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  • Ottosson Malmros, Linn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sandberg, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Förhållningssätt till digitalt läsfrämjande: En kvalitativ undersökning om bibliotekens användning av digitala medier i en läsfrämjande kontext2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Då biblioteken och dess användare, såväl som läsningen och litteraturen, påverkas av den digitala utvecklingen och framväxten av så kallade “nya medier”, har vi i denna studie intresserat oss av digitalt läsfrämjande samt användningen av digitala medier i en läsfrämjande kontext. Påverkar användningen av digitala medier det läsfrämjande arbetet och i så fall på vilket sätt?

    Det övergripande syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur biblioteken resonerar kring och använder sig av digitala medier i läsfrämjande arbete utifrån hur de beskriver sina projekt i de ansökningar om bidrag för läs- och litteraturfrämjande insatser som inkommit till Kulturrådet för helåret 2017 och halva året 2018.

    För att analysera materialet har kvalitativ innehållsanalys med tematisk ansats använts som metod. Baserat på studiens övergripande syfte och teoretiska ramverk konstruerades tre frågeställningar. Den första frågeställningen handlade om bibliotekens ändamål och syfte med användning av digitala medier, vilket fungerade som en ingång till att ställa djupare frågor kring om användningen av digitala medier kunde sägas påverka aspekter som läsning, litteratur och läsfrämjandet i stort. Vi har också avslutningsvis undersökt hur digitalt läsfrämjande kan problematiseras utifrån teorier som betonar mediers materialitet.

    I bearbetningen av studiens empiriska material kunde fyra teman identifieras. Studiens teman har benämnts som: Bevarande förhållningssätt, Anpassat förhållningssätt, Utforskande förhållningssätt och Breddat förhållningssätt, vilka på olika sätt representerar hur biblioteken använder sig av digitala medier i det läsfrämjande arbetet. Studiens identifierade teman presenteras i en modell för att illusterara hur de olika temana förhåller sig till varandra utifrån aspekter av multi- och monomedialitet samt instrumentell eller intrinsikal inställning till medier.

    Förhållningssätten till digitalt läsfrämjande ligger till grund för vårt resonemang kring digitala mediers möjliga effekter på läsfrämjandet. Resultatet av analysen visade att projektens syn på textbegrepp som antingen multi- eller monomedialt samt deras förhållningssätt till digitala medier som antingen instrumentellt eller intrinsikalt var viktiga aspekter av hur de digitala medierna användes och beskrevs i projektet. Vi menar också att dessa olika användningar fick olika effekter på läsfrämjandet i de ansökningar vi studerade där de olika förhållningssätten som vi identifierat drog läsfrämjandet i delvis olika riktningar. Det breddade förhållningssättet som vi beskriver tycktes vidga vad litteratur, litteracitet och läsfrämjande kan vara i kontrast mot det bevarande förhållningsättet som betonade boken och mer traditionellt läsfrämjande aktiviteter.

    I det avslutande kapitlet diskuteras hur ett fokus på mediers materiella aspekter kan synliggöra olika mediers påverkan på läsfrämjandet, vilket skapar förutsättningar för medvetna medieval där medier kan kombineras utifrån målgruppers behov och bibliotekets uppdrag. Därför menar vi att digitalt läsfrämjande och ”traditionellt läsfrämjande” inte ska ses som parallella spår inom den läsfrämjande kontexten utan att dessa två agendor snarare tydligt bör relateras till varandra utifrån att: 1) De digitala medierna och samhällelig digitalisering påverkar läsfrämjandet i stort vilket gör att digitalisering som ”digitalt läsfrämjande” enbart är en väsentlig aspekt av framtidens läsfrämjande – vi menar att även det ”traditionella läsfrämjandet” måste ses i ljuset av digitalisering 2) teorier om medier och materialitet betonar att digitala och tryckta medier bör ses som olika, vilket gör att diskussionen kring medier, digitalisering och läsfrämjande snarare bör handla om hur olika medier kan användas (och kombineras) utifrån vad de bidrar till i det givna sammanhanget eller i ett större bibliotekspolitisk och samhälleligt perspektiv.

  • Johansson, Edvard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hanteringen av okunniga: Knowledge management på Umeå universitetsbibliotek2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie är en undersökning av hur kunskap om arbetet hanteras av personalen och organisationen på Umeå universitetsbibliotek. Fokus ligger på hur kunskap bevaras inom organisationen och förs vidare till de som behöver den. Jag sökte svar på följande frågor:

    • Hur tas kunskapen tillvara när någon lämnar arbetsplatsen?
    • Hur kommer kunskap inom organisation fram till de som behöver den?
    • Vad i organisationen finns det som hjälper eller hindrar kunskapsöverföring?

    Studien visar att bevarandet av kunskap från de som slutar på arbetsplatsen inte tycks vara viktigt för att verksamheten ska fungera praktiskt men att ett visst kunskapsbevarande ändå hela tiden sker naturligt. Lärande inom organisationen sker i mycket hög grad på ett socialt och informellt sätt genom samspel mellan människor.

    • Inga aktiva insatser görs för att ta tillvara på kunskapen hos erfarna medarbetare men det tycks inte heller behövas för att arbetet ska fungera. Den kunskap som är relevant förs över i det dagliga arbetet.
    • Kunskapen inom organisationen når de som behöver den tack vare att medarbetarna själva ställer frågor och söker upp de som vet, samt i viss mån genom allmänt småprat och olika typer av dokumentation.
    • Kunskapsöverföring underlättas av ett öppet klimat där det är lätt att ställa frågor och där människor generöst delar med sig, samt medarbetarnas frihet att själva lägga upp sitt arbete och därmed söka kunskap på vilket sätt de vill, från vem de vill.
  • Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Bodén, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedagogers upplevelser och arbete kring tillgängliga lärmiljöer: Faktorer som bidrar, med tillgänglighetsmodellen som analysverktyg2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Grundtanken till att vi valt detta specifika ämnesområde, tillgängliga lärmiljöer, är att vi i vår kommande yrkesroll som specialpedagoger kommer arbeta med att förebygga hinder och problem för att eleverna ska känna trygghet i skolan. Dessa två delar är av stor betydelse i vårt uppdrag som specialpedagoger. Syftet med studien är att få en djupare förståelse samt kunskap om pedagogers upplevelser och arbete kring tillgängliga lärmiljöer. Studiens frågeställningar är: Vilken innebörd har begreppet tillgänglig lärmiljö för pedagogerna? Vad är, enligt pedagogerna, grundläggande för att skapa en tillgänglig lärmiljö? Hur arbetar pedagogerna för att tillgängliggöra lärmiljön för alla elever? Som metod används kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med 14 informanter från tre kommunala grundskolor. Informanterna som deltog i studien fördelas på 10 pedagoger och 4 specialpedagoger. Vid analys av resultatet används tillgänglighetsmodellen i SPMS:s värderingsverktyg för tillgänglig utbildning – förskola, skola och fritidshem. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten har sin inriktning utifrån det relationella perspektivet. Med ett relationellt perspektiv ses elevens svårigheter utifrån att det är i konfrontation mellan skolans kultur och elevens förutsättningar och behov som problem uppstår. Specialpedagogik som område söker svar i elevens sociala-, pedagogiska- och fysiska lärmiljö vad som behöver tillrättaläggas eller förändras i undervisningen för att hjälpa eleven. Resultatet från våra intervjuer visar att informanterna har ett välförankrat synsätt som utgår från ett relationellt perspektiv om faktorer som gynnar en tillgänglig lärmiljö. Utifrån analysmodellens tre miljöer, social-, pedagogisk – och fysisk miljö och informanternas svar har det skapats en uppfattning om vilka grundläggande faktorer som är av betydelse för att tillgängliggöra lärmiljön. Faktorer som i mångt och mycket stämmer in på vad studiens litteratur säger.

  • Eriksson Sandström, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    "Man skulle kunna lösa många problem genom att pappor var hemma mer med sina ungar": En kvalitativ studie om pappors attityd till och upplevelse av föräldraledighet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med blivande och nyblivna heterosexuella pappor undersöka attityder till och upplevelse av föräldraledighet hos pappor. Intervjuerna har analyserats med hjälp av tematisk analys vilket resulterade i tre teman: De ekonomiska skälens paradox, Att få välja själv och Betydelsen av andra. Empirin har analyserats i förhållande till teorin ”Doing gender”. I analysen framkom implicita attityder gällande könsroller genom att männens bidrag till familjeekonomin var ett vanligt argument för hur de valt att lägga upp föräldraledigheten. Vidare visade även studien att regler kring vilken grad av ansvar pappor förväntas ta skiljer sig mellan könen och att vi genom att förhålla oss till dessa regler reproducerar könsstereotypa föreställningar om vad som betecknas som manligt och kvinnligt.

  • Falk, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    "Jag har hittat en bok!": En studie om skolors klassbesök på bibliotek2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the role of class visits to public- or school-libraries during school hours, regarding students of ages 7- 10. The research is founded on a case study on Burträsk library, and uses qualitative interviews with librarians and teachers at the nearby elementary school, and non-intrusive observations of class visits. The research questions were:

    - What is the function of the school's class visits to the library, for the students' reading and desire to read?

    - What thoughts and attitudes do the teachers and librarians who work with class visits have, about reading-promoting activities and children's reading?

