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  • Baltz, Kim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Baltz, Kim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Mätning av Telias 4G-nät, Umeå universitets campusområde.2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of the mesaurements I’ve made on Telias 4G-network in the form of data rate and signal strength, withing the vicinity of Umeå University campus. This report also includes basic theoretical information about the techonolgy behind a 4G-network. The mesaurements emanated from 304 different locations around the campus area, mesaurements were made through the application ”Bredbandskollen” on a mobilephone of the model Huaweii P7-L10.

    A second measurement was made during the fesitval called ”Brännbollsyran” on Campus between 26-28 of may. It’s purpose was to examine how the 4G-network handled a heavier strain, and compare it’s measurements to the first one.

    The conclusions that have been made are the following:

    • Telias 4G network lives up to the criteria concering coverage and speed they have stated.
    • The reception on the campus are is good, however inside it can be unreliable.
    • The network managed the strain during Brännbollsyran, and you could still use it sufficently, despite a heave load in the network.
  • Svensson, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Svensson, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li-Fi (Light - Fidelity)2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Daily we are asked to turn off electronic devices that can transmit and receive radio signals, especially in airplanes and hospital environments where radio waves can interfere with vital equipment. This could soon be a thing of the past, The new wireless transmission technology, Li-Fi which is based on light waves unlike radio waves (Wi-Fi), light waves do not interfere with sensitive instruments. Although Li-Fi is still in its infancy, one can sense that there is great developmental potential. This report has compiled existing literary facts and physical tests in an attempt to give a picture of what we can expect of Li-Fi access in the future. 

  • Nensén, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nensén, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Analyser och mätningar av två olika nät: Mätningar av det trådlösa nätet på bussar samt jämföra med det mobila nätet2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study report treated the question about the wireless network we have in current buses and compare it with the mobile network 3G/4G. This report will present speed and stability for the both network. The various networks set against each others to see what network who delivering the highest speed for later in this study report be able to draw conclusions from there. Analys and measurements about the both networks will be done on the bus between Umeå - Stockholm. I selected to do all my analysis and measurements between Umeå – Stockholm because many pepoles travel daily that way. This report also contains facts about the technology for both network and how the equipment is used for the different networks. Description for both techniques will be in two parts, the first part will be about the technology for the wireless network in the buses. The second part will be about the technology for the mobile network 3G/4G. this study report delivering which network that has the highest speed on different locations between Umeå – Stockholm.

  • Olsson, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olsson, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Multi Protocol Label Switching: En grundläggande beskrivning av tekniken2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the technology Multiprotocol Label Switching. The focus will be on how information is transmitted and what vital parts it is linking a fully functional MPLS network.

    The purpose behind all this work is to gain an understanding of the context in which it is necessary to use the technology. It is also to investigate how MPLS is a first-hand options relative to other solutions.

    The report contains information about how the communication takes place between different access points and how they can take advantage of the benefits that come with the technology. Carefully selected and relevant questions are asked to describe what makes MPLS unique.

    Generally, it is about the transportation of labels to controlled traffic solutions, a technology that´s started to take up more space and becoming more mature over the years.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-21 13:00 135 X1, Umeå
    Petersson, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Petersson, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    The Swedish Maternal Health Care Register: Internal Validity, User Perspectives and Register Outcomes; and Experiences by Midwives in Antenatal Care2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Established in 1999, the Swedish Maternal Health Care Register (MHCR), collects data on pregnant women and their offspring. Since 2013, the MHCR has been a part of the Swedish Pregnancy Register (SPR). Data are entered manually into the MHCR by midwives in antenatal care (ANC). ANC is primarily organised within public primary health care in Sweden. Midwives are the primary providers of health care during pregnancy, and they are responsible for providing information about prenatal diagnosis to expecting parents.

    Aims

    This thesis investigated internal validity of MHCR data, and user’s experiences of the MHCR. Prenatal diagnosis was explored in regard to local guidelines and to background characteristics and pregnancy outcomes. Factors affecting the work situation for midwives in ANC, as well as their experiences on informing expecting parents about prenatal diagnosis were investigated.

    Methods

    Study I, II and III were cross-sectional studies. Study I included data from MHCR and medical records on 878 pregnancies during 2011. Study III analysed data from MHCR/SPR, in total 284,789 pregnancies for 2011 to 2013. Study II was a questionnaire study with a quantitative and a qualitative component, including 989 participants. Study IV was a qualitative study applying qualitative content analysis. Fifteen midwives participated in individual, telephone interviews.

    Main findings

    Overall, the degree of coverage of variables was high in the MHCR as well as in the medical records. For 17 of the 27 variables, agreement of data in both data sources reached 95% or more. Possible systematic errors were identified for two variables (Paper I). Midwives valued MHCR generally positively, although manual registration of data into the MHCR was perceived burdensome. Foremost midwives engaged in supervision regularly accessed data on pregnant women at their own ANC clinic (Paper II). Offers on prenatal diagnosis varied considerably between the 21 Swedish counties during 2011 to 2013. Maternal age and educational level demonstrated strong associations with uptake of prenatal diagnosis (Paper III). Midwives in ANC reported their work load as manageable. Clinical guidelines, continuing education, and collaboration in the chain of care of pregnant women, were supportive factors for midwives work situation in antenatal care. Administrative work load was perceived as strenuous and informing expecting parents about prenatal diagnosis was challenging (Paper IV).

    Conclusions

    Data in the MHCR demonstrated sufficient internal validity. MHCR was an underutilised source in operational planning of ANC. Offers and uptake on prenatal diagnosis was unequally distributed in Sweden. Midwives enjoyed their work in ANC. Administrative work was strenuous and informing expecting parents about prenatal diagnosis was challenging. The register can further develop its report systems to be used in a higher extent in evaluation and planning of Swedish maternal health care services. Expecting couples in Sweden should be offered the same opportunities on prenatal diagnosis. Pedagogical tools may facilitate midwives mission to inform expecting parents with varying pre-understanding about prenatal diagnosis

  • Forsling, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Forsling, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Time constants of optical turbulence in the atmosphere2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Public defence: 2016-10-21 09:00 Betula, Umeå
    Kien, Vu Duy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kien, Vu Duy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Inequalities in non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam: health care utilization, expenditure and responsiveness of commune health stations2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adults in Vietnam. Little is known about the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in NCDs and other NCD-related factors in urban areas, in particular among the poor living in slum areas. Understanding these disparities are essential in contributing to the knowledge, needed to reduce inequalities and close the related health gaps burdening the disadvantaged populations in urban areas. 

    Objective: To examine the burden and health system responsiveness to NCDs in Hanoi, Vietnam and investigate the role of socioeconomic inequalities in their prevalence, subsequent healthcare utilization and related impoverishment due to health expenditures. 

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3,736 individuals aged 15 years and over who lived in 1211 randomly selected households in 2013 in urban Hanoi, Vietnam. The study collected information on household’s characteristics, household expenditures, and household member information. A qualitative approach was implemented to explore the responsiveness of commune health stations to the increasing burden of NCDs in urban Hanoi. In-depth interview approach was conducted among health staff involved in NCD tasks at four commune health stations in urban Hanoi. Furthermore, NCD managers at relevance district, provincial and national levels were interviewed. 

    Results: The prevalence of self-reported NCDs was significantly higher among individuals in non-slum areas (11.6%) than those in slum areas (7.9%). However, the prevalence of self-reported NCDs concentrated among the poor in both slum and non-slum areas. In slum areas, the poor needed more health care services, but the rich consumed more health care services. Among households with at least one household member reporting diagnosis of NCDs, the proportion of household facing catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment were the greater in slum areas than in non-slum areas. Poor households in slum areas were more likely to face catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment. The poor in non-slum areas were also more likely to face impoverishment if their household members experienced NCDs. Health system responses to NCDs at commune health stations in urban Hanoi were weak, characterized by the lack of health information, inadequate human resources, poor financing, inadequate quality and quantity of services, lack of essential medicines. The commune health stations were not prepared to respond to the rising prevalence of NCDs in urban Hanoi. 

    Conclusion: This thesis shows the existence of socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of self-reported NCDs in both non-slum and slum areas in urban Hanoi. NCDs associated with the inequalities in health care utilization, catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment, particular in slum areas. Appropriate interventions should focus more on specific population groups to reduce the socioeconomic inequalities in the NCD prevalence and health care utilization related to NCDs to prevent catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment among the households of NCD patients.  The functions of commune health stations in the urban setting should be strengthened through the development of NCDs service packages covered by the health insurance.

  • Blomdal, Jessica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Blomdal, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    von Ahn, Karoline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Att leva med långvarig smärta: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Att leva med långvarig smärta

    Bakgrund: En av de vanligaste orsakerna till att människor söker sjukvård är smärta. Smärta är en komplex subjektiv känsla och har upplevts av de flesta. Långvarig smärta påverkar en person fysisk, psykiskt och socialt. I Sverige beräknas 18 % av befolkningen lida av långvarig smärta.

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien är att beskriva erfarenheter av att leva med långvarig smärta.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie som baserats på åtta kvalitativa artiklar har analyserats, granskats och sammanställts. Databassökningarna gjordes i CinAhl och PubMed.

