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  • Gunes, Betty
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    EN OMORGANISATION UR ETT LEDNINGSPERSPEKTIV: UPPLEVELSER AV PSYKOSOCIAL ARBETSMILJÖ UNDER EN PÅGÅENDE OMORGANISATION2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reorganizations have become more common and affect the majority of employees and their psychosocial work environment, both coworker and employer. The purpose of this study was to examine the managements experience regarding the changes within the organization with respect to psychosocial work environment. An interview study was conducted involving 6 participants (5 men, 1 woman) employed with senior positions at an organization that went through a reorganization. The data was analyzed using a thematic analysis. Results from the study indicated that the majority of the participants experienced a negative psychosocial work environment during the reorganization. The participants experienced high workload, inefficient communication, lack of cooperation, unclear work organization, changed tasks, increased responsibility towards staff, lack of participation and a good collegial support. Results of the study have contributed to a deeper knowledge regarding how senior positions experience their psychosocial work environment during reorganization. It could in future studies be interesting to do a survey which gives a representative sample and to examine how greater samples experience an organizational change.

  • Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Linder, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sport Structure and Goal Oriented Motivation2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in goal orientation between athletes practicing two different sports. These sports differ structurally in how they are performed and in regard to factors influencing goal orientation. The achievement goal theory (AGT) states that individuals’ motivational orientation is made up of two aspects, task oriented motivation and ego oriented motivation. These two goal orientations are independent of one another and are affected by several factors. The effect on goal orientation by factors influenced by coaches, parents and peers is well documented. The two hypotheses were that climbers would be more task-oriented than squash players and secondly that squash players would be more ego-oriented than climbers. The study was conducted as a quasi-experimental between group comparison. 81 sport practitioners, 43 rock climbers and 38 squash players, took the Task and Ego in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) in connection with performing their sport. Independent t-tests of both sub scales showed a difference in ego-motivation between groups, but not in task-motivation.

  • Lundberg, Oscar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Sandberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Nylén, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Cycles of Innovation and Alignment in Digital Transformation: Investigating the Dynamics of Resource Recombination in a Construction Firm2020In: Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | 2020, 2020, p. 4346-4355, article id 0430Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generative nature of digital technology implies that during digital transformation (DT), organizations traverse multiple cycles of innovation and resource alignment. Still, extant research mainly chronicles DT as linear and contained phenomenon occurring in response to a dramatic environmental change event. How new resources align with previous ones into novel combinations, the work that supports continuous organizational capability building, and the temporal relationships between cycles of change in DT has received scant attention. Drawing on dynamic capability theory, we analyze innovation and resource alignment cycles driving DT at Lundqvist Trävaru AB, a small Swedish construction firm. Our study has at least two contributions. First, the analysis reveals three types of dynamic capabilities that shape resource generation and alignment in DT. Second, we provide a process model outlining the innovation and alignment cycles that fuel DT as they scale in the focal firm.

  • Olofsson, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Larsson, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lärares, speciallärares och specialpedagogers upplevelser av arbete och samarbete kring lässvårigheter på gymnasiet: En kvalitativ studie2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to examine how Swedish teachers, special needs teachers and special education teachers experience cooperation in assessments and pedagogical practices towards upper secondary school students facing reading difficulties. We also aim to investigate how these pedagogues experience cooperation in providing appropriate support for these students. Four teachers, two special needs teachers and two special educators participated in qualitative semi-structured interviews. The result shows the importance of a well-functioning communication when students leave compulsory school for upper secondary school, to make sure that information about language difficulties and special educational needs is passed on. The result also highlights the need of resources for long term reading interventions as well as an experienced need to increase teachers’ competence regarding language difficulties and additional adjustments.

     

  • Public defence: 2020-02-14 10:00 NBVH 1031, Umeå
    Bäck, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    från polisutbildning till polispraktik: polisstudenters och polisers värderingar av yrkesrelaterade kompetenser2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to build knowledge about the transition from an educational to an occupational context. More specifically, the dissertation focuses on the transition from police education to police practice by studying the way police students and police officers perceive the importance of a number of professional competences related to their future occupations. The aim is also to study whether the importance of these competences has changed between the time of their police education and their work as police officers and to what extent the respondents perceive that police education contributed to the development of these competences.

    Methodologically, this dissertation is in some parts based on cross-sectional data. In other parts, it is based on longitudinal data and uses a combination of both quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative data are based on questionnaires given to police students at the beginning and end of their police education and to police officers after a few years of police practice. The questionnaire used in sub studies B, C and D is part of the European cooperation project called Recruitment, Education, and Career in the Police (RECPOL). The qualitative data are based on interviews. Theoretically, a frame factor perspective is used to analyse and understand the dissertation’s empirical data.

    The results show a change in the way the respondents perceive the importance of the studied competences over time. The police students generally valued theprofessional competences higher at the beginning of their education and significantly lower at the end of their education. As police officers, however, they valued the importance of these competences almost as high as they did at the beginning of their education. The results show small differences between how male and female police students and police officers valued these competences. When the respondents reflected on the reasons why the significance of the competences changed over time, different themes emerged. The results also show that police education’s contribution to the development of these competences is clearly lower than the extent to which they are perceived as important for work as police officers. In the interviews, reflections on the reasons for this indicated a discrepancy between the educational and occupational contexts.

    One conclusion is that police students at the end of their education need to better understand that they have not fully learnt everything they need to know and that they are becoming police officers with the capacity to continue developing professionally and contributing to the police as a learning organization.

  • Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nasic, Salmir
    Segelmark, Mårten
    Clinical parameters predicting complications in native kidney biopsies2019In: Clinical Kidney Journal, ISSN 2048-8505, E-ISSN 2048-8513, article id sfz132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Renal biopsies are essential in nephrology but they are invasive and complications can occur. The aim of this study was to explore clinical parameters that can be used as predictors for biopsy complications.

    Methods

    Clinical parameters such as demographics, biopsy indications, serology, comorbidities and clinical chemistry were retrieved from a regional biopsy registry between 2006 and 2015 and from a nationwide registry between 2015 and 2017. Clinical data before biopsy were compared with data on major biopsy complications. Fisher’s exact and χ2 tests were used and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were presented. Univariate and multiple binary logistic regression analyses were performed with complications as outcome. A two-sided P-value <0.05 was considered significant.

    Results

    In total, 2835 consecutive native kidney biopsies were analysed (39% women and 61% men, median age 57 years). No death and nephrectomy due to biopsy complications were registered. The frequency of major biopsy complications was 5.65%. In the multiple logistic regression, the risk for complications increased in women [OR 1.51 (95% CI 1.08–2.11)] and decreased with age: 45–64 years age group [OR 0.66 (95% CI 0.44–0.99)] and >74 years age group [OR 0.51 (95% CI 0.27–0.96)]. Among comorbidities, patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 [OR 2.07 (95% CI 1.15–3.72)] and non-ischaemic heart disease [OR 3.20 (95% CI 1.64–6.25)] had a higher risk for major biopsy complications.

    Conclusions

    Female gender, younger age (≤44 years), diabetes mellitus type 2 and non-ischaemic heart disease were found as risk factors for major biopsy complications.

  • Davage, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bön och identitet: Perspektiv på kyrkans språk från andra templets tid2017In: Det kyrkliga språket i teori och praxis / [ed] Marie Rosenius, Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2017, p. 83-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ramqvist, Per H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Arkeologiska undersökningar av den förromerska boplatsen i Gene, Raä 59:1 i Själevads socken, Ångermanland2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Excavation report of an important site close to the farm from the Roman Iron Age and Migration Period site at Gene, in northern Ångermanland. The reported site shows new aspects of the transition from the traditional mobile and semi-mobile hunter-gatherer society to the new way of life style with three-aisled longe house and stalled animials. The closeness in time and space illuminate in a new way the how this transition took place. On this world-wide issue it is suggested that regional causes may be seeked.

  • Lagerqvist, Pierre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Comparison of heating system: focusing on costs2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report was to compare different types of commonly occurring waterborne heating systems to see which of the alternatives has the lowest total cost in terms of materials and labor costs. The work is based on a reconstruction of an ongoing project of the rescue station in Varberg Municipality in Halland County.

     

    The comparison was made so that all the alternatives would have the same indoor climate as possible.The systems that were dimensioned and compared were radiators / convectors, underfloor heating, and heat strips. It turned out that heat strips had the lowest total cost of about SEK 145,000 compared to the underfloor heating alternative, which turned out to be the most expensive with a price tag of about SEK 270,000. The system of radiators / convectors lies in between with a total cost of about SEK 200,000. Heat strips had the lowest total cost, which is due to the fact that the material cost were lower compared to the other systems.The high cost of the underfloor heating system has to do with the fact that there is extensive plumbing and material prices. In addition to these, the foundation needs additional insulation when applying underfloor heating. This extra cost of the additional insulation is not included in this project and will thus be higher than the figure I landed in.All systems have pros and cons. Which type of business affects and thus controls the choice of heating systems in a building. All the systems compared have a long life expectancy, that’s why this report did not compare that aspect more closely. The conclusion for the report was that apart from the business, one should choose a system with heat strips. Furthermore, the operation is not something that one can disregard if it is to have practical bearing and is therefore at least as important as the total cost of the systems. Thus, on the basis of this report, one should take into account total costs as well as planned type of business when deciding on a particular heating system. It is also important to plan carefully for upcoming heating strokes so that the distances becomes short while they are placed in construction. As an add-on, an alternative with comfort modules has been mentioned which is economically advantageous from a heating system perspective. This option is more complicated and encompasses more systems thereof, it is only included as an add-on in the report.

