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  • Abbas, Ali
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    The European Union’s Technological and Economic Development: A Study on Production of Renewable Energy2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis answer the two main questions, firstly, the role of technological development in the production of RE with special reference to investment subsidy in supporting schemes and research and development (R&D). Investment subsidies in supporting schemes and R&D are widely used to promote RE technology and considered economical, efficient instruments than regulation approach. Secondly, the study investigates the relationship between the production of RE and the economic development. Panel data for twelve European Union (EU) countries are analysed for the period 1990 to 2013. The study uses a Cobb Douglas production function to estimate the EU's rational behaviour of investment subsidy between supporting schemes and R&D. For the estimation techniques, the study uses the unit root test, cointegration test, and dynamic pooling average group (PMG) model. The selection of the PMG model is based on the results of diagnostic tests, i.e. cross-sectional dependence, heteroskedasticity, serial correlation, and Hausman. Furthermore, the cointegration test confirms that in the long-run all the variables move together to achieve equilibrium. The PMG model confirms the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable. Thus, it is concluded that the investment subsidies in supporting schemes have a positive and significant effect on the production of renewable energy in the long-run. However, the investment subsidy in research and development also has a positive but insignificant effect on the production of renewable energy in the long-run. Based on the long-run result, thus the study suggests that it is more rational to invest subsidy in supporting schemes than in R&D. In order to find the relationship between the production of RE and economic development, the result of the study confirms that economic development has a positive and significant impact on the production of renewable energy both in the short-and long-run. In addition, the test of the causality confirms the bidirectional relationship between production of RE and economic development. The bidirectional relationship states that both energy and economic growth are associated and complement each other.

  • Lindgren, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Into Hot Air-: Exploring the Link Between Embodied Cognition and Reality Framing to Explain Escalation During an Everest Emergency Event2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary crisis literature often returns to [in]famous and extraordinary cases with a recurring conclusion of how ill-irrational human factors lead to disastrous escalation. I argue in every crisis observed, there are human traits and paradoxes visible that commit itself to survival that can help us to explain how and why escalation occur. To enable escalation we inevitably construct realities to define aims to solve the crisis. Still if these realities can be inherently viewed as illusionistic they are inevitable and inherent to our mental states. So far there is a lacuna about how actors embody the experience of everyday life and crisis as such. Lately, management literature starts to appreciate how rationality often begins with irrational impulses, but also how crisis is socially materialized that involves how escalation builds up. Finally, how it is incorporated into our cognitive frames that constitutes reality. From an embodied perspective, this thesis aims to answer two questions, how does escalation occur and why do we escalate? Based on data from 2016, present thesis conducted an in-depth case study to explore an impromptu rescue mission on Everest. Method used was a video ethnography of 120 video clips that was analyzed through grounded theory. Specifically targeting verbal and non-verbal communication between members which is referred as a study of embodied cognition. Findings show how we tend to thinking from previous patterns from previous events. Emotions and embodiment are influential but equally important in the process, emotions are communicated that commit actions that shapes the events to become alive. Why it accomplishes is through constant reframing. I argue that our cognitive frame is a fabrication and that the embodiment helps us to revise the reality and emotions. The constant revision is accomplished since our interpretation is intimately connected to the existing fabric that also determines the emotional state. I finally propose a concept that illustrate how the fabrication process goes in loops. The conclusion of this thesis suggests emotions as prominent when and how we experience the world, the embodied dimensions are highly influential and important which not only triggers but airborne the mental cognition by making the reality come “alive”. 

  • Larsson, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Artbestånden i fossila trädgårdskonstruktioner: En teoretisk studieav de dynamiska relationerna mellan växter, insekter och agromiljöer samt derasimplikationer för den arkeologiska tolkningen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of paleoentomology as a proxy in garden archaeology research. Garden contexts can prove difficult to identify and interpret due to the many changes the contexts go through during their activity period. Mixing of materials, harvesting and cultivation of many different plants will affect the environmental data that is retrieved from them and thus our interpretation of horticulture. This essay looks at the contexts and materials involved in the gardening process; irrigation sources, fertilizer, garden plant macrofossils and modern ecological insect and host plant relationships. The goal is to suggest a conceptual indicator group of insect and plant species that could aid in the identification of garden context and the in situ growth of relic plants. Paleoentomological information from the relating contexts (middens, composts, wells etc.) and other indicator groups have been included along with the ecological data in order to get a more complex picture over the garden contexts and their varying content. For instance, many of the plants found in garden soils are recorded as host plants to several insect species. This paper argues that investigation of these relationships can aid garden archaeology and further our understanding of herbivorous insects’ and associated species’ relationships to plant domestication in pre-history.

  • Talsi, Eeva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Miljövänligt friluftsliv – friluftsmänniskors miljömedvetenhet och hållbar konsumtion av friluftskläder2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Outdoor recreation is becoming more and more popular, and as the number of outdoor enthusiasts is growing, so is the outdoor apparel industry. Outdoor wear has become increasingly technical with waterproof membranes and functional materials which are making the outdoor life more convenient for everyone. At the same time it has become clear that these new materials don’t come without environmental issues. Two recently highlighted environmentally hazardous substances in outdoor wear are per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFAS) in waterproof materials and microfibers from functional clothes made of polyester. The aim was to study the outdoor enthusiasts’ knowledge about the substances in outdoor apparel and their environmental impact, and if it has any effect on their consumer behavior. The study also tested if the intensity of the outdoor recreation has any impact on consumer behavior as well. The study revealed that the majority of the participants are in fact aware of the substances in their clothing and their environmental effects but this does not have a significant effect to environmentally friendly consumer behavior. The knowledge of the substances and their environmental effects was greatest amongst the people who are active one to a few times per month. The results were not totally conclusive and the question remains whether it is indeed the intensity of the hobby or some other factor like the purpose of being outdoors that steers the environmental awareness and consumer behavior of the outdoor enthusiasts.

  • Lindgren, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Numerical modelling of district heating networks2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    District heating is today, in Sweden, the most common method used for heating buildings in cities. More than half of all the buildings, both commercial and residential, are heated using district heating. The load on the district heating networks are affected by, among other things, the time of the day and different external conditions, such as temperature differences. One has to be able to simulate the heat and pressure losses in the network in order to deliver the amount of heat demanded by the customers. Expansions of district heating networks and disrupted pipes also demand good simulations of the networks. To cope with this, energy companies use simulation software. These software need to contain numerical methods that provide accurate and stable results and at the same time be fast and efficient. At the moment there are available software packages that works but these have some limitations. Among other things you may need to divide the whole network into smaller loops or try to guess how the distribution of pressure and flow in the network looks like. The development in recent years makes it possible to use better and more efficient algorithms for these types of problems. The purpose of this report is therefore to introduce a better and more efficient method than that used in the current situation. This work is the first step in order to replace a current method used in a simulation software provided by Vitec energy. Therefore, we will in this report, stick to computing pressure and flow in the network. The method we will introduce in this report is called the gradient method and it is based on the Newton Raphson method. Unlike with older methods like Hardy Cross which is a relaxation method, you do not have to divide the network into loops. Instead you create a matrix representation of the network that is used in the computations. The idea is also that you should not need to make good initial guesses to get the method to converge quickly. We performed a number of test simulations in order to examine how the method performs. We tested how different initial guesses and how different sizes of the networks affected the number of iterations. The results shows that the model is capable of solving large networks within a reasonable number of iterations. The results also show that the initial guesses have little impact on the number of iterations. Changing the initial guess on the pressure does not affect the number at all but it turns out that changing the initial guess on the flow can affect the number of iterations a little, but not much.

  • Skog, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Wimelius, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Sandberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Digital Service Platform Evolution: How Spotify Leveraged Boundary Resources to Become a Global Leader in Music Streaming2018In: Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2018, 4564-4573 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on digital platform evolution is largely focused on how platform-owners leverage boundary resources to facilitate and control contributions from external developers to extend the functional diversity and scope of a digital device. However, our knowledge of the digital platforms that carve out their existence exclusively in the service layer of industry architectures, i.e. without proprietary device connections, is limited. The concept of digital service platforms directs attention to such platforms, the role of end-users as value co-creators, and devices as requisite, but not necessarily proprietary, distribution mechanisms for service. Based on a longitudinal case study of Spotify, this paper contributes by demonstrating that digital service platform evolution is characterized by specific architectural conditions that rationalize the use of boundary resources for extending scale rather than scope, and for resourcing and controlling not only developers but also end-users as a means to strategically adjust the evolutionary process.

  • Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Voluntary Associations and Net Fertility During the Swedish Demographic Transition2018In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the role of changing social relations for fertility decline during the European fertility transition. The growth of voluntary associations at the end of the nineteenth century entailed a radical shift in the landscape of social relations in Sweden. By combining micro-census data from 1890 to 1900 with local-level membership data for three voluntary association groups, this article assesses the effect of parish-level voluntary association size on net fertility in Sweden using mixed-effects Poisson regression models. The results show that the adoption of fertility limitation during the transition period was associated with the creation and diffusion of the idea of respectability within large social network organisations, an idea that has previously been shown to be connected to fertility limitation. Furthermore, by applying a social network perspective, the results show that the strength of the effect was dependent on the structure of the social networks in terms of size, density, and homogeneity. Voluntary association size had the strongest effect for the free churches, which created dense heterogeneous networks through systems of social control, while the size of the temperance association showed no effect on fertility because the connections between nodes were sparse.

  • Hörnberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Sundström, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Innala, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Wållberg-Jonsson, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Aerobic capacity over 16 years in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: relationship to disease activity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, e0190211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyse the change in aerobic capacity from disease onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over 16.2 years, and its associations with disease activity and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-five patients (20 f/5 m), diagnosed with RA 1995-2002 were tested at disease onset and after mean 16.2 years. Parameters measured were: sub-maximal ergometer test for aerobic capacity, functional ability, self-efficacy, ESR, CRP and DAS28. At follow-up, cardiovascular risk factors were assessed as blood lipids, glucose concentrations, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), body composition, pulse wave analysis and carotid intima-media thickness. Aerobic capacity [median (IQR)] was 32.3 (27.9-42.1) ml O2/kg x min at disease onset, and 33.2 (28.4-38.9) at follow-up (p>0.05). Baseline aerobic capacity was associated with follow-up values of: BMI (rs = -.401, p = .047), waist circumference (rs = -.498, p = .011), peripheral pulse pressure (rs = -.415, p = .039) self-efficacy (rs = .420, p = .037) and aerobic capacity (rs = .557, p = .004). In multiple regression models adjusted for baseline aerobic capacity, disease activity at baseline and over time predicted aerobic capacity at follow-up (AUC DAS28, 0-24 months; β = -.14, p = .004). At follow-up, aerobic capacity was inversely associated with blood glucose levels (rs = -.508, p = .016), BMI (rs = -.434, p = .030), body fat% (rs = -.419, p = .037), aortic pulse pressure (rs = -.405, p = .044), resting heart rate (rs = -.424, p = .034) and self-efficacy (rs = .464, p = .020) at follow-up. We conclude that the aerobic capacity was maintained over 16 years. High baseline aerobic capacity associated with favourable measures of cardiovascular risk factors at follow-up. Higher disease activity in early stages of RA predicted lower aerobic capacity after 16.2 years.

  • Fearon, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Wiggins, Richard D.
    Pettifor, Audrey E.
    MacPhail, Catherine
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Medical Research Council/Wits University Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Selin, Amanda
    Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier
    Delany-Moretlwe, Sinéad
    Piwowar-Manning, Estelle
    Laeyendecker, Oliver
    Hargreaves, James R.
    Associations between friendship characteristics and HIV and HSV-2 status amongst young South African women in HPTN-0682017In: Journal of the International AIDS Society, ISSN 1758-2652, E-ISSN 1758-2652, Vol. 20, e25029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Prevalence of HIV among young women in South Africa remains extremely high. Adolescent peer groups have been found to be an important influence on a range of health behaviours. The characteristics of young women's friendships might influence their sexual health and HIV risk via connections to sexual partners, norms around sexual initiation and condom use, or provision of social support. We investigated associations between young women's friendships and their Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) and HIV infection status in rural South Africa. Methods: Our study is a cross-sectional, egocentric network analysis. In 2011 to 2012, we tested 13- to 20-year-old young women for HIV and HSV-2, and collected descriptions of five friendships for each. We generated summary measures describing friend socio-demographic characteristics and the number of friends perceived to have had sex. We used logistic regression to analyse associations between friend characteristics and participant HIV and HSV-2 infection, excluding likely perinatal HIV infections. Results: There were 2326 participants included in the study sample, among whom HIV and HSV-2 prevalence were 3.3% and 4.6% respectively. Adjusted for participant and friend socio-demographic characteristics, each additional friend at least one year older than the participant was associated with raised odds of HIV (odds ratio (OR)=1.37, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.82) and HSV-2 (adjusted OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.69). Each additional friend perceived to have ever had sex also raised the odds of HIV (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.63) and HSV-2 (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.35). Discussion: We found good evidence that a greater number of older friends and friends perceived to have had sex were associated with increased risk for HSV-2 and HIV infection among young women. Conclusions: The characteristics of young women's friendships could contribute to their risk of HIV infection. The extent to which policies or programmes influence age-mixing and young women's normative environments should be considered.

  • Rexvid, Shadi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lundmark, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Quantification of Biofilm Formation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans with Various Genotype and Phenotype2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]



    Biofilm is associated to many chronic infections among which periodontitis in one. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a related bacterium associated to aggressive periodontitis with early onset in younger individuals. In a previous study where bacterial samples were collected from adolescents in Ghana, a specific genotype of A. actinomycetemcomitans, serotype b, was found to be highly virulent and associated to the increased risk of developing attachment loss (AL ≥ 3 mm).

    This study aimed at determining biofilm formation on 45 serotype b isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans from the Ghana study and identifying possible correlations with virulence properties of the bacterium, as well as clinical data of the infected individual. The hypothesis was that the capacity to form biofilm is a factor that contributes to the pathogenic potential of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

    The isolates were cultivated on plastic microplates, stained and biofilm formation quantified spectrofotometrically. An increased absorbance was considered as enhanced ability to form biofilm.

    All isolates formed biofilm. High and medium levels of biofilm formation significantly correlated to AP-PCR type 1 positive bacteria (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01 respectively). No significant association was found to AL in the infected individuals.

    Even though the capacity to form biofilm in the initial phase of colonization might be important, its role in individuals already infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans is of subordinate to its pathogenic potential.

  • Navaei, Mahshid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Nazari, Omolbanin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Endodontically Treated Teeth in General Dentistry- Identification of Factors Related to Treatment2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    There are various factors that affect the success and outcome of root canal treatment. 

    The aim of the study is to thoroughly investigate the prognosis of endodontic treated by general dental practitioners in the region of Västerbotten, Sweden, and try to identify factors that are related to an unsuccessful root canal treatment. Our hypothesis is about prognosis for teeth, which are treated by a general dentist, is worse than the teeth, which are treated by specialists, and dental students. 

    Total 210 patients were included in our study. Of those 100 were excluded due to lack of documentation. We analysed these factors, aseptic treatment e.g. rubber dam, quality of root filling length, coronal restoration, and radiograph after 4 years. 

    In our study, rubber dam was used only in 64 teeth (58 %) throughout whole treatment and only in 27 teeth (22 %) have seen that root filling follow the standard criteria. Twenty-two teeth (20 %) have received coronal restoration and only 21 teeth (19 %) had radiograph after 4 years, six teeth (5 %) had retreatment and 5 teeth (4 %) have been extracted. Lack of documentation was another striking finding which made it difficult for our study to extract complete information. 

    In conclusion, we identified some factors, which can be improved. 

     Inadequate documentation. 

     Deficiencies in pre-treatment diagnostics. 

     Aseptic treatment e.g. rubber dam 

     Failure in follow-up documentation of treated teeth 

     Quality of root filing. 