    Resultat: Studiens resultat presenterades i en huvudkategori “”När smärtan dominerar livet” och fem subkategorier “Smärtans uttryck”, “Kroppslig begränsning”, ”Förluster av relationer och roller”, “Att känna sig misstrodd och ifrågasatt” och “Acceptans och framtid”. Resultatet redogör hur den ständigt närvarande smärtan gavs i uttryck och de konsekvenser som tillkom i det dagliga livet och tillvaron.

    Konklusion: Erfarenheter av långvarig smärta är alltid subjektiv, men beskrivs av många på liknande sätt. Smärtan påverkar hela individen med en rad konsekvenser där den psykiska påfrestningen är mest påtaglig. I mötet med dessa personer är det viktigt att sjuksköterskan tror, lyssnar, visar förståelse och bekräftar deras smärtupplevelser. 

  • Frech, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Frech, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Arciniegas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ensam är inte stark: En litteraturstudie om äldres upplevelser av ensamhet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Ensam är inte stark – en litteraturstudie om äldres upplevelser av ensamhet

    Bakgrund: Forskning visar på att ensamhet påverkar hälsan både psykiskt och somatiskt. Vi människor behöver gemenskap med andra. Äldre personer är en utsatt grupp med ökad risk att drabbas av ensamhet. Ensamhet är en av anledningarna till äldres suicidförsök och kan öka risken för demens, depression och högt blodtryck.

    Syfte: Att undersöka hur äldre personer upplever ensamhet.

    Metod: Sökningar i 3 olika databaser gjordes. Efter urval utifrån inklusions- och exklusionskriterier samt kvalitetsgranskning valdes 9 kvalitativa studier ut som svarade på syftet. Studiernas resultat analyserades och sammanställdes.

    Resultat: Äldre personer upplever ensamhet som något negativt. Ensamheten upplevdes som ett hinder och var svår att ta sig ur. De äldre kände att ensamheten var en hopplös och maktlös situation. Ensamheten ledde till att de äldre kände att livet tappat sin mening. Ensamheten var även en stigmatiserad känsla som inte gärna pratades om.

    Konklusion: Ensamhet är något som påverkar äldre personers hälsa på flera olika plan. Äldre upplever att ensamhet är något icke önskvärt. Sjuksköterskan skulle kunna ha en nyckelroll i att upptäcka och uppmärksamma äldre personer som lever i ensamhet samt förhindra ohälsa på grund av ensamhet. Fler interventionsstudier krävs för att minska ensamhet hos gruppen äldre.

    Nyckelord: ensamhet, äldre, upplevelser

  • Arciniegas, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Arciniegas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Frech, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ensam är inte stark: En litteraturstudie om äldres upplevelser av ensamhet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Ensam är inte stark – en litteraturstudie om äldres upplevelser av ensamhet

    Bakgrund: Forskning visar på att ensamhet påverkar hälsan både psykiskt och somatiskt. Vi människor behöver gemenskap med andra. Äldre personer är en utsatt grupp med ökad risk att drabbas av ensamhet. Ensamhet är en av anledningarna till äldres suicidförsök och kan öka risken för demens, depression och högt blodtryck.

    Syfte: Att undersöka hur äldre personer upplever ensamhet.

    Metod: Sökningar i 3 olika databaser gjordes. Efter urval utifrån inklusions- och exklusionskriterier samt kvalitetsgranskning valdes 9 kvalitativa studier ut som svarade på syftet. Studiernas resultat analyserades och sammanställdes.

    Resultat: Äldre personer upplever ensamhet som något negativt. Ensamheten upplevdes som ett hinder och var svår att ta sig ur. De äldre kände att ensamheten var en hopplös och maktlös situation. Ensamheten ledde till att de äldre kände att livet tappat sin mening. Ensamheten var även en stigmatiserad känsla som inte gärna pratades om.

    Konklusion: Ensamhet är något som påverkar äldre personers hälsa på flera olika plan. Äldre upplever att ensamhet är något icke önskvärt. Sjuksköterskan skulle kunna ha en nyckelroll i att upptäcka och uppmärksamma äldre personer som lever i ensamhet samt förhindra ohälsa på grund av ensamhet. Fler interventionsstudier krävs för att minska ensamhet hos gruppen äldre.

    Nyckelord: ensamhet, äldre, upplevelser

  • Ålander, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ålander, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Rubensson, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Krav, kontroll och socialt stöd i arbetet hos lärare: En enkätstudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Denna uppsats undersökte den psykosociala arbetsmiljön för lärare i en kommun i mellersta Norrland, Sverige, med hjälp av mätinstrumentet, The Swedish Demand Control Support Questionnaire (DCSQ). Metod: En kvantitativ studie som omfattade 56 grundskollärare. DCSQ är en enkät med 17 frågor som behandlar upplevelser av krav, kontroll och socialt stöd på arbetsplatsen. Resultat: Inga signifikanta skillnader kunde påvisas mellan lärare i låg- och mellanstadiet och högstadiet. Dock indikerade siffrorna att lärare i låg- och mellanstadiet upplever högre krav än sina kollegor i högstadiet. Slutsats: Då deltagarantalet var relativt lågt (45,2%), är det svårt att dra slutsatser av resultatet som kan appliceras på hela populationen (124 lärare). Författarna föreslår vidare kvantitativ och kvalitativ forskning med större studiepopulation som även inkluderar frågor kring krav, kontroll och socialt stöd på fritiden. 

  • Boström, Josefine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Boström, Josefine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörsing, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Patienters upplevelser av att vårdas på låst avdelning och avskiljas från andra.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Vestling, Julia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Vestling, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Linnerstedt, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenhet av det preventiva arbetet vid övervikt och fetma hos barn och ungdomar.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Nurses’ experiences of the preventive work regarding overweight and obesity in children and adolescents.

     

    Background

    Obesity is a worldwide problem that affects over 10% of the world population. WHO estimates that 42 million children under 5 years are overweight or obese. More people die of diseases related to overweight and obesity than of underweight and malnutrition. The distribution of those with overweight and obesity is skewed and from society’s lower social strata, immigrants or people living in a rural areas have a higher risk to be obese. The physical and psychological consequences of obesity are many.

     

    Method

    A qualitative literature review that included 11 articles. The result was created by a critical review, analyze and summarization.

     

    Result

    The result included two main themes: “ Nurses’ experience in the preventive work” which addressed the opportunities and barriers with counseling, refutation and interaction, aids and time. The last major category - “Healthcare organization” describes insufficient cooperation and support as well as guidelines and prevention measures.

    Conclusion

    There is a great need to give nurses more time to work preventive, give more knowledge of utilities and more opportunities to collaborate with colleagues and other professionals.

  • Hampusson, Linn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hampusson, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ångman, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sårbehandling efter höftprotesoperation: - en retrospektiv journalgranskning som jämför sårbehandling mellan två avdelningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sårinfektioner efter en höftprotesoperation är ett problem som ökar risken för dödlighet, innebär ett lidande för individen och är kostsamt för sjukvården. Underlaget för hur postoperativ sårbehandling bör gå till bland individer som genomgått höftprotesoperationer är begränsat. På ortopedkliniken i Umeå finns olika regimer för hur postoperativa så ska behandlas.

    Syfte: Undersöka om sårbehandling och postoperativa sårinfektioner skiljer sig mellan elektiv och akut avdelning vid höftprotesoperationer.

    Metod: Studien utfördes som en retrospektiv journalgranskning under två år och totalt undersöktes 180 individer. 142 individer från akuta avdelningen och 38 individer från elektiva avdelningen. Deskriptiva analyser genomfördes för att se skillnad mellan avdelningarna.

    Resultat: Totalt upptäcktes 10 infektioner under perioden, tre ytliga och sju djupa men ingen signifikant skillnad mellan avdelningarna vad gäller infektioner. Resultatet visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan avdelningarna vid val av omläggningsmaterial. Akuta avdelningen gjorde totalt fler omläggningar.

    Konklusion: Resultatet från denna studie visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan avdelningarna vad gäller infektioner och typ av förband vid sårbehandling. Det verkade inte heller ha betydelse om ren eller steril sårbehandling utförts. Fler studier behövs för att kunna påvisa vilken sårbehandling som bör föredras. Stora randomiserade prospektiva studier skulle eventuellt kunna påvisa detta. 

  • Pedersen, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Pedersen, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Enarsson, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Avvikelserapportering leder till förbättringar för patientsäkerheten: En studie om vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av avvikelserapportering när det gäller venprovtagning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av avvikelserapportering när det gäller venprovtagning inom primärvården.

    Bakgrund: Venprovtagning är ett vanligt och viktigt moment inom hälso- och sjukvården. När det gäller venprovtagning sker många misstag som kan få allvarliga konsekvenser för patienterna i form av felaktig eller försenad behandling. Trots detta är det ett fåtal av vårdpersonalen som har skrivit en avvikelserapport när det gäller venprovtagning. Enligt Socialstyrelsen skall en avvikande händelse rapporteras för att förbättra rutiner och ge patienter en säkrare vård. Vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av avvikelserapportering när det gäller venprovtagning är lite studerat och behöver belysas.