  • Magnusson, Beatrice M.
    et al.
    Runn, Per
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    National Defense Research Establishment, Department of NBC Defence, Division of Biomedicine and Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Northern Sween, Umeå, Sweden.
    Terpene-enhanced transdermal permeation of water and ethanol in human epidermis.1997In: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, ISSN 0001-5555, E-ISSN 1651-2057, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 264-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was performed to investigate the effect of penetration enhancers on the stratum corneum barrier. Epidermal membranes were prepared from freeze-stored (-70 degrees C) Caucasian breast skin and mounted in a flow-through diffusion cell. The validity of the freeze storage procedure was verified by measurement of [3H]-water penetration. The effect of the cyclic terpene, carveol, on the transdermal penetration of water and ethanol was studied in vitro. Control ethanol and water penetration measured with a donor solution of 50% ethanol/PBS (w/w) was 1.9+/-0.2 and 3.6+/-0.5 x 10(-3) cm/h. The addition of 3% carveol to the donor solution increased the permeation of ethanol and water after 4 h to 8.3+/-1.1 and 12.5+/-1.9 x 10(-3) cm/h, respectively. In a separate experiment, terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol were also tested, in addition to carveol, for effect on tritium flux. No significant difference in maximum tritium flux was obtained between the three terpenes studied. The maximum increase in permeability coefficients of carveol, terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol was 10.6, 8.7 and 10.9, respectively.

  • Magnusson, Beatrice M.
    et al.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    National Defense Research Establishment, Department of NBC Defence, Division of Biomedicine and Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Northern Sween, Umeå, Sweden .
    Effects of topical application of capsaicin to human skin: a comparison of effects evaluated by visual assessment, sensation registration, skin blood flow and cutaneous impedance measurements.1996In: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, ISSN 0001-5555, E-ISSN 1651-2057, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 129-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new non-invasive device, which enables local measurements of electrical impedance, has been used to evaluate the degree of irritation in human skin. The results have been compared with visual scoring, sensations and laser Doppler flowmetry. Capsaicin (50 microliters 1% solution) and control solutions (50 microliters 50% ethanol) were applied in a chamber for 30 min on the volar forearm of 7 volunteers. Values were recorded before application and during the total test period of 4.5 h. Sensations like sting/prick, burn and pain were produced by this treatment, and the flare response was observed. Using the non-invasive laser Doppler flow technique to measure blood flow in human skin, we have shown that topical application of capsaicin abolishes the vasodilator response to local heat provocation (40 degrees C). There was close agreement among values obtained using visual assessments, sensations and laser Doppler flowmetry. Results obtained using electrical impedance measurements were not consistent with the other three methods.

  • Malm, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå;.
    Kristensen, B
    Fagerlund, M
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, S-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, J
    Cerebrospinal fluid shunt dynamics in patients with idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome.1995In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, ISSN 0022-3050, E-ISSN 1468-330X, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 715-723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to assess CSF dynamics of different shunt constructions in patients with adult hydrocephalus syndrome and correlate these findings to clinical outcome, neuroradiology, and the specifications of the shunts provided by the manufacturer. Thirty four patients with idiopathic adult hydrocephalus (normal pressure hydrocephalus) syndrome were included in a prospective, consecutive case series. A differential pressure valve (Cordis Hakim standard system) was used in 28 patients and a variable resistance valve (Cordis Orbis-Sigma) in six. A constant pressure infusion method was used; CSF pressure and conductance were determined before surgery. Three months after shunt placement CSF pressure, the "pressure v flow" curve, and gravity induced flow were measured. There was no difference between mean preoperative and postoperative resting CSF pressures in patients with Hakim shunts. The opening pressures of the Hakim shunts were higher than the value proposed by the manufacturer. A pronounced gravity effect induced CSF flow and decrease of the CSF pressure. In functioning variable resistance valves, CSF dynamics normalised postoperatively. There was no gravity effect and the characteristics shaped "pressure v flow" curve was sometimes seen. Six patients (three differential pressure valves, three variable resistance valves) had non-functioning shunts. Four of these patients were improved after the operation but improvement was transient in three. In all patients, there was no relation between the width of the ventricles and clinical improvement or CSF pressure. In conclusion, the differential pressure valve system does not behave according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer. A decrease in CSF pressure in patients with this shunt was solely due to the effect of gravity. Eleven percent of the differential pressure valves and 50% of the variable resistance valves were non-functioning. In the functioning variable resistance valves, the antisiphon system seems to be effective.

  • Domeij, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Problemskapande beteenden bland grundskoleelever: Pedagogers upplevelser och tankar kring strategier och bemötanden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var synliggöra pedagogers upplevelser, tankar och känslor kring grundskoleelevers problemskapande beteenden. Frågeställningar var: Hur upplever pedagogerna problemskapande beteende? Hur tänker pedagogerna om strategier samt bemötande av sådant beteende? Åtta semistrukturerade intervjuer med pedagoger som arbetar i grundskolan genomfördes, transkriberades och analyserades. Studiens resultat visar att pedagogerna arbetar med problemskapande beteende på grupp-, individ- och organisationsnivå. Pedagogernas kunskap och kompetens samt egna värderingar, attityder och intressen är av betydelse för att handskas med dessa beteenden. Resultaten visar också att pedagogerna anser att det är viktigt att alla elever får goda förutsättningar för att utvecklas oavsett om det ibland uppstår kritiska situationerna som i skolvardagen som kan tyckas utgöra hinder lärande och utveckling. Pedagogerna betonade även betydelsen av dels att arbeta förebyggande (med metoder leder till att problemskapande beteenden minskar) dels att använda lågaffektivt bemötande (ett förhållningssätt och en metod) när det behövs. Med rätt förutsättningar och rätt metoder blir det lättare för eleven att nå sina mål.

  • Holmqvist, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Östlund, Jasmine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    THE EXPERIENCE OF LONELINESS IN YOUNG ADULTHOOD: A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Culture has been shown to influence the experience of loneliness. Studies have shown that young adults are especially prone to experiencing loneliness. The aim of this mixed-methods study was to investigate if young adults from an individualistic culture experience loneliness differently compared to young adults from a collectivistic culture. Eighty participants from Sweden and 80 participants from India aged 18-30 answered De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS) and Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-R) through an online survey which together with additional demographics provided the quantitative data. Six semi-structured interviews (three from each culture) provided the qualitative data, exploring how the participants described their experiences of loneliness and its connection to culture. Young adults from India reported significantly higher levels of social isolation and social loneliness compared to young adults from Sweden. No significant difference was found in emotional loneliness. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data provided a deeper insight into these findings, and the qualitative results are discussed in light of the quantitative. Three main themes emerged: descriptions of loneliness, young adulthood as a stage in life where loneliness might be high, and cultural values that affect the experience of loneliness

  • Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Freidovich, Leonid B.Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.Nordström, TomasUmeå University.Kunert, KristinaUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Proceedings of the 18th Student Conference in Interaction Technology and Design and the 6th Student Conference in Electronics and Mechatronics2020Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The joint Student Conference in Interaction Technology and Design and Student Conference in Electronics and Mechatronics is the annual grand finale of the courses Current Topic in Interaction Technology and Design and Student Conference in Electronics and Mechatronics at the Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå  University. The idea and objective of the two courses are to give the students a forum, where they can actively participate in scientific research and development through their own ideas and interests. The course introduces students to independently finding and researching a topic of interest for them, using a foreign language orally and in writing, writing a scientific article, peer-reviewing and presenting their work at a conference. The conference format was chosen to provide a realistic environment for the presentation of the results. The work has been reviewed both by other participant on the course and members of the department. If the reviews are favorable, the paper is accepted as a full paper at the conference and included in the proceedings.