  • Flannick, Jason
    et al.
    Fuchsberger, Christian
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Teslovich, Tanya M.
    Agarwala, Vineeta
    Gaulton, Kyle J.
    Caulkins, Lizz
    Koesterer, Ryan
    Ma, Clement
    Moutsianas, Loukas
    McCarthy, Davis J.
    Rivas, Manuel A.
    Perry, John R. B.
    Sim, Xueling
    Blackwell, Thomas W.
    Robertson, Neil R.
    Rayner, N. William
    Cingolani, Pablo
    Locke, Adam E.
    Tajes, Juan Fernandez
    Highland, Heather M.
    Dupuis, Josee
    Chines, Peter S.
    Lindgren, Cecilia M.
    Hartl, Christopher
    Jackson, Anne U.
    Chen, Han
    Huyghe, Jeroen R.
    De Bunt, Martijn Van
    Pearson, Richard D.
    Kumar, Ashish
    Muller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Grarup, Niels
    Stringham, Heather M.
    Gamazon, Eric R.
    Lee, Jaehoon
    Chen, Yuhui
    Scott, Robert A.
    Below, Jennifer E.
    Chen, Peng
    Huang, Jinyan
    Go, Min Jin
    Stitzel, Michael L.
    Pasko, Dorota
    Parker, Stephen C. J.
    Varga, Tibor V.
    Green, Todd
    Beer, Nicola L.
    Day-Williams, Aaron G.
    Ferreira, Teresa
    Fingerlin, Tasha
    Horikoshi, Momoko
    Hu, Cheng
    Huh, Iksoo
    Ikram, Mohammad Kamran
    Kim, Bong-Jo
    Kim, Yongkang
    Kim, Young Jin
    Kwon, Min-Seok
    Lee, Juyoung
    Lee, Selyeong
    Lin, Keng-Han
    Maxwell, Taylor J.
    Nagai, Yoshihiko
    Wang, Xu
    Welch, Ryan P.
    Yoon, Joon
    Zhang, Weihua
    Barzilai, Nir
    Voight, Benjamin F.
    Han, Bok-Ghee
    Jenkinson, Christopher P.
    Kuulasmaa, Teemu
    Kuusisto, Johanna
    Manning, Alisa
    Ng, Maggie C. Y.
    Palmer, Nicholette D.
    Balkau, Beverley
    Stancakova, Alena
    Abboud, Hanna E.
    Boeing, Heiner
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
    Gottesman, Omri
    Scott, James
    Carey, Jason
    Kwan, Phoenix
    Grant, George
    Smith, Joshua D.
    Neale, Benjamin M.
    Purcell, Shaun
    Butterworth, Adam S.
    Howson, Joanna M. M.
    Lee, Heung Man
    Lu, Yingchang
    Kwak, Soo-Heon
    Zhao, Wei
    Danesh, John
    Lam, Vincent K. L.
    Park, Kyong Soo
    Saleheen, Danish
    So, Wing Yee
    Tam, Claudia H. T.
    Afzal, Uzma
    Aguilar, David
    Arya, Rector
    Aung, Tin
    Chan, Edmund
    Navarro, Carmen
    Cheng, Ching-Yu
    Palli, Domenico
    Correa, Adolfo
    Curran, Joanne E.
    Rybin, Dennis
    Farook, Vidya S.
    Fowler, Sharon P.
    Freedman, Barry I.
    Griswold, Michael
    Hale, Daniel Esten
    Hicks, Pamela J.
    Khor, Chiea-Chuen
    Kumar, Satish
    Lehne, Benjamin
    Thuillier, Dorothee
    Lim, Wei Yen
    Liu, Jianjun
    Loh, Marie
    Musani, Solomon K.
    Puppala, Sobha
    Scott, William R.
    Yengo, Loic
    Tan, Sian-Tsung
    Taylor, Herman A.
    Thameem, Farook
    Wilson, Gregory
    Wong, Tien Yin
    Njolstad, Pal Rasmus
    Levy, Jonathan C.
    Mangino, Massimo
    Bonnycastle, Lori L.
    Schwarzmayr, Thomas
    Fadista, Joao
    Surdulescu, Gabriela L.
    Herder, Christian
    Groves, Christopher J.
    Wieland, Thomas
    Bork-Jensen, Jette
    Brandslund, Ivan
    Christensen, Cramer
    Koistinen, Heikki A.
    Doney, Alex S. F.
    Kinnunen, Leena
    Esko, Tonu
    Farmer, Andrew J.
    Hakaste, Liisa
    Hodgkiss, Dylan
    Kravic, Jasmina
    Lyssenko, Valeriya
    Hollensted, Mette
    Jorgensen, Marit E.
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Ladenvall, Claes
    Justesen, Johanne Marie
    Karajamaki, Annemari
    Kriebel, Jennifer
    Rathmann, Wolfgang
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Lauritzen, Torsten
    Narisu, Narisu
    Linneberg, Allan
    Melander, Olle
    Milani, Lili
    Neville, Matt
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Qi, Lu
    Qi, Qibin
    Roden, Michael
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Swift, Amy
    Rosengren, Anders H.
    Stirrups, Kathleen
    Wood, Andrew R.
    Mihailov, Evelin
    Blancher, Christine
    Carneiro, Mauricio O.
    Maguire, Jared
    Poplin, Ryan
    Shakir, Khalid
    Fennell, Timothy
    DePristo, Mark
    De Angelis, Martin Hrabe
    Deloukas, Panos
    Gjesing, Anette P.
    Jun, Goo
    Nilsson, Peter M.
    Murphy, Jacquelyn
    Onofrio, Robert
    Thorand, Barbara
    Hansen, Torben
    Meisinger, Christa
    Hu, Frank B.
    Isomaa, Bo
    Karpe, Fredrik
    Liang, Liming
    Peters, Annette
    Huth, Cornelia
    O'Rahilly, Stephen P.
    Palmer, Colin N. A.
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Rauramaa, Rainer
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Watanabe, Richard M.
    Syvanen, Ann-Christine
    Bergman, Richard N.
    Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan
    Bottinger, Erwin P.
    Cho, Yoon Shin
    Chandak, Giriraj R.
    Chan, Juliana Cn
    Chia, Kee Seng
    Daly, Mark J.
    Ebrahim, Shah B.
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Elliott, Paul
    Jablonski, Kathleen A.
    Lehman, Donna M.
    Jia, Weiping
    Ma, Ronald Cw
    Pollin, Toni I.
    Sandhu, Manjinder
    Tandon, Nikhil
    Froguel, Philippe
    Barroso, Ines
    Teo, Yik Ying
    Zeggini, Eleftheria
    Loos, Ruth J. F.
    Small, Kerrin S.
    Ried, Janina S.
    DeFronzo, Ralph A.
    Grallert, Harald
    Glaser, Benjamin
    Metspalu, Andres
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Walker, Mark
    Banks, Eric
    Gieger, Christian
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Im, Hae Kyung
    Illig, Thomas
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Buck, Gemma
    Trakalo, Joseph
    Buck, David
    Prokopenko, Inga
    Magi, Reedik
    Lind, Lars
    Farjoun, Yossi
    Owen, Katharine R.
    Gloyn, Anna L.
    Strauch, Konstantin
    Tuomi, Tiinamaija
    Kooner, Jaspal Singh
    Lee, Jong-Young
    Park, Taesung
    Donnelly, Peter
    Morris, Andrew D.
    Hattersley, Andrew T.
    Bowden, Donald W.
    Collins, Francis S.
    Atzmon, Gil
    Chambers, John C.
    Spector, Timothy D.
    Laakso, Markku
    Strom, Tim M.
    Bell, Graeme I.
    Blangero, John
    Duggirala, Ravindranath
    Tai, EShyong
    McVean, Gilean
    Hanis, Craig L.
    Wilson, James G.
    Seielstad, Mark
    Frayling, Timothy M.
    Meigs, James B.
    Cox, Nancy J.
    Sladek, Rob
    Lander, Eric S.
    Gabriel, Stacey
    Mohlke, Karen L.
    Meitinger, Thomas
    Groop, Leif
    Abecasis, Goncalo
    Scott, Laura J.
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Kang, Hyun Min
    Altshuler, David
    Burtt, Noel P.
    Florez, Jose C.
    Boehnke, Michael
    McCarthy, Mark I.
    Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controls2017In: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 4, 170179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural variants were identified, including 99% of low-frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.1-5%) non-coding variants in the whole-genome sequenced individuals and 99.7% of low-frequency coding variants in the whole-exome sequenced individuals. Each variant was tested for association with T2D in the sequenced individuals, and, to increase power, most were tested in larger numbers of individuals (> 80% of low-frequency coding variants in similar to 82 K Europeans via the exome chip, and similar to 90% of low-frequency non-coding variants in similar to 44 K Europeans via genotype imputation). The variants, genotypes, and association statistics from these analyses provide the largest reference to date of human genetic information relevant to T2D, for use in activities such as T2D-focused genotype imputation, functional characterization of variants or genes, and other novel analyses to detect associations between sequence variation and T2D.

  • Audet, Carolyn M.
    et al.
    Ngobeni, Sizzy
    Graves, Erin
    Wagner, Ryan G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Agincourt Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Mixed methods inquiry into traditional healers' treatment of mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders in rural South Africa2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, e0188433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Traditional healers are acceptable and highly accessible health practitioners throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Patients in South Africa often seek concurrent traditional and allopathic treatment leading to medical pluralism. Methods & findings: We studied the cause of five traditional illnesses known locally as "Mavabyi ya nhloko" (sickness of the head), by conducting 27 in-depth interviews and 133 surveys with a randomly selected sample of traditional healers living and working in rural, northeastern South Africa. These interviews were carried out to identify treatment practices of mental, neurological, and substance abuse (MNS) disorders. Participating healers were primarily female (77%), older in age (median: 58.0 years; interquartile range [IQR]: 50-67), had very little formal education (median: 3.7 years; IQR: 3.2-4.2), and had practiced traditional medicine for many years (median: 17 years; IQR: 9.5-30). Healers reported having the ability to successfully treat: seizure disorders (47%), patients who have lost touch with reality (47%), paralysis on one side of the body (59%), and substance abuse (21%). Female healers reported a lower odds of treating seizure disorders (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.47), patients who had lost touch with reality (OR: 0.26; p-value<0.05), paralysis of one side of the body (OR: 0.36), and substance abuse (OR: 0.36) versus males. Each additional year of education received was found to be associated with lower odds, ranging from 0.13-0.27, of treating these symptoms. Each additional patient seen by healers in the past week was associated with roughly 1.10 higher odds of treating seizure disorders, patients who have lost touch with reality, paralysis of one side of the body, and substance abuse. Healers charged a median of 500 South African Rand (similar to US$35) to treat substance abuse, 1000 Rand (similar to US$70) for seizure disorders or paralysis of one side of the body, and 1500 Rand (similar to US$105) for patients who have lost touch with reality. Conclusions: While not all healers elect to treat MNS disorders, many continue to do so, delaying allopathic health services to acutely ill patients.

  • Vestin Fredriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Öhman, Anders
    Flygare, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Tano, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    When Maxillary Sinusitis Does Not Heal: Findings on CBCT Scans of the Sinuses With a Particular Focus on the Occurrence of Odontogenic Causes of Maxillary Sinusitis2017In: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology, E-ISSN 2378-8038, Vol. 2, no 6, 442-446 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study sought to investigate the proportion of patients with suspected sinusitis referred for radiological examination who have radiologically verified sinusitis of odontogenic origin and to describe this type of sinusitis. Study Design: This investigation is a retrospective study. Methods: A total of 303 sinus examinations involving cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed at Sunderby Hospital, Lulea, Sweden in 2012 were independently reviewed by two radiologists. The number of cases of maxillary sinusitis and the correlation between maxillary sinusitis and odontogenic infections were determined. Results: Overall, 24% of the verified cases of sinusitis were odontogenic. An odontogenic origin was identified in 40% of unilateral maxillary sinusitis cases but only 6% of bilateral maxillary sinusitis cases (p=0.0015). Forty-nine out of 54 patients with periapical destruction had adjacent mucosal swelling in the maxillary sinus, but only 15 of these patients satisfied the criteria for sinusitis. Conclusion: The present study confirms the close relationship between odontogenic infections and unilateral maxillary sinusitis.

  • Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Hagberg, Jan
    Axén, Iben
    Kwak, Lydia
    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin
    Skillgate, Eva
    Dahlgren, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Jensen, Irene
    Individual preferences for physical exercise as secondary prevention for non-specific low back pain: a discrete choice experiment2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, e0187709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exercise is effective in improving non-specific low back pain (LBP). Certain components of physical exercise, such as the type, intensity and frequency of exercise, are likely to influence participation among working adults with non-specific LBP, but the value and relative importance of these components remain unknown. The study's aim was to examine such specific components and their influence on individual preferences for exercise for secondary prevention of non-specific LBP among working adults. Methods: In a discrete choice experiment, working individuals with non-specific LBP answered a webbased questionnaire. Each respondent was given ten pairs of hypothetical exercise programs and asked to choose one option from each pair. The choices comprised six attributes of exercise (i.e., type of training, design, intensity, frequency, proximity and incentives), each with either three or four levels. A conditional logit regression that reflected the random utility model was used to analyze the responses. Results: The final study population consisted of 112 participants. The participants' preferred exercise option was aerobic (i.e., cardiovascular) rather than strength training, group exercise with trainer supervision, rather than individual or unsupervised exercise. They also preferred high intensity exercise performed at least once or twice per week. The most popular types of incentive were exercise during working hours and a wellness allowance rather than coupons for sports goods. The results show that the relative value of some attribute levels differed between young adults (age <= 44 years) and older adults (age <= 45 years) in terms of the level of trainer supervision required, exercise intensity, travel time to exercise location and financial incentives. For active study participants, exercise frequency (i.e., twice per week, 1.15; CI: 0.25; 2.06) influenced choice of exercise. For individuals with more than one child, travel time (i.e., 20 minutes, - 0.55; CI: 0.65; 3.26) was also an influential attribute for choice of exercise, showing that people with children at home preferred to exercise close to home. Conclusions: This study adds to our knowledge about what types of exercise working adults with back pain are most likely to participate in. The exercise should be a cardiovascular type of training carried out in a group with trainer supervision. It should also be of high intensity and preferably performed twice per week during working hours. Coupons for sports goods do not appear to motivate physical activity among workers with LBP. The findings of the study could have a substantial impact on the planning and development of exercise provision and promotion strategies to improve non-specific LBP. Providers and employers may be able to improve participation in exercise programs for adults with non-specific LBP by focusing on the exercise components which are the most attractive. This in turn would improve satisfaction and adherence to exercise interventions aimed at preventing recurrent non-specific LBP.