    Metod: Uppsatsen är en kvalitativ empirisk studie. Trettio vårdpersonal intervjuades om avvikelserapportering när det gällde venprovtagning. Det insamlade materialet analyserades med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Analysen resulterade i fyra kategorier och åtta underkategorier. Kategorierna visade att det fanns en otydlighet i planering och organisation, att arbetsbelastningen är hög och det finns en brist på förståelse för betydelsen av avvikelserapporter. Vidare behöver vårdpersonalen få stöd och handledning, då avvikelser är svåra att skriva och vårdpersonalen väljer att prioritera annat i arbetet. Slutligen beskrevs attityderna till avvikelserapporter variera beroende på den personliga erfarenheten.

    Slutsats: Provtagning på en hälsocentral i glesbygden kräver planering i verksamheten. Genom ökad kunskap och förståelse för venprovets betydelse skapas en reflektion där patientsäkerheten blir fokus. Ett korrekt taget venprov resulterar i minskad belastning på vårdpersonalen, jämnare patientflöde, mindre återbesök och säkrare behandling där rätt person får rätt provresultat. Genom ett enkätsystem kan brister identifieras, insatser planeras och preanalytiska fel minskas.

     

    Nyckelord: avvikelserapportering, patientsäkerhet, venprovtagning, vårdpersonal.

  • Hammarberg, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hammarberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Öberg, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    En förändrad framtid: En litteraturstudie om kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med livmoderhalscancer2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: En förändrad framtid. En litteraturstudie om kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med livmoderhalscancer. Bakgrund: Livmoderhalscancer är en av de vanligaste cancerformerna i världen. Sjukdomen behandlas med kirurgi, cytostatika och strålning. Kvinnor upplever att deras livsvärld förändras vid en cancerdiagnos. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med livmoderhalscancer. Metod: Litteraturstudien baserades av nio kvalitativa artiklar som har granskats och analyserats. Sökningen genomfördes i CINAHL och PubMed. Resultat: Resultatet presenterades i tre kategorier och nio subkategorier. Kategorierna var: förändrad kvinnlighet och sexualitet, livet förändras vid livmoderhalscancer och känna stöd från omgivningen. Dessa kategorier beskriver hur livet förändrades och hur påfrestande detta kunde vara för kvinnan. Behov av stöd från närstående och en individanpassad information var viktigt. Konklusion: Kvinnor upplever förändrad kvinnlighet och sexualitet till följd av behandling mot livmoderhalscancer. Bristande information medför oro och rädsla. Därför är det viktigt att sjuksköterskan ger individuellt anpassad information som leder till ökat stöd i kvinnornas tillvaro. 

  • Public defence: 2016-10-21 09:30 Hörsal E, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Lindmark, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Lindmark, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Statistical methods for register based studies with applications to stroke2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis adds to the area of register based research, with a particular focus on health care quality and (in)equality. Contributions are made to the areas of hospital performance benchmarking, mediation analysis, and regression when the outcome variable is limited, with applications related to Riksstroke (the Swedish stroke register).

    An important part of quality assurance is to identify, follow up, and understand the mechanisms of inequalities in outcome and/or care between different population groups. The first paper of the thesis uses Riksstroke data to investigate socioeconomic differences in survival during different time periods after stroke. The second paper focuses on differences in performance between hospitals, illustrating the diagnostic properties of a method for benchmarking hospital performance and highlighting the importance of balancing clinical relevance and the statistical evidence level used.

    Understanding the mechanisms behind observed differences is a complicated but important issue. In mediation analysis the goal is to investigate the causal mechanisms behind an effect by decomposing it into direct and indirect components. Estimation of direct and indirect effects relies on untestable assumptions and a mediation analysis should be accompanied by an analysis of how sensitive the results are to violations of these assumptions. The third paper proposes a sensitivity analysis method for mediation analysis based on binary probit regression. This is then applied to a mediation study based on Riksstroke data.

    Data registration is not always complete and sometimes data on a variable are unavailable above or below some value. This is referred to as censoring or truncation, depending on the extent to which data are missing. The final two papers of the thesis are concerned with the estimation of linear regression models for limited outcome variables. The fourth paper presents a software implementation of three semi-parametric estimators of truncated linear regression models. The fifth paper extends the sensitivity analysis method proposed in the third paper to continuous outcomes and mediators, and situations where the outcome is truncated or censored.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-21 13:00 Aulan, Sundsvall
    Björck, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Björck, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Warfarin treatment quality in stroke prevention2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Ischemic stroke is a serious condition often associated to presence of atrial fibrillation (AF). Use of anticoagulants for AF patients greatly reduces the risk of stroke. Warfarin is the most commonly used anticoagulant in Sweden. The aim of this thesis was to study the impact of warfarin treatment quality in Swedish stroke prevention.

    Methods

    Study I, II and IV were relatively large multicentre, retrospective, cohort studies based on Swedish registries, especially AuriculA, a quality register for AF and anticoagulation. Background data as well as bleeding and thromboembolic complications were retrieved from the National Patient Register. The Cause of Death Register was used in study II and IV. The Swedish Prescribed Drug Register was used in study IV, for data on concomitant acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) use. Study period was January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2011. Study III enrolled all warfarin treated AF patients in Sundsvall, registered in AuriculA on January 1, 2010. This smaller cohort was followed until discontinuation or study-stop December 31, 2013. All used data were collected from each patient’s medical record.

    Results

    The annual risk of major bleedings and thromboembolic events for warfarin treated patients, including all different indications for warfarin, was relatively low (2.24% and 2.66%), with incidence of intracranial bleeding of 0.37% per treatment year. The overall mean time in therapeutic range (TTR) was 76.5%. Patients started on warfarin due to AF had a mean TTR of 68.6%, with an annual risk of major bleeding and thromboembolic events of 2.23% and 2.95%, and with 0.44% annual risk of intracranial bleeding. No significant differences in overall complications were found when comparing treatment monitored in anticoagulation clinics (ACC) with treatment monitored in primary health care centers (PHCC). There were significantly increased risk of both overall major bleedings and thromboembolic events for those warfarin treated AF patients receiving additional ASA treatment, having individual TTR (iTTR) below 70%, or having high international normalized ratio (INR) variability. AF patients with low INR variability had generally lower complication rates, compared with patients with high INR variability. There were however no alteration on cumulative incidence of complications due to INR variability, for AF patients with iTTR ≥70%. The overall proportion of persistence to warfarin treatment for stroke patients with AF was found to be 0.69 after 2 years treatment and 0.47 after 5 years. Stroke patients with diagnosed dementia at baseline were more than two-times likely of discontinuing warfarin than others. Excessive alcohol use, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer and chronic heart failure were baseline diagnoses each associated with over 20% increased risk of treatment discontinuation. Lower persistence to treatment was linked to increasing start-age and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. As documented reasons for warfarin treatment discontinuation in AF patients, we found regained sinus rhythm as the most common addressed cause (31.2%), followed by problematic monitoring and bleedings. We estimated that only half (49.5%) of the treatment discontinuations were clinically well motivated.

    Conclusions

    Quality of Swedish warfarin treatment in initiated stroke prevention is high, with generally low rates of complications and high TTRs, no matter treatment in ACC or PHCC, including high long time persistence to warfarin in secondary stroke prevention. For better outcome in future warfarin stroke prophylactic treatment clinicians should aim for iTTRs above 70%, avoid additional ASA therapy, support fragile patients like those with excessive alcohol use and dementia, and base decisions on treatment discontinuations on solid medical arguments.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-21 10:00 MA 121, MIT-huset, Umeå
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Difficult to read or difficult to solve?: the role of natural language and other semiotic resources in mathematics tasks2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When students solve mathematics tasks, the tasks are commonly given as written text, usually consisting of natural language, mathematical notation and different types of images. This is one reason why reading and interpreting such texts are important parts of being mathematically proficient, at least within the school context. The ability utilized when dealing with aspects of mathematical text is denoted in this thesis as a mathematical reading ability; this ability is useful when reading mathematical language, for example, in task text. There is, however, a lack of knowledge of what characterizes this mathematical language, what students need to learn regarding the mathematical language, and exactly which mathematical language that tests should preferably assess. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledge of aspects of difficulty related to textual features in mathematics tasks. In particular, one aim is to distinguish between a difficulty that has to do with a mathematical ability and another that has not. Different types of text analyses are utilized to capture textural features that might be demanding for the students when reading and solving mathematics tasks. Aspects regarding vocabulary are investigated both in a literature review and in a study where corpora are used to analyse word commonness. Other textual analyses focus on textual features that concern mathematical notation and images, besides natural language. Statistical methods are used to analyse potential relations between the textual features of interest and both task difficulty and task demand on reading ability. The results from the research review are sparse regarding difficult vocabulary, since few of the reviewed studies analyses word aspects separately. Several of the analysed textual features are related to aspects of difficulty. The results show that tasks with more words that are uncommon both in a mathematical context and in an everyday context, may favour students with good reading ability rather than students with good mathematical ability. Another textual feature that is likely to be demanding for students, is if the task texts contains many meaning relations, for example, when several words refer to the same or similar object. These results have implications for the school practice both regarding textual features that are important from an educational perspective and regarding the construction of tests. The research does also contribute to an understanding of what characterizes a mathematical language.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-21 10:00 N 320 (Naturvetarhuset, Umeå universitet), Umeå
    Rantala, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Rantala, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    - Snälla du! Kan du sätta dig?: om vägledning i förskolan2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to deepen understanding of how socialization is performed in preschool. The empirical material upon which the results are based comprises video observations in which everyday situations were documented at two Swedish preschools. The analysis draws from Foucauldian theories of power.