    - How do these thoughts and attitudes express themselves, in the work with class visits?

    The study finds that the teachers and librarians who are part of the study have a pragmatic approach to children's reading, which places more emphasis on the children’s joy to read, than that they read a particular type of literature. The teachers 'work creates a joyful view of reading in most children who participate in class visits, and class visits seem to be of great importance for the children' s desire to read.

  • Delhommeau, Heidi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Den undervisande högskolebibliotekariens professionella lärande: Berättelser om kompetens och utveckling2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Biblioteken står i frontlinjen för många av kunskapssamhällets snabba förändringar. Frågan hur professionen ska kunna möta nya krav i sin verksamhet är idag mer aktuell än någonsin: vilka färdigheter och kompetenser krävs och hur ska dessa utvecklas? Som ett inlägg i debatten undersöker denna uppsats undervisande högskolebibliotekariers lärande för att ur denna förståelse identifiera framgångsfaktorer och utvecklingsmöjligheter för kontinuerlig professionell utveckling.

    Genom litteraturstudier och djupintervjuer med fyra undervisande högskolebibliotekarier framträder bilden av ett yrke som kännetecknas av varierande förutsättningar och arbetsuppgifter, där nyfikenhet och en vilja att utvecklas är centralt. Man tar själv ansvar för sitt lärande och lärobehoven tenderar att vara praktikorienterade och handlar om ämneskunskap, pedagogik, didaktik, teknik samt den akademiska miljö där man verkar. Trots att vikten av vetenskaplig grund och teoretisk förankring lyfts så står detta tillbaka för det informella och praktiknära lärandet där en själv, de egna intressena och erfarenheten – att göra, testa, pröva, söka, kolla upp och läsa på – framställs som viktigast vid sidan av de möten, samtal och utbyten man kan ha med kollegor och målgrupper.

    Framgångsfaktorer för kontinuerlig professionell utveckling som identifieras är det utvecklingsstödjande klimat som arbetsplatsen upplevs som, där utbildning och lärande ses som ett naturligt inslag och man har frihet att utforma och utveckla varierande och utmanande arbetsuppgifter. Man ingår i arbetsteam med goda förutsättningar att diskutera och bolla med kollegor. Chefen är positivt inställd till kompetensutveckling, möjlighet finns att delta i både formella och informella läraktiviteter och man är delaktig i sin egen kompetensutveckling som står i samspel med arbetsuppgifter och är väl förankrad i behov. Positiva effekter syns genom att respondenterna känner sig trygga i sin roll som undervisare och med sina kompetenser samtidigt som de behåller drivet och viljan att fortsätta lära sig och utvecklas.

    De utvecklingsmöjligheter som identifieras handlar om att komplettera vad som tycks vara en väl fungerande kompetensutveckling med fokus på yrkespraktik med en som främjar ett mer formellt, strukturerat och systematiskt lärande där vetenskap, teori och forskning ges större plats. Här skulle utbildare, yrkesföreningar och chefer kunna inta en mer proaktiv roll.

  • Björndotter, Ina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Morin, Hedvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bibliotekschef sökes: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys av platsannonser för bibliotekschefer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte var att undersöka huruvida det finns en gemensam kärna för chefskap inom bibliotekarieprofessionen och att identifiera vad den i sådana fall består av. Datamaterialet bestod av 162 platsannonser för bibliotekschefer inom olika bibliotekstyper. Metoden som har använts är kvantitativ innehållsanalys. Det går att urskilja en gemensam kärna för chefskap inom bibliotekarieprofessionen. Denna kärna består till att börja med av ett krav på akademisk examen. Tidigare erfarenhet som efterfrågas i platsannonserna handlar om ledarskap i olika former samt mer traditionella chefsarbeten. Personliga egenskaper som värdesätts är kommunikativ förmåga, samarbetsförmåga och nätverkande samt personalengagemang och coachning. Arbetsuppgifter och ansvar utgörs av verksamhetsutveckling, ett helhetsansvar samt deltagande i ledningsgrupp och/eller styrelsegrupp. Resultatet analyserades med utgångspunkt i de fyra ledarskapsbeteendena uppgiftsorienterad, relationsorienterad, förändringsorienterad och externt orienterad.

  • Axelsson, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Varför arbetar vi läsfrämjande?: En tematisk analys av historiska förhållningssätt till barns läsning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Läsfrämjande arbete för barn ses som en självklar del av svensk biblioteksverksamhet idag. Denna studie syftar till att skapa förståelse för hur dagens synsätt kring barns läsning har kommit att växa fram. För att uppnå detta har fyra texter som skrevs i början på 1900-talet i Sverige, analyserats. Sagda texter valdes ut då de skrevs av inflytelserika aktörer inom barnboks- och biblioteksområdet under den aktuella tiden. Studiens första syfte är att ta reda på vilka argument och förhållningssätt till barns läsning som går att identifiera i texterna. Det andra syftet är att skapa förståelse för de underliggande värderingar och attityder kring barns läsning som går att utröna från dessa argument och förhållningssätt. En tematisk analys gjordes av materialet. Fem övergripande teman identifierades, och utgjorde ramverket för resultatet: Synen på barnet, Rätt och fel litteratur, Individuellt anpassad läsning, Bibliotekets betydelse och Läsningens syfte. Resultatet visar att åsikter och argument uttrycks i texterna om bland annat barns behov, vad och varför de bör läsa, och om bibliotekets roll. De förhållningssätt som framkommer i texterna visar en tydlig prägel av den samtida kulturen och samhället, men de kan samtidigt kännas igen till viss del i dagens förhållningssätt till barns läsning.

  • Islam, Md Mazharul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Printed transparent conducting electrodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and a polymer matrix.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of this project was to prepare transparent and conductive electrodes (TCEs). TCEs were made out of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Based on the theoretical aspect, MWCNTs has emerged as a promising nanofiller in the polymer matrix due to its high electrical conductivity. As a nanofiller, MWCNTs were used with a small ratio of rGO with PVP as a polymer matrix in this project to prepare TCEs having low sheet resistance with high transparency. An appropriate amount of PVP has been shown to be a good combination with MWCNTs and rGO in the solvent to keep MWCNTs dispersed for a long time. Carboxyl group (-COOH) functionalized MWCNTs (FMWCNTs) was produced in a controlled oxidative procedure due to enabling good dispersion of FMWCNTs in water and ethanol solvents. In contrast, water dispersible rGO was chemically prepared by using GO and sodium borohydride where GO was produced from graphite by using improved Hummer's method. Drop casting and spray coating methods were applied to fabricate TCEswhere only water was used as the solvent for drop casted TCEs and a mixing ratio of water and ethanol was 70:30 as solvent for spray coated TCEs.

    It was also determined in this project that the spray coating method was more suitable for preparing TCEs rather than thedrop casting method due to easy fabrication, large area coating possibility, and the smoothness of the coated film surface. The sheet resistance was obtained as 5026 Ω/ ⃣  where the transparency was 65% in the case of the drop casted electrode for the ratio of rGO:FMWCNTs:PVP was 1.2:60:1 with 0.02 mg FMWCNTs. In the case of spray coated electrode at the same ratio of rGO:FMWCNTs:PVP, the sheet resistance was measured as 5961 Ω/ ⃣  where the transparency was 73%. But in the case of 60:1 mass ratio of FMWCNTs:PVP with 0.02 mg FMWCNTs, the sheet resistance was 7729 Ω/ ⃣  and transparency was 77% for spray coated electrode. So, it is clear that the sheet resistance was improved by adding a small mass ratio of rGO with FMWCNTs:PVP.

  • Sjöström, Liv
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ödling, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Visuellt stöd på gruppnivå: Uppfattningar och erfarenheter hos pedagoger i förskola och skola av att arbeta med visuellt stöd2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's Swedish preschool and elementary school all children are entitled to an inclusive education, where they receive the support and are presented with the educational challenges they are perceived to be in need of. To meet the needs and preconditions of all children, the educational mission of teachers today involves the apply of special educational tools, such as for example the use of visual support. The aim of this study is to analyse teachers experiences of visual support and the results they have experienced from using visual support in the learning environment. The study involves a preschool and an elementary school in a municipality in Sweden, and is based on interviews with three preschool teachers, three elementary school teachers, the headmaster of the preschool, and the headmaster of the elementary school. The results have been analyzed using sociocultural theory and a relational perspective on special education. The overall results show that teachers have used visual support for the children as a group, combined if necessary with visual support for individual children. Furthermore the results show that the use of visual support originates from a necessity to address pedagogical dilemmas and problems that have arisen within the learning environment. Both the headmasters and the teachers describe that the use of visual support has been beneficial for improving the learning environment for all of the children as well as the working environment for the teachers. In accordance with sociocultural theory and a relational perspective on special education, visual support has been used by the teachers participating in this study, as a tool to promote inclusion of all children, and as means of adapting the learning environment according to difficulties children experience within that context. The results of this study confirms that the use of visual support for children as a group can be considered a good example of what Jensen (2017) describes as reversed inclusion, meaning that the learning environment is adapted on a group level to meet the needs and preconditions of children in need of special support.