  • Forsberg, Magdalena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Vägens betydelse för turismen: En studie om den nya E4:ans påverkan på Sundsvalls hotellmarknad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the importance of road connection to the hotel businesses of a destination. Many destinations request a reconstruction of a connected road route due to different reasons. In this case, the highway E4 Sundsvall has undergone a road route change. The main reason why this action was requested was because the highway was affecting people's health from vehicle emissions, due to being located too close to the society. This study intends to examine the direct effects of the rerouting of the road.

    The road that earlier passed through the center of the city is now located outside of Sundsvall. This relocation was conducted mainly due to high amounts of emissions from passing vehicles. Other factors were however also included in the decision to reroute the road. A lot of research shows that there is a strong connection between transport and tourism. This could indicate that this new road location might affect the tourism flow to Sundsvall in a negative way since less people now have to drive through the city. To examine this case, documentation from the project have been studied to understand the expected outcomes of the project. Previous research studies has also been used to gain a deeper understanding of the subject, so that comparisons and analyses can be made in this paper. Passenger statistics across the bridge of Sundsvall has also been collected. This data is used to see the activity on the road, and thus be able to draw back to the purpose of the study. The results however shows that the hotel market in Sundsvall has seen a rise in guest nights and occupied rooms since the new road construction. The project of Sundsvall E4 and previous studies implies the development of a destination. In conclusion, the increase in hotel sales might be linked to city development. This means that in the end, the road route change seems to have a positive connection to the hotel market in Sundsvall, not directly but indirectly because of the changes the city has undergone due to the relocation of the new E4 highway.

  • Hassel, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Post-fire species composition and regeneration of understory vegetation in a boreal forest in central Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Post-fire survival, composition and regeneration of understory species in the boreal forest have shown to be affected by several factors, where consumption of the organic soil layer together with altered soil properties play important parts. There has however also been shown that the pre-fire site characteristics affect the post-fire understory vegetation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of fire and pre-fire site characteristics on understory regeneration and composition at a local scale in a boreal forest. Classification of species richness of the understory species together with measurements of biomass in terms of leaf area index (LAI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were performed in a Pinus sylvestris forest in the Gärsjön catchment area, three years after a stand-replacing wildfire. Data of site index, fire severity on soil and moss, fire severity on shrubs, stand age, and remaining humus depth were also used. A total of 36 species of vascular plants (10 forbs, 14 graminoids, 5 dwarf shrubs, 2 ferns, 1 shrub and 4 trees) together with 3 species of bryophytes were recorded in the area. The study revealed that understory species composition was explained by remaining humus depth and site index. The regeneration of the understory was affected differently, where LAI was affected by site index, and NDVI was connected to both site index and fire severity on soil and moss. LAI and NDVI differed in their sensitivity in capturing differences among plant species, where higher values of LAI were associated to species such as E. sylvaticum, P. erecta, C. arundinacea and J. conglomeratus, while NDVI was related to both the ground and field layer, with high values associated to a high abundance of C. canescens and C. ovalis. According to my result, it can be concluded that NDVI is a more appropriate measure of post-fire re-establishment and recovery of understory vegetation in the boreal forest. 

  • Wennberg, Owe
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Ahlqvist, André
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Förskolans fiktiva förebilder: En studie angående fiktiva karaktärers roll i förskoleverksamheten2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att granska fiktiva karaktärers roll som förebilder för barn i förskoleåldern. Studien har utförts genom att intervjua aktiva förskollärare ute på ett antal olika förskolor. Studiens viktigaste resultat är att det finns ett behöva att granska och reflektera över hur man som pedagog ser på fiktiva karaktärer som förebilder i förskolan. En av anledningarna till detta som vi fann var för att studiens informanter hade mycket att säga om fiktiva förebilder, men när det gällde att definiera själva begreppet förebild så var det nästintill ingen som nämnde fiktiva karaktärer överhuvudtaget. Detta tyder på att många tänker på fiktiva karaktärer som potentiella förebilder, men de är inte alltid själva medvetna om dessa tankar. Den andra anledning till varför man bör granska sitt förhållningssätt till fiktiva förebilder är på grund av statusskillnaden. Informanterna lyfte många fördelar med fiktiva förebilder och hur de kunde användas i verksamheten, men i allmänhet så fanns det en överskridande åsikt om att verkliga förebilder var viktigare för barnen än fiktiva. Den tredje anledningen till behovet av granskning och reflektion är att media och populärkultur. Informanterna i denna studie ställde sig ytterst kritiska till fiktiva karaktärer från dessa källor, då de menade att dessa karaktärer sällan hade en pedagogisk baktanke och ofta uppmuntrade negativa beteenden hos barnen, så som exempelvis att vilja slåss. Studien fann dock att det viktigaste med sådana karaktärer är inte var de kommer från eller hur dåliga de egentligen är, utan hur man själv som pedagog använder dem. Därför är det återigen viktigt att granska sitt eget förhållningssätt och fundera över varför man är inställd som man är till fiktiva förebilder.

  • Ortega-Montiel, T.
    et al.
    Villafuerte-Segura, R.
    Vázquez-Aguilera, C.
    Freidovich, Leonid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Proportional Retarded Controller to Stabilize Underactuated Systems with Measurement Delays: Furuta Pendulum Case Study2017In: Mathematical problems in engineering (Print), ISSN 1024-123X, E-ISSN 1563-5147, 2505086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and tuning of a simple feedback strategy with delay to stabilize a class of underactuated mechanical systems with dead time are presented. A linear time-invariant (LTI) model with time delay of fourth order and a Proportional Retarded (PR) controller are considered. The PR controller is shown as an appealing alternative to the application of observer-based controllers. This paper gives a step forward to obtain a better understanding of the effect of output delays and related phenomena in mechatronic systems, making it possible to design resilient control laws under the presence of uncertain time delays in measurements and obtain an acceptable performance without using a derivative action. The Furuta pendulum is a standard two-degrees-of-freedom benchmark example from the class of underactuated mechanical systems. The configuration under study includes an inherent output delay due to wireless communication used to transmit measurements of the pendulum's angular position. Our approach offers a constructive design and a procedure based on a combination of root loci and Mikhailov methods for the analysis of stability. Experiments over a laboratory platform are reported and a comparison with a standard linear state feedback control law shows the advantages of the proposed scheme.

  • Sundling, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lü, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Characterization of Macrophage Activation Induced by Leukotoxin from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans 2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, non-motile coccobacilli colonizing the human oral cavity and is strongly associated with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP). Aa possesses several virulence mechanisms, among others; Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin found in the outer membrane of Aa and Leukotoxin (LtxA), an exotoxin attached to the bacterial cell surface or in outer membrane vesicles and which has been correlating with periodontal disease mostly. LtxA specifically targets human leukocytes, causing imbalance in the host inflammatory response. It is involved in the activation of a cellular pathway, starting with ATP release from the cell, possibly through Pannexin-1(Panx-1) channels, Caspase-1 activation and release of bioactive interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from leukocytes. In the case of periodontitis, inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β will stimulate periodontal tissue breakdown. The aim of the present study was to examine the involvement of Panx-1 in LtxA induced activation and cytotoxicity of human macrophages. 

    To determine viability of the macrophages the release of LDH and the accumulation of neutral red was quantified. The release of IL-1β was analysed by ELISA analyses of the cell culture supernatants. Results showed that macrophages treated with Cbx and exposed to LtxA was still sensitive to LtxA, but showed a decrease in the IL-1β release. In opposite, macrophages exposed to LPS showed increased IL-1β release in presence of Cbx. 

    The conclusion of our study is that Panx-1 channels are partially involved in the cellular pathway leading to IL-1β release on LtxA exposed cells. 

  • Iliste, Adrian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The personality dimension of idiocentrism-allocentrism among international students2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The association between culture and personality has been widely studied and previous research has shown an association between the culture dimension of individualism-collectivism and the personality dimension of idiocentrism-allocentrism. The present study investigates the relationship between individualism-collectivism and idiocentrism-allocentrism among international students in Sweden. 215 international students (M = 23 years, age range 19-44, 120 women, 94 men, 1 other) were given definitions of individualist and collectivist cultures and asked to assess their culture of origin. They were then asked to rate themselves on 22 items intended to measure idiocentrism-allocentrism. Finally, they were asked to state their main reason for studying abroad by choosing one of seven options given in a multiple-choice item. One-way ANOVA's and independent t-tests were carried out for data analysis. The results showed an association between cultural background and idiocentrism-allocentrism in the expected direction. Further, the results did not demonstrate an association between geographical background and idiocentrism-allocentrism. Finally, the results did not demonstrate an association between main reason for studying abroad and idiocentrism-allocentrism, nor between main reason for studying abroad and cultural background. It was concluded that in the case of individualism-collectivism and idiocentrism-allocentrism, culture does influence personality. Further, the results suggest that it may not be appropriate to equate geographical entities such as nations with culture as cultural diversity may be found within such entities. Finally, the results indicate that international students differ in their reasons for studying abroad regardless of personality and cultural background, although further research regarding the motivation of international students is needed.