  • Post, Eric
    et al.
    Alley, Richard B.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Macias-Fauria, Marc
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    Gooseff, Michael N.
    Iler, Amy
    Kerby, Jeffrey T.
    Laidre, Kristin L.
    Mann, Michael E.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Stroeve, Julienne C.
    Ulmer, Fran
    Virginia, Ross A.
    Wang, Muyin
    The polar regions in a 2°C warmer world2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 12, article id eaaw9883Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, the Arctic has warmed by 0.75°C, far outpacing the global average, while Antarctic temperatures have remained comparatively stable. As Earth approaches 2°C warming, the Arctic and Antarctic may reach 4°C and 2°C mean annual warming, and 7°C and 3°C winter warming, respectively. Expected consequences of increased Arctic warming include ongoing loss of land and sea ice, threats to wildlife and traditional human livelihoods, increased methane emissions, and extreme weather at lower latitudes. With low biodiversity, Antarctic ecosystems may be vulnerable to state shifts and species invasions. Land ice loss in both regions will contribute substantially to global sea level rise, with up to 3 m rise possible if certain thresholds are crossed. Mitigation efforts can slow or reduce warming, but without them northern high latitude warming may accelerate in the next two to four decades. International cooperation will be crucial to foreseeing and adapting to expected changes.

  • Kuru, Erkin
    et al.
    Radkov, Atanas
    Meng, Xin
    Egan, Alexander
    Alvarez, Laura
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Dowson, Amanda
    Booher, Garrett
    Breukink, Eefjan
    Roper, David I.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Vollmer, Waldemar
    Brun, Yves
    VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.
    Mechanisms of Incorporation for D-Amino Acid Probes That Target Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis2019In: ACS Chemical Biology, ISSN 1554-8929, E-ISSN 1554-8937, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 2745-2756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteria exhibit a myriad of different morphologies, through the synthesis and modification of their essential peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall. Our discovery of a fluorescent D-amino acid (FDAA)-based PG labeling approach provided a powerful method for observing how these morphological changes occur. Given that PG is unique to bacterial cells and a common target for antibiotics, understanding the precise mechanism(s) for incorporation of (F)DAA-based probes is a crucial determinant in understanding the role of PG synthesis in bacterial cell biology and could provide a valuable tool in the development of new antimicrobials to treat drug-resistant antibacterial infections. Here, we systematically investigate the mechanisms of FDAA probe incorporation into PG using two model organisms Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive). Our in vitro and in vivo data unequivocally demonstrate that these bacteria incorporate FDAAs using two extracytoplasmic pathways: through activity of their D,D-transpeptidases, and, if present, by their L,D-transpeptidases and not via cytoplasmic incorporation into a D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide precursor. Our data also revealed the unprecedented finding that the DAA-drug, D-cycloserine, can be incorporated into peptide stems by each of these transpeptidases, in addition to its known inhibitory activity against D-alanine racemase and D-Ala-D-Ala ligase. These mechanistic findings enabled development of a new, FDAA-based, in vitro labeling approach that reports on subcellular distribution of muropeptides, an especially important attribute to enable the study of bacteria with poorly defined growth modes. An improved understanding of the incorporation mechanisms utilized by DAA-based probes is essential when interpreting results from high resolution experiments and highlights the antimicrobial potential of synthetic DAAs.

  • Saarikko, Ted
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Swedish Center for Digital Innovation.
    Westergren, Ulrika H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Swedish Center for Digital Innovation.
    Jonsson, Katrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Swedish Center for Digital Innovation.
    Here, there, but not everywhere: Adoption and diffusion of IoT in Swedish municipalities2020In: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2020: Digital Government > Digital Government and the Internet of Things (IoT), HICSS , 2020, p. 2030-2039Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) brings with it promises of smart cities with improved efficiency, increased transparency, and enhanced public services. However, few studies have empirically and systematically investigated the reasoning behind the decision to adopt IoT within municipal organizations. In this paper we study the adoption and diffusion of IoT in Swedish municipalities. We outline areas of application and perceived value creation and conclude that the main reasons for adoption and diffusion can be traced back to 1) the simplicity of the IoT solution, and 2) clear incentives. Among the municipalities that have not embraced IoT, commonly cited barriers are economic factors and that other, more politically charged, issues take priority. This paper extends our understanding of public sector perception of IoT, as well as provides a comprehensive outlook on drivers for IoT-adoption.

  • Saarikko, Ted
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Swedish Center for Digital Innovation.
    Nuldén, Urban
    University of Gothenburg.
    Meiling, Pär
    University of Gothenburg.
    Pessi, Kalevi
    University of Gothenburg.
    Framing Crisis Information Systems: The case of WIS2020In: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2020: Digital Government > Disaster Information, Technology, and Resilience, HICSS , 2020, p. 2167-2176Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Relief efforts for natural and societal crisesrequire a multitude of agencies to effectively and efficiently share information and coordinate their efforts. In 2009, The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency launched a Web-based Information System (WIS) for Information sharing in crisis management. The system has undergone two major revisions and isapplied nation-wide with the intent of aiding inter-agency coordination. The study draws upon Orlikowski and Gash’s notion of technological frames to contrast the perspectives of technology users and technology promoters. The study revealed that both stakeholder groups agree onthe potential benefits of the system, but differ in their view on the system itself as well as its application in practice. Furthermore, the study highlights the limitations of dedicated ICT for crisis management as users perceive WIS to be useful in coordinating slow-moving events that involve many different societal actors, yet unwieldy to deploy in a sudden crisis.

  • Zeiler, Frederick A.
    et al.
    Ercole, Ari
    Beqiri, Erta
    Cabeleira, Manuel
    Aries, Marcel
    Zoerle, Tommaso
    Carbonara, Marco
    Stocchetti, Nino
    Smielewski, Peter
    Czosnyka, Marek
    Menon, David K.
    Cerebrovascular reactivity is not associated with therapeutic intensity in adult traumatic brain injury: a CENTER-TBI analysis2019In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 161, no 9, p. 1955-1964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity in adult traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to be associated with poor outcome. However, there has yet to be an analysis of the association between the comprehensively assessed intracranial hypertension therapeutic intensity level (TIL) and cerebrovascular reactivity.

    METHODS: Using the Collaborative European Neuro Trauma Effectiveness Research in TBI (CENTER-TBI) high-resolution intensive care unit (ICU) cohort, we derived pressure reactivity index (PRx) as the moving correlation coefficient between slow-wave in ICP and mean arterial pressure, updated every minute. Mean daily PRx, and daily % time above PRx of 0 were calculated for the first 7 days of injury and ICU stay. This data was linked with the daily TIL-Intermediate scores, including total and individual treatment sub-scores. Daily mean PRx variable values were compared for each TIL treatment score via mean, standard deviation, and the Mann U test (Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons). General fixed effects and mixed effects models for total TIL versus PRx were created to display the relation between TIL and cerebrovascular reactivity.

    RESULTS: A total of 249 patients with 1230 ICU days of high frequency physiology matched with daily TIL, were assessed. Total TIL was unrelated to daily PRx. Most TIL sub-scores failed to display a significant relationship with the PRx variables. Mild hyperventilation (p < 0.0001), mild hypothermia (p = 0.0001), high levels of sedation for ICP control (p = 0.0001), and use vasopressors for CPP management (p < 0.0001) were found to be associated with only a modest decrease in mean daily PRx or % time with PRx above 0.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cerebrovascular reactivity remains relatively independent of intracranial hypertension therapeutic intensity, suggesting inadequacy of current TBI therapies in modulating impaired autoregulation. These findings support the need for investigation into the molecular mechanisms involved, or individualized physiologic targets (ICP, CPP, or Co2) in order to treat dysautoregulation actively.

  • Zeiler, Frederick A.
    et al.
    Ercole, Ari
    Cabeleira, Manuel
    Beqiri, Erta
    Zoerle, Tommaso
    Carbonara, Marco
    Stocchetti, Nino
    Menon, David K.
    Smielewski, Peter
    Czosnyka, Marek
    Compensatory-reserve-weighted intracranial pressure versus intracranial pressure for outcome association in adult traumatic brain injury: a CENTER-TBI validation study2019In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 161, no 7, p. 1275-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Compensatory-reserve-weighted intracranial pressure (wICP) has recently been suggested as a supplementary measure of intracranial pressure (ICP) in adult traumatic brain injury (TBI), with a single-center study suggesting an association with mortality at 6 months. No multi-center studies exist to validate this relationship. The goal was to compare wICP to ICP for association with outcome in a multi-center TBI cohort.

    METHODS: Using the Collaborative European Neuro Trauma Effectiveness Research in TBI (CENTER-TBI) high-resolution intensive care unit (ICU) cohort, we derived ICP and wICP (calculated as wICP = (1 - RAP) × ICP; where RAP is the compensatory reserve index derived from the moving correlation between pulse amplitude of ICP and ICP). Various univariate logistic regression models were created comparing ICP and wICP to dichotomized outcome at 6 to 12 months, based on Glasgow Outcome Score-Extended (GOSE) (alive/dead-GOSE ≥ 2/GOSE = 1; favorable/unfavorable-GOSE 5 to 8/GOSE 1 to 4, respectively). Models were compared using area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) and p values.