  • Nordlund Sildeman, Ann-Catrin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordlund, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Framgångsrik undervisning i klassrummet: För elever med språkliga svårigheter2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the study was to describe and analyze pedagogical beliefs about how successful teaching in the classroom by pupils with language difficulties can look like. Qualitative interviews and observations form the basis of the study's discussion and analysis. The result shows that the focus should not be solely on teaching in the classroom, but that the educators need to start from the school as a whole in the form of an inclusive view of teaching, as it is in the encounter between pupil and environment that language difficulties arise. In the same way that students need to feel well-being and participation in the classroom, the educators need to feel well-being and participation in the school in order to be able to develop in their profession. To succeed with this, clearer and common goals are needed and that there is the possibility of discussion at and between all levels in the school. In these discussions, it is important that the special educators are present as they have the knowledge of participating in the preventive work of removing obstacles and difficulties in the school's learning environments for pupils with linguistic difficulties.

  • Norder, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Låt inte språket bli ett hinder: En intervjustudie om tidig upptäckt av språkliga svårigheter och om språkstimulerande arbetssätt2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about language difficulties in preschool and the importance of detection and adequate language intervention at an early age. The purpose of the study was to describe and analyze preschool teachers' and special educators' opinions regarding the prerequisites for detecting language difficulties in preschool, as well as the methods used to support language development, focusing children with language difficulties in particular. The study was based on the following two research questions: "What are the perceptions of pre-school teachers and special educators of their opportunities to detect language difficulties in preschool?" and "What are the views of preschool teachers and special educators on methods used to support children with language difficulties in preschool?" In order to answer these questions, this qualitative interview study was done. The data collection consisted of eight interviews with a selection from the above mentioned professions. The empirical data were sorted by themes and analyzed with concepts from socio-cultural theory, as well as early childhood literacy. The result of the study showed that the prerequisites to discover linguistic difficulties in preschool, as well as the ability of language interventions, were good. Positive effects on children's language development and learning in a larger perspective, as well as social relations, also emerged in the study. Interaction and communication, the educators' competence and approach, access to special educational competence, and collaboration with the parents appear to be crucial for discovering language difficulties, as well as implementing interventions.

  • Frank, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Jag är en som alla andra": En genomlysning av NPF-elevers upplevelser av inkludering i skolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is focus on students with neuropsychiatric disorders (NPD) perceptions about inclusion. The purpose is to illustrate NPD-students experience of inclusion in school and furthermore illuminate the students' thoughts of how the school can work to encounter the students' ideas of inclusion. This study is qualitative and based in 8 interviews on students with NPD.The result shows that the students feeling of inclusion is based on participation in class through get in the same room as the classmates. The students also need a social interaction with teacher and classmates and get challenged on his/her own level. The teacher has an important role in students feeling of inclusion because the teacher gives support, safety and encouragement to students in their profession. The study also shows that three components stands out as particularly important in the progress of inclusion with NPD-students. The first is that the student feels inclusive in the classroom environment, the second is that the student feels involved in the other time during the school day and the third is the teachers work with customize the teaching and create a classroom environment there all students can succeed.

  • Årebrand, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stödinsatser: Gymnasielärares erfarenheter2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point of this study is the regulations in the Swedish Education Act of 2014 about how support for students can be given in the form of extra adaptations and special support (Prop.2013/14:160; SFS 2010:800). According to a survey about the Swedish upper secondary school, there is a need for more knowledge on the practical application of these regulations (SOU 2016:77). The aim of this study was to analyze and describe how teachers perceive the work with supportive actions for students in upper secondary schools. As a method for data collection, qualitative interviews were chosen and ten teachers were interviewed. The teachers stated that the responsibility for extra adaptations lies with regular teachers and mentioned examples of adaptation such as access to read material and adjusted study material and tasks. Special support was mentioned, among other things, as a support for teaching outside of the regular teaching. The result showed that one difference between the two schools where the teachers work is the organization of this support teaching. The study found that relationships and communication between students and teachers, and as well as between teachers and other school staff, are important factors in the work around suppoortive actions.

  • Råghall, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Talande tystnad: En analys av hur biblioteksdiskurser om integration förhåller sig till rasism2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite abundant evidence of structural/institutional discrimination and racism throughout the Swedish society, these conditions have so far not attracted much interest within library and information science in Sweden. Significantly more interest has been devoted to research, as well as reports by practitioners, on the integration of ”immigrants”. The aim of this paper is to examine how library discourses on integration of ”immigrants” affect the understanding of– and the approach to – racism.

    I have taken on this task by performing a discourse analysis, specifically Carol Bacchi’s ”What’s the problem represented to be” (WPR)-approach. The empirical material analyzed is a report on integration produced within the National Library of Sweden’s work with the national library strategy (Nationella biblioteksstrategin). Drawing on postcolonial and intersectional critiques, as well as critical library and information science research, I interrogate the problem representations, the production of ”Swedishness” and the silences around racism in this report on integration.

    In my analysis, I show that structural/institutional discrimination and racism is made invisible through two particular discourses on integration. I have named these two discourses ”the problem discourse” (problemdiskursen) and ”the helper discourse” (hjälpardiskursen). These two discourses constantly locate ”the problem” with the ones who are to be ”integrated”. Libraries are portrayed as institutions able to help the problematic ”Others”, for example through teaching them ”modern values”. In effect, issues such as housing and working  life discrimination, increasingly restrictive migration policies and the reproduction of colonial representations of ”the Other” are made irrelevant within these discourses – and ”Swedishness” is (re)produced as an unproblematic norm.

    My results show that the integration discourses not only make discrimination and racism invisible – in fact they uphold a racist discourse. Finally, my results confirm the findings by several North American LIS researchers, who have shown that library discourses on diversity, multiculturalism and integration prevent the library field from addressing issues of discrimination and racism.

  • Lindberg, Kristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Elevhälsans komplexa uppdrag - "En skola för alla": Rektorer och specialpedagogers syn på det förebyggande och hälsofrämjande arbetet i elevhälsan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe how the principal and the special pedagogue perceive and define pupil ill-health prevention and pupil health enhancement in their work. It explores how they understand the role they play in elevhälsan, literally meaning pupils' health. And how meetings are run and decisions are made within the pupils' health teams at selected schools. Questions that will be answered are: How do the principal and the special pedagogue perceive pupil ill-health prevention and health enhancement work of the pupil health team at the school? How do the principal and the special pedagogue perceive their roles in the health of the pupils? How are decisions made and followed through at the pupil healthcare meetings? This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews and phenomenological inspired methodology. Pupil health teams from three different schools were interviewed, and in total three principals and five special pedagogues took part in this study. The analysis of the results of this study show that further consensus between the different health promoting coordinators is needed in the implementation of the pupil ill-health prevention and health enhancement work. Further findings show inconsistencies in how the different pupil health teams conduct their meetings and in how decisions are implemented. A majority of the pupil health teams used the meetings to address existing problems, rather than ill-health prevention and health promotion efforts. The principals demonstrated that they have a greater consensus in how they define their role in promoting pupil health, as opposed to the special pedagogues who expressed a more varied picture of their role. This study also demonstrates that the pupil health team that was most effective in pupil health developments was the team that had further education in pupil health. Findings also show that the different health coordinators have an important role in furthering development and accessibility of the learning environment for the pupils, and in contributing to creating a 'school for everyone'. The demands on the special pedagogues to meet all pupils' differences, and to see these differences as an asset, are great. The requirement of a 'school for everyone' is a lot to ask for. To create a school that has learning environments tailored to everyone's individual needs requires an understanding and consensus between the different pupil health coordinators. This can sometimes be a dilemma, yet the pupil health coordinators have an important role to fill in these realms. This study also found that it was of utmost importance to have a clearly defined organisation and definition of the what the ill-health prevention and health enhancement work involved. To promote this the pupil health coordinators must create a meeting culture that supports the pupil ill-health prevention and health promotional work.

  • Sjögren, Viktoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kooperativt lärande - en effektiv undervisningsmetod?: Rektorers och pedagogers syn på hur metoden kan påverka lärande, relationer och inkludering2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study which aims to explore if cooperative learning can be a teaching strategy to improve inclusiveness, social relations and academic achievement for young students in special needs in Swedish primary schools. Earlier research in cooperative learning and its effects suggests that social interdependence and individual accountability are important components, according to Johnson, Johnson and Holubec (1994). Other prominent factors for successful cooperative learning is that students have opportunity to practise and improve their cooperative and social abilities, that the structures of education are thoroughly implemented and well known by the teachers and, finally, that differences among children are viewed as beneficial rather than problematic. To conduct this study, semistructured interviews and participating open classroom observations has been done. Four female teachers with long experience and two female principals have been interviewed. Two classroom observations has been conducted. The results of the study show that principals consider the teachers' abilities to be most important for the inclusion of students, their social relations and academic achievements. Three of the four teachers regard cooperative learning as a teaching strategy for inclusion, social relations and academic achievement, while the fourth teacher experience that cooperative learning can be excluding for some students in special needs. The classroom observations suggest that a thoroughly implemented cooperative learning, with a teacher who is versed in the basic thoughts and theories of cooperative learning may foster inclusion, social relations and academic achievement.