  • Wadelius, Philip
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Salomonsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Early Detection of Malignancies and Potential Malignancies in the Oral Cavity - a systematic review2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Oral cancer is a major health problem, with over 500000 patients diagnosed each year. Although progress has been made in regards to both diagnosis and treatment, the overall 5-year survival rate has not changed much in the last 30 years and still relatively static at around 50 %. This high mortality rate is related to late diagnosis of oral malignancies. At stages III and IV the 5-year survival rate is as low as 30 %, however if diagnosed at stage I the survival rate increases substantially to approximately 80 %. Research in to viable methods for early detection of oral malignancies and potential malignancies has the potential to save lives and reduce suffering for many people word wide. The purpose of this systematic review is to find an effective and practical diagnostic test for early detection of malignancies and potential malignancies in the oral cavity. Electronic database searches were conducted in English on the 4th of February 2017, using PubMed medical database, publication date 2005 or later. Inclusion criteria: Diagnostic Test Accuracy studies for oral malignancies and potential malignancies in human patients with gold standard reference test. Search yielded 166 records, titles and abstracts was screened and evaluated, 19 records was included. Included studies were assessed in detail regarding methodological quality and diagnostic accuracy. 19 studies with a total of 11575 participants were included. The studies were subdivided in to groups based on the specific index test assessed in each study. Diagnostic accuracy results: 4 records assessed Tissue autofluorescence; sensitivity ranging from 65.5 % to 100 % and specificity ranging from 41.7 % to 97.4 %. 10 records assessed Brush biopsy sampling; sensitivity ranging from 45 % to 100 % and specificity ranging from 90 % to 100 %. 1 record assessed Blood sampling; sensitivity 64 % and specificity 80 %. 2 records assessed saliva sampling Saliva sampling; sensitivity 100 % and specificity 96.7 %. 1 record assessed Metachromatic dye staining; detection rate of experimental group was 5 % higher than control group. 1 record assessed Narrow-band imaging; sensitivity 95 % and specificity 97 %. The Brush biopsy sampling diagnostic test methods has a body of evidence that far exceeds any other category presented in this review. As for methodological quality, diagnostic accuracy and risk of bias, we deemed the category as a whole to be at an acceptable level. 

  • Dahlstrand Rudin, Arvid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Burstedt, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    The importance of OuterMembrane Protein A in SerumResistance in Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans serotype astrain D7SS2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Gram-negative bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is primarily associatedwith aggressive forms of periodontal disease. Additionally, it has occasionally been found to causemetastatic infections in non-oral sites. This requires the ability to evade the bactericidal activity ofthe complement system of the humoral immune system. Outer membrane proteins, namely,Omp100 and OmpA have been connected to normal human serum resistance for several bacteriaspecies. The objective of this study was to investigate if serum-resistant ompA mutants can beobtained, and to detect changes in OMP expression. We used A. actinomycetemcomitansserotype a strain D7SS and D7SS ompA knockouts. The strains were incubated in 50 % NHS.This resulted in a substantial decrease of survival among D7SS ompA knockouts. D7SS ompAknockouts were exposed to 50 % NHS once more to confirm stable serum resistance. 13 out of14 tested clones showed growth, indicating that serum resistant ompA mutants could begenerated. SDS-PAGE gel of extracted outer membrane vesicles revealed an additional proteinband of approximately 34 kDa in at least 4 of 5 tested serum resistant ompA mutants. This proteinband has been analyzed in the laboratory, and according to LC-MS/MS it contains an OmpAhomologue, which has been named OmpA2. We conclude that OmpA2 expression might be amajor mechanism for serum survival in A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype a strain D7SS ompAknockouts.

  • Said, Yasmin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Sahib, Doaa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    The Use of Post and Core in Public and Private Swedish Dental Care: A Questionnaire Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Post and core-systems are common techniques in oral rehabilitation of teeth with inadequate structure which do not allow using of the traditional restorations. Many factors can affect the treatments’ success and survival rate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use and experience of post and core systems in public and private Swedish dental care. The hypothesis was that prefabricated post in composite material is the most common post and core-system used in Swedish dentistry today. Complication rates are higher for teeth with post and core and crown restorations compared with teeth restored with only crowns but without post/core. Furthermore, the risk of catastrophic failure is more frequent for teeth restored with post and core than without. A survey was conducted by sending 500 questionnaires to dentists in public and private dental care in five different cities of Sweden. Results were compiled by 297 returned surveys and showed that the most used technique was individually cast post and core and the most used material was metal alloy post and core. Conclusion: Individually cast post and core was found to be the most used technique both in public and private dental care in Sweden. Fiber reinforced composite was considered as the material with highest complication rates while metal alloy post and core was the material with lowest complication rates. Root fracture was the most common complication reported. The ferrule effect was considered as the most important factor affecting the survival rate of treatment with post and core.

  • Fagerström, Josefin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Forsberg, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Quantification of Aggregatibacter aphrophilus in Saliva Samples and Correlation to Carriage of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aggregatibacter actinomyctemcomitans is a gram-negative bacterium frequently associated with the development of aggressive periodontitis. Aggregatibacter aphrophilus is closely related to A. actinomyctemcomitans but despite this, it does not seem to be involved in any oral infectious disease. Preliminary data from in vitro studies of unpublished observations indicate that A. aphrophilus might have negative impact on the survival of A. actinomycetemcomitans. This could possibly depend on toxins secreted via the type VI secretion system (T6SS) in A. aphrophilus. The aim of this study was to compare quantities between these species in saliva samples collected from a cohort in Kenya (n = 116) and examine whether there exist any inverse correlation. Two sets of primers were tested by using PCR to determine their specificity in detecting A. aphrophilus. To examine an eventual correlation, samples were analysed by qPCR and thereafter compared with previously determined amounts of A. actinomycetemcomitans in these samples. Results from this study indicated that primers targeting the T6SS, i.e. the hcp gene were more specific for detection of A. aphrophilus than the rpoB primers. A majority of the samples contained both Aggregatibacter species, supporting the idea that A. aphrophilus is a common member of the oral microbiota. However, according to our data there was no general association between high amounts of A. aphrophilus and low quantities of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  • Eriksson, Oskar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Blixt, Dennis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skola i förändring: En studie om lärares arbete med måluppfyllelse i Idrott och hälsa efter senaste läroplansreformen Lgr11.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrott och hälsa hade under Lpo94 så otydliga mål att lärarnas arbete mot målen kunde se nästan hur som helst ut. 2011 antogs Lgr11 men olika studier visar fortfarande på varierande arbete med måluppfyllelse. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka hur åk 7-9 lärare i Idrott och hälsa arbetar med måluppfyllelse utifrån Lgr11. Frågeställningarna som studien behandlar är: vilka metoder använder lärare i sitt arbete med måluppfyllelse i relation till kursplanen i Lgr11 och hur likartat arbetar lärare i relation till kursplanen i Lgr11? För att undersöka detta har en kvalitativ studie genomförts. I denna fallstudie har åtta lärare intervjuats i hur de arbetar med måluppfyllelse utifrån Idrott och hälsas kursplan i Lgr11. Resultatet visar på olika metoder lärare använder i sitt arbete med måluppfyllelse i relation till Lgr11. Resultatet visar också på att lärarna arbetar relativt likartat med måluppfyllelse i relation till Lgr11.

  • Näsström, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    State-of-the-art development platform for hydropower turbine governors2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower is a flexible energy source that is essential for balancing the electrical power system on all timescales, from seconds to years. In addition to intra-hour regulation, it provides frequency containment reserves (FCR-N,FCR-D) and frequency restoration reserves (mFRR, aFRR) to the grid. The turbine governor is a device responsible for controlling the power output and delivering frequency control to the system. The aim of this Master’s Thesis project is to develop a new hydropower turbine governor in MATLAB/Simulink, which contains all critical functionality from the existing governor and with the same performance. The new governor should as far as possible comply to the well-established communication standard IEC 61850.

    A working model of the turbine governor has been built in Simulink that supports normal operation with frequency control, start and stop, load rejection, operation mode as synchronous condenser and more. Validations of the model against data from Akkats powerplant shows that the model behaves as a real governor during normal operation. Validations of the start sequence showed deviations during sequence 3 and 4 which can be explained by usage of different PID parameters.

    Using IEC 61850 as a nomenclature and as a way of structuring functions in the governor has also been possible. Implementing the whole standard for communication, requires that the control system also is renewed according to IEC 61850. Certain functions, as sequencing has thus not been done according to the standard.

    MATLAB and Simulink provide tools for building, simulating and testing implementations of the turbine governor. The contributions this platform can provide are; ease of implementation, optimization and testing of control strategies. Simulink also provides a graphical interface, which reduce system complexity. An optimal implementation requires a hardware with support for Simulink to get a transparent platform.

    Ultimately, these benefits could result in better frequency quality at a lower cost, which is essential for successful and cost-effective integration of other renewable energy sources such as wind- and solar power.

  • Sundin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    ”Att ge barn möjlighet till ett eget litterärt liv är det bästa man kan göra för dem”: - en intervjuundersökning om lärares och skolbibliotekariers syn på skönlitteraturens roll i högstadie- och gymnasieskolans svenskämne.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns book reading in school, how to work with it and why. My study includes research from four different writers based on the benefits of reading literature and working with this in schools and with children. I have also studied four reading and writing projects relevant for my thesis. I interviewed two teachers and one school librarian on how they use literature with students and their opinion of book reading in their professions. Discussions in my thesis regarding the advantages of reading books concludes that it is not only good for your reading and understanding, but also for your entire being. You will grow as a social and empathic person and your understanding of other people and cultures will make you a better citizen of the democratic society we live in. 