    RESULTS: wICP displayed higher AUC compared to ICP on univariate regression for alive/dead outcome compared to mean ICP (AUC 0.712, 95% CI 0.615-0.810, p = 0.0002, and AUC 0.642, 95% CI 0.538-746, p < 0.0001, respectively; no significant difference on Delong's test), and for favorable/unfavorable outcome (AUC 0.627, 95% CI 0.548-0.705, p = 0.015, and AUC 0.495, 95% CI 0.413-0.577, p = 0.059; significantly different using Delong's test p = 0.002), with lower wICP values associated with improved outcomes (p < 0.05 for both). These relationships on univariate analysis held true even when comparing the wICP models with those containing both ICP and RAP integrated area under the curve over time (p < 0.05 for all via Delong's test).

    CONCLUSIONS: Compensatory-reserve-weighted ICP displays superior outcome association for both alive/dead and favorable/unfavorable dichotomized outcomes in adult TBI, through univariate analysis. Lower wICP is associated with better global outcomes. The results of this study provide multi-center validation of those seen in a previous single-center study.

  • Maas, Andrew I R
    et al.
    Menon, David K
    Steyerberg, Ewout W
    Citerio, Giuseppe
    Lecky, Fiona
    Manley, Geoffrey T
    Hill, Sean
    Legrand, Valerie
    Sorgner, Annina
    Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI): a prospective longitudinal observational study2015In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 67-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Current classification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is suboptimal, and management is based on weak evidence, with little attempt to personalize treatment. A need exists for new precision medicine and stratified management approaches that incorporate emerging technologies.

    OBJECTIVE: To improve characterization and classification of TBI and to identify best clinical care, using comparative effectiveness research approaches.

    METHODS: This multicenter, longitudinal, prospective, observational study in 22 countries across Europe and Israel will collect detailed data from 5400 consenting patients, presenting within 24 hours of injury, with a clinical diagnosis of TBI and an indication for computed tomography. Broader registry-level data collection in approximately 20,000 patients will assess generalizability. Cross sectional comprehensive outcome assessments, including quality of life and neuropsychological testing, will be performed at 6 months. Longitudinal assessments will continue up to 24 months post TBI in patient subsets. Advanced neuroimaging and genomic and biomarker data will be used to improve characterization, and analyses will include neuroinformatics approaches to address variations in process and clinical care. Results will be integrated with living systematic reviews in a process of knowledge transfer. The study initiation was from October to December 2014, and the recruitment period was for 18 to 24 months.

    EXPECTED OUTCOMES: Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI should provide novel multidimensional approaches to TBI characterization and classification, evidence to support treatment recommendations, and benchmarks for quality of care. Data and sample repositories will ensure opportunities for legacy research.

    DISCUSSION: Comparative effectiveness research provides an alternative to reductionistic clinical trials in restricted patient populations by exploiting differences in biology, care, and outcome to support optimal personalized patient management.

  • Egorova, Olga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Myte, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Schneede, Jørn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Bölte, Sven
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ivars A'roch, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Silfverdal, Sven-Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Maternal blood folate status during early pregnancy and occurrence of autism spectrum disorder in offspring: a study of 62 serum biomarkers2020In: Molecular Autism, ISSN 2040-2392, Vol. 11, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) evolves from an interplay between genetic and environmental factors during prenatal development. Since identifying maternal biomarkers associated with ASD risk in offspring during early pregnancy might result in new strategies for intervention, we investigated maternal metabolic biomarkers in relation to occurrence of ASD in offspring using both univariate logistic regression and multivariate network analysis.

    Methods: Serum samples from 100 women with an offspring diagnosed with ASD and 100 matched control women with typically developing offspring were collected at week 14 of pregnancy. Concentrations of 62 metabolic biomarkers were determined, including amino acids, vitamins (A, B, D, E, and K), and biomarkers related to folate (vitamin B9) metabolism, lifestyle factors, as well as C-reactive protein (CRP), the kynurenine-tryptophan ratio (KTR), and neopterin as markers of inflammation and immune activation.

    Results: We found weak evidence for a positive association between higher maternal serum concentrations of folate and increased occurrence of ASD (OR per 1 SD increase: 1.70, 95% CI 1.22–2.37, FDR adjusted P = 0.07). Multivariate network analysis confirmed expected internal biochemical relations between the biomarkers. Neither inflammation markers nor vitamin D3 levels, all hypothesized to be involved in ASD etiology, displayed associations with ASD occurrence in the offspring.

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that high maternal serum folate status during early pregnancy may be associated with the occurrence of ASD in offspring. No inference about physiological mechanisms behind this observation can be made at the present time because blood folate levels may have complex relations with nutritional intake, the cellular folate status and status of other B-vitamins. Therefore, further investigations, which may clarify the potential role and mechanisms of maternal blood folate status in ASD risk and the interplay with other potential risk factors, in larger materials are warranted.

  • Lindblad, Victoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lantbrukares och djurhållares syn på länsstyrelsens djurskyddskontroll: En kvantitativ och kvalitativ studie om länsstyrelsens normalkontroller i Västernorrlandslän2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate what farmers and animal owners view is on the animal welfare inspections done by the County Administrative Board. The study was delimitated to Västernorrlands county and to official animal welfare controls. The study was conducted using an inquiry and a telephone interview questionnaire. The inquiry was sent to 100 farmers and animal owners. The reply rate was 40 % and the result confirms similar observations as in by several other studies within Europe. Farmers and animal owners thought that high competence of the inspectors was very important. Some wished that the inspectors would have some practical experience to have a better understanding and knowledge. They also wanted that the inspectors would see the big picture instead of focusing on the standard, like the standard for measurement. Overall the main result from this study shows that the farmers and animal owners are pleased with the animal welfare inspections of the County Administrative Board and consider them important. The result also showed that if the farmer or animal owner have had a follow-up control their rating was lower in the inquiry. 

  • Starefeldt, Matilda
    et al.
    Ganoo, Tulika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Sjöström, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Changes in Oral Health-Related Quality of Life for Patients Undergoing Orthognathic Surgery - A Review2020In: Clinics in Surgery, ISSN 2474-1647, Vol. 5, p. 1-8, article id 2697Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To identify current knowledge of changes in quality of life including Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) for patients undergoing orthognathic surgery based on validated questionnaires.

    Material and Methods: Two databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library), were searched and full-textarticles concerning patients with dentofacial deformities undergoing orthodontics and orthognathic surgery were included. Inclusion criteria: articles published in English in referee reviewed journals between January 2003 and December 2017, self-assessed quality of life using validated questionnaires. Exclusion criteria: Articles reporting quality of life of patients with syndromes such as cleft lip palateor severe illness, review articles.

    Results: Sixteen longitudinal or cross-sectional articles were included, all considered of moderate quality. Oral Health Impact Profile and Orthognathic Quality of Life were the most commonly used questionnaires. Included studies reported a lower OHRQoL for patients with dentofacial deformities compared to patients with normal dentofacial features. There was a tendency towardsmore positive OHRQoL for patients with dentofacial deformities after orthognathic surgery. This positive effect seems to be evident 6 months after surgery, with further improvements at completionof treatment. Changes in general health related quality of life, predominately measured by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, were not coherently evident nor was sex differences.

    Conclusion: Patients with dentofacial deformities improved moderately after orthognathic surgery, while generic health related quality of life was unchanged.

  • Sandström, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Tystnaden om det tysta: Specialpedagogers erfarenheter av samverkan kring barn som inte talar eller har Selektiv Mutism2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Selektiv Mutism är en ångestproblematik som innebär att barnet talar obehindrat hemma men är helt tyst i andra sammanhang och situationer, vanligtvis i skolan och denna problematik drabbar ungefär en procent av alla barn i Sverige. Tillståndet försämrar prestationsförmågan i skolan och i sociala sammanhang, vilket kan få förödande konsekvenser om barnet inte ges det stöd som krävs att komma ur det. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka vilka upplevelser specialpedagoger har av att arbeta med barn med som inte talar eller har Selektiv Mutism samt bidra med kunskap och möjligheter vad gäller samverkan med andra aktörer kring dessa barn. För att besvara syftet användes semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer med fyra specialpedagoger i en kommun i Sverige. Tidigare forskning visar att forskarna är eniga om att tidiga insatser är viktiga, att det finns behandling att få samt att det är av stor vikt att olika aktörer samverkar för att nå ett lyckosamt resultat. Studiens resultat visade att specialpedagogernas erfarenheter varierar beroende på hur många barn de mött samt hur arbetet organiserats på arbetsplatserna. Samtliga var eniga om att bemötande och förhållningssätt är betydelsefullt och att samverkan med vårdnadshavare är viktigt för att stödja barnets väg till att tala i alla miljöer. Resultatet påvisade att den så viktiga samverkan mellan olika instanser är näst intill obefintlig och att pedagoger behöver mer kunskap om tillståndet.