  • Eurén, Janna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Digitalisering i förskolan: Betydelsen av IKT för barns lärande och utveckling2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge about the preschool teachers' and preschool managers' thoughts and experiences regarding the work with digitalisation in preschool and how digital tools can facilitate children in need of special support. In order to get an answer to the purpose and research questions, qualitative method was used with semi-structured interviews. Seven preschool teachers at three different preschools and two preschool managers were interviewed. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim afterwards. The study was based on the socio-cultural and the special educational relational perspective on learning with a hermeneutic approach, and in the result it emerged that preschool teachers are predominantly positive for digitalisation. However, they felt unsure of methods and working methods and none of the preschool teachers had much experience of digital tools in the work with children in need of special support. The results also showed that the preschool managers put much of the responsibility on preschool teachers to develop the work with digitalisation while at the same time the preschool teachers themselves demanded more skills development and support from their managers regarding digitalisation. Based on the result, the conclusion was that the work with digitalisation in preschools needs better structure and planning in order to best promote children's learning and development. Both the preschool teachers and the preschool managers need more knowledge regarding current research on, for example, how the apps should be selected, but also with regard to the importance of the interaction between the children and the adults as a prerequisite for learning to take place. The staff needs to have time for competence development and planning and the managers' leadership needs to be more active and present if preschool teachers should feel secure in the work with digitalisation.

  • Stridsman, Monika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Tillgänglighet genom digitalisering: En kvalitativ studie av lärares erfarenheter i grundskolans årskurser 1–62018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att öka kunskapen om lärares erfarenheter av vad en tillgänglig lärmiljö kan innebära och på vilka sätt de anser att digitala verktyg kan bidra till att lärmiljön blir mer tillgänglig för alla elever. Vidare ställdes frågan vilken roll lärarna anser att de har i användandet av digitala verktyg samt vilka utmanande faktorer lärarna upplever med arbetet med digitala verktyg. Som datainsamlingsmetod användes kvalitativa intervjuer med åtta lärare i grundskolans årskurser 1–6. Studien var inspirerad av det sociokulturella perspektivet på lärande, vilket kopplades till Specialpedagogiska skolmyndighetens tillgänglighetsmodell för lärande, samt de båda specialpedagogiska perspektiven, det kompensatoriska och det relationella perspektivet. Resultatet av studien visade att lärarna såg möjligheter att genom digitala verktyg göra lärmiljön mer tillgänglig för alla elever. De digitala verktygen beskrevs ge möjlighet att individualisera och variera undervisningen, kompensera svårigheter och underlätta både inlärning och undervisning. Dessutom angav lärarna att de digitala verktygen kan vara en hjälp att skapa delaktighet och motivation hos eleverna. Resultatet visade även att det ur tillgänglighetssynpunkt är avgörande hur de digitala verktygen används. En slutsats utifrån studiens resultat var att för att dessa verktyg ska bidra till att lärmiljön blir mer tillgänglig för alla elever ska de digitala verktygen användas som ett naturligt inslag i undervisningen och vara tillgängliga som ett alternativ för alla elever. Resultatet visade även att lärarens roll är viktig för att de digitala verktygen ska bidra till att lärmiljön blir tillgänglig,och att det kräver tid och intresse av läraren.

  • Jakobsson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nyanlända elever, lärande och inkludering: En studie om undervisningens utformning i grundskolan ur ett specialpedagogiskt perspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to describe how teaching is designed in elementary school for newly arrived pupils, and to review the effects of this teaching. The questions being analyzed were: What is the motivation of the different schools in how they create their supportive teaching structure for the newly arrived students? How do the different schools organize their scaffolding, and how do they make adjustments, so that the learning of new arrivals is supported? How is inclusive education described, and how is it transformed into activities at different schools? The study used a qualitative phenomenographic methodology. Nine half-structured interviews were conducted with the principal, special educator and teacher at three different schools. The results showed that teaching for newly arrived pupils varies between schools, and that knowledge and experience is important in order to create a good teaching environment. Further, all schools aimed for an inclusive education, and that additional adjustments or supporting structures were implemented to ensure that the pupils' individual needs for achieving their goals were met. Not all schools had the knowledge or the right conditions for the implementation of an inclusive education, but all three had the will to try. Some methods for increased goal achievement have been identified as being particularly active in the study. Scaffolding was a prerequisite for reaching pupils’ individual goals, and one challenge was to decide on the right kind of pedagogy for the individual pupil. Education that was cognitively challenging, and on the pupil’s mother tongue, can all be used as active tools in order to get pupils involved in reading and writing and with the goal of strengthening their language. Collaboration within the schools’ different occupational categories, as well as cooperation with caregivers, were needed. Inclusion was achieved when the right action was taken to create good learning conditions for newly arrived pupils to succeed in school. The inclusion endeavor was ultimately based on an ongoing democratic process for all human rights and equal values. It was based on the idea that pupils' differences were an asset, offering students the opportunity to experience community and active participation with high educational gains.

  • Svills, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jakobsson, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Livet efter särskolan: Det arbetsplatsförlagda lärandetsbetydelse2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the importance of workplace-basedlearning for students in upper secondary school, and the benefits it has for the transition between school and work life. The purpose leads to the following questions: How does workplace-based learning affect the students' future career path? How are the students' workplace-based learning coordinated and evaluated? What guidance and support is offered to students to benefit their future professional life? To answer the purpose and the questions, a qualitative method has been implemented. It consists of ten semi-structured interviews with teachers, study and career counselors and former students at upper secondary schools in two municipalities. Interviews have also beenconducted with officials at the Social Insurance Agency and the Employment Service, but these have only been used as personal contact. The result is analyzed using previous research as well as the theoretical starting points of the normalization principle and career-chip theory. The results show that workplace-based learning is of great importance in making the transition between upper secondary school and working life as smooth as possible. However, the study shows difficulties in finding suitable places that meet the student's wishes and the demand of the labor market. Workplace-based education prepares both students and the labor market, and enables more students to acquire a job after completed studies. Collaboration between schools, the labor market and other external actors has improved over the past decade, which also benefits the students. Through support and supervision for both students and supervisors in the labor market, barriers can be cleared and success achieved.

  • Strand, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Specialpedagogens roll i förskolan: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att belysa förskollärares, specialpedagogers och förskolelednings uppfattningar om och förväntningar på specialpedagogens roll i förskolan. Studien har en kvalitativ ansats som grund, och semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts med elva informanter i en mindre, mellansvensk kommun. Tidigare forskning visar att många barn i förskolan mår dåligt, har psykiska, emotionella och sociala problem. Pedagoger i förskolan rapporterar att de under senare decennier sett en förändring till det sämre gällande barns hälsa. En intressant fråga utifrån detta är vilka förväntningar som finns på specialpedagogens arbete och roll i förskolan. Det finns ofta ett antal specialpedagoger anställda i kommunen som har till uppgift att bistå flera förskolor. Resultatet visar bland annat att en av specialpedagogens viktigaste uppgifter är som rådgivare och bollplank till pedagoger och förskolechefer. En slutsats kan vara att förskolans pedagoger känner sig ensamma och utan pedagogisk stöttning i sitt arbete. Förskoleledning lyfter handledning som en av specialpedagogens viktigaste arbetsuppgifter, medan specialpedagoger menar att de inte får möjlighet att använda sin handledarkompetens.

  • Näslund Johansson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Frustration och stress i gymnasiesärskolan: Hur personal kan arbeta proaktivt för att undvika utmanande beteenden i skolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Personnel in upper secondary schools for students with special needs work in a field that can be dangerous. It is not uncommon for personnel to be faced with threats and violence in their everyday lives. Students do well if they can and frustration and stress in situations that they find that they cannot master can lead to challenging behaviors. It is therefore the task of the personnel to work preventively so that students do not have to feel stress and frustration. The aim of this study was thus to gain an in-depth knowledge of how personnel in the upper secondary school for students with special needs can work proactively to avoid stress and frustration among students. Pupils who feel that the learning environment is understandable, manageable and meaningful need not feel stress and frustration. To achieve the aim, interviews were carried out with eleven personnel within two upper secondary schools for students with special needs. In the personnel's descriptions of their activities, they show that they have a proactive approach and that, with methods, strategies and in their treatment of pupils, they actively try to reduce pressure so that students do not have to feel stress and frustration. However, there are framework factors that mean that the personnel does not always succeed in the proactive work.

  • Nilsson, Helen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olsson, Yvonne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Uppdrag: Stärkt digital kompetens: Attityder och förutsättningar bland lärare som undervisar grundsärskoleelever2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to shed light on the current situation regarding teachers' conditions and attitudes considering the new updated version of curriculum. This study was carried out amongst teachers teaching special education pupils in primary and secondary school through semistructured interviews. The result showed some successful exampels of intentional quality management both on principal level and beyond but on the other hand the study also made clear there are some shortcomings to be considered before we seriously can speak of equivalence in digital competence education for all Swedish pupils. The authors suggest structured developement, SKA (Systematiskt kvalitetsarbete) together with the TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) framework to successfully implement the revised curricula to achieve digital competent teachers who can educate digital competent pupils to match future digital challanges.

