertical jump ability is essential for performance in many sports. The use of complex training has in previous research been shown to provide significantly improved power development. Post-Activation Potentiation (PAP) is a physical phenomenon that increases muscle tension and the force development of the working muscles which can be implemented in complex training.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether athletes in basketball, football, handball and volleyball will have a favorable increase in Countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJa) if they perform heavier squats with a load of 50% and 80% of their estimated or measured 1 repeat maximum (RM) before CMJa.

    Method: 9 men and 2 women, age 20.6±3.3 years, height 181.4±7.4 cm, 76.9±12.6 kg body mass participated in the study. All participants were active in one of the sports basket, football, handball or volleyball. The participants performed two set of squats followed by five set of two repetition CMJas with a five minutes rest in between. An infrared sensor MuscleLab was used to analyze the jump height.

    Results: The result showed no significant difference between heavy squats and jump height in CMJa over time (p=0.98).

    Conclusion: Squats with 50% and 80% of 1RM do not seem to improve jump height performance in CMJ on team sports players. The result in this study does not support the results in previous studies showing a positive effect of heavy squats on maximal jump height.

  • Karlsson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Mattsson, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Påverkar smärta i ljumskarna styrkeförhållandeti höftadduktorerna-abduktorerna?: - En korrelationsstudie på subelit-fotbollsspelare i Umeå2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Groin muscle strain is the second most common muscle strain among soccerplayers and represent up to 28% of all soccer related injuries annually. There are multiple risk factors contributing to this type of injury, the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors being one of them. Furthermore, pain has shown to decrease muscle strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors and perceived pain.

    Method

    One male subelite soccer team (n= 14) from Umeå participated inthis study.Thetwo tests that were conducted was the hand-held dynamometer and the Five-Second Squeeze Test (5SST). The hand-held dynamometer is a valid and reliable device used to examine the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors and the 5SST is a valid measurement of hip and groin function insoccer players.

    Results

    No significant correlation was found between the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors and perceived pain in the 5SST (p<0.05) in the present study.

    Conclusion

    The findings in the present study showed no significant correlation between the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors and perceived pain in the 5SST. Based on the result, 5SST cannot be used to identify the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors in soccer players. The present study emphasis the importance of larger studies with higher number of participants in the future to analyze the correlation of strength ratio and perceived pain.

  • Brännström Gullehag, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Stiglund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Fysisk aktivitet och sociala medier: - En deskriptiv enkätundersökning på vuxna kvinnor 18-60 år2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One of the primary functions of the human body is to be physically active and this is essential throughout life. Adults over 18 years of age are recommended to achieve at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week with moderate intensity spread throughout the week. Physical activity reduces the risk of premature death and cardiovascular diseases. Health-inspiring apps can improve lifestyle habits such as diet and physical activity and thus prevent diseases. Social media is a collective name for communication platforms. A connection between the use of social media and a deteriorated self-image and body image has been found.  

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to give an insight into how physical activity in adult women in the age group 18-60 years is influenced by the use of social media and health-inspired apps, and how social media affects self-image and body image in younger and older women.

    Participants: The participants were 165 women in the ages 18 to 60 years. The younger age group (18-30 years) included 114 participants. There were 19 participants in the age group 31-40 years and 32 participants in the age group 41-60 years.

    Method: A digitized questionnaire was designed to answer questions about background information, use of social media, physical activity, body image and self-image.

    Result: The study's results show that 95% of the women were physically active and 33% of these were active 4-6 hours per week. The study has shown little awareness regarding how social media can be applied to physical activity in women 18-60 years. Younger women use social media to a greater extent and experienced poorer body image and self-image compared to older women

    Conclusion: The study has answered the purpose that the use of social media and apps promote physical activity in women and that there is a difference in the use of social media, comparison and self-image between the age group 18-30 and 31-60.

  • Bakke-King, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Johansson, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Akuta skador och överbelastningsskador inom idrotten: -  En tvärsnittsstudie om följsamhet till rehabilitering, upplevelse av skada samt upplevd smärta2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Acute injuries are generally classified as more severe than overuse injuries due to the fact that they often lead to longer time away from sport. This type of classification of severity in research is not deemed appropriate since it often excludes people suffering from overuse injuries. People with overuse injuries usually stay in their sport but participates with pain, reduced function and performance.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine significant differences between adherence to rehabilitation, cognitive appraisal and perceived pain depending on if a sport injury has occurred acute or due to overuse.  