  • Erfanian, Nima
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Ghodbeni, Kaiser
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Clinical Description of Patients Diagnosed with Oral and Genital Lichen Planus, a Register Study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]



    The aim of this study is to chart a cohort of patients in the county of Västerbotten in Sweden who have been diagnosed with lichen planus. In addition to charting, the cohort has also been compared to similar previously studied groups.


    The studied group consist of patients who have been referred to the Department of Medical Biosciences and Pathology between years 2009-2015 with suspicious diagnosis of LP.


    After exclusion, 214 patients remained of which 130 were diagnosed with Oral LP and 84 with Genital LP. Different data such as age, medications and diseases was extracted from the dental journals.


    In this cohort women were more likely to be affected by LP. The mean age for females was 63 years and 53 years for men. In the studied group 17 % were being treated for hypertension, 14 % were treated with 5 or more different medications. Tobacco use was found in 17 % and 12 % were diagnosed with an autoimmune disease.


    The results from the studied cohort were in accordance with similar populations in previous studies. There is an undergoing discussion whether OLP and LP are the same disease that affects different sites. 

  • Chiappe Olsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lindholm, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Saliva from Children aged 7-9: - and evaluation of two different DNA extraction methods2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection that can lead to loss of supporting tissues around the teeth. Studies show that different ethnic populations demonstrate major differences in prevalence of the disease and in which form the disease occur. The presence of the bacteria Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a) is associated with the aggressive form of the disease, diagnosed primarily in young people. 

    The present study aims to describe the prevalence of A.a in children aged 7-9 years living in Sweden with different ethnic backgrounds and to evaluate two different ways of extracting bacterial DNA. The hypothesis was that prevalence of A.a would correlate with the origin of the subjects, thus anticipating a higher prevalence in subjects of African origin than those of other ethnicity. 

    Stimulated saliva samples from 85 children were studied. Two methods were used to extract DNA, manually and automatically. qPCR was used to investigate if the samples contained A.a. 

    The essential results showed that the highest prevalence of A.a was found in samples belonging to children with African origin. The manual method extracted DNA in a higher amount and from more samples compared to the automatic method. Sweden is nowadays multicultural and the clinical issues change with the population. Other clinical questions needs to be answered and previous truths need to be reassessed, for example periodontal problems in younger individuals. In this study, the manual method of extracting DNA proved to be more sensitive than the automatic, though more studies need to be conducted to draw any conclusions.

  • Public defence: 2018-02-02 09:00 Hörsal D, Umeå
    Liu-Helmersson, Jing
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Climate Change, Dengue and Aedes Mosquitoes: Past Trends and Future Scenarios2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Climate change, global travel and trade have facilitated the spread of Aedes mosquitoes and have consequently enabled the diseases they transmit (dengue fever, Chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever) to emerge and re-emerge in uninfected areas. Large dengue outbreaks occurred in Athens in 1927 and in Portuguese island, Madeira in 2012, but there are almost no recent reports of Aedes aegypti, the principal vector, in Europe. A dengue outbreak needs four conditions: sufficient susceptible humans, abundant Aedes vector, dengue virus introduction, and conducive climate. Can Aedes aegypti establish themselves again in Europe in the near future if they are introduced? How do the current and future climate affect dengue transmission globally, and regionally as in Europe? This thesis tries to answer these questions.

    Methods Two process-based mathematical models were developed in this thesis. Model 1 describes a vector’s ability to transmit dengue – vectorial capacity – based on temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR). Model 2 describes vector population dynamics based on the lifecycle of Aedes aegypti. From this model, vector abundance was estimated using both climate as a single driver, and climate together with human population and GDP as multiple drivers; vector population growth rate was derived as a threshold condition to estimate the vector’s invasion to a new place.

    Results Using vectorial capacity, we estimate dengue epidemic potential globally for Aedes aegypti and in Europe for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. We show that mean temperature and DTR are both important in modelling dengue transmission, especially in a temperate climate zone like Europe. Currently, South Europe is over the threshold for dengue epidemics if sufficient dengue vectors are present. Aedes aegypti is on the borderline of invasion into the southern tip of Europe. However, by end of this century, the invasion of Aedes aegypti may reach as far north as the middle of Europe under the business-as-usual climate scenario. Or it may be restricted to the south Europe from the middle of the century if the low carbon emission – Paris Agreement – is implemented to limit global warming to below 2°C.

    Conclusion Climate change will increase the area and time window for Aedes aegypti’s invasion and consequently the dengue epidemic potential globally, and in Europe in particular. Successfully achieving the Paris Agreement would considerably change the future risk scenario of a highly competent vector – Aedes aegypti’s – invasion into Europe. Therefore, the risk of transmission of dengue and other infectious diseases to the mainland of Europe depends largely on human efforts to mitigate climate change.

  • Wänman, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Staversjö, Christopher
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lower Jaw Movements Measured by Optoelectronic Movement Recording: A pilot study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the complex nature of jaw movements, three-dimensional (3D) movement recording provide information about the jaw movement capacity. The aim of the present report was to test the reliability of measuring lower jaw movements using a 3D movement recording system and to calculate the lower jaw movement volume.

    Lower jaw movements, recorded by 3D optoelectronic movement analysis system (MacReflex®) was compared with reference values from a digital caliper. Pre-tests were performed to develop a software to calculate the lower jaw movements in separate dimensions and its volume. Pilot tests with two test persons followed to register the lower jaw movements and calculate lower jaw movement volume.

    The results indicate low reliability of lower jaw movements measured by movement recording system compared with reference values from digital caliper, reflected by delta values (D = max-min). The values from the movement recording system indicate high variability reflected by higher levels of standard deviation for movement recorded values compared with digital caliper and by percentage values calculated from the differences between mean values of movement recording and digital caliper. The calculated lower jaw movement volume was 10.3 cm3 and 17.2 cm3 for the test persons, respectively.

    Conclusively, the results imply that further testing of the method is needed with larger series and test-retest reliability analysis to evaluate the possibility to improve accuracy of tracing jaw movements with recording device. The 3D-movement recording system together with the software could be used for calculation of lower jaw movement volume but its accuracy could not be validated.

  • Issa, Rihan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Acar, Nuray
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Shear Strength Between Adhesive Cement and Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia and Cobalt-Chrome Alloy With and Without Retentive Holes - an in vitro study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    De-bonding is the most common failure of resin-bonded fixed partial dentures. The aim was to determine if the shear bond strength (SBS) differed between a dental adhesive and a Co-Cr alloy and an yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP). Furthermore, to determine whether retention holes in the two materials and storage for 21 days in water affected the results. The hypothesis was that there are no significant differences between the compared groups. 10 embedded discs of Co-Cr alloy without and 10 with retentive holes, and 10 discs of Y-TZP without and 17 with retentive holes were sand- and steam blasted. A pillar of adhesive cement was bonded to the surface of the discs and stored in water at 37 °C for 24 hr and / or 21 days. An UltraTest machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/ min was used for SBS. The mean SBS after 24 hr / 21 days in water were recorded. The SBS of Co-Cr alloy without retentive hole was 16.3 MPa after 24 hr and 11.4 MPa after 21 days, the SBS of Y-TZP without retentive hole was 18.5 MPa after 24 hr and 12.6 MPa after 21 days. The SBS of Co-Cr alloy with retentive hole 13.9 MPa after 21 days and Y-TZP with retentive hole 16.9 MPa after 21 days. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups with or without retentive holes and after 24 hr or 21 days in water, p> 0.05.

  • Abdul Hussain, Mauj
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Hawaz Ali, Suzan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Contamination Controls for Root Canal Sample Analysis by Molecular Methods: A pilot study.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When exploring the root canal flora, before and after treatment, it is crucial to eliminate bacteria from the tooth surface before entering the pulp. If not, bacteria from the surface might contaminate the root canal sample resulting in false information. When using molecular techniques, not only bacteria are to be eliminated but also DNA from bacteria to avoid contamination from the surface. The aim of the study was to examine if DNA from bacteria can be eliminated using a modified disinfection protocol. Samples from the tooth surface were taken from ten intact teeth stored in ethanol/ glycerol (50 % / 50 %) prior to the experiment. The teeth were sampled before and after cleaning the surface with H2O2 (30 %), NaOCl (3 %) and EDTA (0.5 M). Samples were taken from buccal, occlusal and lingual enamel and dentin surfaces. All samples were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction and culture. In a second experiment, ten teeth were placed in a bacterial solution containing Enterococcus faecalis for three days and sampled as above. No growth could be detected using the conventional culture technique from the post-wash samples. The results show that the teeth could not entirely become free from bacterial DNA using the performed cleaning routine as all samples were positive for bacterial DNA after cleaning. The average amount of detectable bacterial DNA was decreased with 95 % after the cleaning procedure. The results confirm reduction of bacterial DNA after cleaning, however, detectable bacterial DNA is still evident after disinfection. 

  • Severus, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Söderlund, Annifrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Svenskars kännedom om Livsmedelsverkets kostråd: En kvantitativ enkätstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background In Sweden, over half of the population are overweight or obese, according to the latest report from the Swedish National Institute of Public Health. Another publication concerning general health indicates that approximately 11 percent of disease burden in Sweden can be directly related to unhealthy eating habits. 

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the general knowledge, within the Swedish population, about the dietary advice issued by the National Food Agency (NFA). The difference between groups based on gender, age, self-reported Body Mass Index (BMI) and level of education were explored. 

    Method A quantitative method was used, managed by a web-based questionnaire containing 18 questions. The participants were 16 years or older. The collected data was analyzed by using IBM SPSS version 24.0. Nonparametric tests were applied and the level of significance was set to p<0,05. 

    Results In total, 137 individuals participated in the survey, the vast majority were women. Out of all participants, a great number had finished a higher level of education. Data was non-parametric distributed but indicated that general knowledge about dietary advice were good. Factors such as being a woman, being older, having a BMI indicating overweight or having a higher level of education were positively correlated with a higher knowledge about dietary advice. The primary source of information for dietary advice was, according to the participants, the Internet, critically as well as non-critically reviewed publications.