  • Johansson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundborg, Therése
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Om vi vuxna tar ett steg tillbaka  - vad händer då?: En kvalitativ intervjustudie av hur lärare i träningsskolan arbetar för att främja interaktion mellan elever2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att beskriva och analysera på vilka sätt lärare arbetar för att främja interaktion mellan elever i grundsärskolan inriktning träningsskola. Svar söktes på hur lärare arbetar med den kommunikativa miljön, och på vilket sätt alternativ och kompletterande kommunikation kan användas för att främja den horisontella kommunikationen. Vidare undersöktes vilka hinder och möjligheter lärare upplever att det finns för eleverna att interagera med varandra. Det empiriska materialet samlades in i en mellanstor svensk kommun. Studien utgick från en fenomenologisk forskningsansats med inspiration av ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. Studien visade att elever i träningsskolan erbjuds för lite horisontell kommunikation och att det finns flera orsaker till detta. De huvudsakliga anledningarna till varför eleverna får för lite horisontell kommunikation som framkommer i studien är brister i den kommunikativa miljön, hög vuxentäthet samt elevernas funktionsnedsättningar. I studien framkommer att lärare medvetet arbetar för att främja elevernas interaktion genom att skapa ett positivt klimat och genom att tillrättalägga såväl den fysiska som den sociala miljön. Enligt lärarna i studien har samtliga elever behov av alternativ och kompletterande kommunikation i olika former. Vidare beskrivs den alternativa och kompletterande kommunikationen som ett viktigt verktyg för att öka elevernas möjligheter att interagera med varandra.

  • Jernström, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Barndom och föräldraskap under belägring i asylprocessen: En fallstudie om pedagogers och asylsökande föräldrars upplevelser och erfarenheter av öppna förskolans inkluderingsarbete2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt syfte med denna studie var att utveckla kunskap om de undersökta öppna förskolornas riktade och pedagogiska arbete med inkludering av asylsökande barnfamiljer. Studien är kvalitativ och empiri har samlats in i en kommun som tagit emot en stor mängd asylsökande, utifrån sin befolkningsmängd. Semistrukturerade intervjuer har utförts med nio pedagoger och tre föräldrar. Resultatet visar att de undersökta öppna förskolorna är öppna för alla, men riktade och uppsökande mot asylsökande barnfamiljer med barn 0-6 år. Tack vare aviseringar från Migrationsverket kan pedagogerna göra hembesök för att skapa en första kontakt mellan asylsökande barnfamiljer och verksamheten, vilket föräldrar har upplevt positivt. Föräldrar och deras barn vistas tillsammans i verksamheten för deras trygghets skull, vilket innebär att verksamheterna har ett familjeperspektiv på sitt inkluderingsarbete. En av slutsatserna som dras är att både pedagoger och föräldrar anser att det är en trygghet att familjer får träffa andra med liknande upplevelser av krig och flykt, för att bearbeta sina erfarenheter, samt att detta bidrar till att familjer inte känner utanförskap. Utöver ordinarie öppettid, 15 timmar i veckan, bjuds föräldrar in till föräldragrupper där bland annat samhällsinformation ges. Olika teman presenteras genom mycket bildstöd, filmer och korta texter, för att göra informationen lättillgänglig. Studien visar att föräldrarnas upplevelse av öppna förskolans inkluderingsarbete har gett dem en bra start för att komma in i det svenska samhället och att pedagoger och verksamheten har varit en trygg bas att utgå från.

  • Hagersjö, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    En egen röst - på lika villkor?: En kvalitativ studie av AKK-bruk inom grundsärskolan/träningsskolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie inriktar sig på användandet av AKK inom grundsärskolan/träningsskolan med utgångspunkt i kommunikationsträning. Syftet med studien var att belysa på vilka grunder lärare inom grundsärskolan/träningsskolan, upplever att de jobbar för att utveckla elevernas kommunikativa förmåga. Genom kvalitativa intervjuer tolkades lärarnas attityder till AKK med utgångspunkt i specialpedagogiska perspektiv samt problematiserades utifrån en etisk aspekt. I studien deltog åtta lärare inom träningsskolan, fördelade på sex skolor i två mindre grannkommuner. Studien visade att många lärare inte upplever sig ha tillräckliga kunskaper om AKK. Det framkom också att utbildning och ett gemensamt förhållningssätt upplevdes som de viktigaste faktorerna för att kunna jobba framgångsrikt med elevernas kommunikationsutveckling. Två inriktningar inom specialpedagogik utkristalliserade sig underanalysen och tolkningen av intervjuerna. Dessa var ett kompensatoriskt perspektiv och ett relationellt perspektiv. Även två olika tolkningar av syftet med AKK i grundsärskolan framträdde, där det ena var skapa struktur & tydlighet och kommunikation och det andra främja kommunikation genom struktur och tydlighet.

  • Berglund, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Tallbom, Ann-Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Är det kompensatoriska uppdraget en utopi?: Olika skolprofessioners uppfattningar kring uppdraget2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study sought to show how the compensatory mission is perceived, what is being compensated as well as which strategies are used and finally the prerequisites for the mission. Social context in relation to the compensatory mission has throughout the history of school been of importance and it is therefore a focal point in this study. Previous research showed that social context as well as language skills corresponds well to a student's school performance. The data collection method was semi structured interviews with a total of 18 teachers, special educators, headmasters and a headmaster of education, from nursery and preschool to high school. Data were also collected from three national school authorities and two officials. The theoretical framework included different perspectives such as intersectional, special education, sociocultural, salutogenic and habitus. According to the school law, the school ought to compensate for the different needs and prerequisites of the students. Despite the fact that the informants compensated for many things, in particular neuropsychiatric disabilities, an uncertainty concerning the mission arose since it was relatively unknown and was apprehended as interpretable. The prerequisites for the mission varied. The mayor obstacles for the mission seemed to be lack of communication regarding the mission and resources. The two officials were explicit concerning that it is the language that should be compensated for. The informants did not find the connections between social background and compensatory input or language clear. Nevertheless, they saw a coupling between social background and parents´ ability to support their children with homework or economic preconditions. One of the conclusions of the study was that the compensatory mission needs to be clarified and be discussed to a greater extent.

  • Hanneman, Jessica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Westerlund, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Tillgängligt lärande: Möjligheter och hinder med en dator per elev2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien var att beskriva, analysera och problematisera den digitala satsningen 1:1 på högstadiet i en mindre kommun. Vidare fokuserade studien på hur datorsatsningen kunde bidra till att skapa tillgängligt lärande för alla elever och vilken roll specialpedagogen hade i detta. Kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer användes för att kartlägga tjänstepersoners, specialpedagogers och lärares tankar inför satsningen, syn på implementeringen, hur de digitala verktygen användes och vilka utvecklingsbehov som fanns för att skapa tillgängliga lärmiljöer med 1:1. Ur ett sociokulturellt och specialpedagogiskt perspektiv analyserades resultatet. Även en teori om förändringsprocesser användes för analysen. Resultatet visade att satsningen delvis får ses som framgångsrik då det framkom flera lyckade exempel på hur datorsatsningen 1:1 användes i undervisningen och hur den bidrog till inkludering och ökat lärande. Detta framkom bland annat genom att informanterna berättade om spelbaserade plattformar som skapade ökad motivation hos eleverna, förenklade metoder att ge återkoppling och en ökad tillgång till alternativa lärverktyg för elever i behov av särskilt stöd. Det blev dock tydligt att det fanns brister i förändringsprocessen då viktiga aspekter, som exempelvis tydlig plan och utvärderingsbara mål saknades. Övervägande del av både specialpedagoger och lärare ansåg sig sakna tillräcklig kompetens för att kunna nyttja de digitala verktygens fulla potential. Det framkom också att specialpedagogernas kompetens att leda utvecklingsarbeten inte användes. En slutsats av studien var att de intervjuade tjänstepersonerna, specialpedagogerna och lärarna alla var positiva till datorsatsningen. En annan slutsats var att det fanns behov av fortbildning för att ytterligare kunna utveckla den pedagogiska användningen av de digitala verktygen.

  • Segerstedt, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Westerlund, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    "När jag blir stor kan jag läsa Mamma Mu själv": Pedagogers och elevers erfarenheter av elevinflytande genom läsundervisningens sammanhang i grundsärskolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study, is to describe and analyze the prerequisites for students influence in the special school and how this is expressed in the reading education, we want to contribute to increased knowledge. Background and previous research deals with the prerequsites and barriers on influence, language development, learning to read, reading comprehension as well as for investigated municipal influential methods for reading and reading comprehension. The empirical data of the study was collected through semistructured interviews with twelve educators, all those active in the special school and a questionary with eleven pupils. As a theoretical approach, sociocultural perspective on learning was used. The result indicates that student influences mostly is about individualized education based on the student's interests, that the opportunity for students to influence is possible while at the same time educators experience a difficulty in visualizing student influence to their students, as well as interpreting student communication regarding intentions and wishes in learning how to read. The main purpose the educators reason about, when it comes to student influence and reading education, was the importance of collaborating with elementary school students; partly as role models and partly as a source of learning. The solidarity and interaction as success factors for learning were pointed out many times, but also the communicative benefits of allowing students with different prerequisites to learn together and to be resources for each other's learning. In regards of the students' experiences of influence, it is considered that they are listened to, but the results show that what the students have influence over does not regard their education.