  • Westin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Gafvelin, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Välkommen till den svenska grundskolan: En studie om specialpedagogens arbete kring organiserandet av nyanlända elever i den svenska grundskolan2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att skapa ny kunskap om vad som händer när nyanlända elever börjar i den svenska grundskolan. Mer specifikt identifierar, undersöker och analyserar vi hinder och möjligheter på skol-, grupp- och individnivå i det specialpedagogiska arbetet med nyanlända elever. Frågeställningarna avsåg att ta reda på hur mottagandet av nyanlända elever i grundskolan organiseras, hur specialpedagoger talar om inkludering av nyanlända elever i grundskolan, hur specialpedagoger arbetar för att nyanlända elever ska få rätt stöd och stöttning. Studien belyses från ett sociokulturellt perspektiv samt ramfaktorteorin. I studien användes en kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer och omfattade sex specialpedagoger på sex olika grundskolor i två olika kommuner. De intervjuade specialpedagogerna lyfter fram hinder och möjligheter i arbetet med att organisera arbetet för nyanlända elever på olika nivåer inom grundskolan. Ett hinder som framkom är att rektorerna på grundskolorna i studien inte är tillräckligt insatta i arbetet av nyanlända elever och det är faktorer som ekonomi och antal elever som styr verksamheterna. En möjlighet som vi såg var att nyanlända elever ger grundskolorna möjlighet att granska och förbättra den egna verksamheten. Forskningspersonerna var överens i teorin om betydelsen av inkludering, däremot skilde sig inkluderingsarbetet i praktiken både mellan de olika kommunerna och även mellan grundskolorna. På vissa grundskolor var inkludering att nyanlända elever ska in i reguljära klasser medan det i andra skolor användes förberedelseklass (FBK) som inkluderingsmetod. Olika språkliga arbetssätt och vikten av modersmålslärare och studiehandledare lyftes även fram som avgörande faktorer för att stötta nyanlända elever. Däremot påpekas att kunskaper om nyanlända elever och hur dessa elever lär sig saknades i specialpedagogutbildningen hos samtliga intervjuade specialpedagoger.

  • Berggren, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    User friendly Digital Book Circles - A Case study on Traditional and Digital Book Circles with suggested Guidelines2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Humans have an amazing drive to create communities and gather around common interests or activities. Book circles, both traditional and digital ones, are examples of that. People read a book and then discuss it together to enrich the reading experience. But how do book circles form and what makes a reader want to them? Could values from traditional book circles be added to digital reading forums and what do people actually talk about when they discuss books?The aim of the study is to investigate how to design a user-friendly digital book circle by a case study of traditional and digital book circles. The method included observational studies, interviews and user surveys. The result showed that there were both different and similar problem areas and benefits in the two types. The topics that were discussed in the circles were similar in both traditional and digital book circles. But the social values in the traditional circles tend to be higher than in the digital ones in which convenience, anonymity, diversity and global interactions showed to be valued. The traditional book circles usually have one book and a meeting per month and do not talk in between their meetings. The digital book circles tend to have active book discussions during the reading. The findings from the user study were summarized in suggested guidelines for digital book circles.After the case study an iterative design process, inspired by IDEO, tookplace. The purpose of the design process was to design and test a digital book circle concept and visualize the suggested guidelines. The result was a design prototype with functionality to create, search for or join a book circle, participate in online discussions and use discussion topic cards for traditional book circle meetings. The user test showed that people understand the book circle concept of the design but the prototype needs further development in the discussion navigation. The potential for user-friendly digital book circle is high. The suggested guidelines and key findings from this study can help to find a direction for future research in this interesting field.

  • Sandelius, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ströberg, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Flickorna som gör allt för att passa in: Förskolans specialpedagoger beskriver flickor i svårigheter och de insatser som behövs2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att bidra med kunskap om och hur flickor i svårigheter uppmärksammas i förskolan och vilka pedagogiska metoder och anpassningar som används för flickor i svårighet som kan tyda på autism och attention deficit hyperaktivitet disorder (ADHD), hur de uppmärksammas och vilka insatser som sätts in. Studiens frågeställningar var hur specialpedagoger beskriver att de uppmärksammar flickor med svårigheter som tyder på autism och ADHD, hur beskriver specialpedagoger arbetet med insatser i förskolan, vilken kunskap anser specialpedagoger behövs för att förstå problematiken kring dessa flickor. Studien har kvalitativ forskningsansats med semistrukturerade intervjuer som datainsamlingsmetod och omfattar åtta specialpedagoger som arbetar i förskolan. Intervjuerna med specialpedagoger visar att flickor ofta upptäcks i socialt samspel och genom kommunikation, flickor leker genom att härma och följa förskolans rytm. Studien visar att specialpedagogerna befarar att många flickor fortfarande missas på grund av dessa anledningar vilket innebär att deras svårigheter inte alltid är synliga för omgivningen. Vidare lyfts tydliggörande pedagogik och samarbete med Barnhälsovården (BHV) och vårdnadshavare som viktiga i arbetet med insatser i förskolan. Specialpedagogerna i studien visar på att kunskap finns om flickor i svårighet, vilka adekvata insatser som krävs och hur flickor upptäcks. Kompetensen bland pedagoger på förskolan varierar, särskilt på de förskolor där utbildningsnivån är lägre eller saknades. Kunskap bland pedagogerna anser vi vara ett utvecklingsområde för specialpedagogerna att arbeta med.

  • Carlsson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Navigating the Contradictions of Colonial Citizenship: A Study of Chinua Achebe’s No Longer at Ease Focused on Mr Green and Obi Okonkwo2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies Chinua Achebe’s novel No Longer at Ease from a postcolonial perspective, specifically concentrating on its protagonist, the colonized Obi Okonkwo, and his antagonist, the colonizer Mr Green, using the theories of the literary critic Homi Bhabha. It argues that these two characters are hybrids in their ambivalent contact zone by demonstrating firstly, the coinciding presence of reciprocal feelings of sympathy/admiration and contempt, and secondly, that they are culturally cross-bred individuals. Additionally, this thesis examines the mimicry of Obi and reveals that it can be either strategic or subconscious in nature. It concludes that both mimicry and mockery have the potential to destabilize the structural power-imbalance between colonizer and colonized, thereby challenging colonial authority.

  • Bohman, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Self-Harm and the Pursuit of Control in Shadowhunters Fan Fiction2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Five fan fictions based on the TV-series Shadowhunters are used to analyze the self-harming behaviors of the character Alec Lightwood, as a response to losing, and a method of regaining, control. In addition, this paper explores self-harm in relation to upbringing and culture, self-punishment, and the mental health disorders depression and anxiety. Furthermore, it employs a disability narrative perspective and utilizes two four-stage systems proposed by disability narrative theorist David A. Karp—the illness identity career and the process of adaptations—in order to demonstrate the similarities and differences between fictional and nonfictional disability narratives. The engagement in self-harm is posited to be driven by a desire to regain control, which inadvertently ends up providing the opposite: an increased loss of control, and a hindrance for recovery.

  • Jakobsson, Victoria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Granberg, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Dokumentation i förskolan: Ett komplext arbete för att främja barns lärande2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att bidra med ökad förståelse om de utmaningar och eventuella dilemman som följer med pedagogisk dokumentation samt på vilket sätt som dokumentation i förskolan bidrar till ett utvecklande lärande. Frågeställningarna behandlade hur och varför dokumentation och pedagogisk dokumentation genomförs i förskolan, men också vilka fördelar, nackdelar och dilemman som finns beträffande dessa verktyg. Data insamlades genom kvalitativa intervjuer med yrkesverksamma förskollärare. De förskollärare som intervjuades uttryckte att de numera har god kompetens beträffande hur dokumentationer kan genomföras och hur de sedan kan använda den i pedagogiskt syfte bland annat för att synliggöra barns lärande i förskolans utbildning. Studien visar också att det finns nackdelar och dilemman i dokumentationsarbetet. Den viktigaste nackdelen som lyftes fram var svårigheter att få tiden att räcka till att reflektera över alla dokumentationer som samlats in och att kunna dela sin uppmärksamhet på både dokumentation och undervisning. Dilemman som lyftes var bland annat hur man ska förhålla sig till barns integritet vid dokumentation och hur barn ska göras delaktiga i dokumentationsarbetet speciellt då det gäller små barn som ännu inte har verbalt språk, samt teknik som inte fungerar.

  • Pankolainen, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Svårt med att läsa och räkna: Hur arbetar man med elever som har läs- och matematiksvårigheter?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many children in our schools suffer from reading or mathematical disabilities that halt their progress and limit their interest in their own education. Researchers from around the world agree that there are multiple similarities between these two disabilities that imply they are connected. However, it would seem that special teachers separate these disabilities and work with them individually, disregarding the implications of the research. The purpose of this work is to inquire into the methods and viewpoints of special teachers working with reading and mathematical disabilities. This work will also seek to compare these methods and viewpoints with those established by recent studies. To accomplish this the work has sought to answer critical questions: How do special teachers work with students suffering from these disabilities? How is the support structure for these students organized and envisioned? What opportunities and limiting factors do special teachers perceive in their work? The method for answering these questions was to interview 4 special teachers and observe their students during regular classes. The results show that the interviewed special teachers share similar viewpoints to those expressed by the researchers, but differ in their methods as previously mentioned. This indicates that special teachers are unable to effectively work with both of these disabilities at the same time, which may be due to a lack of knowledge regarding appropriate methods.