    Swedish preschools have their own curriculum (National Agency for Education, 2010) in which the tasks of the preschool are formulated. As they are presented, these tasks may be perceived as complex. This offers wide scope for interpretation, where the task of socializing children is veiled under words with positive connotations, such as democracy, solidarity, empathy, consideration and respect. The vague expression of this task of socializating children lends importance to the study of how socialization is performed in the preschool.

    In this thesis, results of a thematic analysis of the normative utterances of educators are presented. The results uncover activities in everyday situations where children are guided in various ways and in which power, discipline and normalization are common elements. A picture emerges from the analysis of how attempts are made to communicate norms about how people should behave in a democratic society, even as the guidance provided varies both between genders and among individual children.

    The thesis contributes to deeper understanding of how socialization is performed in preschool by visualizing guidance in various situations, which makes it possible to analyse both how this guidance is delivered and the direction in which the children are guided. 

  • Fagge, Geoffrey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Fagge, Geoffrey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Demonisk besatthet och exorcism.: En komparativ studie av två böcker som tar upp Klingenberg caset.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how two writers deal with demonic possession and exorcism in their written works that both have a common theme, the same alleged case of possession and exorcism. By comparing these written works I explore if the authors share any common or varying theories on possession and exorcism and investigate if the common theme of the two books has contributed to the authors writing similar books.My results show that the two authors deal with demonic possession and exorcism differently, one has theological views of the phenomena but is sceptical of their role in the alleged case, whilst the other believes that demonic possession and exorcism can be explained using scientific theories and that they are phenomena that played a part in the alleged case. The two books are quite different. I conclude that both writers’ theories of the phenomena are dependent on the existence of the phenomenon of religion.

  • Sami, Ramiza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Sami, Ramiza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Islet Transplantation in Type I Diabetes Patients with Hypoglycemia2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ackebo, Klas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ackebo, Klas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motivation och engagemang hos innebandytränare: - Ur ett Self-determination Theory-perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to Self-determination Theory, people perform better when they experience inner motivation, rather than motivation sprung from external factors. This study aims to examine motivation in floorball coaches. Especially, reasons for starting to work as a coach are examined, as well as relationships between those reasons and the coaches experienced type of motivation. A web-survey was sent to 1059 floorball coaches in Sweden, wich were answered by 355 coaches. The results show 12 reasons why the coaches chose to commit themselves: Their own children, Sports interest, Contribute, Lack of coaches, Enjoyment, Their own development, A general interest, Leadership interest, Social connections, Asked to, Possessed expertise and A good cause. The results also showed that the coaches experienced inner motivation to the largest extent. Several relationships were shown between eight of the categories and the different types of motivation. Of those, the most distinct was the relationship between Contribute and self-determined motivation. This may be due to that the will to contribute can be related to the psychological need for relatedness. The study contributes to the knowledge of factors that may affect inner motivation in athletic coaches.

  • Lindvall, Rebecca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindvall, Rebecca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Möjligheter och hinder för att uppnå en arbetslivsbalans: Individers upplevelser gällande avvägning mellan arbete, fritid och återhämtning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to be productive in the workplace, room for recovery should be made where work and leisure find a balance. This balance can be complex to find when the demands on the individual, both on and off the job are required and it can be experienced as a stressful puzzle to get everyday pieces to go together. The purpose of this study was to examine experiences of  individuals in varying work situations, how they perceived their own balance between work and leisure, and furthermore if it existed support from the employer, related to the employees' leisure activities and recovery and how that in its turn co-existed with employee performance and health status according to themselves. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five participants and the content was analysed through thematic inductive analysis. The result indicated that recovery, motivation and support played a significant role in the balance between work and leisure. It also indicated that work and leisure had an effect on each other where understanding, trust, respect, identity and motivation was considered to have an impact on productivity at work and likewise recovery during leisure hours. The discussion touched the employee's desire to be perceived as an individual, the stress of being time-flexible and the importance of support on and off the job in the pursuit of a healthy situation. The discussion included whether work-life balance was perceived as individual and highlighted that it depended on the unique situation and person.

  • Lundgren, Amanda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Lundgren, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Lundström, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Svenska koncerners val av omräkningsmetod: I enlighet med IAS 21?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Globaliseringen har haft en stor betydelse för företagandet i världen och det har även inneburit att företag i olika länder har börjat handla och samarbeta mer med varandra. Detta har i sin tur lett till att ett behov av att använda sig av valutaomräkningsmetoder uppkommit, bland annat för att omvärdera sina utländska dotterbolag. I denna studie har vi valt att titta närmare på just val av omräkningsmetod i enlighet med IAS 21, International Accounting Standard 21. Vårt syfte är att se vilka faktorer som ligger till grund för val av omräkningsmetod och även undersöka två olika branscher för att se om det finns någon branschstandard samt undersöka närmare vilka utryck den tar.

    För att uppnå vårt mål med studien så har vi valt att genomföra en kvalitativ studie. Angreppsättet har varit deduktivt, verklighetssynen konstruktionistisk och forskningsansatsen hermeneutik. Vi har valt att undersöka sex företag, SCA, BillerudKorsnäs, Rottneros, Doro, Eriksson samt Vitec. Detta genom att göra intervjuer med någon som arbetar med koncernredovisning inom respektive företag. Vidare har även företagens årsredovisningar granskats. Tre av dessa företag verkar inom skogsindustrin och tre verkar inom elektronikbranschen. Utöver detta så har vi även kontaktat två experter inom området som har gett sin syn på IAS 21. De teorier som legat till grund för denna studie är agentteorin, den institutionella teorin samt Törnqvists omfattande undersökning.

    Vår studie är avgränsad till att enbart behandla börsnoterade företag. Detta eftersom dessa bolag ofta har utländska dotterbolag samt tillämpar IFRS-regelverket, som ligger till grund för utformandet av IAS 21. Branscherna valdes genom att undersöka Nasdaq OMX Stockholm och deras branschindelning. Sedan valdes de två branscherna utifrån att dessa hade flest koncerner med utländska dotterföretag.

    Resultatet av studien visar på att samtliga av de undersökta företagen använder sig av dagskursmetoden. Dock så har vi funnit ett företag som istället borde använda sig av den monetära metoden eftersom de har ett integrerat dotterbolag och därmed uppfyller kraven för den monetära metoden. De flesta uppger att det är de internationella standarderna som ligger till grund för valet av omräkningsmetod men att även andra faktorer spelar in, som till exempel enkelhet och historiska beslut. Vi fann dock att det inte fanns någon enhetlig branschstandard utan anser istället att det kan bero på de undersökta bolagens storlek och upparbetade rutiner.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-11 10:00 KB3B1 (Stora Hörsalen), Umeå
    Erik, Edlund
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Erik, Edlund
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Regulatory Control of Autumn Senescence in Populus tremula2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Autumn senescence is a visually spectacular phenomenon in which trees prepare for the oncoming winter. The mechanism for regulation of autumn senescence in trees has been very hard to pinpoint. In this thesis the main focus is to investigate how autumn senescence is regulated in aspens (Populus tremula).

    Previous work has established that autumn senescence in aspens is under daylight control, in this thesis the metabolic status and the effect on autumn senescence was investigated. The metabolic status was altered by girdling which leads to accumulation of photosynthates in the canopy. This resulted in an earlier onset of senescence but also the speed of senescence was changed. At the onset of senescence the girdled trees also accumulated or retained anthocyanins.

    The nitrogen status of aspens during autumn senescence was also investigated, we found that high doses of fertilization could significantly delay the onset of senescence. The effects of various nitrogen forms was investigated by delivering organic and inorganic nitrogen through a precision fertilization delivery system that could inject solutes directly into the xylem of the mature aspens. The study showed that addition of nitrate delayed senescence, addition of arginine did not have any effect on the autumn senescence in aspens, and furthermore the nitrate altered the trees leaf metabolism that was more profound in high dosages of supplied nitrate. 

    Cytokinins are plant hormones believed to delay or block senescence, studies have suggested that the decrease of cytokinins and/or cytokinin signalling may precede senescence in some plants. To investigate how cytokinin regulates autumn senescence in aspens we profiled 34 cytokinin types in a free growing mature aspen. The study begun before autumn senescence was initiated and ended with the shedding of the leaves, and spanned three consecutive years. The study showed that the individual cytokinin profiles varied significantly between the years, this despite that senescence was initiated at the same time each year. Senescence was furthermore not connected to the depletion of either active or total cytokinins levels. The gene pattern of genes known to be associated with cytokinin was also studied, but no gene expression pattern that the profile generated could explain the onset of senescence. These results suggest that the depletion of cytokinins is unlikely to explain the tightly regulated onset of autumn leaf senescence in aspen.