  • Melander, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordström, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vill du vara med?: Föräldrar och lärares upplevelser av elevers möjlighet till delaktighet i grundsärskolan respektive grundskolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har belyst hur föräldrar respektive lärare till elever med utvecklingsstörning beskriver och upplever elevernas möjlighet till delaktighet i grundsärskolan respektive grundskolans lärmiljö. De frågeställningar som ligger till grund för studien är; hur föräldrarna beskriver vad som föranleder deras önskemål om skolform samt vilka deras erfarenheter i samband med barnens skolstart är, hur lärarna beskriver att de arbetar för att elever med utvecklingsstörning ska ges möjlighet till delaktighet i grundsärskolan respektive grundskolans lärmiljö samt i vilken utsträckning föräldrar och lärare upplever att elever med utvecklingsstörning i grundsärskolan respektive grundskolan är delaktiga i skolans lärmiljö. I studien har tolv kvalitativa intervjuer med föräldrar och lärare genomförts. Resultatet av intervjuerna har sammanställts och analyserats. I studien framgår att föräldrarna och lärarna till elever med utvecklingsstörning i både grundsärskolan och grundskolan upplever att eleverna i relativt stor utsträckning ges möjlighet till delaktighet i skolans lärmiljö samtidigt som berättelserna också vittnar om att det finns områden att utveckla för att elever i skolan ska ges möjlighet till full delaktighet i skolans lärmiljö. I studien har delaktighetsbegreppet förståtts utifrån delaktighetsmodellen (Szõnyi & Söderqvist-Dunkers, 2018).

  • Boman, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    The impact of oil price shocks on household consumption: The case of Norway2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the end of World War II, oil price shocks and its impact on the economy have been a hot topic among economic researchers and agents. The price of oil has experienced several fluctuations during the late 20th century and the initial empirical findings suggest that these unexpected changes have several negative effects within countries’ economies. However, most of the research apply only on oil-importing countries and the same results from oil shocks aren´t expected for oil-exporting countries. Furthermore, the robustness of the relationship has recently come to be revaluated since many countries move towards alternative energy resources, thus moving away from its oil dependence.The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between oil shocks and consumption for the small democratic economy of Norway. The choice of selecting an oil-exporting country for this analysis is somewhat unique since many of the world economies are oil-importers and the research made up until now are focusing on these economies. To do this, the study ends up with analyzing the short-run effects of oil shocks on household consumption by using a Vector autoregression model, Granger-causality test and an Impulse response function. The result suggests that there is a granger causality between oil shocks and consumption. Also, for Norway, we find that a shock due to increased crude oil prices has a positive short effect on household consumption.

  • Liljefelt (f.d. Olsson Pernbrink), Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kunskapsbedömning och stödinsatser i grundsärskolan: Kartläggning, bedömningsstöd, åtgärdsprogram, extra anpassningar och pedagogisk planering – hur används det i grundsärskolan?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Englund, Mona
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Liljemark, Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedagogiska utredningar i grundskolan och grundsärskolan: Ett verktyg för skolans kompensatoriska uppdrag?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze teachers and special needs teachers experiences of and perceptions with respect to working with educational assessment in elementary school and special needs school based on the following research questions:

    • What experiences do teachers have from performing educational assessments according to current guidelines for assessment of elementary school and special needs school pupils need of special support?
    • What perceptions do teachers have regarding the educational assessments importance for supporting pupils goal completion?

    Based on the purpose and questions a mixed method approach was chosen. Five special needs teachers were interviewed by semi structure and a poll was sent out to all teachers in the municipality F-9 schools and after that a focus group interview was performed with four teachers to get a deeper understanding of the research area of the study. The theoretical reference for this study originates from the concept of equivalence. Current regulatory documents describe equivalence based on three fundamental aspects: equal access to education, equal quality of education and education shall be compensatory. In the study it reveals that after Schools Inspectorate review of the municipality the work with routines for assessment regarding pupils with special needs have been improved. It also reveals that the educational assessment is being performed according to the regulatory documents guidelines. However, this study describes a limited experience of assessing special needs pupils need of special support based on lack of goal completion. The persons interviewed in the study have an expectation that more clear routines will give the pupils better support contribution, but it also reveals that they have experience that lack of resources and competence can have a crucial role if the school can offer the pupil compensatory support.

  • Degerfält, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Westermark, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att arbeta med inkluderande undervisning mellan grundsärskolan och grundskolan: Utmaningarna och möjligheterna med inkluderande undervisning som arbetsmetod.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The school's governing documents are based on democratic grounds, and Sweden has taken a stand that all activities in school should be based on an inclusive approach. The included school is based on the fact that all pupils, regardless of their prerequistes and needs, will be given the opportunity for community and participation in the school. Since there was no prior research to the author's knowledge, about inclusive teaching between the special school and primary school, interest and the purpose of the study developed, to describe and analyze the challenges and opportunities of special school teachers and primary school teachers when they are going to work inclusive between special school and primary school. The study method used for the study's implementation was qualitative interviewing. Six special school teachers and six primary school teachers were interviewed, and the interviews were based on the themes about the formal and informal purpose of inclusion, the practical achievment of inclusion, pre-conditions and obstacles of inclusion and focused achievement goals. The result showed that special school teachers and primary school teachers had different thoughts of the process of inclusive teaching. The majority of special school teachers and primary school teachers had, despite experiences of obstacles, also expressed good opportunities, as well as a willingness and ambition to work and develop inclusive teaching at the studied school. The most important framework factor and the condition that special school teachers and primary school teachers raised were access to time and reserved time. Furthermore, other significant factors were the attitudes of special school teachers and primary school teachers had to an inclusive approach, the headmasters approach and the school's set goals for the inclusive teaching. The studied school has come a long way in pursuing an inclusive teaching method. Through greater organizational stability in the teaching crew, working methods would have a greater opportunity to deepen and develop. By providing good conditions for inclusive teaching at the organizational level, head masters can also make it easier for pupils to create permanent relationships between each other and between the special school and primary school.

  • Pousette, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Nilsson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    ”Om jag inte vet eller förstår varför man ska göra en uppgift, lägger jag ner!”: En studie om anpassningar och stöd för elever med ADHD eller autism2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how an elementary school works with additional adaptations for students with ADHD or autism spectrum disorder and how pupils with either of above diagnoses experience teaching and how it affects their learning. Another aim is to show which expectations the teachers have regarding the special education teachers´ responsibilities towards diagnosed students. The methods that are used in this study are the following: a survey directed towards teachers, interviews with teachers and students and classroom observations. The study indicates that teachers need more knowledge about both diagnoses but mainly about autism spectrum disorder. The role of the special education teacher needs to be more specified in relations to teachers. The students need lessons and teaching that are engaging and teachers that show interest and respect.

  • Thorén, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barnkonventionen blir Svensk lag: En studie som undersöker de förväntade förändringarna2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate what changes are expected of the incorporation of the United Nation Convention on the Rights of the Child into Swedish legalisation. The Swedish Parliament voted in the summer of 2018 through the Government's proposal to incorporate the Convention into Swedish legislation through incorporation. Since the ratification in 1990, Sweden has had to comply with the provision of the Convention, but the Convention has not had the impetus that was expected in the country. The Government believes that the Convention of the Rights of the Child, through incorporation, will introduce a symbolic clarification of the rights of the children. The study will also research and identify how the convention will be incorporated, what interventions the government has decided on and how these will be implemented. Incorporation is partly desirable, but also criticized, therefore, the study will also analyse the challenges and difficulties encountered in the incorporation of the convention of the Rights of the Child into Swedish legislation. The main problem that the study aims to discuss is whether the incorporation of the Convention of the Rights of the Child will be sufficient to accommodate the gaps in child justice in Sweden.    

    The aim of the study as well as the research questions has been answered through interviews with six individuals who are experts in the children's rights and who have information on the upcoming incorporation, they also have knowledge about the interventions that have been made and the challenges involved in the incorporation of the Convention of the rights of the child.     

    The result of the study shows that the expected changes that the interviewees had from incorporating the Convention of the Rights of the Child into Swedish legalisation were both positive and negative. The positive expectation is that the Convention will get more impact. That the best interests of the child will be tested in decisions that concern them and that they will be able to express an opinion to a greater extent than before. The negative expectations and challenges of incorporation are that the convention can be perceived undetermined and in itself does not constitute a basis for decision-making. It is therefore important that the provisions of the Convention continue to be transformed into national law. The interviewees also expressed a concern that the government's responsibility to ensure compliance with the Convention might transferred to the legal experts and that the work on transforming the Convention's provisions contingently stops.    

    The study also identifies the need of knowledge of the Convention of the Rights of the Child among the children. This will contribute to the positive effect that children will understand that they are carriers of rights. Furthermore the interviewees criticise the government’s decision to not incorporate the third additional protocol, optional protocol of the convention on the rights of the child on a communication procedure.

  • Emanuelsson, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Intensivträning av läsflytet hos lässvaga elever: En studie av avkodningsträning och morfologisk medvetenhet som insats i liten grupp i årskurs 32018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Intensive training of reading fluency for students with reading difficulties - A study of decoding training and morphological awareness training in small group in grade 3. This stydy examines the effects on reading flow of decoding training and decoding training in combination with morphological awareness instruction. The study included a small group of students with reading and writing difficulties in grade three. Based on reading comprehension tests, two interventiongroups were identifies with three students in each class and two corresponding controlgroups. The students received intensive training for six weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their attitude to reading at school and at home. Three different pre and posttests have been carried out to measure any change in student reading flow. The results show that there are benefits in terms of reading flow resulting from the short intensive training for this group of students. The interventionstudents gained insight into the importance of reading as well as a more positive attitude towards their own reading ability after the intervention.