    Participants: 51 participants answered the questionnaire and 39 (14 women and 25 men) of these were included in the study. The participants were between 16 and 35 years old, suffered from a sport injury and had a rehabilitation program to treat their injury. Based on the diagnosis and description of the injury the participants were separated into two groups, either acute injury or overuse injury.

    Method: A questionnaire including two validated questionnaires, the Rehabilitation Adherence Questionnaire and Cognitive Appraisal Health Scale and an estimation of highest experienced pain were distributed among different sport teams and social media. To investigate if there were any significant differences between the two groups on the examined variables several t-tests and one ANOVA was completed.

    Results: No significant differences were found between the two groups on any of the examined variables. The category threat on the Cognitive Appraisal Health Scale were close to significance (p=0,071) and suggests that people who suffer from an acute injury found their injury to be more threatful.

    Conclusion: If a sport injury has occurred acute or because of overuse doesn't seem to be a singular determinant factor that affects adherence to rehabilitation, cognitive appraisal or perceived pain

  • Forsgren, Zebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nykonstruktion av krympbänk2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cranab is a company that specializes and manufactures cranes and grippers for forwarders, harvesters and trucks. During the manufacturing process, a shrink fit bench is used to assemble two parts together. The part that is being assembled is called a pillar. The pillar has two big components, a pipe and a splined part. These two parts is being assembled in the shrink fit bench. The current shrink fit bench is using a propane torch to heat the pipe so the splined part can be inserted. After the pipe has cooled down the part is assembled with a shrink fit. The purpose of this thesis is to draw and deliver a new concept of a new and improved shrink fit bench. The method used is to study the current shrink fit bench and draw a new one using Autodesk Inventor. The new and improved shrink fit bench is using an induction heater instead of a propane torch. The result of this work is a shrink fit bench with drawings and associated calculations and explanations of induction and comparisons on different types of induction coils.

  • Weijand, Sasha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    AUTOMATED GENDER CLASSIFICATION IN WIKIPEDIA BIOGRAPHIESa cross-lingual comparison2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The written word plays an important role in the reinforcement of gender stereotypes, especially in texts of a more formal character. Wikipedia biographies have a lot of information about famous people, but do they describe men and women with different kinds of words? This thesis aims to evaluate and explore a method for gender classification of text. In this study, two machine learning classifiers, Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), are applied to the gender classification of Wikipedia biographies in two languages, English and French. Their performance is evaluated and compared. The 500 most important words (features) are listed for each of the classifiers.A short review is given on the theoretic foundations of text classification, and a detailed description on how the datasets are built, what tools are used, and why. The datasets used are built from the first 5 paragraphs in each biography, with only nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs remaining. Feature ranking is also applied, where the top tenth of the features are kept.Performance is measured using the F0:5-score. The comparison shows that the RF and SVM classifiers' performance are close to each other, but that the classifiers perform worse on the French set than on the English. Initial performance scores range from 0.82 to 0.86, but they drop drastically when the most important features are removed from the set. A majority of the top most important features are nouns related to career and family roles, in both languages.The results show that there are indeed some semantic differences in language depending on the gender of the person described. Whether these depend on the writers' biased views, an unequal gender distribution of real world contexts, such as careers, or if these differences depend on how the datasets were built, is not clear.