  • Parsons, Malcolm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Parsons, Malcolm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Herbivore pressure of reindeer, rodents and invertebrates in the Fennoscandian tundra: a comparison of three methods.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating herbivore density is an important part of understanding their impact on vegetation.  Many studies have been carried out on the impact of reindeer and other herbivores on arctic and sub-arctic vegetation, but they are difficult to compare as they typically use different methods to estimate herbivore activities.  The aim of this study was to compare three methods that were based on the recent International Tundra Experiment herbivory protocol to measure the activities of three herbivore groups: reindeer, rodents and invertebrates. The robustness of the methods themselves was then evaluated.  Fieldwork was carried out at 12 sites in the Fennoscandian mountain area, with controls inside reindeer exclosures.  The results showed that the methods were the most robust when measuring reindeer activities.  The reindeer measurements were also well correlated with a reindeer-density estimate calculated from official reindeer population data.  This study recommends considering the use of photographs to increase the time-efficiency of pellet-counts.  The rodent activity estimates were good, but the patterns inside exclosures differed to the patterns outside exclosures.  The results for invertebrates were deemed to be less reliable as the measurements for one method were not recorded at an appropriate scale.  In conclusion, the findings of this study will help improve the comparability of future studies on the impact of reindeer herbivory and other herbivores, and gives suggestions for more accurate ways of measuring herbivore pressure in arctic and sub-arctic vegetation.

  • Nilsson, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Nilsson, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Construction and development of a multifunctional measuring device for biomedical applications2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lab-on-a-chip technology is a rapidly growing research area. Joining together several disciplines, such as physics, biology and several instances of nanotechnologies. The aim of this research is mainly to produce chips that can do the same types of measurements as large lab equipment and measurement systems, but at a fraction of the size and cost.

    In this work a multifunctional measuring device have been developed. It can measure optical absorbance and fluorescence while performing a range of potentiometric techniques; including chronoamperometry, linear- and cyclic voltammetry. From all these measurements it is possible to calculate particle concentrations in fluid samples.

    The aim is to bring simpler and cheaper point of care devices to the public. Without larger losses in accuracy and reliability of the medicinal test. To do this our device is intended to be used with lab-chip, which are capable of amplifying the signals while reducing the sample size.

    Lab-chips could be used in several areas but the ones being designed with this device are made for biomedical purposes, applying suitable nanostructures and reagents to measure the presence of biomarkers. With these techniques, medicinal diagnostics can be made a few minutes after samples have been collected from patients. Much quicker and more direct than sending the samples to a lab and waiting hours if not days for the results.

    The measuring device or lab-chip reader will use two different lab-chips in the future. One that is optimised for optical absorbance and the other for fluorescence. Both will work with electrochemical measurements, but at present only the absorbance chip have been available for testing and that without any signal enhancing techniques.

    Assessment of the reader's capabilities was made with solutions of gold nanoparticles, TMB (tetramethylbenzidine), iron dissolved in PBS (Phosphate-buffed saline) and with a film made of PPV (Poly para-phenylenevinylene). The first two were used to test absorbance; while the iron and PBS have been used to test electrochemical system; and the PPV was coated on a glass substrate and used to test fluorescence.

    During the optical absorption test, it was found that the reader can distinguish between different concentrations of the various solutions. The results are promising and further removal of signal drifts will improve signals considerably. Fluorescence can be induced and measured with the device. This part of the system is, however, untested in general and future work will show if it is sufficient.

    The iron solution was tested with three different methods. chronopotentiometry, linear sweep voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. It was however found that our measurements were distorted in comparison with the expected voltammogram for iron in PBS. Additional peaks were found in the voltammogram and it is believed that these are a result of oxidation of the electrodes on the lab-chip.

  • Larsson, Natanael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Larsson, Natanael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lidén, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Upplevelsen av livskvalitet hos män med prostatacancer: - En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The experience of quality of life in men with prostate cancer

    A literature study

     

    Abstract

    Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Sweden.

    Many men live with treatment related side effects which can cause a negative effect on their lives and the experience of their quality of life.

    Aim: The aim was to illuminate the experience of the quality of life in men with prostate cancer.

    Method: A literature study of eight articles with qualitative approach. The articles result have been reviewed, compiled and analyzed.

    Results: Three main categories and six categories were identified: Control of the situation – quest for wellbeing through control, insight in the impact of the disease. Adaptation to life situation – a reconstruction of life, a struggle for peace of mind. Male identity – the altered sexuality affects the identity, the support of relationships.

    Conclusion: The experience of quality of life varies between individuals and is affected by side effects after treatment and the way they are looking at their life situation. The authors believe that this literature study can raise awareness among nurses regarding the impact prostate cancer has on men’s quality of life. By asking personal questions the nurse can provide good nursing care based on each person’s individual need.

     

    Keywords: Prostate cancer, quality of life, men, adaptation

  • Forsman, Fanny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Forsman, Fanny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövgren, Linnéa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Effekter av lågkolhydratkost bland personer med övervikt och fetma: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Prevalensen av människor som är överviktiga/drabbade av fetma ökar ständigt. Detta kan bero på förändrade levnadsvanor som gjort att människor idag äter allt mer onyttigt och den fysiska aktiviteten minskat, vilket i sin tur kan leda till övervikt och fetma. I tidigare forskning har lågkolhydratkost visat sig vara ett möjligt sätt att gå ner i vikt men fortsätter trots det vara ett kontroversiellt kostråd.

    Syfte: Att kartlägga effekter av interventioner baserade på lågkolhydratskost i jämförelse med lågfettkost bland personer med övervikt och fetma.

    Metod: Litteraturstudie där åtta vetenskapliga artiklar med kvantitativ ansats har granskats, analyserats och sammanställts.

    Resultat: Påverkan på kroppsammansättning, fysiologiska effekter och övriga resultat var områden som framkom. Viss effekt av lågkolhydratkost kunde visas över tid i flera områden som bland annat vikt, BMI, midjemått, blodtryck, blodsocker och blodfetter. 

    Konklusion: Resultat i den genomförda litteraturstudien antyder att lågkolhydratkost kan ha effekt vid viktnedgång men även förbättra personers hälsa i form av sänkt blodtryck, sänkt blodsockervärde, triglyceridnivåer och ökat HDL. Effekten av enbart förändrade kostvanor är dock sannolikt inte tillräckligt för många personer.

  • Hurtig, Moa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hurtig, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Rydfjäll, Iza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Att leva med övervikt: Upplevelser av bemötande i vården2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Att leva med övervikt – Upplevelser av bemötande i vården.

    Bakgrund: Övervikt och fetma klassas idag som ett folkhälsoproblem som kan medföra många olika sorters sjukdomstillstånd. Personer som lever med övervikt eller fetma lever även med sociala konsekvenser som att de stigmatiseras och diskrimineras i samhället. Studier visar att vårdpersonal upplever övervikt och fetma som ett svårt område, samt att de har fördomsfulla tankar om dessa patienter. Personer med övervikt upplever sig vara utsatta och stigmatiserade, och dessa känslor återkommer även i bemötandet i vården.

    Syfte: Belysa personers upplevelser av att leva med övervikt eller fetma och hur de blir bemötta av vårdpersonal.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie av åtta artiklar med kvalitativ ansats. Artiklarna granskades, analyserades och sammanställdes systematiskt.

    Resultat: Personers upplevelser av att leva med övervikt eller fetma beskrivs med negativa erfarenheter inom både sociala sammanhang samtidigt som svårigheter märks inom vården. I vissa fall framkom positiva upplevelser av bemötande i vården och från vårdpersonal, samt positiva tankar om sin vikt.

    Konklusion: De fördomar som personer med övervikt möter i samhället återkommer även i vården och bygger på sociala strukturer.

    Nyckelord: Övervikt, fetma, patienters upplevelser, bemötande, sjukvård. 

  • Wiberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Wiberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Föräldrars uppfattning av stöd från sjuksköterskor på en barnavdelning: En enkätstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: När ett barn blir sjukt påverkas även familjen av sjukdomen. Föräldrar till sjuka barn kan få ett förstärkt behov av stöd. Föräldrars sociala nätverk är främsta källan för stöd, men de sjuksköterskor som vårdar barnet kan vara viktiga för att ge föräldrarna kraft att ta hand om sitt sjuka barn. Familjecentrerad omvårdnad har visats vara effektiv när det gäller att vårda barn och familjer på sjukhus.

    Syfte: Att undersöka hur föräldrar till barn inlagda på en barnavdelning skattar stödet de får från sjuksköterskor.

    Metod: En enkätstudie genomfördes på en barnavdelning med ortopedisk, kirurgisk och medicinsk inriktning. Det isländska instrumentet ICE-FPSQ som är utformat för att skatta familjecentrerat stöd från sjuksköterskor användes. 75 föräldrar tillfrågades om deltagande, de 47 svar som inkom sammanställdes på ett deskriptivt sätt.

    Resultat: Alla som svarade på enkäten var föräldrar till det inneliggande barnet, 72,3% var kvinnor och 27,7% var män. Medelvärdet av skattningarna var 35,12 (min 14, max 70).

    Slutsats: Föräldrarna skattade det familjecentrerade stödet relativt lågt. Ytterligare studier är nödvändiga för att beskriva hur sjuksköterskorna jobbar på avdelningen samt vilket stöd föräldrar förväntar sig av dessa.

  • Robertsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Robertsson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Skånberg, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Vårdpersonalens upplevelser av anhörigas närvaro vid hjärt- och lungräddning: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: Health professionals’ experience with relatives presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation – a qualitative literature study.