  • Wallinder, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Mellan klassrummet och läroplanen - En kvalitativ studie om sociologiundervisningen på gymnasieskolan utifrån styrdokument och lärarintervjuer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att bidra med kunskap om sociologiämnet på̊ gymnasieskolan och jämföra styrdokumentens skrivningar med lärares beskrivningar av det ämnesmässiga innehållet. Centrala frågor är vilka syften med ämnet sociologi som anges i styrdokumenten, vilka syften de intervjuade sociologilärarna anger och om lärarna upplever att det finns andra faktorer som påverkar undervisningen. Studiens material består av ämnesplanen för sociologi samt intervjuer med sociologilärare utförda via e-post. I studien används en kvalitativ textanalys och en kvalitativ intervju. Studiens teoretiska ramverk utgår från Dahllöfs ramfaktorteori, Lundgrens läroplanskoder, Englunds utbildningsfilosofiska strömningar samt Bernsteins begrepp. Denna studies huvudresultat visar att olika läroplanskoder samverkar och pendlar mellan varandra i sociologins ämnesplan. Detta tar sig uttryck på̊ olika sätt i lärarnas beskrivningar av det ämnesmässiga innehållet och kan tänkas hänga samman med lärarnas yrkeserfarenhet och stoffrepertoar. Samtidigt har studien visat att ramfaktorer såsom läromedel och gruppstorlek påverkar innehållet i sociologiundervisningen. 

  • De Vito, Laura
    et al.
    Fairbrother, Malcolm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Sociology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Russel, Duncan
    Implementing the Water Framework Directive and Tackling Diffuse Pollution from Agriculture: Lessons from England and Scotland2020In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tackling diffuse pollution from agriculture is a key challenge for governments seeking to implement the European Union’s Water Framework Directive (WFD). In the research literature, how best to integrate and align effective measures for tackling diffuse pollution, within the context of the EU’s multilevel governance structure, remains an open question. This paper focuses on the first and second implementation cycles of the WFD to explore how national governance arrangements either facilitated or hindered the adoption of effective policies, especially with regards to the delivery of agricultural and water policies on the ground. It draws on data collected through systematic document analysis and interviews with key experts, policymakers and interest groups, and presents a comparative analysis of two case studies: England and Scotland. The case studies show that Scotland’s joined-up governance structure, which enabled policymakers and interest groups to work together and to build trust and cooperation, facilitated the adoption of stricter measures for tackling diffuse pollution. In contrast, in England institutional fragmentation prevented a meaningful engagement of all parties and acted as a barrier. The analysis unpacks the design of policy mixes and the conditions that allow national governments to pursue more holistic and integrated governance approaches to overcome opposition from interest groups and gain their support.

  • Håglin, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Törnkvist, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Bäckman, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Obesity, smoking habits, and serum phosphate levels predicts mortality after life-style intervention2020In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 1, article id e0227692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Life-style interventions, including smoking cessation and weight control are of importance for managing future escalating prevalence of obesity. Smoking habits and obesity have jointly great impact on mortality, however mechanisms behind the effect and variables involved in the obesity paradox is still unknown.

    Objectives: This study examines risk factors for all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in males and females with high cardiovascular risk, mediated by smoking habits, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), and serum phosphate (S-P) levels.

    Methods: Patients were admitted to the Vindeln Patient Education Center in groups of 30 for a four-week residential comprehensive program (114 hours) focusing on smoking cessation, stress reduction, food preferences and selections, and physical exercise. The follow-up, in years from 1984 to 2014 corresponds to 30 years. This study included 2,504 patients (1,408 females and 1,096 males). Cox regression analysis was used to assess mortality risk associated with smoking habits, low and high BMI, and low and high S-P levels.

    Results: High BMI (>34,2 kg/m2), current smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), high serum calcium (S-Ca), mmol/L and high systolic blood pressure (SBP, mmHg) were associated with all-cause mortality irrespective of sex. Former and current smoking females had a high all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.581; 95% CI 1.108–2.256, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.935; 95% CI 1.461–2.562, respectively) while current smoking and high BMI increased risk for cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.505; 95% CI 2.140–5.740 and [HR] 1.536; 95% CI 1.058–2.231, respectively). Neither low nor high levels of S-P predicted all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality in males or females while low levels of S-P predicted all-cause mortality in smokers (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.713; 95% CI 1.211–2.424). In non-smokers, low BMI (<27.6 kg/m2) was protecting and high BMI a risk for all-cause mortality. In males, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and low serum albumin (S-Alb) were associated with all-cause mortality. In females, an interaction between high BMI and smoking (HbmiSM) decreased the cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.410; 95% CI 0.179–0.937, respectively).

    Conclusions: High BMI and current smoking were associated with all-cause mortality in both males and females in the present high cardiovascular-risk cohort. In current smokers and non-smokers, T2DM and high S-Ca were associated with an increase in all-cause mortality, while low S-P was associated with all-cause mortality in smokers. Interaction between high BMI and smoking contribute to the obesity paradox by being protective for cardiovascular mortality in females.

  • Andersson, Josefin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Christoffersson, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Flickor med svårigheter inom essence: Vilka signaler sänder de ut och hur tolkar vi dem?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flickor med svårigheter inom området Essence kan vara svåra att upptäcka då deras signaler kan misstolkas och förringas med konsekvenser som psykisk ohälsa, skolfrånvaro och utanförskap i förlängningen. Studiens syfte var att synliggöra och analysera fyra pedagogers och fyra vårdnadshavares erfarenheter och upplevelser omkring de signaler som flickor uppvisar, kopplat till konstaterade eller misstänkta svårigheter inom Essenceområdet. Förhoppningen var att kunna bidra till ökad kunskap om vikten av tidig identifikation och därigenom ökad möjlighet till lämplig stöttning av dessa flickor på deras väg genom livet. Med intervju som metod genomfördes en kvalitativ studie där resultatet bland annat visade att återkommande signaler hos flera flickor visat sig som stora svårigheter i relationsskapande, samt att behärska många av de vardagliga moment som livet och skolan innebär. Resultatet visar också att vårdnadshavarna ofta tidigt identifierar svårigheter medan pedagoger i de flesta fall avvaktar, kompenserar och i vissa fall fördröjer utredningar.

  • Nguyen, Hong Hanh
    et al.
    Ho, Dang Phuc
    Vu, Thi Lan Huong
    Tran, Khanh Toan
    Tran, Thanh Do
    Nguyen, Thi Kim Chuc
    van Doorn, H Rogier
    Nadjm, Behzad
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health (IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wertheim, Heiman
    "I can make more from selling medicine when breaking the rules": understanding the antibiotic supply network in a rural community in Viet Nam2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 1560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As in many other low and middle income countries (LIMCs), Vietnam has experienced a major growth in the pharmaceutical industry, with large numbers of pharmacies and drug stores, and increasing drug expenditure per capita over the past decade. Despite regulatory frameworks that have been introduced to control the dispensing and use of prescription-only drugs, including antibiotics, compliance has been reported to be strikingly low particularly in rural parts of Vietnam. This qualitative study aimed to understand antibiotic access and use practices in the community from both supplier and consumer perspectives in order to support the identification and development of future interventions.

    METHODS: This qualitative study was part of a project on community antibiotic access and use (ABACUS) in six LMICs. The focus was Ba Vi district of Hanoi capital city, where we conducted 16 indepth interviews (IDIs) with drug suppliers, and 16 IDIs and 6 focus group discussions (FGDs) with community members. Drug suppliers were sampled based on mapping of all informal and formal antibiotic purchase or dispensing points in the study area. Community members were identified through local networks and relationships with the field collaborators. All IDIs and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using content analysis.

    RESULTS: We identified a large number of antibiotic suppliers in the locality with widespread infringements of regulatory requirements. Established reciprocal relationships between suppliers and consumers in drug transactions were noted, as was the consumers' trust in the knowledge and services provided by the suppliers. In addition, antibiotic use has become a habitual choice in most illness conditions, driven by both suppliers and consumers.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study presents an analysis of the practices of antibiotic access and use in a rural Vietnamese setting. It highlights the interactions between antibiotic suppliers and consumers in the community and identifies possible targets for interventions.

  • Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Living in the shadow of unemployment -an unhealthy life situation: a qualitative study of young people from leaving school until early adult life.2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 1661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite the magnitude of youth unemployment there is a lack of studies, which explore the relations between health experiences and labour market position in various contexts. The aim of this paper was to analyse health experiences among young people in NEET (not in education, employment or training) in relation to labour market position from leaving school until early adult life.