  • Sundström, Jürgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    ASSESSMENT OF ROSLYN ANALYZERS FOR VISUAL STUDIO2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    So‰ware security is an ever growing subject that is gett‹ing more important as we implement more soft‰ware into our daily lives. We want to protect our personal information and keep our privacy intact. Since our so‰ftware systems are gett‹ing more complex as well, soft‰ware developers need support in the form of tools that can help them to keep the so‰ftware free from vulnerabilities. ‘There are many such tools available but the focus of this study is investigating the performance of the fairly new Roslyn analyzers for security that can be embedded into Visual Studio.Since Roslyn analyzers for security are, in the time of writing (June 2019), not subject in any released studies the goal is to lay a foundation for future work regarding these types of tools. ‘Therefore three Roslyn analyzers for security are being compared, on source code in the C# programming language provided by the SAMATE project, both with each other but also against classic static analysis tools.Four vulnerability categories from the SAMATE test suite for C# are used to investigate the analyzers, namely OS command injection (CWE-078), SQL Injection (CWE-089), XML Injection (CWE-091) and Cryptography algorithms (CWE-327).Th‘e performance of the analyzers is measured with the metrics recall, precision and F-measure which are commonly used in other similar studies and makes it possible to compare the results obtained within this study with the results ofother studies within the €field.Th‘e results of this study are inconclusive as the scope chosen turns out to be to narrow. Two of the analyzers are not generating warnings for two or more of the vulnerability categories which makes it impossible to compare them with each other in a reasonable fashion. Even comparing the analyzers with classic static analysis tools is obsolete since there is only one representative from the Roslyn analyzers which does not say much about the general performance of these analyzers.‘The study reveals the necessity of a more complete and controlled test suite to evaluate security tools on source code wri‹en in C#.i

  • Sundkvist, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    AN EVALUATION OF REAL-TIME GLOBAL ILLUMINATION TECHNIQUES2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time global illumination techniques are becoming more and more realistic as the years pass and new technologies are developed. ‘This report therefore set out to evaluate di‚fferent implementations of real-time global illumination.‘ The three implementations that are looked at are Unity, Unreal and a Voxel Cone Tracer. For Unity and Unreal we also look at their three main sett‹ings for global illumination, in order to look at the diff‚erences between methods using pre-computation and those that are run-time focused.Th‘e evaluation focuses on visual quality and render times. In order to compare render times we look at how the framerate is e‚ffected by both scaling up the number of lights and then adding motion to the light sources. When comparing the results from a visual quality perspective we made use of the perceptual quality metrices SSIM and HDR-VDP-2 with reference images rendered in Blender. For these tests we use three di‚fferent scenes with di‚fferent lighting conditions.We conclude that while the Voxel Cone Tracer faced large framerate problems when lighting was scaled up, the higher end implementations in the form of Unity and Unreal, neither had any problem keeping a high frame rate when the same tests were applied to them. Th‘e visual quality tests faced some problems as the tests using HDR-VDP-2 had problems ge‹ing any good results. Th‘e results from SSIM were more useful, showing that there still is progress to be made for all the implementations and that the ones using more pre-computations generally perform be‹tter.

  • Eriksson, Love
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    I jordbrukets periferi: En studie om utvecklingen av agrar bebyggelse i marginella miljöer från stenåldern till järnåldern i Norra Sverige2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development and establishment of agriculture in Northern Sweden has since long been believed to appear during the Late Iron Age, close to the Viking period, but recent finds from the Bronze Age in Umeå has opened up new discussion of when agriculture first emerged. Although too early to discuss where and when it developed, the material currently available on the topic allows for discussion for how it developed. By looking at sediment and soil conditions surrounding the settlements in combination with palaeoenvironments and past climate one aim was to try and search for settlement patterns in relation to agricultural potential, this was however unsuccessful. Cultivation practices were analysed using weed and wetland flora as well as agricultural indicators in pollen diagrams. Most settlements appear to focus firstly on animal husbandry and secondarily on cultivating crops, and they might have because of their coastal positioning also relied on fishing. The results confirmed previous hypothesis about the development of agriculture and cultivation practices in Northern Sweden during the Bronze and Iron Age, however, some issues remain concerning the lacking osteological material.

  • Hultin, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Jonsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Härgestam, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Reliability of instruments that measure situation awareness, team performance and task performance in a simulation setting with medical students2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e029412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The assessment of situation awareness (SA), team performance and task performance in a simulation training session requires reliable and feasible measurement techniques. The objectives of this study were to test the Airways-Breathing-Circulation-Disability-Exposure (ABCDE) checklist and the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) for inter-rater reliability, as well as the application of Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) for feasibility and internal consistency.

    DESIGN: Methodological approach.

    SETTING: Data collection during team training using full-scale simulation at a university clinical training centre. The video-recorded scenarios were rated independently by four raters.

    PARTICIPANTS: 55 medical students aged 22-40 years in their fourth year of medical studies, during the clerkship in anaesthesiology and critical care medicine, formed 23 different teams. All students answered the SAGAT questionnaires, and of these students, 24 answered the follow-up postsimulation questionnaire (PSQ). TEAM and ABCDE were scored by four professionals.

    MEASURES: The ABCDE and TEAM were tested for inter-rater reliability. The feasibility of SAGAT was tested using PSQ. SAGAT was tested for internal consistency both at an individual level (SAGAT) and a team level (Team Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (TSAGAT)).

    RESULTS: The intraclass correlation was 0.54/0.83 (single/average measurements) for TEAM and 0.55/0.83 for ABCDE. According to the PSQ, the items in SAGAT were rated as relevant to the scenario by 96% of the participants. Cronbach's alpha for SAGAT/TSAGAT for the two scenarios was 0.80/0.83 vs 0.62/0.76, and normed χ² was 1.72 vs 1.62.

    CONCLUSION: Task performance, team performance and SA could be purposefully measured, and the reliability of the measurements was good.

  • Thomas, Jacob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    A study of factors controlling pH in Arctic tundra soils2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Arctic tundra soils pH serves as an important parameter related to several biotic parameters such as, plant and microbial community composition, biodiversity, nutrient dynamics and productivity. Both abiotic and biotic factors, for instance, base saturation (BS) and plant nutrient uptake may exert a control on soil pH, while it is still unclear to what extent different factors can explain soil pH across different tundra vegetation types. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent different abiotic and biotic factors influence soil pH in the humus layer across different tundra vegetation types. To do so, eight different tundra vegetation types of which four were underlaid by permafrost (Arctic Alaska) and four with no permafrost (Arctic Sweden) were studied in detail with regard to different properties affecting soil pH. I found that BS was the main factor controlling soil pH across the different vegetation types regardless if the soil was underlain by permafrost or not. Factors, such as, ionic strength or soil water content could not explain any overall pH variation and did only significantly affect the heath soils. Further, the uptake of the most abundant base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+) from meadow and heath vegetation revealed a high difference between plant functional groups within the same vegetation types. The higher dominance of slow growing woody species in heath vegetation which had a lower uptake corresponded with a lower BC content (especially (Ca2+), pH and BS in the humus soil relative the meadow meanwhile the content of K+ was more than three times higher in heath. Overall, this study suggests that the degree of neutralization (base saturation) regulates pH either via the influence of bedrock and hydrogeochemistry and/or via plant traits that affects the uptake and turnover of base cations. 

  • Cederberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    The Anatomy of a Paywall: Insights and recommendations on charging for online news2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of digitalization and recent technological innovation, news consumers have increasingly moved to online spaces to access news. As changes in consumer behavior appear even within these new contexts, several legacy news publishers that are often linked with high journalistic quality and trust are struggling to monetize on their content. In such struggles, an increasingly common sight over the last couple of years is the implementation of paywalls; digital boundaries that require consumers to pay before accessing content. This work applies a design thinking approach, utilizing a mixed-method methodology by interviews, surveys, workshops, prototyping, and testing, to explore the users’ experiences of navigating this landscape, while at the same time taking the perspective of legacy news publishers into account. The first part of the report entails the identification of a set of design challenges in this regard. The second part focuses on one such challenge—the onboarding experience of paying readership online—and explores possible solutions where the experience of the users and the business of legacy news publishers can merge. It argues that, while still inducing some degree of irritation in the users, a registration-first model with multiple choices to pay is likely to create new opportunities for news publishers as they seek to charge for content online, while at the same time being appealing to a larger audience. However, the role of the relationship between the individual reader and the content itself was identified as absolutely central in increasing the value perception of news online.

  • Österlund, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Contestability and Legitimacy: The Case for Contestability as Political Legitimization in the Presence of Problematic Contracts2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I discuss the merits of contestability in contrast with consent as a meansof legitimizing the state. Particularly I have been concerned with problematiccontracts: Contracts with undefined obligations and their implications on thelegitimacy of voluntarist consent. Through my argumentation, I have shown thatvoluntarist consent to political mandates has a hard time legitimizing politicalauthority in the presence of problematic contracts – and instead, that legitimationbased on the the ability to contest decisions may provide a better degree of politicallegitimacy. Contestability can seemingly also be combined with elements of voluntaristconsent to further cement the legitimacy of decisions.