    Background: Every year, over 10 000 persons suffer from sudden cardiac arrest. During cardiac arrest, the brain suffers from lack of oxygen with the risk of irreversible brain damage as a result. Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can increase the rate of survival. Sometimes a nurse confirms the cardiac arrest and start CPR. A task nurses may face is contact with related persons, it may include to convey information, obtain knowledge and support them.

    Aim: To illuminate health professionals’ experience of relatives presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation of patients with acute cardiac arrest.

    Methods: A literature study based from nine scientific articles with qualitative design.

    Results: Opportunities with relative witnessed resuscitation is to say goodbye and get closure, build a relation, understanding through participation and relatives as a resource. Barriers to good care was expressed by emotional expression and fears of health professionals, responsibility for relatives experiences and aggravating circumstances in the work situation

    Conclusion: There are both advantages and disadvantages with presence of relatives during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Nurses experienced it as positive for relatives, but felt that it could affect their ability to provide care as negative.

    Keywords: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, resuscitation, relatives, nurses, experience

  • Johansson, Jakob
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Johansson, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Königsson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Känna sig smutsig: Patienters upplevelse av isolering i samband med MRSA2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ABSTRAKT            

    Bakgrund: Förekomsten av MRSA ökar i världen. Studier har visat att isoleringsvård är problematiskt med bland annat psykiskt lidande som följd.    

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva patienters upplevelser av att vara isolerad i samband med MRSA. 

    Metod: Litteraturstudie genomfördes med åtta artiklar. Sju artiklar hade en kvalitativ ansats och en var av mixad metod. De granskades, analyserades efter inspiration av Friberg (2012) och blev sammanställda.

    Resultat: Fem kategorier togs fram efter analys av artiklarnas resultat. Varje kategori hade två till fyra subkategorier. Kategorierna var; psykisk påverkan på patienten, isoleringsrutinernas påverkan på patienten, egna rummet, hanteringen av isolering och personalens betydelse.

    Konklusion: Upplevelsen av isoleringsvård i samband med MRSA kan variera. Positiva- och negativa känslor beskrevs. Patienter upplevde ensamhet och tristess i isoleringen. Några patienter uppskattade det privata utrymmet. Vårdpersonalen kunde uppleva rädsla att vårda smittsamma patienter vilket kan påverka omvårdnaden. Mer forskning skulle kunna belysa kunskapluckor och fylla dem. Fler studier från patienters perspektiv kan förbättra upplevelsen för kommande patienter.

    Nyckelord: Isolering, MRSA, omvårdnad, psykisk påverkan, upplevelser 

  • Hampusson, Linn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hampusson, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ångman, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sårbehandling efter höftprotesoperation: - en retrospektiv journalgranskning som jämför sårbehandling mellan två avdelningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sårinfektioner efter en höftprotesoperation är ett problem som ökar risken för dödlighet, innebär ett lidande för individen och är kostsamt för sjukvården. Underlaget för hur postoperativ sårbehandling bör gå till bland individer som genomgått höftprotesoperationer är begränsat. På ortopedkliniken i Umeå finns olika regimer för hur postoperativa så ska behandlas.

    Syfte: Undersöka om sårbehandling och postoperativa sårinfektioner skiljer sig mellan elektiv och akut avdelning vid höftprotesoperationer.

    Metod: Studien utfördes som en retrospektiv journalgranskning under två år och totalt undersöktes 180 individer. 142 individer från akuta avdelningen och 38 individer från elektiva avdelningen. Deskriptiva analyser genomfördes för att se skillnad mellan avdelningarna.

    Resultat: Totalt upptäcktes 10 infektioner under perioden, tre ytliga och sju djupa men ingen signifikant skillnad mellan avdelningarna vad gäller infektioner. Resultatet visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan avdelningarna vid val av omläggningsmaterial. Akuta avdelningen gjorde totalt fler omläggningar.

    Konklusion: Resultatet från denna studie visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan avdelningarna vad gäller infektioner och typ av förband vid sårbehandling. Det verkade inte heller ha betydelse om ren eller steril sårbehandling utförts. Fler studier behövs för att kunna påvisa vilken sårbehandling som bör föredras. Stora randomiserade prospektiva studier skulle eventuellt kunna påvisa detta. 

  • Baradaran, Nadja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Baradaran, Nadja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lundgren, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Att vårda under rädsla: En litteraturstudie om vårdpersonals upplevelser av hot och våld inom psykiatrisk vård.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Att vårda under rädsla- en litteraturstudie om vårdpersonals upplevelser av hot och våld inom psykiatrisk vård.

    Bakgrund: Rapporter visar att hot och våld är vanligt förekommande inom vård och omsorg. Våld förekommer i alla delar av vården, men det finns vissa avdelningar som är mer utsatta för våld än andra, exempelvis psykiatrin. Det verbala och fysiska våldet skapar en otrygg miljö och kan ge allvarliga konsekvenser för både för personal och patienter.

    Syfte: Att beskriva vårdpersonals upplevelser av hot och våld inom psykiatrisk vård.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie baserad på åtta artiklar med kvalitativ ansats. Dessa artiklarna granskades, analyserades och sammanställdes.

    Resultat: Hot och våld orsakade starka känslor som rädsla och ilska hos vårdpersonal som påverkade arbetet och privatlivet negativt. Den otrygga arbetsmiljön utgjorde ett hot mot vårdpersonalens yrkesroll och självbild. Våld på en psykiatrisk avdelning ansågs oundvikligt, och vårdpersonals förmodades acceptera det som en del av arbetet. Våldet hanterades och förebyggdes med olika strategier, samtidigt som stöd från chefer var bristfälligt.

    Konklusion: Våld mot vårdpersonal inom psykiatri är ett relativt outforskat ämne som är i behov av mer forskning. vårdpersonalen blir lidande av fysiska och psykiska konsekvenser, som påverkar vårdandet av patienterna och vårdpersonalens hälsa. För att förbättra arbetssituationen krävs mer utbildning för vårdpersonal i hantering av våld.

    Nyckelord: Vårdpersonal, Psykiatri, Hot och våld, arbetsrelaterat våld

  • Berntsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Berntsson, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brandén Persson, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Vårdpersonalens hanteringsstrategier vid arbetsrelaterad stress2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background - Stress affects the body both physically and mentally, to avoid negative effects of stress, it’s important with recovery. Occupational stress is common especially in health care personal and can occur when there are high work demands on the individual. To avoid occupational stress affect on the individual the use of various forms of coping strategies, it can vary from problemsolving- to emotional coping strategies. Purpose - To describe healthcare personnel management of occupationalstress. Method - A Literaturereview with eleven qualitative studies were included, these were analyzed by Forsberg and Wengströms, inspired by the method of content analysis. Results - The authors' results demonstrated in two categories, "problemsolving coping strategies" and "emotional coping strategies" and eight subcategories, "to seek, give and receive support", "to prioritize and plan work", "to perform activities", "reflection and breaks","use of humor", "anger and avoidance", "substance use" and "spirituality and faith". Conclusion – The nursing profession is a demanding area where stress is inevitable, therefore it is important to manage the stress that arises in the workplace in order to maintain focus. More research on effective strategies for stress management is required.

  • Abrahamsson, Marléne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Abrahamsson, Marléne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Viklund, Mikael
    Personers upplevelse av att leva med diabetesfotsår: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Peoples experience of living with diabetic foot ulcers

    Abstract

    Background: Foot ulcers related to diabetes is a global problem. These ulcers can be difficult to heal and very painful for the affected person. Risk for infections and amputations are high. Diabetic foot ulcers can change the affected person’s life world.

    Aim: The purpose of the literature study was to illustrate people's experiences of living with diabetic foot ulcers.

    Method: A literature study based on twelve articles with qualitative approach. The results from respective article has been reviewed, analyzed and compiled. The databases that were used was CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE och PsycINFO.

    Result: The analyze resulted in two categories and a total of five subcategories. The categories were: Lost autonomy and Emotional suffering.

    Conclusion: The experience of living with diabetic foot ulcers varies between individuals, but common to many is that they suffer in different ways and that the quality of life deteriorate. The nurse can be a cause of the suffering, but also a hopeful mainstay. To provide person-centered care and see the whole individual is a prerequisite for good nursing care.

    Keywords: Diabetic foot ulcers, experience, suffering.

  • García López, Natxo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    García López, Natxo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Biomass utilization for energy purposes in Kenya: Fuel characteristics and thermochemical properties2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Around forty percent of the world´s population, mostly inhabitants of countries with developing economies, rely on the traditional usage of biomass for energy purposes. The major negative consequences are environmental and health effects. Additionally, the most remarkable social consequence is rural poverty which is directly linked to lack of access to electricity. This places the questions related to biomass utilization for energy production at the core of global welfare.

    The present work was performed as a part of a larger research project funded by Formas and which involves Swedish and Kenyan partners. The aim of this study was to gather basic knowledge about the characteristics of relevant biomass from sub-Saharan Africa, more specifically from Kenya. Eight different types of biomass, including agroforestry trees, agricultural residues, and water hyacinth, were evaluated according to fuel characteristics and thermochemical properties. Ultimate and proximate analyses of the collected biomass were carried out, in addition to heating values analyses. Moreover, the biomass was pelletized and a thermogravimetric analysis was performed in a single pellet reactor.  Finally, the composition of the residual ashes was determined. The results show that there was a large variation in the fuel characteristics and thermochemical behaviour of the studied agricultural residues and water hyacinth biomass types, whereas agroforestry trees had rather similar properties and thermochemical behaviour when combusted at the same temperature. In addition, results from the ash composition analyses showed large differences among the studied biomass types, which can be used to better predict and solve problems related to the combustion of these biomass types. 

  • Lagerström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Lagerström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Gymnasieelevers argumentation i ämnet naturkunskap: kunskap, värderingar och perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En del av syftet med ämnet naturkunskap i den svenska gymnasieskolan är att ge eleverna en slags naturvetenskaplig allmänbildning eller scientific literacy, som grund för diskussion och ställningstaganden i aktuella samhällsfrågor. Att undervisa naturkunskap med utgångspunkt i samhällsfrågor med naturvetenskapligt innehåll (SNI) är en metod där argumentation och diskussion får ta mycket plats i klassrummet. Studier visar dock att många lärare känner att diskussionen sker på bekostnad av kursens naturvetenskapliga innehåll och en omfattande studie visar att elever baserar sina argument på värderingar i högre grad än kunskap. Den här studien undersöker elevers argumentation och vad den baseras på för att öka kunskapen om hur argumentation och diskussion kan användas i undervisningen på ett bra sätt. Eleverna instruerades att argumentera för och emot en SNI som de själva valde. Deras skriftliga argument analyserades sedan med avseende på perspektiv (biologiskt, ekonomiskt eller socialt perspektiv) och grund (kunskap, värdering eller personlig erfarenhet). Resultaten visade att en övervägande majoritet av argumenten baserades på kunskap, en mindre del på värderingar och ytterst få på personlig erfarenhet. Det perspektiv som flest argument utgick ifrån var biologiskt, men det varierade mellan ämnena. En slutsats är att hur elever argumenterar är i hög grad beroende av hur den lärarledda diskussionen i klassrummet ser ut, vilka typer av argument som tas upp där och hur de värderas. Som lärare är det alltså viktigt att ha klart för sig vad bra argumentation är och föregå med gott exempel för eleverna.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-10 10:00 N450, Umeå
    von Sydow, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    von Sydow, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Characterization of auxiliary membrane proteins in the chloroplast of Arabidopsis thaliana2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In nature, sessile plants have to adapt to their environment and to the never ending changes they are exposed to. They do so mainly by proteomic and metabolomic changes. In all cells, there are complex networks of auxiliary proteins that are responsible for quality control of all the cell's proteins. The auxiliary proteins are divided into chaperones and proteases, and these are further separated into different groups. Chaperones help other proteins in terms of stability and folding. In order for a protein to achieve its function, the three-dimensional structure has to be precise. A protease is a helper protein that is able to break peptide bonds in a process termed proteolysis. Chaperones and proteases can work independently, but sometimes the chaperone unfolds the substrate of the protease to ensure full degradation of the protein. In some cases, the chaperone and the protease functions are combined in one protein.

    All proteins studied within this thesis are localized in the chloroplast, the organelle that originated from cyanobacteria, in which plants and algae convert the energy from sunlight into carbohydrates in the process called photosynthesis. Molecular oxygen is released as a by-product, and carbon dioxide is consumed. Photosystem II (PSII), one of the major protein complexes involved in photosynthesis, consists of more than 30 protein subunits, where around half of them are termed low molecular weight (LMW) proteins with a molecular size less than 10 kDa. In this thesis, data identifying one PSII LMW protein, PsbY, as a chaperone for the PSII subcomplex Cytochrome b559 are presented. In the absence of PsbY, Arabidopsis plants were more sensitive to photoinhibition, and the protective circular electron transport around PSII is completely blocked.

    Data on members of the Filamentation temperature sensitive protein H (FtsH) protease family are also discussed, with a focus on FtsH11 and FtsHi1-i5. Members of the FtsH protease family carry a protease domain and a chaperone domain. Our data show that FtsH11 has an influence on the structure and function of chloroplasts of Arabidopsis plants grown under continuous light along with protein import into the same. FtsHi1-5 are five members with mutations within the proteolytic motif, most probably rendering them proteolytically inactive, hence they are referred to as ''inactive FtsH proteases''. Knock-out plants of the inactive members are embryo lethal, and knock-down plants grow slower than wild type, probably because of an affected level of plastid proteins at the translational level.

  • Mohamad, Irfendy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Mohamad, Irfendy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Asean future mobility: Design a compatible future vehicle for pursuing of ASEAN´s ambition2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Starting a thesis with intention and ambitious to invent a future mobility for Southeast Asia region, one of the fastest growing region in the world. I was so passionate about what is the future mobility that very compatible to South-East Asia consumer that face a hot weather and humidity climate in whole year. Recently, the car that we produce whether in local manufacturing or imported car are not very compatible for the current environment since the climate is change dramatically in kind of temperature which massive impact in material usage in the vehicle and our daily life. By this platform, my main priority is to find a best solution by doing a research and problem´s analysis about the real situation and for a long period of time.

    Then, I was began the project by summarize the concept based on the research analysis. Design research, brand and background analysis, ideation sketches, studying an overall form by using clay and 3D digital modelling and also advanced visualization were the main methods that implemented during this project.

    The result is GEMILANG Concept, designed a future vehicle which have semi-autonomous drive mode for ASEAN ambition and actual need throughout in developing countries. The concept is considered between a climate change in this region and proposes a highly efficient in how to implement the best use of natural resources that able to stand in extreme climate particularly in this region and innovative solution between tradition, need and technology.

  • Overå, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Overå, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Den seniora studenten: Seniora 50+ studenters behov och krav på anpassad pedagogik2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att möta en framtid där medelåldern bland Europas befolkning blir allt högre har Europeiska unionen riktat fokus på frågan om hur förvärvsfrekvensen i de högre åldersgrupperna kan höjas. Genom att anta en policy avseende det livslånga lärandet uppmanar EU sina medlemsländer att skapa nya förutsättningar för att förverkliga detta mål. Utifrån detta fokus på möjligheten att studera även i hög ålder har föreliggande studie utgått från seniora studenter i åldern 50+. Studiens syfte har varit att studera behov av och krav på anpassad pedagogik som den yrkes- och livserfarna seniora studenten har för att kunna tillgodogöra sig undervisning vid högskola och universitet. Studiens teoretiska perspektiv har utgått från sociokulturell teori och andragogik. Studien är byggd på vad den seniora studenten som individ upplevt samt hur omgivningen och dess krav ser på seniora studenter som grupp. Insamlandet av data har utgjorts av semistrukturerande intervjuer med sju individer som är 50+ och varit aktivt studerande på svensk högskola eller universitet under vårterminen 2016. Intervjuerna genomfördes utifrån frågeställningar om behov, krav och anpassad pedagogik. Svaren har analyserats utifrån interpretativ fenomenologisk analys, i relation till teorier och tidigare forskning. Studiens resultat visar att den seniora studenten inte ser att det egna lärandet har förändrats över tid men att förutsättningarna har förändrats. Den seniora studenten har behov av att bli bemött som vuxen ansvarstagande individ och att den erfarenhet som följer med ska ses som ett positivt komplement genom att bidra till förening av teori och praktik i lärsituationen. Den seniora studenten har krav på kvalitetssäkrad undervisning och vill lyfta frågan om validering av tidigare erfarenheter samt bidra med sin erfarenhet för en anpassad pedagogik. Studien visar att den seniora studenten vill ha insyn och vara medbestämmande, men att de seniora studenterna i föreliggande studie inte är kravställande varken individuellt eller som grupp.

  • Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Marchal, Bruno
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Searching for best practices of youth friendly services - a study protocol using qualitative comparative analysis in Sweden2016In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 16, 321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish youth clinics constitute one of the most comprehensive and consolidated examples of a nationwide network of health care services for young people. However, studies evaluating their 'youth-friendliness' and the combination of factors that makes them more or less 'youth-friendly' have not been conducted. This protocol will scrutinise the current youth-friendliness of youth clinics in northern Sweden and identify the best combination of conditions needed in order to implement the criteria of youth-friendliness within Swedish youth clinics and elsewhere.