    Conclusion The general knowledge about the dietary advice issued by the NFA was good across the population in this study. Hypotheses were generated, that people in general might have a hard time to determine what advices that are legit and also knowing how to use the advice in everyday life.

  • Andersson, Klara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wallberg, Agnes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examining associations between motives, instructor relationship quality, and state mindfulness in yoga2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Yoga is an ancient tradition that in contemporary research has been shown to have positive associations with a broad spectrum of health outcomes. Although promising findings have been highlighted, research exploring the mechanisms underlying the use of yoga for enhancing mental health is still in its infancy. Researchers have shown that yoga can increase levels of mindfulness, which has been shown to relate to several aspects of general well-being such as low levels of anxiety, depression, and stress. However, limited study has examined how the quality of the relationship between the yoga student and yoga instructor affects state mindfulness during the yoga class. The present study used a cross sectional research design to investigate associations between levels of stress, negative affect, motives for yoga, relationship quality, and mindfulness during yoga classes. The sample consisted of 219 adults that completed measures of stress, affect, motives for yoga, mindfulness, and relationship quality immediately following a yoga class. Analysis of data indicated that higher levels of stress and negative emotional wellbeing increased the likelihood that yoga was practiced to address psychological motives rather than perceived physical health outcomes. Additionally, relationship quality with the instructor was found to predict greater state mindfulness during the yoga session. The present study highlights the importance of the relationship quality between instructor and student, and suggests that future research investigating the efficacy of yoga in optimizing psychological health should consider how health outcomes might be influenced by interpersonal relationships.

  • Lång, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    CCL11 and Effects on Pre-osteoclast Migration2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease due to dental bacteria, and the disease is highly prevalent worldwide. Both environmental factors and genetic variation are confounding factors. Characteristic for disease development is degradation of gingival tissue and resorption of the alveolar bone due to inflammation. The cells that are capable to resorb bone is named osteoclasts and those are recruited and activated by numerous cytokines. Cytokines are small signal proteins responsible for cell communication and cell recruitment. Cytokines with chemotactic capacity are called chemokines. Patients with periodontitis have increased levels of chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and chemokine ligand 11 (CCL11) in serum. The aim of this study is to investigate whether CCL11 increases pre-osteoclast migration. Bone marrow was isolated from mouse long bones to achieve pre-osteoclasts for migration experiments. A migration plate, with membrane pore size 8-μm was used for the experiments. The cells were added on top of the membrane with the medium underneath. The cells were incubated at 37 °C, 5 % CO2 and the incubation time 5 hours. Migrated cells were fixed and stained for the osteoclast specific enzyme tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Migrated cells were counted using a light microscope. The result showed that CCL11 had a statistical significant chemotactic effect on pre-osteoclasts and increase cell migration. By identification of chemokines, it might be possible to test chemokine antibodies to stop bone resorption in inflammatory bone destructive diseases as periodontitis.

  • Larsson, Erica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Jacobsson, Ellinore
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Stability after Mandibular Advancement using Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) of the mandible is performed to improve function and aesthetics if skeletal discrepancy between dental arches are severe. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate skeletal stability after surgical advancement of the mandible with BSSO.

    Inclusion criterion was patients with Angle Class II occlusion undergoing mandibular advancement with BSSO between 2006 and 2015. For analysis of skeletal stability, cephalometric measurements were performed on lateral cephalograms preoperatively, direct postoperatively and 18 months postoperatively. 39 patients were analysed preoperatively (T0) and direct postoperatively (T1). 22 patients were analysed at the 18 months’ postoperative follow-up (T2). The mandibular position in the facial skeleton was analysed with SNB, ANB, ML/NSL and Wits appraisal.

    The cephalometric analysis showed statistically significant differences between T1 and T2 (paired t-test, p < 0.05). The analysis on subgroup level showed a statistically significant difference in SNB angle and in Wits appraisal within groups with medium and large magnitude of surgical movement and with patients > 25 years. This indicates a possible minor skeletal relapse, therefore these patients might require safety measures to minimize the risk of relapse. The results showed minor skeletal changes between T1 and T2, and this study indicates that the BSSO generates an adequate skeletal stability. 

  • Ahlin, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Hur påverkas hälsan av konjunkturförändringar i Sverige?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie avser analysera hur hälsan i den svenska befolkningen varierar med konjunkturcykeln. Relationen mellan hälsa och konjunkturcykeln studeras genom att undersöka hur mortalitet och utnyttjandet av sjukvård påverkas av förändringar i arbetslöshet. Relationen mellan mortalitet och arbetslöshet är välstuderad utomlands och i Sverige men denna studie tar analysen ett steg vidare genom att även använda utnyttjandet av sluten respektive öppen vård som mått på hälsa. Den ekonometriska metoden som tillämpats är regression med fixa effekter som estimerats med paneldata som avser Sveriges 21 län. Överlag kan resultaten i denna studie inte visa på ett tydligt samband mellan arbetslöshet och de studerade hälsovariablerna. Med viss försiktighet i tolkningarna kan resultaten visa tecken på att en ökad arbetslöshet leder till lägre mortalitet och högre sjukvårdsutnyttjande momentant. Den dynamiska analysen i studien visar tecken på att arbetslöshet har en större effekt på mortalitet ett och två år senare, liknande resultat finns i relationen mellan arbetslöshet och utnyttjandet av öppen vård. Utnyttjandet av sluten vård ökar momentant men effekten av stigande arbetslöshet minskar efter ett och två år.

  • von Schedvin, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wännman, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Compassionfokuserad gruppbehandling: en interventionsstudie gällande depression och ångest2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety and depression are conditions commonly occurring within primary health care and is

    currently a major health scourge in Sweden. Swedish primary health care centers are facing

    challenges in meeting the needs concerning mental illness, and therefore the exploration of

    new options for treatment is warranted for improved effectiveness. In this study a controlled

    between-group design was used in the aim of exploring how group delivered Compassion

    focused therapy (CFT) affects the degree of depression and anxiety in primary healthcare

    patients, and also whether it differs from treatment as usual consisting of cognitive behavioral

    therapy (CBT). The design comprised of three groups; an intervention group (n = 20)

    receiving CFT, an active control group (n = 12) receiving CBT, and a passive control group

    (n = 20) consisting of psychology students who did not receive any treatment. The self

    assessment questionnaires Beck’s Depression Inventory II, Beck’s Anxiety Inventory and

    Self-Compassion Scale was administered at two occasions in all groups. Changes were

    examined with t-tests, repeated measures analysis of variance and within-group effect sizes.

    The results showed a significant difference between the groups receiving treatment and the

    passive control group, but no significant difference between the intervention group and the

    active control group. However, a larger effect size was found regarding depression within the

    intervention group compared to the active control group. The results indicate that group

    delivered CFT may be an effective treatment regarding anxiety and depression in primary

    health care patients. Further research is warranted to explore the long term effects of CFT.

  • Zou, Xiaozhou
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai, China; China-Sweden Associated Research Laboratory in Industrial Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, China; Group of Microbiological Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, China.
    Wu, Guochao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. China-Sweden Associated Research Laboratory in Industrial Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, China.
    Stagge, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. China-Sweden Associated Research Laboratory in Industrial Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, China.
    Chen, Lin
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. China-Sweden Associated Research Laboratory in Industrial Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, China.
    Hong, Feng F.
    Comparison of tolerance of four bacterial nanocellulose-producing strains to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors2017In: Microbial Cell Factories, ISSN 1475-2859, E-ISSN 1475-2859, Vol. 16, 229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Through pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification lignocellulosic biomass has great potential as a low-cost feedstock for production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), a high value-added microbial product, but inhibitors formed during pretreatment remain challenging. In this study, the tolerance to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors of three new BNC-producing strains were compared to that of Komagataeibacter xylinus ATCC 23770. Inhibitors studied included furan aldehydes (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) and phenolic compounds (coniferyl aldehyde and vanillin). The performance of the four strains in the presence and absence of the inhibitors was assessed using static cultures, and their capability to convert inhibitors by oxidation and reduction was analyzed.

    Results: Although two of the new strains were more sensitive than ATCC 23770 to furan aldehydes, one of the new strains showed superior resistance to both furan aldehydes and phenols, and also displayed high volumetric BNC yield (up to 14.78 ± 0.43 g/L) and high BNC yield on consumed sugar (0.59 ± 0.02 g/g). The inhibitors were oxidized and/or reduced by the strains to be less toxic. The four strains exhibited strong similarities with regard to predominant bioconversion products from the inhibitors, but displayed different capacity to convert the inhibitors, which may be related to the differences in inhibitor tolerance.

    Conclusions: This investigation provides information on different performance of four BNC-producing strains in the presence of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors. The results will be of benefit to the selection of more suitable strains for utilization of lignocellulosics in the process of BNC-production.

  • Stattin, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Vilket län sparar bäst?: - En analys av svenska läns produktionsfunktioner och jämförelse med ”The Golden Rule of Savings”2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Produktionsteori har varit ett centralt område inom nationalekonomin sedan början på 1900-talet. Förståelse för vilka insatsfaktorer som bidrar till produktion, samt andelen med vilken de bidrar, är av intresse för såväl nationer som företag. Estimeringar av produktionsfunktioner har överlag fokuserat på nationer. Den stora mängd data som finns i Sverige ger en närmast unik möjlighet att estimera produktionsfunktioner för län inom ett land. Syftet med studien är att estimera svenska läns produktionsfunktioner med hjälp av regionala data. Länens produktionsfunktioner kommer därefter att jämföras för att åskådliggöra eventuella regionala skillnader och jämföra länens sparande med den konsumtionsmaximerande sparandenivån ”The Golden Rule”. Följande frågeställning har besvarats:

    Hur ser produktionsfunktionerna ut för svenska län, och hur väl överensstämmer länens sparande med ”The Golden Rule of Savings”?