  • Sunesson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    CAN ACTIVPAL REPLACE ACTIGRAPH WHEN MEASURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON ADULTS IN A FREE LIVING ENVRIONMENT?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction With an increasing knowledge of the health benefits from physical activity (PA) the interest in objectively measuring PA in free living environment has increased. ActiGraph is the most commonly used accelerometer to objectively measure PA, while ActivPAL is considered gold standard when it comes to measuring sedentary behavior. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate if ActivPAL could be used to measure Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) instead of ActiGraph. Methods Data from 79 overweight office workers carrying the ActivPAL and ActiGraph device simultaneously were analyzed. All activities with a cadence of 90 steps per minute (spm) or more lasting for at least 30 seconds from one day from ActivPAL data was extracted and compared to the corresponding activity from ActiGraph. An activity was classified as MVPA by using the cut points of 100 spm for ActivPAL and 3208 activity-counts per minute (cpm) for ActiGraph using vector magnitude (VM). Results A correlation of r=0.326 (p<0.001) was seen between ActiGraph and ActivPAL with a Cohen’s kappa of K=0.14, a percentage agreement of 60.7%, a sensitivity of 61.5% with ActiGraph as denominator and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 84.3% for ActivPAL. Neither age nor BMI affected the association between the estimates by these devices. There was no correlation for time spent in MVPA between devices. Conclusion Cadence from ActivPAL cannot replace ActiGraph to measure MVPA in a free living environment in overweight adults.

  • Gougeon, Marie-Madeline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Caught in a foxtrap: Working single mothers´experiences of barriers, facilitators and wishes for support for physical activity.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Working single mothers is a growing group in Sweden that has higher risk of poorer health and disabilities. They do not engage in enough physical activity (PA) to achieve health benefits.   Studies among American parents and single mothers show common barriers to PA such as lack of time, lack of social support and not overcoming putting children’s needs before their own. Little is known about Swedish working single mothers´ experiences of barriers, facilitators and wishes for support for PA.

     

    Aim: Explore swedish working single mothers experiences of barriers, facilitators and wishes for support for PA.

     

    Method: Eight participants with lower PA level than the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations ,were interviewed. The material was transcribed and analyzed with qualitative content analysis according to Graneheim and Lundman.

     

    Results: One theme emerged: “Prioritizing many other responsibilities while needing more support for physical activity”. Participants experienced difficulties finding time, energy, economy and opportunities for PA alone and with children. They put other responsibilities and others ‘needs before PA. They experienced a lack of support for PA from their social network and environment and wished for more support to make PA possible to do.

    Conclusion:  A socially oriented approch is needed to raise PA level in this group who seem to still struggle with economical and social disavantages. They seem to not benefit from workplaces fitness and wellness plans. Future research should investigate the relationship between their PA level and their access to fitness and wellness plans at their workplace.

  • Deplano, Alessandro
    et al.
    Cipriano, Mariateresa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Moraca, Federica
    Novellino, Ettore
    Catalanotti, Bruno
    Fowler, Christopher J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Onnis, Valentina
    Benzylamides and piperazinoarylamides of ibuprofen as fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors2019In: Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry (Print), ISSN 1475-6366, E-ISSN 1475-6374, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 562-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is a serine hydrolase that plays a key role in controlling endogenous levels of endocannabinoids. FAAH inhibition is considered a powerful approach to enhance the endocannabinoid signalling, and therefore it has been largely studied as a potential target for the treatment of neurological disorders such as anxiety or depression, or of inflammatory processes. We present two novel series of amide derivatives of ibuprofen designed as analogues of our reference FAAH inhibitor Ibu-AM5 to further explore its structure-activity relationships. In the new amides, the 2-methylpyridine moiety of Ibu-AM5 was substituted by benzylamino and piperazinoaryl moieties. The obtained benzylamides and piperazinoarylamides showed FAAH inhibition ranging from the low to high micromolar potency. The binding of the new amides in the active site of FAAH, estimated using the induced fit protocol, indicated arylpiperazinoamides binding the ACB channel and the cytosolic port, and benzylamides binding the ACB channel.

  • Lundin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Malmborg, Agota
    Slezak, Julia
    Danielsson, Kristina Gemzell
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Bengtsdotter, Hanna
    Marions, Lena
    Lindh, Ingela
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Hammar, Mats
    Sundstrom-Poromaa, Inger
    Sexual function and combined oral contraceptives: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial2018In: Endocrine Connections, ISSN 2049-3614, E-ISSN 2049-3614, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 1208-1216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The effect of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) on female sexuality has long been a matter of discussion, but placebo-controlled studies are lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate if an oestradiol-containing COC influences sexual function.

    Design: Investigator-initiated, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial where 202 healthy women were randomised to a combined oral contraceptive (1.5 mg oestradiol and 2.5 mg nomegestrol acetate) or placebo for three treatment cycles.

    Methods: Sexual function at baseline and during the last week of the final treatment cycle was evaluated by the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire. Serum and hair testosterone levels were assessed at the same time points.

    Results: Compared to placebo, COC use was associated with a small decrease in sexual interest (COC median change score: -2.0; interquartile range (IQR): -5.0 to 0.5 vs placebo: -1.0; IQR: -3.0 to 2.0, P=0.019), which remained following adjustment for change in self-rated depressive symptoms (B= -0.80 +/- 0.30, Wald =7.08, P=0.008). However, the proportion of women who reported a clinically relevant deterioration in sexual interest did not differ between COC or placebo users (COC 18 (22.2%) vs placebo 16 (17.8%), P=0.47). Change in other measured aspects of sexual function as well as total score of sexual function did not differ between the two treatments.

    Conclusions: This study suggests that use of oestradiol-based COCs is associated with reduced sexual interest. However, the changes are minute, and probably not of clinical relevance.

  • Berglund, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Hinder, svårigheter och gynnsamma faktorer i skolan: En intervjustudie av fem elever med språkstörning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was on one hand to identify the obstacles and difficulties that students with Developmental Language Disorder have in school and on the other hand to find out which special educational methods and aids that could be beneficial for them. Five young adults with developmental language disorder were interviewed about their view on the problems and needs they had in primary and secondary school and how these were met by their schools and teachers. The study showed that the students did not receive the help and special education they would have needed in time. They attended regular classes and the teachers did not have the competence that they would have needed in order to be able to help these students. The students also reported poor peer relations in school because of the lack of information about their language impairment to other students. When the students were given assistive devices like computers, screen reading programs and image support and special education in a smaller group they could take part in education in a more efficient way. The students also reported a higher level of satisfaction with their studies. The study confirmed the findings from previous studies and surveys in which this need of early support and special education were pointed out.

  • Wallin, Marcus B.
    et al.
    Campeau, Audrey
    Audet, Joachim
    Bastviken, David
    Bishop, Kevin
    Kokic, Jovana
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Lundin, Erik J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lofgren, Stefan
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Teutschbein, Claudia
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Grabs, Thomas
    Carbon dioxide and methane emissions of Swedish low-order streams: a national estimate and lessons learnt from more than a decade of observations2018In: Limnology and oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 156-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-order streams are suggested to dominate the atmospheric CO2 source of all inland waters. Yet, many large-scale stream estimates suffer from methods not designed for gas emission determination and rarely include other greenhouse gases such as CH4. Here, we present a compilation of directly measured CO2 and CH4 concentration data from Swedish low-order streams (> 1600 observations across > 500 streams) covering large climatological and land-use gradients. These data were combined with an empirically derived gas transfer model and the characteristics of a ca. 400,000 km stream network covering the entire country. The total stream CO2 and CH4 emission corresponded to 2.7 Tg C yr(-1) (95% confidence interval: 2.0-3.7) of which the CH4 accounted for 0.7% (0.02 Tg C yr(-1)). The study highlights the importance of low-order streams, as well as the critical need to better represent variability in emissions and stream areal extent to constrain future stream C emission estimates.

  • Nchang, Obestine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Rudnik, Tatjana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    "Incubator and accelerator role in the social entrepreneurship process": Swedish context2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in social entrepreneurship is increasing in Europe in general and Sweden in particular. Because social entrepreneurs (SEs) and incubators share a common aim of enhancing development and improving the living conditions of the people, one would think that they tend to work together more closely than in case when incubators work with the conventional entrepreneurs (CEs). Incubator activities can influence the process of the SE. The purpose of this paper was to identify which activities, that they provide, can influence the SE’s growth. We were also interested in examining how those activities differ when working with the CEs. To fulfill this purpose, we developed the research question: What are the roles of incubators and accelerators in the entrepreneurial process of SE and how they differ from the roles played in the entrepreneurial process of CE?

     In order to answer the research question and fulfil the objectives of study in hand, we embraced interpretivist approach and qualitative method for data collection and analysis. 6 semi structured interviews are conducted with SEs that have experience in participating in incubator and accelerator programs, as well as two experts from the side of incubator and accelerator programs.

     It has been found that education, making contacts and facilitating meetings as well as the office space are the main roles of incubator and accelerator programs, which have as their goal to assist SEs. Moreover, it is found that not all of the roles are equally significant, nor that they are played out through all the phases of the entrepreneurial process. Stages of the entrepreneurial process are revised, and their content is found to be different in comparison with social entrepreneurship. We answer the second part of our research question by carrying out a comparative discussion based on the empirical findings on SEs and existing literature on CEs. We summaries these difference by the means of a table. Finally, we put together and connect roles of incubator and accelerator programs interested in scaling of SEs and the entrepreneurial process, where the model linking the roles through the entrepreneurial phases of SE is proposed. Hence, we conclude that our research question has been answered and research purpose fulfilled.