    METHOD: The population consists of everyone (six women, eight men) who became unemployed directly after leaving compulsory school in a town in Northern Sweden. Repeated personal interviews were performed from age 16 until age 33. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: Health experiences can be viewed as a contextual process, related to the different phases of leaving school, entering the labour market, becoming unemployed and becoming employed. Perceived relief and hope were related to leaving compulsory school, while entering the labour market was related to setbacks and disappointments as well as both health-deteriorating and health-promoting experiences depending on the actual labour market position. Our overarching theme of "Living in the shadow of unemployment - an unhealthy life situation" implies that it is not only the actual situation of being unemployed that is problematic but that the other phases are also coloured by earlier experiences of unemployment .

    CONCLUSION: A focus on young people's health experiences of transitions from school into the labour market brings a new focus on the importance of macroeconomic influence on social processes and contextualised mechanisms from a life-course perspective.

  • Strandh, Victoria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Löfroth, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Språkutvecklande arbetssätt för elever med språkstörning: En kvalitativ studie där några lärare och speciallärare beskriver sitt arbete2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what efforts some teachers and special needs teachers at primary schools think are needed at the organizational, group and individual levels to provide support for students with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). Furthermore, it was investigated which supportive strategies and teaching methods teachers and special needs teachers applied and how the learning environment could be favourably designed. The study was based on a qualitative method with semi structured interviews and observations. The result shows that principals' priorities and the presence of speech therapists at schools affect what support participants experienced they received. The participants are guided by a relational perspective where the focus is on how the linguistic and physical learning environment can support the students. To provide that support, students with DLD should be carefully charted and they are favored by a clarifying pedagogy. The adjustments aimed at students with DLD benefit all students.

  • Vennberg, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nyberg, Carolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Professionellas hanteringsstrategier för hållbarhet inom socialt arbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    “... jag blir väl halshuggen ibland när man säger, det här är bara ett jobb, det måste inte vara ett kall”. Socialt arbete har genom historien förknippats med uppoffringar och att åsidosätta sig själv. Tidigare forskning på området visar att det är ett utsatt yrke där de professionella själva riskerar att hamna i ohälsa, mestadels på grund av de organisatoriska belastningarna. Det lämnar den professionelle till att själv många gånger hantera de krav och påfrestningar som yrket innebär. Det blir då viktigt för professionella att ha ett sätt att hantera sin tillvaro för att nå en hållbar fysisk och psykisk hälsa.

    Som socionomstudenter ser vi genom utbildningen en avsaknad gällande tydliga och fungerande verktyg för de professionella i mötet med klienter. Vår upplevelse är att det inte förs tillräckliga resonemang kring vikten av den professionellas hälsa genom yrkeslivet. Syftet med studien är därmed att undersöka hur professionella i klientnära socialt arbete beskriver att de använder sig av hanteringsstrategier i sin yrkesroll för att vara hållbar genom ett helt arbetsliv. De frågor studien syftar att besvara är vad professionella har för synsätt om sin egen hälsa ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv, hur de använder sig av hanteringsstrategier för ett varaktigt yrkesliv samt hur de professionella reflekterar över sin yrkesroll. Studien bygger på kvalitativ metod där fem professionella inom klientnära socialt arbete intervjuats. Genom konventionell innehållsanalys bearbetades materialet där det i empirin kan utläsas följande kategorier: hållbar hälsa, kognitiva hanteringsstrategier, praktiska hanteringsstrategier, professionsrollen, energiförtjänster och energiförluster. Föregående kategorier analyseras i studien både som risk- och skyddsfaktorer för ett hållbart yrkesliv, vilket är det genomgående temat i resultatet.

  • Rauschning, Mimmi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Det tar lika lång tid att gå ut ur skogen som att gå in i den": Att ta sig ur ett alkoholberoende2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att få en djupare förståelse för hur vägen från alkoholberoende till nykterhet kan se ut. Studien har en narrativ utgångspunkt och insamlandet av material har skett med öppna intervjuer. Tidigare studier visar på att det finns olika perspektiv på alkoholism och behandling för det. Olika behandlingsformer ger olika resultat. Formell behandling kan vara ett sätt att komma ur beroendet. Det har däremot framkommit att olika typer av informell behandling, exempelvis Anonyma Alkoholister kan ha större betydelse när det handlar om att förbli nykter. Tidigare forskning pekar också på att sluta dricka är en förändring som kan bidra till flera olika positiva följder. Men vad är det som gör att en alkoholist väljer att sluta dricka? Resultatet i den här studien visar på att sådana omständigheter som gör att man tar beslutet om att söka hjälp är när man äventyrar familjesituationen och arbetet, när en allvarlig olycka inträffar eller när känslan av outhärdlighet uppstår. Studien synliggör också att vägen från alkoholberoende till nykterhet inte är rak och det tar tid men den ger mycket i gengäld, till exempel stolthet, positivitet och trygghet. Studiens resultat visar också på att Anonyma Alkoholister spelar en betydande roll i processen.

  • Hedman, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Johansson, Olivia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att upphöra med kriminalitet: En kvalitativ studie av livsstilskriminellas resa mot en livsstilsförändring2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har fyra före detta livsstilskriminella intervjuats för att ta reda på vad som föranledde deras beslut att upphöra med en kriminell livsstil, hur respondenternas resa mot förändring sett ut samt vilka avgörande faktorer som funnits under processens gång. 

    Det är en kvalitativ studie där semistrukturerade intervjuer har gjorts med personer som själva identifierat sig som före detta livsstilskriminella. Materialet har analyserats utifrån en modell utvecklad av Antonovskys (1991) teori Känsla av Sammanhang, begreppet Rock Bottom och teorier om Sociala Band (Hirschi, 1969; Sampson och Laub, 1993). 

    Analysen följer en kronologisk ordning, vilket i studien benämns som resan mot en livsstilsförändring. Resan startar vid en avgörande tid i livet där respondenterna har nått botten, vilket kan jämföras med Rock Bottom. Detta är vad respondenterna själva valt att kalla vändpunkten och blev startskottet på en lång resa. När respondenterna nått botten var de sociala banden till det konventionella samhället nästintill obefintliga och de hade därmed en avsaknad av social kontroll. Under tiden för förändringen förbättrades de sociala banden till det konventionella samhället successivt. Nya sociala sammanhang, sysselsättningar och nära relationer byggdes upp och de sociala banden ledde till att respondenterna inte längre ville begå brott. I krisen, som skulle föranleda vändpunkten, hade respondenterna en låg känsla av sammanhang, vilket har visat sig vara starkt sammankopplat med svaga sociala band till det konventionella samhället. Allt eftersom tiden gick och de sociala banden förstärktes ökade även känslan av sammanhang. Analysmodellen visar att alla dessa faktorer samverkar med varandra och är under förändring i uppbrottsprocessen. Den här processen övergår efter ett tag till att bara vara en del av livsloppet, som pågår för resten av livet. Utöver detta har studien visat att en individ som ska kunna upphöra med brott behöver också upphöra med droger.

  • Mulubwa, Chama
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Public Health, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; Zambart Project, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Zulu, Joseph Mumba
    Michelo, Charles
    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Can sexual health interventions make community-based health systems more responsive to adolescents? A realist informed study in rural Zambia.2020In: Reproductive Health, ISSN 1742-4755, E-ISSN 1742-4755, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Community-based sexual reproductive interventions are key in attaining universal health coverage for all by 2030, yet adolescents in many countries still lack health services that are responsive to their sexual reproductive health and rights' needs. As the first step of realist evaluation, this study provides a programme theory that explains how, why and under what circumstances community-based sexual reproductive health interventions can transform (or not) 'ordinary' community-based health systems (CBHSs) into systems that are responsive to the sexual reproductive health of adolescents.

    METHODS: This realist approach adopted a case study design. We nested the study in the full intervention arm of the Research Initiative to Support the Empowerment of Girls trial in Zambia. Sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders involved in the development and/or implementation of the trial. All the interviews were recorded and analysed using NVIVO version 12.0. Thematic analysis was used guided by realist evaluation concepts. The findings were later synthesized using the Intervention-Context-Actors-Mechanism-Outcomes conceptualization tool. Using the retroduction approach, we summarized the findings into two programme theories.

    RESULTS: We identified two initial testable programme theories. The first theory presumes that adolescent sexual reproductive health and rights (SRHR) interventions that are supported by contextual factors, such as existing policies and guidelines related to SRHR, socio-cultural norms and CBHS structures are more likely to trigger mechanisms among the different actors that can encourage uptake of the interventions, and thus contribute to making the CBHS responsive to the SRHR needs of adolescents. The second and alternative theory suggests that SRHR interventions, if not supported by contextual factors, are less likely to transform the CBHSs in which they are implemented. At individual level the mechanisms, awareness and knowledge were expected to lead to value clarification', which was also expected would lead to individuals developing a 'supportive attitude towards adolescent SRHR. It was anticipated that these individual mechanisms would in turn trigger the collective mechanisms, communication, cohesion, social connection and linkages.

    CONCLUSION: The two alternative programme theories describe how, why and under what circumstances SRHR interventions that target adolescents can transform 'ordinary' community-based health systems into systems that are responsive to adolescents.