    Som tidigare nämnt har forskning som ämnat estimera produktionsfunktioner fokuserat på nationella jämförelser. Studien bidrar med en ny infallsvinkel där län inom ett land jämförs med varandra. Det teoretiska ramverket består i huvudsak av produktionsteori, tillväxtteori och sparbeteende.

    Studiens metodologi består av regressionsanalys på data hämtad från SCB. Studiens deskriptiva data visar att länen med de stora städerna, Stockholm, Västra Götaland och Skåne har högst BRP, arbetskraft, kapitalstock och humankapital. Regressionsanalysen visar att Kronoberg är det län med högs kapitalstocksbidrag på 0,85 medan Jämtland har det lägsta på 0,04. Alla län förutom Jämtland, Västernorrland, Gävleborg och Halland har ett kapitalstocksbidrag på över 0,4.

    Givet vissa problem med modellen är de absoluta siffrorna för länens kapitalstocksbidrag inte helt trovärdiga. Däremot är relationen mellan länen fortsatt relevant. Kapitalstocken i Kronoberg får anses användas på ett effektivt sätt medan kapitalstocken i bland annat Västernorrland och Gävleborg kan användas bättre. Studiens implikationer grundar sig även på denna analys, där län med låg kapitalstockseffektivitet teoretiskt sett kan lära sig av län med hög kapitalstockseffektivitet.

  • Torstensson, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Giftfri förskola: Hur upplever förskolorna kommunernas hjälp?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate how, and if, Sweden's municipalities contribute to their preschools work for a toxic free environment, and what the schools think of the support they are receiving. The study will also focus on the municipality of Uddevalla and evaluate status and progress of making a chemical-safe environment for preschool children. The study was performed by sending out two different surveys by email to preschool principals and municipalities. The results of the study showed that Sweden's municipalities mostly support the preschools by offering information, education, action plans and procurement. A majority of the preschool principals answered that the support they receive was partially the reason for why they are able to work with such a project. They also think in most cases that the support is sufficient to carry out the work. The support of the municipality in the work is for some preschools crucial. The result of the study of Uddevalla shows that in 72 % of the preschools have or are working with a project to eliminate children's exposure to toxic chemicals. The remaining 28 % are not working with such a project and have no plan to do so. The results based on the survey in Uddevalla is in good agreement with the rest of Sweden, where 86 % of the principals answered that they have or are working with such a project. These results show that Swedish preschools are heading for a more chemical safe environment, although a lot needs to be done before it is accomplished. 

  • Lidström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Socialdemokraternas tillbakagång 1973-2014: Strukturella förklaringar och regionala variationer2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Socialdemokraterna har tappat en tredjedel av väljarstödet under de senaste 40 åren. På basis av analyser av riksdagsresultat på kommunnivå under 1973-2014 konstateras att 75 procent av nedgången kan förklaras av en förändrad samhällsstruktur. Återstoden avspeglar stora regionala skillnader. Socialdemokraterna har gjort klart bättre resultat än vad strukturfaktorerna kan förklara i bl.a. Norra Norrlands kustland, Värmland och Skaraborg, men sämre ifrån sig än förväntat i bl.a. Södra Norrland, Bergslagen, Storstockholm och Skåne.

  • Public defence: 2018-02-02 10:00 Hörsal E, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Pennlert, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Poesi pågår: en studie av 2003-20162018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation presents a study of, a Swedish web community for reading and writing poetry. The aim is to examine and analyze how a literary community online works, how the writers present themselves as authors and how conventions connected to poetry migrate into or are negotiated in the digital environment. The vast amount of material published on the website during the time-period 2003-2016 (2 million comments and about 860 000 poems) makes it imperative to raise questions about methodology and the dissertation highlights how a researcher dealing with digital material can combine methods. 

    The study is divided into six chapters in which I use different theoretical frameworks, such as the concept of digital paratexts, theories and discussions about the function of the author in a digital media landscape, and media-specific theories about how reading and writing can be approached when they occur online. The central research questions are: What characterizes the connection between genre-specific traits in poetry and the digital platform on which they are published? What kind of relations can be seen between the participants and their publication patterns, and the website? How do the members present their writing and their participation at the site?

  • Erik, Olsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    "Jag tycker att det finns en nytta med proven, men …": Sju svensklärares syn på värdet av att genomföra de nationella proven2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to shed light on how much work and time teachers must spend conducting the national tests in the Swedish subject for grade nine. The aim is also to distinguish possible differences and similarities in the way teachers work and handle these tests. Finally, the essay illustrates how the teachers look at the relationship between the work they set out for the tests and what they ultimately get out of this work. To fulfil this objective, I collected seven teachers' answers on the subject via a large part qualitative survey. I have concluded that the teachers think the tests are good, provided they get enough working time to work with them. However, no teacher in this study is given enough time to properly work with and manage the national tests. This means that the whole process of the national tests results in something negative for the teachers (in this study).

  • Michelson, Ingrid H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Plant Biology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Robinson, Kathryn M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Edlund, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Eriksson, Maria E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Nilsson, Ove
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Autumn senescence in aspen is not triggered by day length2018In: Physiologia Plantarum: An International Journal for Plant Biology, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 162, no 1, 123-134 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autumn senescence in mature aspens, grown under natural conditions, is initiated at almost the same date every year. The mechanism of such precise timing is not understood but we have previously shown that the signal must be derived from light. We studied variation in bud set and autumn senescence in a collection of 116 natural Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula) genotypes, from 12 populations in Sweden and planted in one northern and one southern common garden, to test the hypothesis that onset of autumn senescence is triggered by day length. We confirmed that, although bud set seemed to be triggered by a critical photoperiod/day length, other factors may influence it. The data on initiation of autumn senescence, on the other hand, were incompatible with the trigger being the day length per se, hence the trigger must be some other light-dependent factor.

  • Ferrando, Alejandro
    et al.
    Mar Castellano, M.
    Lison, Purificacion
    Leister, Dario
    Stepanova, Anna N.
    Hanson, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Editorial: Relevance of Translational Regulation on Plant Growth and Environmental Responses2017In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 8, 2170Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Wang, Zhao
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wu, Guochao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Effects of impregnation of softwood with sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide on chemical and physical characteristics, enzymatic digestibility, and fermentability2018In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 247, 200-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal pretreatment improves bioconversion of lignocellulose, but the effects of different acid catalysts are poorly understood. The effects of sulfuric acid (SA) and sulfur dioxide (SD) in continuous steam pretreatment of wood of Norway spruce were compared in the temperature range 195 degrees C-215 degrees C. The inhibitory effects of the pretreatment liquid on cellulolytic enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast were higher for SD-than for SApretreated material, and the inhibitory effects increased with increasing pretreatment temperature. However, the susceptibility to cellulolytic enzymes of wood pretreated with SD was 2.0-2.9 times higher than that of wood pretreated with SA at the same temperature. Data conclusively show that the superior convertibility of SDpretreated material was not due to inhibition phenomena but rather to the greater capability of the SD pretreatment to reduce the particle size through partial delignification and cellulose degradation. Particle size was shown to be correlated with enzymatic digestibility (R-2 0.97-0.98).

  • Strömdahl, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    CRM: Vilka faktorer har betydelse vid en implementering av CRM i B2B?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    CRM-system är ett växande och lukrativt affärsområde, som genererar stora intäkter för företag verksamma inom en rad olika branscher globalt, i synnerhet branscher där kundfokus står i centrum. Att arbeta med kunden i fokus och att ha kunden som medskapare av värde, anses av många vara nödvändigt för att kunna möta en tilltagande global konkurrens.

    Företag investerar stora summor pengar i anskaffning av CRM-system, i syfte att stärka kundrelationen och öka avkastningen över tid. Befintlig forskning visar emellertid att implementeringen av CRM ofta misslyckas, varpå den förväntade avkastningen av investeringen delvis uteblir. Detta skulle kunna förändras om man antar en mera proaktiv hållning till själva implementeringen av CRM, där fokus ligger på att förbereda organisationen på att ta hand om och förvalta investeringen i CRM, snarare än att finna och investera i den tekniska lösningen som ter sig bäst lämpad. Det viktiga är inte att hitta en överlägsen teknisk lösning, utan att den tekniska lösningen når sin fulla potential inom organisationen. Majoriteten av befintlig forskning är utförd inom business-to-consumer (B2C), och jag fann det därför intressant att titta på ett fallföretag som verkar inom business-to-business (B2B). Jag fann det också väldigt intressant att definitionen av CRM inte sällan skiljer sig åt markant, där CRM både kan vara ett tekniskt IT-system och ett företags holistiska filosofi kring att hantera kunder. Då definitionen ligger till grund för implementeringen, blir det väsentligt att inför en implementering, definiera vad CRM är för det specifika företaget.

    Med denna kvalitativa studie, har jag undersökt kontexten hos ett företag som verkar inom B2B och ännu inte har någon form av CRM implementerat, i syfte att;

    "… skapa en förståelse för hur interna förutsättningar för en implementering av CRM kan skapas för ett företag som verkar inom en B2B kontext". Intervjuer har genomförts med totalt sju stycken medarbetare på företaget, vars svar sedan transkriberats och analyserats mot studiens teoretiska referensram.

    Min studie visar att fallföretaget, inför en implementering av CRM, lider av liknande brister, som genom tidigare forskning identifierats hos företag som misslyckats med deras CRM-implementeringar. Därmed lider fallföretaget en risk för att nyttan med CRM helt eller delvis uteblir. En svårighet med CRM är den kulturella förändring som det kan innebära för företaget, dels i fråga om nya arbetssätt, men också i hur man på olika sätt kan motivera de anställdas engagemang för uppgiften.

    Förutsättningarna för en förändringsbenägen organisation, bör skapas innan själva förändringen genomförs, för att lättare kunna nå framgång med förändringen. Studien visar att en proaktiv implementering av CRM, underbygger ett anpassat förhållningssätt där särskild hänsyn tas till organisationens specifika behov. En tänkbar implikation blir att en organisation som är väl förberedd för CRM, också lättare kommer att kunna maximera effekten av CRM.