    Methods/design: In this study, we will use qualitative comparative analysis to analyse the conditions that are sufficient and/or necessary to implement Youth Friendly Health Services in 20 selected youth-clinics (cases). In order to conduct Qualitative Comparative Analysis, we will first identify the outcomes and the conditions to be assessed. The overall outcome - youth-friendliness - will be assessed together with specific outcomes for each of the five domains - accessible, acceptable, equitable, appropriate and effective. This will be done using a questionnaire to be applied to a sample of young people coming to the youth clinics. In terms of conditions, we will first identify what might be the key conditions, to ensure the youth friendliness of health care services, through literature review, interviews with professionals working at youth clinics, and with young people. The combination of conditions and outcomes will form the hypothesis to be further tested later on in the qualitative comparative analysis of the 20 cases. Once information on outcomes and conditions is gathered from each of the 20 clinics, it will be analysed using Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Discussion: The added value of this study in relation to the findings is twofold: on the one hand it will allow a thorough assessment of the youth-friendliness of northern Swedish youth clinics. On the other hand, it will extract lessons from one of the most consolidated examples of differentiated services for young people. Methodologically, this study can contribute to expanding the use of Qualitative Comparative Analysis in health systems research.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 10:00 Hörsal 1031, Norra Beteendevetarhuset, Umeå
    Bergman, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Bergman, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Poliser som utbildar poliser: Reflexivitet, meningsskapande och professionell utveckling2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This compilation thesis concerns how an educator task in Swedish police education context can be understood as individual and collective meaning making and professional development. The main actors in this thesis are police teachers, police supervisors and field training officers (FTOs), and they have a mutual task in educating new police officers and hence preparing for a complex occupation. However, due to varied educating preparations these three groups of police educators seem to perform their task with different prerequisites in a constantly revised and developed Swedish police education. During the last twenty years research and literature regarding occupational and professional education concern, among other issues, professional development and professionalization, frequently from a learner orientated and lifelong learning perspective. Hence, as ideas of transferring occupational knowledge from person to person increasingly appears to be regarded as obsolete, internship education through supervising pedagogies seems to have evolved during the last decades. The rarely investigated intra-professional educators (e.g., police officers educating new police officers) have an important role in this kind of learning process, especially due to socialisation phenomena frequently described in worldwide research regarding the police occupation. The conceptions of Swedish intra-professional police educators are investigated through an exploratory and qualitative design using mainly focus-group interviews and with a reflexive approach and hermeneutic analyse models. Viewed through a theoretical framework based on meaning making, reflexivity and thought styles/thought collectives, the findings disclose that the Swedish police educators clearly share similar views on pedagogies although they have disparate preparations before the task. Their conceptions reveal how the police educating task works as an incentive for increased insights in the police task, as well as in the educating task. These findings are also conceptualized as a collective process in interacting with police students and police probationers, with reflexivity as a main tool for meaning making, especially in the educating task. In conclusion this thesis argues how the conceptions of the Swedish police educators can vitalize the discussion about how police educators better can be prepared, especially through courses with reflexive pedagogies. The conclusion also emphasizes on how the positive, reflexive and creative intentions within the intra-professional police educators can be used as a role model and as an incentive in developing the Swedish police force, and that these ideas can be applied on other occupations and professions.

  • Sandberg, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Sandberg, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Laglighetsprövning av kommunala beslut enligt plan- och bygglagen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 14:00 Lilla Hörsalen (KB3A9), KBC-huset, Umeå
    Holmgren, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Holmgren, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Trametes versicolor as biodegrader and biocatalyst when using lignocellulose for ethanol production2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption has increased rapidly during the last century due to population growth and greater industrialization. Lignocellulosic-based biofuels are being developed as alternatives to fossil fuels. For many years the question of how 5-carbon sugars in biomass are utilized in nature has been a vexed one. A patent by Sellstedt and Holmgren (2005) showed increased ethanol production, compared with fermentation using only Saccharomyces cerevisiae, through the use of a fungal mix from a degraded wood sample found in a forest.

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was to find a fungus that naturally utilizes 5-carbon sugars and metabolizes these sugars to ethanol; elucidate the capacity of this fungus to utilize 5-carbon and 6-carbon sugars simultaneously; assess the ability of the fungus to metabolize the inhibitors produced when lignocellulose is used; and find out whether this fungus could be used for biological pretreatment of lignocellulose to replace industrially produced enzymes.

    The results showed that the fungal mix grew well on glucose, xylose, hemicellulose and cellulose. In addition, we were able to identify the fungi present, by using PCR-amplification and sequencing of DNA, as Chalara parvispora, Xylaria sp and Trametes hirsutaTrametes versicolor. In a reconstitution study, the fungi so identified were shown to produce an amount of ethanol equal to that of the fungal mix. We were also able to show that C. parvispora could produce ethanol from xylose.

    T. versicolor could be grown in culture, under hypoxic conditions, with various mixtures of hexoses and xylose and with xylose alone. After 354 h of culture we found very strong correlations between ethanol fermentation (alcohol dehydrogenase activity and ethanol production), sugar consumption and xylose catabolism (xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase activities) in the cultures. In a medium containing a 1:1 glucose/xylose ratio, the efficiency of fermentation of total sugars into ethanol was 80 %.

    A variety of inhibitors are formed during pretreatment procedures; they include, for example, phenolics, levulinic acid, HMF and furfural. These inhibitors were used in this study in order to reveal their effects on the growth of cells as well as on sugar utilization, enzyme activities and ethanol production by the white-rot fungus T. versicolor. The inhibitors had a positive effect on fresh weight, the largest increase being observed with the inhibitor furfural. T. versicolor metabolized all the inhibitors during 15 days of experimentation.

    It is known that fungi can degrade cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin through a series of enzymatic reactions. Is it possible to eliminate chemical pretreatment and instead use a biological pretreatment? If T. versicolor could serve as both a biodegrader and a biocatalyst it would lead to reductions in the costs of ethanol production and lower costs for pretreatments for other renewable fuels too. Experiments with different pretreatments applied to Salix viminalis and Populus tremula were conducted with and without fungi, as well as with enzymes, to evaluate whether T. versicolor was suitable as a biodegrader. The results showed that T. versicolor was able to degrade lignocellulose to glucose, and thus is suitable as a biodegrader and in addition has xylanase and beta-glucosidase enzymes that are related to similar enzymes in other fungi.

  • Schock, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
    Schock, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Lakso, Hans-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Idahl, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Lehtinen, Matti
    Surcel, Heljä-Marja
    Fortner, Renee T.
    Hormone concentrations throughout uncomplicated pregnancies: a longitudinal study2016In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 16, 146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Evidence suggests that the hormonal milieu of pregnancy is an important determinant of subsequent cancer and other chronic diseases in both the mother and the offspring. Many of the existing maternity and birth cohorts include specimens drawn only once during pregnancy. How well a single blood specimen collected during a pregnancy characterizes exposure to these hormones throughout gestation, and also in subsequent pregnancies, is not well understood.

    Methods: We used serial serum samples from 71 pregnant women (25 primiparous, 25 multiparous, and 21 with two consecutive pregnancies) with natural, complication-free pregnancies and a healthy offspring at term who participated in a population-based screening trial for congenital infections in Finland between January 1st, 1988 and June 30, 1989 and provided a blood sample in each trimester.

    Results: Hormone levels were more strongly correlated between consecutive trimesters of a pregnancy than between the 1st and 3rd trimester (e.g., estradiol, r(T1 vs. T2) = 0.51 and r(T2 vs. T3) = 0.60, p < 0.01; r(T1 vs. T3) = 0.32, p < 0.05). Concentrations of sRANKL remained stable throughout gestation, whereas estradiol, estrone, progesterone, testosterone, prolactin, and osteoprotegerin increased throughout pregnancy. First trimester hormone concentrations explained less of the variation in the third trimester on their own than second trimester hormone levels (e.g. estradiol R-T1(2) = 16 % and R-T2(2) = 42 %). Addition of maternal (e.g., smoking) and/or child characteristics (e.g., sex) improved the accuracy of the 3rd trimester estimates for some of the hormones.

    Conclusions: One hormone measurement in early pregnancy, in conjunction with maternal and fetal characteristics, permits estimation of 3rd trimester hormone concentrations. Therefore, single hormone measurements available from maternity cohorts are suitable to quantify hormone exposure during pregnancy. To our knowledge, we provide the first data on correlations between hormone concentrations both across trimesters of a single pregnancy, as well as between two subsequent pregnancies.

  • Bräne, Arvid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Bräne, Arvid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    User Experience Design for Children: Developing and Testing a UX Framework2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Designing good digital experiences for children can be difficult; designers have to consider children's cognitive and motor skill limitations, understand their target audience, create something entertaining and educational, comply with national and international jurisdiction, and at the same time appeal to parents. We set out to create a general framework which designers and developers can use as a foundation and testing ground for their digital products in the field of user experience.

    The methods used during the thesis include interviews, literature studies, user testing, case studies, personas, prototyping, and more. The results created are primarily user experience guidelines packaged in a Theoretical Framework, user testing conclusions, along with suggestions on improving the current Lego Star Wars: Force Builders application, a few in the form of prototypes.

  • Näsman, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Näsman, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Konsekvenser av indragen assistansersättning: En studie om medikalisering och hur kostnader skiftar från samhället till brukaren och dess anhöriga. Rapport för STIL om förändrat stöd enligt LSS och SFB2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written for the organization STIL in the project (The social costs of changing personal assistance). The report studies the changes in the Swedish 1994 law, Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments (LSS), with specific focus on personal assistance. The report calculates how costs shifts from the national state to the municipalities, the recipients of personal assistance and the relatives of the recipients when the entitlement for personal assistance is withdrawn. The report also finds evidence for a change in discourse towards a more medicalized view on people with functional impairments and governmental support aimed for that group. Further it is argued in the report that there is a problem of how to interpret the LSS as an entitlement law within the tradition of Swedish framework law along with a change of focus among authorities and politicians from controlling the development of costs to cutting costs. The report ends with policy suggestions aimed towards the directive of the new governmental report Översyn av insatser enligt LSS och assistansersättningen (dir. 2016;40).