  • Chamoun, Mario-Christofer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An Alzheimer-type cerebrospinal fluid profile in early Parkinson's disease2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, several studies have discovered traces of Alzheimer's (AD) biomarkers in a large portion of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), which have been associated with subsequent dementia (PDD). However, the manifestation of AD biomarkers in PD is not fully understood. At present, few studies have investigated how common AD biomarkers are in newly diagnosed and unmedicated patients with PD. This cross-sectional cohort study investigated whether AD biomarkers were present in unmedicated and newly diagnosed patients with PD and patients with PD and overlapping clinical symptoms (cognitive impairment, depression, olfactory dysfunction). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of AD biomarkers Amyloid-β-42 (Aβ42), phosphorylated-tau (p-tau), and total-tau (t-tau) were assessed in 343 patients with the mean age of 68,69 (SD=9,60), including 31 healthy controls with the mean age of 68,90 (SD=5,64). The participants were recruited from The New Parkinson Patient in Umea (NYPUM & PARKNY). The results showed a significant difference in CSF AD biomarkers between patients with PD and healthy controls, but not in patients with PD and overlapping clinical symptoms. The results point to the presence of AD pathology in early PD; however, the presence of AD pathology could not be further strengthened by the clinical overlapping symptoms. More prospective studies on newly diagnosed patients with PD need to be carried out to investigate the prognostic values of the presence of AD pathology found in PD.

  • Public defence: 2020-02-07 09:00 Hörsal D by 1A, 9tr, Umeå
    Kverneng Hultberg, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Surgery for rectal cancer: the impact of perioperative factors2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rectal cancer is one of the most common and deadly cancer forms worldwide. A large proportion of rectal cancer patients are surgically treated with curative intention, with anterior resection being the most frequently used method today. During surgery, the inferior mesenteric artery is either ligated proximal (high tie) or distal to the left colic artery (low tie). It is not known whether the tie level affects the oncologic nor the functional outcome. Postoperatively, about one in ten patients develop an anastomotic leakage. It is unclear whether treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) affects the risk of leakage, or whether having a leakage influences the functional outcome. 

    The general aims of this dissertation were to increase the knowledge of intra- and postoperative treatment for rectal cancer, with the goal of improving the oncologic and functional outcomes, as well as reducing postoperative complications. National registers, predominantly the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry, were used in all of the dissertation’s four retrospective cohort studies to identify and retrieve information regarding patients. Various statistical methods have been used in all studies with the aim of eliminating bias, including confounding.

    In Study I, high tie slightly increased the total number of harvested lymph nodes in the included 8287 patients, as compared with low tie, while the primary outcome cancer-specific survival, as well as secondary oncologic outcomes, were not affected. This indicates that the oncologic outcome does not have to be considered when the surgeon determines the level of tie.

    In Study II, investigating the effect of tie level on the functional outcome, the outcome was any defecatory or urogenital symptoms two years after anterior resection, assessed with a mailed questionnaire. With a response rate of 86%, 805 patients were included. High tie did not, except for increasing the need of defecation at night, influence the risk of major dysfunction. Again, this would facilitate the choice of tie level.

    Study III used the same outcome, and in part the same study population, as Study II, but instead with the exposure anastomotic leakage. With a response rate of 82%, 1180 patients were included. We found that anastomotic leakage increased the risk of reduced sexual activity and increased the use of aid products for fecal incontinence after anterior resection, while the risk of urinary incontinence was unexpectedly decreased. Other outcomes were not clearly affected. 

    In Study IV, in addition to the register, information was gathered from patient records. In the included 1495 patients who had undergone anterior resection, postoperative NSAID treatment was not found to increase the risk of symptomatic anastomotic leakage. There were no differences between non-selective and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. This study does not support that NSAID treatment increases the risk of anastomotic leakage after such surgery.

  • Public defence: 2020-02-07 09:15 N460, Umeå
    Vidman, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    cancer subtype identification using cluster analysis on high-dimensional omics data2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Identification and prediction of cancer subtypes are important parts in the development towards personalized medicine. By tailoring treatments, it is possible to decrease unnecessary suffering and reduce costs. Since the introduction of next generation sequencing techniques, the amount of data available for medical research has increased rapidly. The high dimensional omics data produced by various techniques requires statistical methods to transform data into information and knowledge.

    All papers in this thesis are related to distinguishing of disease subtypes in patients with cancer using omics data. The high dimension and the complexity of sequencing data from tumor samples makes it necessary to pre—process the data.  We carry out comparisons of feature selection methods and clustering methods used for identification of cancer subtypes. In addition, we evaluate the effect that certain characteristics of the data have on the ability to identify cancer subtypes. The results show that no method outperforms the others in all cases and the relative ranking of methods is very dependent on the data. We also show that the benefit of receiving a more homogeneous data by analyzing genders separately can outweigh the possible drawbacks caused by smaller sample sizes. One of the major challenges when dealing with omics data from tumor samples is that the patients are generally a very heterogeneous group. Factors that lead to heterogeneity include age, gender, ethnicity and stage of disease. How big the effect size is for each of these factors might affect the ability to identify the subgroups of interest.

    In omics data, the feature space is often large and how many of the features that are informative for the factors of interest will also affect the complexity of the problem. We present a novel clustering approach that can identify different clusters in different subsets of the feature space, which is applied on methylation data to create new potential biomarkers. It is shown that by combining clinical data with methylation data for patients with clear cell renal carcinoma, it is possible to improve the currently used prediction model for disease progression.  

    Using unsupervised clustering techniques, we identify three molecular subtypes of prostate cancer bone metastases based on gene expression profiles. The robustness of the identified subtypes is confirmed by applying several clustering algorithms with very similar results.

     

  • Enebjörk, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pojkars lägre måluppfyllelse i skolan: En intervjustudie med lärare2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through the purpose of the study, which is to investigate how special educators and educators in compulsory school perceived causes of differences in goal achievement for boys and girls, as well as the working methods used to counteract this problem, we wanted to contribute to increased knowledge. Background and previous research dealt with various control documents, how the concept of gender could be understood in pedagogy, gender differences in goal fulfillment as well as various explanations and successful methods for countering these differences. Socioculturally perspective on learning was used as an overall theoretical framework. The study's empirical data was collected through semi-structured interviews with five educators and five special education teachers at a few differentschools and stages in two municipalities. The result showed that both special educators and educators found explanations for gender differences in goal achievement in both individuals and the environment. To reduce gender differences in goal attainment suggestions were, working with enhancing reading, a more formative approach and cooperative learning emerged. Most participants did not feel that this was a priority field. In regards to how the informants perceived that the field was noticed in everyday work at the schools, it was found that it was not very frequent and that it was not included in the systematic quality work at any of the schools surveyed. However, almost half of the informants were positive about continuing education in the area, although some thought that continuing education in other areas was more important at the present time.

  • Borgh Westin, Angelica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Andersson, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Intensiv lästräning genom metoden upprepad läsning med högstadieelever i lässvårigheter: En interventions- och enkätstudie2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates to what extent an intensive reading intervention of two weeks, based on repeated reading, can improve the reading fluency for students with reading difficulties in secondary school. The study also investigates how the students evaluated the intervention based on repeated reading. Nineteen students with reading difficulties in secondary school were selected and divided into two comparable groups, an intervention group and a control group. Ten students in the intervention group were given daily one to one tutorial training in decoding and fluency by reading lists with words, nonwords and texts repeatedly times. Visual as well as spoken feedback were given between every set of reading. The control group received ordinary classroom teaching. Tests before and after the intervention with all students were done. The intervention students completed a questionnaire about their evaluation of the intervention and how they estimated their reading ability after the training period. The results of the study showed that most students in the intervention group increased their test results in terms of decoding words and text reading compared to the control group. The results of the questionnaire showed that the students experienced that they had increased their reading ability and that they had become more self-confident about their reading.

  • Bergius, Madeleine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Asplund, Viktoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Rätt stöd i rätt tid?: – En studie om lärares och speciallärares uppfattningar om skrivande för yngre elever i skrivsvårigheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today´s society demands that every individual is able to communicate in writing. It is the school's responsibility to provide the students with the conditions to succeed. Teachers and special needs teachers need to identify students in need of support as early as possible and provide them with the appropriate instruction to become proficient writers. The purpose of this study is to investigate several teachers' and special needs teachers' perceptions on teaching writing for younger pupils who are at risk of not attaining the goals of writing for grade 3. We interviewed 3 teachers and 3 special needs teachers about their writing knowledge, what instructional methods they use, what efforts are being made in regards to pupils with writing difficulties and what challenges and opportunities they see. The results show that teachers and special needs teachers can detect struggling students early, however, the origin of the difficulties and the right support are often difficult to determine. The support these students receive are mainly extra adaptations in the classroom. Both teachers and special needs teachers use many different working methods in their teaching for these students, but express that there is a lack of knowledge and research on writing and that time and group size are challenges in providing a good writing instruction.