  • Fagerström, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Spelmissbruk och val av speltyp: En jämförelse mellan spelmissbrukares upplevelser och deras val av speltyp2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    DSM-5 har valt att klassificera spelmissbruk som ett substansrelaterat missbruk då forskningen på området har funnit många likheter med substansmissbruk vad gäller förhöjd tolerans, sämre beslutsförmåga och lägre impulsförmåga. Dock har det väckts kritiska röster beträffande generaliseringen av gruppen spelmissbrukare, och forskare menar att beroende på om personer vänder sig till så kallade skicklighetsspel eller chansspel, finns det olika bakomliggande orsaker till varför människor börjar spela om pengar.  Syftet med denna studie har därför varit att analysera likheter och skillnader i hur svenska skicklighetsspelare och chansspelare beskriver sina upplevelser och erfarenheter av att vara spelmissbrukare. Studien har baserats på totalt åtta kvalitativa intervjuer med respondenter inom respektive grupp. Intervjuerna utgick från semistrukturerade frågor som berörde respondenternas tidigare relation till spel, vad som fick dem att börja samt hur det utvecklades till ett spelmissbruk. Respondenternas utsagor bearbetades genom tematisk analys. Resultatet visade skillnader mellan grupperna vad gäller motivationen till att börja spela då skicklighetsspelarna upplevde ett större nöje och underhållning till spelet medan chansspelarna såg spelet som en konsekvens eller nödvändighet på grund av den rådande livssituationen. Likheterna mellan grupperna blev tydliga i takt med mer frekvent spelande, då framförallt verklighetensflykten och jakten på ekonomiska kompensation var centrala faktorer. Studien har bidragit till en djupare förståelse kring spelmissbrukares upplevelser och kan vara till hjälp för framtida forskning som vill titta närmare på skillnader inom gruppen spelmissbrukare. Studien kan även vara till hjälp för professionella som möter spelmissbrukare och som strävar efter att anpassa behandlingen beroende på vilken speltyp som konsumeras.

  • Kokic, Jovana
    et al.
    Sahlée, Erik
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Vachon, Dominic
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    High spatial variability of gas transfer velocity in streams revealed by turbulence measurements2018In: INLAND WATERS, ISSN 2044-2041, E-ISSN 2044-205X, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 461-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Streams are major sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere, but current large-scale estimates are associated with high uncertainties because knowledge concerning the spatiotemporal control on stream emissions is limited. One of the largest uncertainties derives from the choice of gas transfer velocity (k(600)), which describes the physical efficiency of gas exchange across the water-atmosphere interface. This study therefore explored the variability in k(600 )and subsequent CO2 and CH4 emission rates within and across streams of different stream order (SO). We conducted, for the first time in streams, direct turbulence measurements using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) to determine the spatial variability in k(600) across a variety of scales with a consistent methodology. The results show high spatial variability in k(600) and corresponding CO2 and CH4 emissions at small spatial scales, both within stream reaches and across SO, especially during high discharge. The k(600) was positively related to current velocity and Reynolds number. By contrast, no clear relationship was found between k(600) and specific stream characteristics such as width and depth, which are parameters often used in empirical models of k(600). Improved understanding of the small-scale variability in the physical properties along streams, especially during high discharge, is therefore an important step to reduce the uncertainty in existing gas transfer models and emissions for stream systems. The ADV method was a useful tool for revealing spatial variability in this work, but it needs further development. We recommend that future studies conduct measurements over shorter time periods (e.g., 10-15 min instead of 40 min) and at more sites across the reach of interest, and thereby derive more reliable mean-reach k(600) as well as more information about controls on the spatial variability in k(600).

  • Gómez-Gener, Lluís
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gubau, Marina
    von Schiller, Daniel
    Marce, Rafael
    Obrador, Biel
    Effect of small water retention structures on diffusive CO2 and CH4 emissions along a highly impounded river2018In: INLAND WATERS, ISSN 2044-2041, E-ISSN 2044-205X, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 449-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impoundment of running waters through the construction of large dams is recognised as one of the most important factors determining the transport, transformation, and outgassing of carbon (C) in fluvial networks. However, the effects of small and very small water retention structures (SWRS) on the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of C emissions are still unknown, even though SWRS are the most common type of water retention structure causing river fragmentation worldwide. Here we evaluated and compared diffusive carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from river sections impounded by SWRS and from their adjacent free-flowing sections along a highly impounded river. Emissions from impounded river sections (mean [SE] = 17.7 [2.8] and 0.67 [0.14] mmol m(-2)d(-1), for CO2 and CH4, respectively) never exceeded those from their adjacent free-flowing river sections (230.6 [49.7] and 2.14 [0.54] mmol m(-2)d(-1)). We attribute this finding to the reduced turbulence in impounded river sections induced by SWRS compared to free-flowing river sections (i.e., physical driver). Likewise, the presence of SWRS favoured an increase of the concentration of CH4 in impounded waters, but this increase was not sufficient to cause a significant influence in the CH4 efflux from the downstream free-flowing river sections. By contrast, this influenced the larger-scale longitudinal patterns of dissolved CH4, which exhibited a dear shifting pattern along the study stretch, modulated by variables associated with the presence of SWRS, such as higher water residence times, higher sedimentation rates, and higher temperatures. Overall, our results show that the presence of SWRS can modify the concentrations of C gases in highly impounded rivers but exerts a minor influence on diffusive C emissions.

  • Duranton, Flore
    et al.
    Palma, Alfonso
    Stegmayr, Bernd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wauthier, Michel
    Torres, Armando
    Argilés, Angel
    Blood Pressure Seasonality in Hemodialysis Patients from Five European Cities of Different Latitudes2018In: Kidney and Blood Pressure Research, ISSN 1420-4096, E-ISSN 1423-0143, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 1529-1538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Climate influences the regulation of blood pressure (BP). Our objective was to precisely estimate BP seasonality in hemodialysis (HD) patients from five European cities with marked climate differences. Methods: Stable prevalent HD patients from 5 European facilities (Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain), Seville (Spain), Montpellier (France), Ottignies (Belgium), Umea (Sweden)) present over the years 1995-1999 were included in this historical longitudinal observational study. Individual monthly averages of pre-dialysis BP level were computed from all facility BP measurements (>90 000 observations). The association between BP level and location, seasons and meteorological measurements was analyzed by mixed models. Results: 261 patients were included and followed-up for a median duration of 2 years (6903 monthly observations). Pre-dialysis SBP and DBP were minimal in summer (July) and maximal in winter (November and December), and mean changes were respectively 4.2 [3.0;5.4] and 2.0 [1.3;2.7] mmHg. Seasonality was confirmed in 4 locations (P-season <= 0.0010.001 for SBP and DBP), but not in Umea (both P-season >0.05). Seasonal changes in DBP were larger in southern locations (P-interaction =0.02). BP level was associated with climate parameters: in a positive manner with humidity or rainfall, and inversely with sunshine duration or temperature. The effects of temperature and rainfall on DBP varied with latitude (P-interaction <0.02) and were greater in southern locations. Conclusion: BP varies with seasons and climate in different European areas and seasonality can be more important in southern locations. These changes in BP deserve attention as they may be responsible for a significant increase in cardiovascular risk which may be preventable.

  • Otterhall, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    von Ahn, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Professionella behandlare om alkoholmissbruk och återfall: Hur behandlare i Västerbottens län ser på återfall och få deras uppfattning om hur det kommer sig att en del alkoholmissbrukare inte återfaller2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en studie som undersöker hur yrkesverksamma behandlare i Västerbottens län ser på återfall och få deras uppfattning om hur det kommer sig att en del alkoholmissbrukare inte återfaller. Hur en före detta missbrukare motiveras till att inte ta ett återfall är ett komplext område som inbegriper många delområden. Dessa områden kan bestå av såväl interna och, eller, externa faktorer. För att få en inblick i problematiken har semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts med professionella behandlare. Den empiri intervjuerna har försett arbetet med har kopplats samman och kritiserats utifrån vetenskaplig litteratur. Studien har fokus på tre delområden. Dessa är huruvida det går att digitalisera behandlingsvård alternativt eftervård, om det finns några skillnader mellan behandling och återfall mellan män och kvinnor och ifall det skiljer sig mellan behandlares syn på återfall och den vetenskapliga litteraturens syn på återfall. Slutsatserna i studien belyser bland annat att digitalisering av vård kan ha positiva effekter när det kommer till tillgängligheten och medverkande på distans, men att det finns situationer då behandling kräver fysisk närvaro för att uppnå bästa resultat. Vidare visar den vetenskapliga litteraturen och de aktuella intervjupersonerna på olika upplevelser vad gäller könets betydelse i relation till återfallsprevention. En slutsats som tagits fram är att det skiljer lika mycket mellan de individer som har samma kön som det skiljer mellan individer som har olika kön, vilket betyder att behandlingen bör vara individanpassad. Samtlig datainsamling, såväl från intervjupersoner och vetenskaplig litteratur, är överens om att det är individen som med sitt självbestämmande väljer att ta ett återfall. Det betyder att individen tar ett återfall och får därmed inte ett återfall utan att själv ha agerat.