  • Persiani, Michele
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Unsupervised Inference of Object Affordance from Text Corpora2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affordances denote actions that can be performed in the presence of different objects, or possibility of action in an environment. In robotic systems, affordances and actions may suffer from poor semantic generalization capabilities due to the high amount of required hand-crafted specifications. To alleviate this issue, we propose a method to mine for object-action pairs in free text corpora, successively training and evaluating different prediction models of affordance based on word embeddings.

  • López Balbontin, Natacha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Filosofin som livsform i kristen språkdräkt: Det platonska arvet hos kyrkofädernaAugustinus och Origenes2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Stattin, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Concurrent validity and reliability of a time of-flight camera on measuring muscle’s mechanical properties during sprint running2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancements in 3D data gathering have made it possible to measure the distance to an object at different time stamps through the use of time-of-flight cameras. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of a time-of-flight camera on different mechanical sprint properties of the muscle.

    Fifteen male football players performed four 30m maximal sprint bouts which was simultaneously recorded with a time-of-flight camera and 1080 sprint device. By using an exponential function on the collected positional- and velocity-time data from both the devices, following variables were derived and analyzed: Maximal velocity (nmax), time constant (t), theoretical maximal force (F0), theoretical maximal velocity (V0), peak power output (Pmax), F-V mechanical profile (Sfv) and decrease in ratio of force (Drf).

    The results showed strong correlation in vmax along with a fairly small standard error of estimate (SEE) (r = 0,817, SEE = 0,27 m/s), while t displayed moderate correlation and relatively high SEE (r = 0,620, SEE = 0,12 s). Furthermore, moderate mean bias (>5%) were revealed for most of the variables, except for vmax and V0. The within-sessions reliability using Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) ranged from excellent to poor with Pmax displaying excellent reliability (ICC = 0,91, SEM = 72W), while vmax demonstrated moderate reliability (ICC = 0,61, SEM = 0,26 m/s) and t poor(ICC = 0,44, SEM = 0,11 s).

    In conclusion, these findings showed that in its current state, the time-of-flight camera is not a reliable or valid device in estimating different mechanical properties of the muscle during sprint running using Samozino et al’s computations. Further development is needed.

  • Offerman, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Can internal and external load measures via Polar Vantage V predict training status in trained individuals?: - A prospective study during a normal and a heavy load training week.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To evaluate the information provided by Polar Vantage V, a new generation of heart rate monitor/watch (HRM-watch) to the user, regarding the acute:chronic load ratio (ACLR), based onthe external and internal load measures and examine the measures against psychological and physiological measures before and during a threshold test with VO2max testing.

    Method A five-week prospective study with results and data collected during and after four normal training weeks and during a fifth week with a very high training load. The results from HRM-watchwere then evaluated against the results from physiological and psychological tests. Eight endurance runners were recruited.

    Results Differences in ACLR against the differences in HRR show a R2 value of 0.77 (p<0.05). ACLR signicantly increased with an average of 0.33 from 0.93 to 1.26 (p=0.003, 95 % CI= 0.17 {0.49). Differences in ACLR against dierences in total mood disturbance (TMD) from POMS showin regression analyses a R2value of 0.67 (p=0.05). No significant difference was noted in neither resting HRV (p=0.3, 95% CI= -22.2 { 8.5) or standing HRV (p=0.15, 95% CI= - 4.15 { 20.8).

    Conclusion Based on the result of the present study it can be concluded that training status, well-being and present mood state can be predicted fairly good with the information from the internal and external load measurements from the Polar Vantage V. However, the power of present exploratory study was low due to a low number of included participants. Future research with greater number of participants and an improved study design is needed to verify these interesting findings.

  • Tentoni, Lorrayne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Intimate Partner Violence on Immigrant Women in Sweden and Portugal: (An analysis of the application of the article 59, I of the Istanbul Convention in both Countries)2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis