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  • Public defence: 2017-06-16 13:00 Hörsal E, humansithuset, Umeå
    Lundmark, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Religiositet och coping: religionspsykologiska studier av kristna med cancer2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the interdependence of religiosity and a life situation changed by cancer, focusing especially on the coping process. This implies analyses of a number of identified expressions of religiosity regarding prerequisites and functions in the coping process. In order to synthesize the results from the studies, the aim has been operationalized into three comprehensive research questions that were posed to each of the empirical studies of the thesis: 1) What are the functions of the analysed expressions of religiosity during the coping process? 2) What prerequisites for the influence of religiosity on the coping process can be identified?  3) How is religiosity influenced by a life situation changed by cancer? The empirical studies are presented in four separate articles. Each of the studies has its own specific research questions that are related to the comprehensive research questions. The method was qualitative and explorative. The research material was gathered with qualitative interviews of 20 Swedish informants of varying gender, age, congregational affiliation and diagnosis. The informants defined themselves as Christians and practised their Christian faith and had or had had a cancer disease. There is longitudinal data from half of the group. The theoretical framework was based on the coping theories developed by Kenneth Pargament and Ruard Ganzevoort and complemented by, among other things, the object-relations theoretical concept of transitional objects.

    The results show that most of the analysed expressions of religiosity function as a preserving coping method but some of them also function as a reconstructing coping method. In some cases, the expressions of religiosity also function as methods of attributing control, either to God or to the individual. Two main groups of prerequisites for the expressions of religiosity were identified in conjunction with the coping process: contextual and psychological. The former could in turn be divided into religious and medical contexts; the latter into several different kinds, such as perceptual psychological factors, the need to create and use transitional objects, locus of control, and personality traits. Reconstructing coping methods imply varying degrees of changes in the informants’ religiosity, both regarding the analysed expression of religiosity and other expressions of religiosity. In addition to gaining insights into the interdependence of religion and coping for Christians living with cancer, the study contributes to the development of the psychology of religion coping theory by adding to the theory: 1) suggested specifications to the current concepts of Pargament’s coping theory; 2) the concept coping tool; 3) the distinction between functional and relational regarding the concepts of coping mechanism and coping method; 4) the coping mechanism attributing, and 5) the distinction between unilateral and bilateral deferring coping styles. The results indicate that the coping process can include a creative element in the form of a search for, or creation of, functional coping methods and/or coping tools which enhance the functionality of the coping process.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-15 10:00 KB3A9, KBC, Umeå
    Maier, Dominique Béatrice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Combining limnology and paleolimnology: a refined understanding of environmental sediment signal formation in a varved lake2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paleoclimatic archives, such as lake sediments, extend our understanding of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem dynamics in relation to climate variability beyond the period covered by instrumental data. In this context, annually laminated (i.e. varved) lake sediments are particularly valuable, as they offer high temporal resolution and undisturbed sediment. However, in order to extract reliable climate information from lake sediments, a careful calibration with the processes controlling the sediment formation is essential. This thesis combines limnological and paleolimnological data from a varved, boreal lake in northern Sweden (Nylandssjön, Nordingrå) collected over different time scales. The main aim of the thesis is to gain a more refined insight into which processes are reflected in the sedimentary diatom assemblage. More specifically, sequential sediment trap records were coupled with physical, chemical and biological lake monitoring and environmental data for comparison and validation with the varved sediment record. The main result of the thesis is that timing, succession and inter-annual variability of key limnological and environmental processes (e.g. ice-cover duration, lake over-turn or catchment run-off) are of major importance for the sedimentary diatom assemblage formation. Continuous monitoring of physico-chemical parameters over three consecutive years identified varying winter air temperature as a major factor influencing in-lake processes and hence the diatom record. Timing of lake over-turn and catchment run-off seemed to be the driver for monospecific diatom blooms, which are reflected in the annual sediment signal. The integrated annual diatom signal in the sediment was dominated by spring or autumn blooms, resulting either from a Cyclotella glomerata dominated spring bloom after relatively warm winter conditions, or a Asterionella formosa dominated autumn bloom after relatively cold winter conditions. The analysis of the diatom stratigraphy in the varved sediment over several decades corroborated the importance of climatic variables (late winter air temperature and NAO), even though the variables with the most predictive power for variance in the diatom data were associated with sediment composition (C, N and sedimentation rate) and pollution (Pb and Cu). Overall, the analysis of the drivers of inter-annual and decadal diatom assemblage fluctuations emphasizes the importance of winter air temperature, indicating that weather extremes may be disproportionately represented in annual sediment records in contrast to nutrient concentrations or sedimentation rate.

  • Harström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Elever i matematiksvårigheter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När man talar om begreppet matematiksvårigheter så finns det många olika tolkningar. Syftetmed denna studie är att få mer kunskap om lärares syn på matematiksvårigheter, samt vilkaresurser som används i undervisningen för elever i matematiksvårigheter i årskurserna 4–6.I denna studie undersöks lärares olika föreställningar och erfarenheter avmatematiksvårigheter genom kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer. Tillsammans medförfattares olika tolkningar av begreppet matematiksvårigheter söks en djupare förståelse förundervisning av elever i matematiksvårigheter. Resultatet visar hur lärare upptäcker elever imatematiksvårigheter samt hur undervisningen anpassas på bästa sätt för dessa elever. Trotslärares olika förutsättningar så tycks de göra ett gediget arbete för att erbjuda elever rätt stöd iundervisningen.

  • Edlund, Viktoria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Blomberg, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Formativ bedömning i matematiki årskurs 4-6: En studie om matematiklärares användning av formativbedömning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning visar att formativ bedömning har en positiv effekt på elevers lärande ochutveckling, men på grund av att den svenska skolan blir mer resultatinriktad blir det svårare attanvända formativ bedömning. Syftet med vårt examensarbete är att ta reda på hur matematiklärarearbetar med formativ bedömning i undervisningen. Med hjälp av 72 enkätsvar och intervjuer med 5lärare har vi fått svar på våra frågor. Frågorna handlar om hur formativ bedömning används imatematikundervisningen i årskurs 4–6, och hur lärare motiveras genom self-determination theorytill att arbeta, eller inte arbeta, med formativ bedömning. Resultatet visar att formativ bedömninganvänds i stor utsträckning i matematikundervisningen, och att lärare drivs framför allt av en yttremotivation för att arbeta med formativ bedömning. Många olika arbetssätt för formativ bedömninganvänds av lärare i matematikundervisningen. Muntlig feedback är det arbetssätt som används av flestinformanter.

  • Helmerius, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Att räkna på rätt sätt: En studie om lärares erfarenheter av att arbeta med standardalgoritm och skriftlighuvudräkning i årskurserna 4-62017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När elever i årskurserna F-3 och 4-6 gör beräkningar i addition och subtraktion, är detframförallt två metoder de använder sig av, standardalgoritm, även kallad uppställning, ochskriftlig huvudräkning. Enligt forskning finns det både för- och nackdelar med bådametoderna. I detta arbete kommer lärares tankar och upplevelser av att arbeta med dessa tvåmetoder att lyftas och synliggöras genom kvalitativa intervjuer. Syftet med arbetet är dels attundersöka för- och nackdelar med de två beräkningsmetoderna men också vilken kunskapssynsom ligger till grund för lärarnas lektioner i matematik. Arbetet har också synliggjort hur välförmågorna inom matematik utvecklas av de två olika metoderna. Det resultat som framkomvisade att lärarna helst arbetar med standardalgoritm och inte låter förmågorna påverka derasundervisning i lika stor utsträckning som de 4 F:en. Det visade sig dessutom att den skriftligahuvudräkningen i större utsträckning utvecklade de fem matematiska förmågorna.

  • Nordlund, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Att förstå biologins betydelse för samhället: En lärares arbete med samhällsfrågor i biologiklassrummet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällsfrågor med naturvetenskapligt innehåll, SNI, är en undervisningsform med en tvärvetenskaplig inriktning som visat sig vara utvecklande och motiverande för elever. Ämnesplanerna i de naturvetenskapliga ämnena i den svenska gymnasieskolan framhåller också ett innehåll som är i linje med SNI. Samtidigt uttrycker lärare osäkerhet kring implementeringen av sådan undervisning. Syftet med denna studie är att ge insyn i hur lärare arbetar med att integrera SNI i sin biologiundervisning. Denna fallstudie ger en inblick i hur en lärare planerar för hur biologin kan sättas i ett samhällsperspektiv och hur det sedan realiseras i klassrummet. En lärare och fem elever har intervjuats och svaren analyserats genom en innehållsanalys. Lärarens arbete i klassrummet skildras genom fem elevers beskrivningar av det. Resultaten visade att fullständig SNI-undervisning är svår att genomföra i biologin och att alternativ samhällsanknytning både är önskvärd och mer förekommande.

  • Ekström, André
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Grejen med grammatikkunskaper: En studie av synen på grammatikkunskaper i styrdokument och läromedel för gymnasieskolans svenskämne2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the view of grammar knowledge that appears in the steering documents and six textbooks for Swedish in upper secondary school. The research was carried out with the research questions “What view of grammar knowledge appears in the curriculum?”, and “What view of grammar knowledge appears in the textbooks?”. The study was conducted with a qualitative content analysis of applicable parts of the curriculum and relevant meta-texts and student activities from the textbooks. The results show that the steering documents and the textbooks to varying degrees differ with respect to various aspects of the concept view of grammar knowledge, compared with each other and within the different groups of materials. Moreover, the results illustrate that the steering documents, with their general expressions, allow a broader view of grammar than the view which each individual textbook offers. 

  • Glassér, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Entreprenörskapets, Företagandets och det Innovativa tänkandets Läroplansdidaktik (EFID) i Gymnasieskolan: En fallstudie av Sveagymnasium2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2010 fick Sverige en ny skollag för grund- och gymnasieskolan och år 2011 kom dess relaterade nya läroplaner. I styrdokumenten för gymnasieskolan formuleras och betonas starkt ”entreprenörskap, företagande och innovation”, som politiska utbildnings- och lärandemål, vilka ska genomsyra alla utbildningsår och ämnen. Syftet med denna studie är att bredda och fördjupa forskningen och kunskapen om hur läroplanen för gymnasiet 2011 transformerats och realiserats, vad avser utbildning och didaktiska praktiker i ”entreprenörskap, företagande och innovativt tänkande” (EFI Lgy 2011). Med en abduktiv, och hermeneutisk forskningsdesign och fallbeskrivning som metodansats kartläggs, analyseras och beskrivs hur skolledningen och kollegiet på den utvalda skolan ”Sveagymnasium”, och dess erbjudna treåriga högskoleförberedande utbildningsprogram, har transformerat och realiserat läroplanens direktiv om utbildning och lärande i EFI Lgy2011 under perioden 2012–2016. Studiens huvudsakliga bidrag är fallbeskrivningen av Entreprenörskapets, Företagandets och det Innovativa tänkandets läroplansdidaktik (EFID) på Sveagymnasium. Fallbeskrivningen förmedlar förståelsen av en skola där det föreligger formell och fastställd samordning mellan lärandemålen i entreprenörskap, företagande och innovativt tänkande (EFI Lgy 2011), relaterad schemabunden- och ämnesintegrerad undervisning, bedömning och betygssättning. Detta är den empiriska grunden för deninitierade teoribildningen och forskningen om Entreprenörskapets, Företagandets och det Innovativa tänkandets Didaktik (EFID Lgy 2011). Fallstudien kan även användas som pedagogiskt redskap i utbildande och skolutvecklande syfte. Studien avser främst att bidra till den empiriska, läroplansdidaktiska, forskningen och dess teoribildning med en sociokulturell och redskapsmedierad betraktelselins

  • Public defence: 2017-06-13 13:00 N360, Umeå
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Utanför experimentlådan: kunskapsproduktion, tid och materia i förskolans naturvetenskapsundervisning2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute knowledge on conditions for science teaching in preschool. While Swedish preschool practices commonly build on children’s subjective experiences, scientific knowledge production is often associated with objectivity and detachedness. Seen from that perspective, tensions may occur when the knowledge cultures of preschool and science meet, as when science teaching is implemented in preschool. This thesis seeks to explore issues that are crucial for teachers to negotiate when they implement science teaching in preschool.

    The thesis includes five articles that build on empirical data in the form of teachers’ talk (interviews, focus group discussion, project meetings) and observation data from preschool practice. The data analyses draw on various theoretical perspectives, including communities of practice and feminist critique of science as well as theoretical concepts connected to framing and agential realism.

    The main result is that it is crucial, to teachers’ implementation of science teaching in preschool, that science content is open to children’s contributions. Further, the results show that teachers integrate several different forms of knowledge production when working with science content in practice. For example, observations and systematic investigations are combined with imagination and children’s bodily experiences. This goes against the presumed tensions between the knowledge cultures of preschool and science. However, tensions between the knowledge cultures are indicated by teachers’ unwillingness to interfere with children’s investigative processes or ideas about science content by relating children’s ideas to scientific explanatory models. Seen from a teacher’s perspective, it appears to be unproblematic to leave children’s ideas about science content unresolved, compared to leaving children’s ideas about social relations and other content unresolved.

    Drawing on the results, I discuss teaching beyond the limited material and temporal dimensions of the science box, which emerges as a metaphor when teachers describe a way of teaching that they are not comfortable with. Further, I suggest that the concept working theories, which addresses children’s tentative ideas about relations in their surrounding world, be introduced in preschool science teaching, to ease the perceived conflict between children’s ideas about science and scientific explanatory models.

  • Aronsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Jonsson, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Jacqueline, Wester
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Värdet av ett innovationscenteri offentlig sektor: En explorativ fallstudie av Arbetsförmedlingens digitalainnovationscenter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The conditions for organizations today has fundamentally changed as a result of

    digitalization and digital innovation processes has become a central part in an organization's

    continued work to handle changing requirements and needs. Arbetsförmedlingens

    Innovationscenter is a new department that has been established as a part of the authority’s

    journey towards digital renewal with the ambition to visualize digital opportunity for

    tomorrow's labour market. A knowledge gap has been identified concerning how a public

    organization through an innovation initiative manage the continuously increasing

    expectations for them to work innovative and digitally. To close this gap an explorative case

    study is conducted to study the role Innovationscenter plays in Arbetsförmedlingens work

    with digital innovation. A conceptual framework is then created based on research on value

    creation and innovation processes which is then used to study the empiricism. The study

    shows that Innovationscenters role is mainly one of external monitoring, organisational

    development and marketing. The conclusion is that Innovationscenter spends more time

    inspiring than innovating and argumentation is presented concerning the importance of

    creating the relevant structures to go from inspiration to innovation.

  • Rundqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Jonsson, Olivia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    I huvudet på en digital entreprenör: Faktorer som spelar in för att lyckas med en startup2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Pettersson, Ellen
    et al.
    Moström, Erica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Är det problem eleverna löser?: En innehållsanalys av läroböcker i matematik2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Matematikundervisningen styrs till stor del av läroböcker och för att säkerställa kvalitén hosdem krävs en kritisk inställning. Studiens syfte var att öka kunskapen om hur läroböcker imatematik utvecklar elevers problemlösningsförmåga. Med hjälp av tidigare forskningutformades kriterier för begreppet problemlösningsuppgift och utifrån dessa kriteriergenomfördes en innehållsanalys av läroböcker för att undersöka problemlösningsuppgiftersförekomst, placering och utformning. Vi fann att problemlösningsuppgifternas förekomstvarierade mellan olika läroböcker. Vår studie visade också att de flestaproblemlösningsuppgifter är placerade så att alla elever får räkna dem, ett resultat sommotsäger viss forskning. Tidigare forskning har påpekat att det bör ske en progression iutformningen av problemlösningsuppgifterna från årskurs fyra till sex, men vi fann ingatecken på att det sker i de undersökta läroböckerna. Vi jämförde även om och hurlärarhandledningarna ger stöd till problemlösningsundervisning. De undersöktalärarhandledningarna har till stor del liknande beskrivningar och undervisningsförslaggällande problemlösning.

  • Hökén, Jimmy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Lönnbäck, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Användning av digitala verktyg i matematikundervisning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Datorer, mobiltelefoner och iPads är exempel på digitala verktyg som används dagligen i samhället och skolan är inget undantag. Tidigare forskning beskriver att attityder, normer och upplevelser hos den enskilda läraren har stor betydelse för valet av digitala verktyg. Syftet med vår studie är att öka kunskapen om förutsättningarna för lärarens användning av digitala verktyg i matematikundervisningen i årskurs 4-6. Vilka yttre och inre faktorer upplever läraren existerar? Hur beskriver och motiverar läraren sina val mellan traditionella eller digitala verktyg? För att svara på frågorna använde vi intervjuer som konstruerades med utgångspunkt från Theory of planned behavior. Vår studie indikerar att det är fler yttre än inre faktorer som påverkar lärarens användning av digitala verktyg, varav fler underlättar än hindrar användandet. Resultaten är komplexa och svårtolkade men vi drar slutsatsen att framtiden för användning av digitala verktyg i matematikundervisningen ser ljus ut.

  • Vikström, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Social kompetens - en bristvara?: Fritidshemmets betydelse för elevernas utveckling av den sociala kompetensen2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att utöka kunskapen kring den så kallade Generationen Y eller Millennium generationen och hur deras förhållningssätt samt egenskaper påverkar deras barns sociala kompetens, elever som idag finns i våra fritidshem. Fokus i arbetet ligger på uppfattningen kring elevernas sociala kompetens och hur mycket de t.ex. påverkas av sociala medier samt hur personal vid fritidsverksamheten arbetar med social kompetens och elevernas självkänsla. Studien grundar sig på kvalitativa intervjuer med fritidspedagoger.Resultatet visar tendenser till att barn/elever har en större självständighet men samtidigt en lägre självkänsla. Studien visar också att fritidshemsverksamheten är medveten om detta och arbetar målmedvetet för att förstärka elevernas självkänsla och deras sociala kompetens. En viktig slutsats är att fritidshemmet spelar en stor betydelse för utvecklingen inom dessa områden.

  • Tidlund, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lundin, Jonathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    "Var tycker ni det är bäst att man byggermed lego?": En studie om begreppet meningsfull fritid inom fritidshemmets verksamhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete syftar till att utöka förståelsen för vad begreppet meningsfull fritid kan innebära i fritidshemmets verksamhet. Vi valde detta område därför att vi upplever en oklarhet i hur begreppet meningsfull fritid kan tolkas och realiseras i fritidshemmets verksamhet. Materialet som ligger till grund för resultatet består av kvalitativa intervjuer med sex verksamma fritidslärare i tre kommuner i Sverige. Resultatet är analyserat med tematiskanalys och strukturerat utifrån de teman som synliggjordes i informanternas utsagor. Av studien framkommer att fritidslärarna anser att barns inflytande tenderar att påverka om de uppfattar sin tid på fritidshemmet som meningsfull. Vidare framkommer det att begreppet meningsfull fritid inte har någon entydig betydelse och kan därför tolkas olika vilket medför att fritidslärare också arbetar med detta på olika sätt. Alla informanter som vi intervjuat är dock överens om att en meningsfull fritid bör utformas utifrån barnens behov och intressen. Resultatet visar även att ramfaktorer begränsar och påverkar barnens möjlighet till en meningsfull fritid. Utifrån vårt arbete drar vi slutsatsen att barns inflytande och delaktighet är betydelsefullt för att de ska uppleva sin tid inom fritidshemmet som meningsfull.

  • Bäckström, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Johansson, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Sker det något lärande i fritidshem?: En intervjustudie med vårdnadshavare angående deras synpå lärandet i fritidshemmet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examensarbete redovisas och diskuteras en intervjustudie med vårdnadshavare angående lärandet som sker på fritidshemmet. Studiens syfte är att fördjupa kunskapen om vårdnadshavarnas uppfattning av fritidshemmet, vad de tror att fritidshemmet har för uppdrag, vad och hur barnen lär sig på fritidshemmet och om vårdnadshavarna anser sig se skillnad på lärandet mellan skolan och fritidshemmet. Vi har genomfört åtta intervjuer med vårdnadshavare från olika delar av en kommun i norra delen av Sverige. Intervjuerna har genomförts i form av kvalitativa intervjuer och de svar vi har fått ligger till grund för vårt resultat. Resultatet av studien visar att vårdnadshavarna upplever att barnen lär sig många olika saker på fritidshemmet, som den sociala läran och vardagslärande samt att lärandet sker i stor variation. Informanterna i studien beskriver att det ser en skillnad mellan lärande i skola och på fritidshemmet. De menar att på fritidshemmet lär sig barnen på sina egna villkor, informellt lärande och under skoltid sker mer formellt lärande.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-15 13:30 Samhällsvetarhuset, Hörsal C
    Hästbacka, Rasmus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Europeiska företagsråd i svenska koncerner: en rättsvetenskaplig studie av EWC-regleringens betydelse för arbetstagarinflytande och styrning av multinationella koncerner2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject matter of this licentiate thesis concerns the two EU directives on European Works Councils. The analysis is confined to the Swedish implementation of these directives into Swedish law. The thesis defines the term "EWC regulation" to encompass both the Swedish levels of EWC legislation and the regulation of EWCs by EWC agreements themselves.

    The overall objective is to gain an increased understanding of the function of EWC regulation. This requires a normative analysis of both EU and national law as well as an empirical study of the application. The thesis includes a number of agreements on EWCs based on the Swedish legislation and their application in corporations based in Sweden. Three multinational corporations in the health care sector, financial sector and metal industry have been selected.

    The focus lies on the regulation's practical significance for worker influence and corporate governance. A distinction is made between rules on worker participation (in law) and worker influence (in practice). As a point of departure the author combines the theory of reflexive law with concepts borrowed from the fields of management studies and economic history. The methods used consist of doctrinal legal interpretation and semi-structured interviews.

    The key findings run as follows. The EWC regulation generates worker influence by enhancing the knowledge and unity of worker representatives. The regulation facilitate corporate governance by strengthening the legitimacy of management, improving the decision basis and channels of communication. The worker influence is, under proper circumstances, strong in issues such as reorganizations, reassignments, health and safety. The influence is weaker in situations of relocation, outsourcing across national borders and other forms of regime shopping.

  • Lindahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Granqvist, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Läxor i matematikundervisningen förmotivation och progression: En kvalitativ studie om läxans roll och hur de följs upp av lärarepå mellanstadiet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Public defence: 2017-06-12 09:00 Hörsal D, Umeå
    D'Ascenzi, Flavio
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Atrial function and loading conditions in athletes2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensive training is associated with hemodynamic changes that typically induce an enlargement of cardiac chamber. Despite LA dilatation in athletes has been interpreted as a benign adaptation, little evidence is available. The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate that LA size changes in response to alterations in loading conditions and to analyse atrial myocardial function in athletes through the application of novel echocardiographic techniques.

    We found that top-level athletes exhibit a dynamic morphological and functional LA remodelling, induced by training, with an increase in reservoir and conduit volumes, but stable active volume. Training causes an increase in biatrial volumes which is accompanied by normal filling pressures and stiffness. These changes in atrial morphology are not associated with respective electrical changes. Extending the evidence from adult athletes to children, we found that training-induced atrial remodelling can occur in the early phases of the sports career and is associated with a preserved biatrial function. Finally, in a meta-analysis study of the available evidence we demonstrated that atrial function and size are not affected by aging.

    In conclusions, athlete’s heart is characterized by a physiological biatrial enlargement. This adaptation occurs in close association with LV cavity enlargement, is dynamic and reversible. This increase in biatrial size is not intrinsically an expression of atrial dysfunction. Indeed, in athletes the atria are characterized by a preserved reservoir function, normal myocardial stiffness, and dynamic changes in response to different loading conditions.

  • Hernandez, Alison
    et al.
    Ruano, Ana Lorena
    Marchal, Bruno
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Flores, Walter
    Engaging with complexity to improve the health of indigenous people: a call for the use of systems thinking to tackle health inequity2017In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 400 million indigenous people worldwide represent a wealth of linguistic and cultural diversity, as well as traditional knowledge and sustainable practices that are invaluable resources for human development. However, indigenous people remain on the margins of society in high, middle and low-income countries, and they bear a disproportionate burden of poverty, disease, and mortality compared to the general population. These inequalities have persisted, and in some countries have even worsened, despite the overall improvements in health indicators in relation to the 15-year push to meet the Millennium Development Goals. As we enter the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) era, there is growing consensus that efforts to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and promote sustainable development should be guided by the moral imperative to improve equity. To achieve this, we need to move beyond the reductionist tendency to frame indigenous health as a problem of poor health indicators to be solved through targeted service delivery tactics and move towards holistic, integrated approaches that address the causes of inequalities both inside and outside the health sector. To meet the challenge of engaging with the conditions underlying inequalities and promoting transformational change, equity-oriented research and practice in the field of indigenous health requires: engaging power, context-adapted strategies to improve service delivery, and mobilizing networks of collective action. The application of systems thinking approaches offers a pathway for the evolution of equity-oriented research and practice in collaborative, politically informed and mutually enhancing efforts to understand and transform the systems that generate and reproduce inequities in indigenous health. These approaches hold the potential to strengthen practice through the development of more nuanced, context-sensitive strategies for redressing power imbalances, reshaping the service delivery environment and fostering the dynamics of collective action for political reform.

  • Yen, Amy Ming-Fang
    et al.
    Wu, Wendy Yi-Ying
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Tabar, Laszlo
    Duffy, Stephen W.
    Smith, Robert A.
    Chen, Hsiu-Hsi
    Initiators and promoters for the occurrence of screen-detected breast cancer and the progression to clinically-detected interval breast cancer2017In: Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0917-5040, E-ISSN 1349-9092, Vol. 27, no 3, 98-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The risk factors responsible for breast cancer have been well documented, but the roles of risk factors as initiators, causing the occurrence of screen-detected breast cancer, or promoters, responsible for the progression of the screen-detected to the clinically-detected breast cancer, have been scarcely evaluated.

    Methods: We used data from women in a cohort in Kopparberg (Dalarna), Sweden between 1977 and 2010. Conventional risk factors, breast density, and tumor-specific biomarkers are superimposed to the temporal course of the natural history of the disease.

    Results: The results show that older age at first full-term pregnancy, dense breast, and a family history of breast cancer increased the risk of entering the preclinical screen-detectable phase of breast cancer by 23%, 41%, and 89%, respectively. Overweight/obesity (body mass index >= 25 kg/m(2)) was a significant initiator (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-1.33), but was inversely associated with the role of promoter (aRR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.51-0.82). Dense breast (aRR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.12 -1.91), triple-negative (aRR 2.07; 95% CI, 1.37-3.15), and Ki-67 positivity (aRR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.19-2.30) were statistically significant promoters. When the molecular biomarkers were considered collectively as one classification, the basal-like subtype was the most influential subtype on promoters (aRR 4.24; 95% CI, 2.56-7.02) compared with the Luminal A subtype.

    Discussion: We ascertained state-dependent covariates of initiators and promoters to classify the risk of the two-step progression of breast cancer. The results of the current study are useful for individually-tailored screening and personalized clinical surveillance of patients with breast cancer that was detected at an early stage.

  • Doublet, Vincent
    et al.
    Poeschl, Yvonne
    Gogol-Doering, Andreas
    Alaux, Cedric
    Annoscia, Desiderato
    Aurori, Christian
    Barribeau, Seth M.
    Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C.
    Brown, Mark J. F.
    Bull, James C.
    Flenniken, Michelle L.
    Galbraith, David A.
    Genersch, Elke
    Gisder, Sebastian
    Grosse, Ivo
    Holt, Holly L.
    Hultmark, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Lattorff, H. Michael G.
    Le Conte, Yves
    Manfredini, Fabio
    McMahon, Dino P.
    Moritz, Robin F. A.
    Nazzi, Francesco
    Nino, Elina L.
    Nowick, Katja
    van Rij, Ronald P.
    Paxton, Robert J.
    Grozinger, Christina M.
    Unity in defence: honeybee workers exhibit conserved molecular responses to diverse pathogens2017In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 18, 207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organisms typically face infection by diverse pathogens, and hosts are thought to have developed specific responses to each type of pathogen they encounter. The advent of transcriptomics now makes it possible to test this hypothesis and compare host gene expression responses to multiple pathogens at a genome-wide scale. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of multiple published and new transcriptomes using a newly developed bioinformatics approach that filters genes based on their expression profile across datasets. Thereby, we identified common and unique molecular responses of a model host species, the honey bee (Apis mellifera), to its major pathogens and parasites: the Microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, RNA viruses, and the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, which transmits viruses.

    Results: We identified a common suite of genes and conserved molecular pathways that respond to all investigated pathogens, a result that suggests a commonality in response mechanisms to diverse pathogens. We found that genes differentially expressed after infection exhibit a higher evolutionary rate than non-differentially expressed genes. Using our new bioinformatics approach, we unveiled additional pathogen-specific responses of honey bees; we found that apoptosis appeared to be an important response following microsporidian infection, while genes from the immune signalling pathways, Toll and Imd, were differentially expressed after Varroa/virus infection. Finally, we applied our bioinformatics approach and generated a gene co-expression network to identify highly connected (hub) genes that may represent important mediators and regulators of anti-pathogen responses.

    Conclusions: Our meta-analysis generated a comprehensive overview of the host metabolic and other biological processes that mediate interactions between insects and their pathogens. We identified key host genes and pathways that respond to phylogenetically diverse pathogens, representing an important source for future functional studies as well as offering new routes to identify or generate pathogen resilient honey bee stocks. The statistical and bioinformatics approaches that were developed for this study are broadly applicable to synthesize information across transcriptomic datasets. These approaches will likely have utility in addressing a variety of biological questions.

  • Poveda, Alaitz
    et al.
    Chen, Yan
    Brändström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Building 91, Skåne University Hospital, SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden.
    Kurbasic, Azra
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Building 91, Skåne University Hospital, SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    The heritable basis of gene-environment interactions in cardiometabolic traits2017In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 60, no 3, 442-452 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis Little is known about the heritable basis of gene-environment interactions in humans. We therefore screened multiple cardiometabolic traits to assess the probability that they are influenced by genotype-environment interactions.

    Methods Fourteen established environmental risk exposures and 11 cardiometabolic traits were analysed in the VIKING study, a cohort of 16,430 Swedish adults from 1682 extended pedigrees with available detailed genealogical, phenotypic and demographic information, using a maximum likelihood variance decomposition method in Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines software.

    Results All cardiometabolic traits had statistically significant heritability estimates, with narrow-sense heritabilities (h (2)) ranging from 24% to 47%. Genotype-environment interactions were detected for age and sex (for the majority of traits), physical activity (for triacylglycerols, 2 h glucose and diastolic BP), smoking (for weight), alcohol intake (for weight, BMI and 2 h glucose) and diet pattern (for weight, BMI, glycaemic traits and systolic BP). Genotype-age interactions for weight and systolic BP, genotype-sex interactions for BMI and triacylglycerols and genotype-alcohol intake interactions for weight remained significant after multiple test correction.

    Conclusion/hypothesis Age, sex and alcohol intake are likely to be major modifiers of genetic effects for a range of cardiometabolic traits. This information may prove valuable for studies that seek to identify specific loci that modify the effects of lifestyle in cardiometabolic disease.

  • Justice, Anne E
    et al.
    Winkler, Thomas W
    Feitosa, Mary F
    Graff, Misa
    Fisher, Virginia A
    Young, Kristin
    Barata, Llilda
    Deng, Xuan
    Czajkowski, Jacek
    Hadley, David
    Ngwa, Julius S
    Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S
    Chu, Audrey Y
    Heard-Costa, Nancy L
    Lim, Elise
    Perez, Jeremiah
    Eicher, John D
    Kutalik, Zoltan
    Xue, Luting
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Wu, Joseph
    Qi, Qibin
    Ahmad, Shafqat
    Alfred, Tamuno
    Amin, Najaf
    Bielak, Lawrence F
    Bonnefond, Amelie
    Bragg, Jennifer
    Cadby, Gemma
    Chittani, Martina
    Coggeshall, Scott
    Corre, Tanguy
    Direk, Nese
    Eriksson, Joel
    Fischer, Krista
    Gorski, Mathias
    Neergaard Harder, Marie
    Horikoshi, Momoko
    Huang, Tao
    Huffman, Jennifer E
    Jackson, Anne U
    Justesen, Johanne Marie
    Kanoni, Stavroula
    Kinnunen, Leena
    Kleber, Marcus E
    Komulainen, Pirjo
    Kumari, Meena
    Lim, Unhee
    Luan, Jian'an
    Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka
    Mangino, Massimo
    Manichaikul, Ani
    Marten, Jonathan
    Middelberg, Rita P S
    Muller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Navarro, Pau
    Perusse, Louis
    Pervjakova, Natalia
    Sarti, Cinzia
    Smith, Albert Vernon
    Smith, Jennifer A
    Stancakova, Alena
    Strawbridge, Rona J
    Stringham, Heather M
    Sung, Yun Ju
    Tanaka, Toshiko
    Teumer, Alexander
    Trompet, Stella
    van der Laan, Sander W
    van der Most, Peter J
    Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V
    Vedantam, Sailaja L
    Verweij, Niek
    Vink, Jacqueline M
    Vitart, Veronique
    Wu, Ying
    Yengo, Loic
    Zhang, Weihua
    Hua Zhao, Jing
    Zimmermann, Martina E
    Zubair, Niha
    Abecasis, Goncalo R
    Adair, Linda S
    Afaq, Saima
    Afzal, Uzma
    Bakker, Stephan J L
    Bartz, Traci M
    Beilby, John
    Bergman, Richard N
    Bergmann, Sven
    Biffar, Reiner
    Blangero, John
    Boerwinkle, Eric
    Bonnycastle, Lori L
    Bottinger, Erwin
    Braga, Daniele
    Buckley, Brendan M
    Buyske, Steve
    Campbell, Harry
    Chambers, John C
    Collins, Francis S
    Curran, Joanne E
    de Borst, Gert J
    de Craen, Anton J M
    de Geus, Eco J C
    Dedoussis, George
    Delgado, Graciela E
    den Ruijter, Hester M
    Eiriksdottir, Gudny
    Eriksson, Anna L
    Esko, Tonu
    Faul, Jessica D
    Ford, Ian
    Forrester, Terrence
    Gertow, Karl
    Gigante, Bruna
    Glorioso, Nicola
    Gong, Jian
    Grallert, Harald
    Grammer, Tanja B
    Grarup, Niels
    Haitjema, Saskia
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Hamsten, Anders
    Hansen, Torben
    Harris, Tamara B
    Hartman, Catharina A
    Hassinen, Maija
    Hastie, Nicholas D
    Heath, Andrew C
    Hernandez, Dena
    Hindorff, Lucia
    Hocking, Lynne J
    Hollensted, Mette
    Holmen, Oddgeir L
    Homuth, Georg
    Jan Hottenga, Jouke
    Huang, Jie
    Hung, Joseph
    Hutri-Kahonen, Nina
    Ingelsson, Erik
    James, Alan L
    Jansson, John-Olov
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Jhun, Min A
    Jorgensen, Marit E
    Juonala, Markus
    Kahonen, Mika
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Koistinen, Heikki A
    Kolcic, Ivana
    Kolovou, Genovefa
    Kooperberg, Charles
    Kramer, Bernhard K
    Kuusisto, Johanna
    Kvaloy, Kirsti
    Lakka, Timo A
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Launer, Lenore J
    Leander, Karin
    Lee, Nanette R
    Lind, Lars
    Lindgren, Cecilia M
    Linneberg, Allan
    Lobbens, Stephane
    Loh, Marie
    Lorentzon, Mattias
    Luben, Robert
    Lubke, Gitta
    Ludolph-Donislawski, Anja
    Lupoli, Sara
    Madden, Pamela A F
    Mannikko, Reija
    Marques-Vidal, Pedro
    Martin, Nicholas G
    McKenzie, Colin A
    McKnight, Barbara
    Mellstrom, Dan
    Menni, Cristina
    Montgomery, Grant W
    Musk, Aw Bill
    Narisu, Narisu
    Nauck, Matthias
    Nolte, Ilja M
    Oldehinkel, Albertine J
    Olden, Matthias
    Ong, Ken K
    Padmanabhan, Sandosh
    Peyser, Patricia A
    Pisinger, Charlotta
    Porteous, David J
    Raitakari, Olli T
    Rankinen, Tuomo
    Rao, D C
    Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J
    Rawal, Rajesh
    Rice, Treva
    Ridker, Paul M
    Rose, Lynda M
    Bien, Stephanie A
    Rudan, Igor
    Sanna, Serena
    Sarzynski, Mark A
    Sattar, Naveed
    Savonen, Kai
    Schlessinger, David
    Scholtens, Salome
    Schurmann, Claudia
    Scott, Robert A
    Sennblad, Bengt
    Siemelink, Marten A
    Silbernagel, Gunther
    Slagboom, P Eline
    Snieder, Harold
    Staessen, Jan A
    Stott, David J
    Swertz, Morris A
    Swift, Amy J
    Taylor, Kent D
    Tayo, Bamidele O
    Thorand, Barbara
    Thuillier, Dorothee
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Uitterlinden, Andre G
    Vandenput, Liesbeth
    Vohl, Marie-Claude
    Volzke, Henry
    Vonk, Judith M
    Waeber, Gerard
    Waldenberger, Melanie
    Westendorp, R G J
    Wild, Sarah
    Willemsen, Gonneke
    Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R
    Wong, Andrew
    Wright, Alan F
    Zhao, Wei
    Zillikens, M Carola
    Baldassarre, Damiano
    Balkau, Beverley
    Bandinelli, Stefania
    Boger, Carsten A
    Boomsma, Dorret I
    Bouchard, Claude
    Bruinenberg, Marcel
    Chasman, Daniel I
    Chen, Yii-DerIda
    Chines, Peter S
    Cooper, Richard S
    Cucca, Francesco
    Cusi, Daniele
    Faire, Ulf de
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Franks, Paul W
    Froguel, Philippe
    Gordon-Larsen, Penny
    Grabe, Hans-Jorgen
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Haiman, Christopher A
    Hayward, Caroline
    Hveem, Kristian
    Johnson, Andrew D
    Wouter Jukema, J
    Kardia, Sharon L R
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Kooner, Jaspal S
    Kuh, Diana
    Laakso, Markku
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Marchand, Loic Le
    Marz, Winfried
    McCarthy, Mark I
    Metspalu, Andres
    Morris, Andrew P
    Ohlsson, Claes
    Palmer, Lyle J
    Pasterkamp, Gerard
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Peters, Annette
    Peters, Ulrike
    Polasek, Ozren
    Psaty, Bruce M
    Qi, Lu
    Rauramaa, Rainer
    Smith, Blair H
    Sorensen, Thorkild I A
    Strauch, Konstantin
    Tiemeier, Henning
    Tremoli, Elena
    van der Harst, Pim
    Vestergaard, Henrik
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Wareham, Nicholas J
    Weir, David R
    Whitfield, John B
    Wilson, James F
    Tyrrell, Jessica
    Frayling, Timothy M
    Barroso, Ines
    Boehnke, Michael
    Deloukas, Panagiotis
    Fox, Caroline S
    Hirschhorn, Joel N
    Hunter, David J
    Spector, Tim D
    Strachan, David P
    van Duijn, Cornelia M
    Heid, Iris M
    Mohlke, Karen L
    Marchini, Jonathan
    Loos, Ruth J F
    Kilpelainen, Tuomas O
    Liu, Ching-Ti
    Borecki, Ingrid B
    North, Kari E
    Cupples, L Adrienne
    Genome-wide meta-analysis of 241,258 adults accounting for smoking behaviour identifies novel loci for obesity traits2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 14977-14977 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for environmental exposures, like smoking, potentially impacting the overall trait variance when investigating the genetic contribution to obesity-related traits. Here, we use GWAS data from 51,080 current smokers and 190,178 nonsmokers (87% European descent) to identify loci influencing BMI and central adiposity, measured as waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio both adjusted for BMI. We identify 23 novel genetic loci, and 9 loci with convincing evidence of gene-smoking interaction (GxSMK) on obesity-related traits. We show consistent direction of effect for all identified loci and significance for 18 novel and for 5 interaction loci in an independent study sample. These loci highlight novel biological functions, including response to oxidative stress, addictive behaviour, and regulatory functions emphasizing the importance of accounting for environment in genetic analyses. Our results suggest that tobacco smoking may alter the genetic susceptibility to overall adiposity and body fat distribution.

  • Roy, Ananya
    et al.
    Attarha, Sanaz
    Weishaupt, Holger
    Edqvist, Per-Henrik
    Swartling, Fredrik J.
    Bergqvist, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Siebzehnrubl, Florian A.
    Smits, Anja
    Ponten, Fredrik
    Tchougounova, Elena
    Serglycin as a potential biomarker for glioma: association of serglycin expression, extent of mast cell recruitment and glioblastoma progression2017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 15, 24815-24827 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serglycin is an intracellular proteoglycan with a unique ability to adopt highly divergent structures by glycosylation with variable types of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) when expressed by different cell types. Serglycin is overexpressed in aggressive cancers suggesting its protumorigenic role. In this study, we explored the expression of serglycin in human glioma and its correlation with survival and immune cell infiltration. We demonstrate that serglycin is expressed in glioma and that increased expression predicts poor survival of patients. Analysis of serglycin expression in a large cohort of low-and high-grade human glioma samples reveals that its expression is grade dependent and is positively correlated with mast cell (MC) infiltration. Moreover, serglycin expression in patient-derived glioma cells is significantly increased upon MC co-culture. This is also accompanied by increased expression of CXCL12, CXCL10, as well as markers of cancer progression, including CD44, ZEB1 and vimentin. In conclusion, these findings indicate the importance of infiltrating MCs in glioma by modulating signaling cascades involving serglycin, CD44 and ZEB1. The present investigation reveals serglycin as a potential prognostic marker for glioma and demonstrates an association with the extent of MC recruitment and glioma progression, uncovering potential future therapeutic opportunities for patients.

  • Kable, Mary E.
    et al.
    Hansen, Lori M.
    Styer, Cathy M.
    Deck, Samuel L.
    Rakhimova, Olena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Shevtsova, Anna
    Eaton, Kathryn A.
    Martin, Miriam E.
    Gideonsson, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Borén, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Solnick, Jay V.
    Host Determinants of Expression of the Helicobacter pylori BabA Adhesin2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 46499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expression of the Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen binding adhesin A (BabA) is more common in strains isolated from patients with peptic ulcer disease or gastric cancer, rather than asymptomatic colonization. Here we used mouse models to examine host determinants that affect H. pylori BabA expression. BabA expression was lost by phase variation as frequently in WT mice as in RAG2-/- mice that do not have functional B or T cells, and in MyD88-/-, TLR2-/- and TLR4-/- mice that are defective in toll like receptor signaling. The presence of other bacteria had no effect on BabA expression as shown by infection of germ free mice. Moreover, loss of BabA expression was not dependent on Le(b) expression or the capacity of BabA to bind Leb. Surprisingly, gender was the host determinant most associated with loss of BabA expression, which was maintained to a greater extent in male mice and was associated with greater bacterial load. These results suggest the possibility that loss of BabA expression is not driven by adaptive immunity or toll-like receptor signaling, and that BabA may have other, unrecognized functions in addition to serving as an adhesin that binds Le(b).

  • Hatje, Ann-Katrin
    Comments on the Session Crime, Morality and Social Stigmatization2000In: Sex, State and Society: Comparative Perspectives on the History of Sexuality / [ed] Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Nyheternas tryckeri KB i Umeå , 2000, 403-407 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Lennerhed, Lena
    Sex Reform in the 1930's and 1940's: RFSU, the Swedish Association for Sex Education2000In: Sex, State and Society: Comparative Perspectives on the History of Sexuality / [ed] Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Nyheternas tryckeri KB i Umeå , 2000, 403-407 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 09:00 Bergasalen, byggnad 27, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå
    Brynolfsson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Applications of statistical methods in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, offers a vast range of imaging methods that can be employed in the characterization of tumors. MRI is generally used in a qualitative way, where radiologists interpret the images for e.g. diagnosis, follow ups, or assessment of treatment response. In the past decade, there has been an increasing interest for quantitative imaging, which give repeatable measurements of the anatomy. Quantitative imaging allows for objective analysis of the images, which are grounded in physical properties of the underlying tissues. The aim of this thesis was to improve quantitative measurements of Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and the texture analysis of diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI).

    DCE-MRI measures perfusion, which is the delivery of blood, oxygen and nutrients to the tissues. The exam involves continuously imaging the region of interest, e.g. a tumor, while injecting a contrast agent (CA) in the blood stream. By analyzing how fast and how much CA leaks out into the tissues, the cell density and the permeability of the capillaries can be estimated. Tumors often have an irregular and broken vasculature, and DCE-MRI can aid in tumor grading or treatment assessment. One step is crucial when performing DCE-MRI analysis, the quantification of CA in the tissue. The CA concentration is difficult to measure accurately due to uncertainties in the imaging, properties of the CA, and physiology of the patient. Paper I, the possibility of using two aspects of the MRI data, phase and magnitude, for improved CA quantification, is explored. We found that the combination of phase and magnitude information improved the CA quantification in regions with high CA concentration, and was more advantageous for high field strength scanners.

    DW-MRI measures the diffusion of water in and between cells, which reflects the cell density and structure of the tissue. The structure of a tumor can give insights into the prognosis of the disease. Tumors are heterogeneous, both genetically and in the distribution of cells, and tumors with high intratumoral heterogeneity have poorer prognosis. This heterogeneity can be measured using texture analysis. In 1973, Haralick et al. presented a texture analysis method using a gray level co-occurrence matrix, GLCM, to gauge the spatial distribution of gray levels in the image. This method of assessing texture in images has been successfully applied in many areas of research, from satellite images to medical applications. Texture analysis in treatment outcome assessment is studied in Paper II, where we showed that texture can distinguish between groups of patients with different survival times, in images acquired prior to treatment start.

    However, this type of texture analysis is not inherently quantitative in the way it is calculated today. This was studied in Paper III, where we investigated how texture features were affected by five parameters related to image acquisition and pre-processing. We found that the texture feature values were dependent on the choice of these imaging and preprocessing parameters. In Paper IV, a novel method for calculating Haralick texture features was presented, which makes the texture features asymptotically invariant to the size of the GLCM. This method allows for comparison of textures between images that have been analyzed in different ways.

    In conclusion, the work in this thesis has been aimed at improving quantitative analysis of tumors using MRI and texture analysis.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 10:00 Hörsal D, Samhällsvetarhuset
    Fjellfeldt, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Choice as governance in community mental health services2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, the Act on Freedom of Choice Systems (SFS 2008:962) wasestablished in Sweden, and this enabled municipalities to organise services aschoice models. This thesis describes and analyses the implementation of afreedom of choice system within community mental health services. Daycentre services were in focus, and a case study was conducted of a majormunicipality that sought to be a “world-class city” in regard to citizens’ choice.The experiences of policy makers, managers, professionals, and participantswere explored in interviews, and documents on a national, municipal, and citydistrict level, as well as homepages of providers of community mental healthservices, were all part of the study and were analysed using content-analysismethods.

    The results showed that the freedom of choice system aimed for two objectives– improvements at the individual level and financial efficiency. In practice,financial efficiency was experienced as the main objective. Increased varietyof services was aimed for by the competitive model, but such variety was notobserved. Instead, services tended to be more similar than specialised.Concerning new providers, they were characterised as committedprofessionals running companies with strained economies. Participantsaffected by the reform expressed anxiety and worries due to theunpredictability and uncertainty embedded in the competitive choice model.Choice within the system concerned where to go, whereas participantsemphasised a wish to be able to influence the choice aspects of who carriedout the service and how much time to attend the services.

    The conclusion was that the freedom of choice system was implemented as atechnology of governance to increase financial efficiency of services.Individual choice was not experienced as increased in any aspect except forthe choice of where to go. Instead, freedom of choice actually appeared todecrease due to standardisation and hierarchical structures. Aspects that werefound to be relevant when designing freedom of choice systems aiming toincrease individual freedom of choice were to address predictability andcontinuity, to address sustainable financial premises, to analyse the predictedimpact of administrative systems that are to be used, and to avoid the use of“hidden goals” in the policy-making process.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 10:00 Stora hörsalen, KBE303, KBC-huset, Umeå
    Li, Yaozong
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Understanding molecular mechanisms of protein tyrosine kinases by molecular dynamics and free energy calculations2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Insulin receptor kinase (IRK) and Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor kinase (IGF-1RK) are two important members in the large class of tyrosine kinase receptors. They play pivotalroles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, andtransformation. Their dysfunctions are linked to diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and many cancers.Although their regulatory mechanisms have been widely studied experimentally, the atomisticdetails are still poorly understood, especially for the influences caused by activation loop (A-loop)phosphorylation.Methods: Molecular dynamics (MD) and alchemical free energy simulations are carried out tounderstand mechanisms underlying the kinase proteins regulation and their thermodynamic basis.To capture a full picture about the entire kinase catalytic cycle, different functional steps areconsidered, i.e., conformational transition, substrate binding, phosphoryl transfer and productrelease. The effects of the A-loop phosphorylation on protein’s dynamics, structure, stability, andfree energy landscape are examined by various analysis methods, including principle componentanalysis (PCA), motion projection, dynamical network analysis and free energy perturbation.Results: The main findings are: 1) A-loop phosphorylation shifts the kinase conformationalpopulation to the active one by changing the electrostatic environments in the kinase apo form, 2)allosterically fine-tunes the orientation of the catalytic residues mediated by the >C-helix in thereactant and product binding states, and 3) thermodynamically favors the kinase catalysis presentedby a catalytic-cycle-mimic free energy landscape. An integrated view on the roles of A-loopphosphorylation in kinase allostery is developed by incorporating kinase’s dynamics, structuralinteractions, thermodynamics and free energy landscape. In addition, new soft-core potentials(Gaussian soft-core) and protocols are developed to conduct accurate and efficient alchemical freeenergy calculations.Conclusions: The entire catalytic cycle is examined by MD and free energy calculations andcomprehensive analyses are conducted. The findings from the studied kinases are general and canbe implemented to the other members in IRK family or even to more non-homologous familiesbecause of the conservation of the characteristic residues between their A-loop and >C-helix. Inaddition, the Gaussian soft-core potentials provide a new tool to perform alchemical free energycalculations in an efficient way.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 10:15 Hörsal F, Humanisthuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå
    Boström, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Formativ bedömning: en enkel match eller en svår utmaning? Effekter av en kompetensutvecklingssatsning på lärarnas praktik och på elevernas prestationer i matematik2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research reviews have shown that the use of formative assessment in classroom practice can substantially improve student achievement. However, a strong research base about how to support teachers’ implementation of such formative classroom practice is lacking. In this thesis, I investigate the effects of a comprehensive professional development programme (PDP) in formative assessment on teachers’ classroom practice and students’ achievement in mathematics. In addition, I identify reasons for the changes made in the teachers’ formative classroom practice. Fourteen randomly selected year - 7 mathematics teachers participated in the PDP. The teachers’ formative classroom practice before and after attending the programme was analysed and described, and reasons for their change in practice were explored. The effect of the changes in formative classroom practice on students’ mathematics achievement was examined using pre- and post-tests administered to both the intervention group and a control group. A mixed methods approach with classroom observations, teacher interviews, questionnaires and student achievement tests in mathematics was used in the studies included in the thesis.

    The results show that the teachers used aspects of formative assessment in their classroom practice before the PDP, but that there was plenty of room for development towards a more effective formative assessment practice. Several possibilities for developing the practice were identified. After the PDP the teachers believed in the idea of formative assessment and were motivated to make changes towards a more formative classroom practice. The teachers included new formative assessment activities in their classroom practice, but in different ways and to different degrees. The characteristics of these changes were identified, and also the characteristics of the PDP that the teachers found to be influential for their development of the formative classroom practice. Results also show that the teachers’ motivational beliefs held after the PDP was an explanatory factor for their changes in practice. However, the formative assessment practice the teachers implemented did not have a significant effect on their students’ achievement compared to the control group. In addition, there was no correlation between the number of formative assessment activities implemented by the teachers and their students’ achievement gains. Reasons for these non-effects on student achievement, and for the teachers’ degree and type of implementation of formative assessment in the classroom practice, are discussed in the thesis.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 13:00 Lilla Hörsalen, KBC huset, Umeå
    Klaus, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Land use effects on greenhouse gas emissions from boreal inland waters2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic activities perturb the global carbon and nitrogen cycle with large implications for the earth’s climate. Land use activities deliver excess carbon and nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems. In the boreal biome, this is mainly due to forestry and atmospheric deposition. Yet, impacts of these anthropogenically mediated inputs of carbon and nitrogen on the processing and emissions of greenhouse gases from recipient streams and lakes are largely unknown. Understanding the ecosystem-scale response of aquatic greenhouse gas cycling to land use activities is critical to better predict anthropogenic effects on the global climate system and design more efficient climate change mitigation measures.

    This thesis assesses the effects of forest clearcutting and nitrate enrichment on greenhouse gas emissions from boreal inland waters. It also advances methods to quantify sources and sinks of these emissions. Short-term clearcut and nitrate enrichment effects were assessed using two whole-ecosystem experiments, carried out over four years in nine headwater catchments in boreal Sweden. In these experiments, I measured or modeled air-water fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), combining concentration, ebullition and gas-transfer velocity measurements in groundwater, streams and lakes. By using Swedish national monitoring data, I also assessed broad-scale effects of forest clearcutting by relating CO2 concentrations in 439 forest lakes to the areal proportion of catchment forest clearcuts. To improve quantifications of CO2 sources and sinks in lakes, I analyzed time series of oxygen concentrations and water temperature in five lakes on conditions under which whole-lake metabolism estimates can be inferred from oxygen dynamics given the perturbing influence of atmospheric exchange, mixing and internal waves.

    The experiments revealed that aquatic greenhouse gas emissions did not respond to nitrate addition or forest clearcutting. Importantly, riparian zones likely buffered clearcut-induced increases in groundwater CO2 and CH4 concentrations. Experimental results were confirmed by monitoring data showing no relationship between CO2 patterns across Swedish lakes and clearcut gradients. Yet, conclusions on internal vs. external CO2 controls largely depended on whether spatially or temporally resolved data was used. Partitioning CO2 sources and sinks in lakes using time series of oxygen was greatly challenged by physical transport and mixing processes.

    Conclusively, ongoing land use activities in the boreal zone are unlikely to have major effect on headwater greenhouse gas emissions. Yet, system- and scale specific effects cannot be excluded. To reveal these effects, there is a large need of improved methods and design of monitoring programs that account for the large spatial and temporal variability in greenhouse gas dynamics and its controls by abiotic and biotic factors.

  • Högdal, Nathalie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Surfplattor som lärandeverktyg i förskolan: Förskollärarnas användning av surfplattor inom förskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Surfplattor har kommit in i förskolans verksamhet och med dom farhågor om hur bra det verkligen kan vara. Denna studie fokuserar på hur förskollärare arbetar med surfplattor i förskolan och hur barns lärande påverkas av dess användande enligt dom. Tidigare forskning visar att barn kan hantera surfplattor lättare än en dator och att de blir bättre på problemlösning och dessutom utvecklas deras kreativa sida av surfplattor. Det finns dock risker med att använda surfplattor för yngre barn så som allt för mycket stillasittande och stress. När förskollärare dokumenterar med surfplattor kan deras möjlighet till reflektion påverkas negativt eftersom tekniken gör att detta arbete kan göras så snabbt. Denna studie är baserad på kvalitativa intervjuer med sex förskollärare på två olika förskolor i norra Sverige. Resultatet visade att dokumentation är vad surfplattan används till mest på båda förskolorna. Barnen i sin tur spelar mest spel som förskollärarna har laddat ner. Alla sex förskollärare som deltog i studien underströk att det fanns innehåll i läroplanen som motiverade användning av surfplattor. Det visade sig också att förskollärarna på båda förskolorna ville arbeta mer med surfplattor speciellt tillsammans med barnen på ett pedagogiskt sätt. Det intryck jag fick utifrån denna studie är att surfplattor förenklar för förskollärarna med deras arbetsuppgifter och med mer kunskap om hur surfplattor kan användas kan de bli ett utmärkt verktyg att använda tillsammans med barnen.

  • Levin, Hjördis
    Christian Women and the Morality Debate in Sweden from the Turn of the Century Until the Beginning of the 1920's2000In: Sex, State and Society: Comparative Perspectives on the History of Sexuality / [ed] Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Nyheternas tryckeri KB i Umeå , 2000, 375-389 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Liliequist, Jonas
    Cross-Dressing and the Perception of Female Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern Sweden2000In: Sex, State and Society: Comparative Perspectives on the History of Sexuality / [ed] Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Nyheternas tryckeri KB i Umeå , 2000, 337-352 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Alter, Georg
    Comments on the Session Prostitution and Exploitation of Sexuality2000In: Sex, State and Society: Comparative Perspectives on the History of Sexuality / [ed] Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Nyheternas tryckeri KB i Umeå , 2000, 329-334 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Fager, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    Split vision: en studie av designprocessen som lärprocess i ett utbildningssammanhang2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is based on visual art didactics and the school subject visual art, but focuses on the design process in a college design education. The aim is to explore and understand the innovative and exploratory learning processes and the importance of visual mediation in this context. With a phenomenological approach the study focuses on design students experiences in this context. These experiences are made subject on reflection and formulation, through phenomenology and visual semiotics. The empirical materal of the study consists of interviews and sketches and images collected from student workbooks.

    The results of the study show that the design process does not occur by itself among the students. It must be learned. The need for learning probably also applies to the processes of creative learning in other fields. Furthermore, the results indicate that the process is best understood and appropriated in pragmatic learning situations.

    Three kinds of visual representations of the basic aims of process work are identified in the analysis: images for communicative purposes, images for reference and discussion purposes and images as a support for one's own thinking.

    From the perspective of visual art dididactics the results of the study reveals four important dimensions, wich may be of relevance as a fundamental didactic structure in efforts to promote understanding of a practice-oriented learning in context of visual mediations. Together with a split vision guiding principles, existing premises and action-based learning processes may provide a supporting unit in this structure. Based on the results, it seems important that pupils and students have the opportunity to learn to master and appropriate the creative process in order to use it in an investigative purpose. Considering the structure of the process, a didactic model can facilitate learning and at the same time provide a valuable complement to the subjective approach of inspiration in the aestetic learning process.

    In summary, the results of the study indicate that the fields of design and didactics are related to each other and that the field of design training can bring knowledge and experience of exploration and creative learning processes to the school subject visual art.

  • Gurney, Peter
    Observing Working-Class Sexuality in England in the 1930s2000In: Sex, State and Society: Comparative Perspectives on the History of Sexuality / [ed] Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Nyheternas tryckeri KB i Umeå , 2000, 301-328 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • McLaren, Angus
    The Female Blackmailer: Men, Money and Sexual Reputations, 1740-19402000In: Sex, State and Society: Comparative Perspectives on the History of Sexuality / [ed] Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Nyheternas tryckeri KB i Umeå , 2000, 285-300 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Lindmark, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Cleaning Away the Bad Stuff: A Comparative Analysis of the Use of Cleaning for Getting Rid of Monstrosity in Dead Until Dark and Shakespeare's Landlord2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    This essay is analysing the presence of cleaning and grooming in the novels Shakespeare’s Landlord and Dead Until Dark, both by Charlaine Harris. Against the backdrop of teratology, the essay demonstrates how cleaning and grooming are means for the female protagonists Lily and Sookie to get rid of their inner and outer monstrosities. Their respective monstrosity is defined against the definition of monstrosity by David J. Skal in Monster Theory Seven Theses and the need to get rid of monstrosity is discussed against the theories of Julia Kristeva and Mary Douglas.

  • Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Göthe, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Internet of Things, bekvämt, men säkert?: En studie kring säkerhetsaspekter inom IoT2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The new technological phenomenon Internet of Things (IoT) is steadily growing and has become more incorporated into our daily lives. The technology can be found in a variety of applications in today's society and has helped to simplify and streamline tasks and processes. Analysts estimate that the market for IoT could potentially be worth 11 billion dollars by 2025. Large technology corporations are spending a vast amount of money to promote their IoT products, but we are also seeing companies which normally are not associated with IT making an entrance to make their products connected. During the fall of 2016 media reported about a big security breach within the IoT that affected security cameras and forced them to commit denial of service attacks. This event led us to take a closer look at the IoT and the security around the products. The aim of this study is to investigate how developers and security experts working with IoT perceive the current state of security and the possible threats and risks we face when using the technology. For this study we have used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews. A total of eight interviews were conducted equally divided between developers and security experts. Our results show that a common denominator between the respondents' answers was that the lack of standardization and platforms for IoT-applications is a problem. However, a unified security solution is currently unattainable due to the vast number of platforms present in IoT today. Therefore, the use of a standard or platform does not guarantee security. Also, with the increasing popularity of IoT, products from developers without the proper knowledge is becoming a serious security concern for the IoT.

  • Kylenborg, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Karlsson, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Wohlin Teixeira, Edvin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    En för alla, alla för en!: En tolkande fallstudie kring medarbetares konceptualisering och användande av kollaborativa molnsystem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing amount of organisations are moving their IT-operations to cloud computing systems which fundamentally changes the role of IT within the organisations. This affects how end users perceive the IT-artefacts and how they interact with them. Research regarding IS-Strategy invariably return to the subject that is IT-implementation and discuss what organisations can do to promote a smoother transition towards new IT-artefacts. We use acquainted research from IS-strategy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and technology acceptance to help us gain a broader understanding of end user adoption. The nature of cloud computing systems differs from older technologies, regarding the opportunities they provide organisations with. We imply that there is a lack of understanding of how theories and concepts originating from these research areas can be combined to study a cloud computing implementation. This interpretative case study focuses on shedding new light on how the unique capabilities of cloud computing systems affect IT-implementation as we know it. Our data were collected through interviews conducted at an IT-consulting company. The data analysis revealed that end user adoption is dependent on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to find perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. The analysis also shows that users whom are less willing to adopt are more dependent on an IS-strategy that promotes the use of supportive extrinsic motivation. We also discuss an unexpected finding: perceived purpose of use. We propose that the perceived purpose of use is a construction by individuals, originating from the lack of understanding the organisations explicit purpose for implementing and using the cloud computing system. This finding aims to explain why the use of the different functions is fragmented within our research. This study contributes with a new concept and rich insights that reveals the key relations that affects end user adoption and their conceptualization of a collaborative cloud computing system.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-08 10:15 Humanisthuset, Hörsal F, Umeå
    Vingsle, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Formativ bedömning och självreglerat lärande: vad behöver vi för att få det att hända?2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that substantial learning gains are possible when formative assessment and support for students’ development of self-regulated learning skills are implemented in classroom practice. Such implementation is not straightforward and there is a need for both further understanding of the knowledge and skills teachers require to practice formative assessment, and further insights into how different characteristics of ordinary teaching practices support students’ in becoming proficient self-regulated learners. This doctoral thesis includes a licentiate thesis and two articles. In the licentiate thesis, classroom observations are used to investigate the knowledge and skills used by a teacher engaged in a comprehensive formative classroom practice. The results show that the teacher's practice is complex and requires advanced knowledge and skills that are often used simultaneously and under time pressure. For example, the teacher, sometimes in a matter of seconds, handles new (to her) mathematics, makes inferences from students’ responses to their understanding, and based on these inferences makes decisions about her teaching. The first article is a literature review focusing on the effects of formative assessment on student achievement in mathematics since there is a lack of knowledge of the effects of formative assessment on student achievement, in particular for subject areas such as mathematics. In the review, a systematic literature search is made for articles studying the effects of both teacher-centered approaches and approaches emphasizing student involvement in the formative assessment processes. The latter type of approaches includes teacher practices that support students’ development of aspects of self-regulated learning competence. The results show that all approaches included in the review have significant positive effects on student achievement in mathematics. The second article examines in what ways learning situations in authentic classroom practices provide opportunities for the students to develop self-regulated learning skills, and how students experience these opportunities. The analysis is based on data from classroom observations of three teachers’ mathematics lessons, and on interviews with their students. The results show that instruction in self-regulated learning skills mostly occurred implicitly, and the opportunities to develop the skills were mainly provided and experienced at the observational level.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 10:00 Hörsal 1031, Norra Beteendevetarhuset, Umeå
    Rassokhina, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Shakespeare's sonnets in Russian: the challenge of translation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shakespeare’s 154 sonnets have become the interest of several generations of Russian translators. Overall, after their first appearance in the middle of the nineteenth century, at least thirty-five Russian translations of the complete sonnet collection have been produced so far, though mostly during the last three decades. The overall objective of the present thesis is to examine the evolution of Russian translations of Shakespeare’s sonnets over the years. The thesis is novel in that it offers an analysis of specific linguistic, literary and cultural challenges the numerous Russian translators have dealt with while translating the sonnets, as well as the strategies adopted in an effort to resolve them.

    In order to achieve the study objectives, several individual sonnets and a number of their Russian translations have been selected as a sample representing challenging areas that have been more closely investigated in four articles. The method of cross comparison has been applied throughout the study. Both the introductory part and the articles address certain problematic translation issues, such as the sonnets’ formal structure, the pronouns of address, grammatical gender, bawdy language, sexual puns, culture-specific items, and metaphors.

    The results provide evidence for seeing translation as a multi-layered and ever-changing process, which, apart from the pure linguistic tasks, combines historical, political and ideological aspects. The findings of the study suggest that translation competence, namely deep understanding of the context and its fundamental cultural and social features, motivates the translator’s interpretation of the contradictions and uncertainties of Shakespeare’s poems. Those include the sonnets genre, relation to Shakespeare’s biography, the order of the poems in the first 1609 Quarto. The analysis also identifies the ways in which the target language’s social and historical context have had an impact on the choices made by the translators.

    On the whole, the study’s results do not contradict Mikhail Gasparov’s model describing the pendulum-like movement from “free” to “literal” approaches through the history of Russian literary translation.  

  • Cronqvist, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    von Almassy, Mathilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Genmodifierade organismer – För eller emot?: En kvantitativ studie om attityder gentemot samt köpvillighet av genmodifierade livsmedel bland konsumenter i Sverige.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) involves using genetic engineering to move a specific gene from one organism and crossing it with another to create characteristics of an organism which it naturally does not have. Attitudes and willingness to purchase genetically modified (GM) foods has been shown to differ between countries as well as between different groups.

    Objective The objective of the study was to investigate whether consumers in Sweden differ in attitudes towards GMOs and how incentives affect willingness to purchase GM-fruits and vegetables, depending on gender, age, level of education, and perceived knowledge about GMOs.

    Method Quantitative method was used with data collection via a web-based questionnaire containing 21 questions divided into three categories; inclusion criterias, attitudes, and willingness to purchase. The sample strategy used was a convenience sample where the survey was spread through the authors' Facebook profiles. The data from the 110 respondents was analyzed in SPSS with Pearson Chi-squared test and Fisher’s Exact Test.

    Results The results showed that women and 31 years and older had both a more negative attitude towards and was less willing to purchase GM-foods. No difference was detected between the levels of education. However, results showed a more positive attitude among those with a high perceived knowledge about GMO unlike those with a low or mediumperceived knowledge.

    Conclusion The results largely corresponded with previous research indicating that a change has not occurred since similar studies were conducted in Sweden in the early 2000s. The most prominent result is that women and 31 years and older respondents have a more negative attitude towards as well as are less willing to purchase GM-foods regardless of incentives.

  • Ericson, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Complexity and expressiveness for formal structures in Natural Language Processing2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The formalized and algorithmic study of human language within the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) has motivated much theoretical work in the related field of formal languages, in particular the subfields of grammar and automata theory. Motivated and informed by NLP, the papers in this thesis explore the connections between expressibility – that is, the ability for a formal system to define complex sets of objects – and algorithmic complexity – that is, the varying amount of effort required to analyse and utilise such systems. Our research studies formal systems working not just on strings, but on more complex structures such as trees and graphs, in particular syntax trees and semantic graphs. The field of mildly context-sensitive languages concerns attempts to find a useful class of formal languages between the context-free and context-sensitive. We study formalisms defining two candidates for this class; tree-adjoining languages and the languages defined by linear context-free rewriting systems. For the former, we specifically investigate the tree languages, and define a subclass and tree automaton with linear parsing complexity. For the latter, we use the framework of parameterized complexity theory to investigate more deeply the related parsing problems, as well as the connections between various formalisms defining the class. The field of semantic modelling aims towards formally and accurately modelling not only the syntax of natural language statements, but also the meaning. In particular, recent work in semantic graphs motivates our study of graph grammars and graph parsing. To the best of our knowledge, the formalism presented in Paper III of this thesis is the first graph grammar where the uniform parsing problem has polynomial parsing complexity, even for input graphs of unbounded node degree.

  • Henein, Michael Y.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Bengrid, Tarek
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nicoll, Rachel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Zhao, Ying
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Schmermund, Axel
    Coronary calcification compromises myocardial perfusion irrespective of luminal stenosis2017In: IJC HEART & VASCULATURE, ISSN 2352-9067, Vol. 14, 41-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcification (CAC) assessed by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and myocardial perfusion assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in a group of symptomatic patients. Method: Retrospective analysis of 120 patients (age 65.1 +/- 8.9 years, 88 males) who presented with atypical chest pain to Bethanien Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany, between 2007 and 2010 and who underwent CAC scoring using MDCT, CMR, and conventional coronary angiography. Patients were divided into those with high-grade (HG) stenosis (n = 67, age 65.1 +/- 9.4 years) and those with no-HG stenosis (n = 53, age 65.1 +/- 8.6 years). Results: There were more males with HG stenosis (82.1% vs. 62.3%, p = 0.015), in whom the percentage and number of abnormal perfusion segments were higher at rest (37.3% vs. 17%, p = 0.014) but not different with stress (p = 0.83) from those with no-HG stenosis. Thirty-four patients had myocardial perfusion abnormalities at rest and 26 patients developed perfusion defects with stress. Stress-induced myocardial perfusion defects were 22.4% sensitive and 79.2% specific for detecting HG stenosis. The CAC score was lower in patients with no-HG stenosis compared to those with HG stenosis (p < 0.0001). On the ROC curve, a CAC score of 293 had a sensitivity of 71.6% and specificity of 83% in predicting HG stenosis [(AUC 0.80 (p < 0.0001)]. A CAC score of 293 or the presence of at least 1 segment myocardial perfusion abnormality was 74.6% sensitive and 71.7% specific in detecting HG stenosis, the respective values for the 2 abnormalities combined being 19.4% and 90.6%. The severity of CAC correlated with the extent of myocardial perfusion in the patient group as a whole with stress (r = 0.22, p = 0.015), particularly in those with no-HG stenosis (r = 0.31, p = 0.022). A CAC score of 293 was 31.6% sensitive and 87.3% specific in detecting myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Conclusion: In a group of patients with exertional angina, coronary calcification is more accurate in detecting high-grade luminal stenosis than myocardial perfusion defects. In addition, in patients with no stenosis, the incremental relationship between coronary calcium score and the extent of myocardial perfusion suggests coronary wall hardening as an additional mechanism for stress-induced angina other than luminal narrowing. These preliminary findings might have a clinical impact on management strategies of these patients other than conventional therapy.

  • Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Andersson, Elias
    Why Organization May Be the Primary Limitation to Implementing Sustainability at the Local Level: Examples from Swedish Case Studies2017In: Resoruces, ISSN 0707-8412, E-ISSN 2079-9276, Vol. 6, no 1, 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the effort to address environmental issues at the local level has focused on defining principles and aims rather than addressing the operational difficulties of implementation. Drawing upon insights from sustainability scholarship, this study reviews two cases: the development of a Swedish standard for implementing sustainable development at municipality, county council, and regional levels, and attempts by a small rural municipality to establish a process towards implementing the Aalborg Commitments. The research illustrates the specific organizational and managerial complexity of these case study experiences. It concludes that an organizational focus on integration and mainstreaming deserves particular attention to achieve broader sustainability, or related environmental or adaptation goals. The results, in particular, highlight the role that integrated management systems can play for sustainability work at the local level.

  • Claeson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Det fördjupade patent-och domstolssamarbetet - Rättsliga och kommersiella avväganden vid valet av europeisk patentsskyddsform i framtidens Europa.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis