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  • Tykosson, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Beskrivningar av Öst: En studie av historieläromedel för yrkesprogrammen med utgångspunkt i konceptet orientalism2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how the Middle East is represented in four textbooks for the history course for the professional programs in Swedish upper secondary school. By using discourse analysis and the concept of orientalism I investigate presentations of the Middle East. This study finds that in the textbooks the population of the Middle East is often generalized in modern times as Arabic and Muslim, with "the other" being religious people as the outset of the textbooks are not necessarily European and Christian, but rather European (Swedish) and secular. For example, the Ottoman Empire is portrayed as an obstacle to "western" interests and a great enemy to Christian Europe, while later it loses focus after the advent of the secularized Turkish state. Furthermore, the secular state of Israel is included as a part of "the west" and surrounded by its enemies, the Muslim "Arab states". It would appear however, that the further back in history we go, the more nuanced the representation of the Middle East is. For example, up to, and to some extent including, the middle ages the Middle East is not simply considered a material part of "the west" but rather an integral part in its future legal and cultural ideals. On the other hand the textbooks portray Islam and Christianity as wholly "incompatible" ideological enemies, with a clear geographical border passing through the Mediterranean and an emphasis on the Crusades and its peoples as bringers of war and destruction. Also, during the 20th Century it would appear that "western values" are spoken of in the Middle East as something negative.

  • Boll, Karen
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Brehm Johansen, Mette
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Tax Governance: Corporate experiences with Cooperative Compliance in Denmark2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program. The working paper shows as a general stance that the corporations are supporting the ideas behind Tax Governance and are generally satisfied with their participation. However, the working paper also shows that most of them explain to be stretched between this willingness to participate and the different challenges and contradictions they told to experience in the everyday work practices related to the Tax Governance program. The working paper zooms in at these various everyday experiences from the corporations. Yet, it also zooms out and shows that the Tax Governance program in different ways relate to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model for a collaborative regulatory relationship between Skat and large corporations comes with both possibilities and challenges.

  • Persson, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Golvavjämningsmassor2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To get a flat surface on the floor to either use it as the actual floor area or to put another floor finish on top of the surface, different grading masses is a solution. With a wide selection of grading masses and the difficulties to distribute the grading masses evenly across an area it demands a wide knowledge in the field. Which material, accessories and which type of grading mass which will be used depends on the current situation. The work stage for floor grading is physically demanding work for the body, because it involves heavy lifting and working in a position that is not ergonomic. Rekab Construction (Entreprenad) AB doesn’t have all the knowledge necessary to perform and plan floor grading-work even though there is a wide knowledge within the company. Experiences from previously performed work has not been documented for the knowledge to be passed on. To hire in another company to perform floor grading is something Rekab wants to avoid since it is economical to perform by yourself with the right knowledge. The purpose with this rapport is to make it easier for the future staff at Rekab Construction who will perform floor grading. The goal is to put together a comprehensible descriptive manual for a person without prior knowledge, know what is required and the important parts during job planning, work environment, execution and experience feedback for the work stage floor grading. The theory shows that the job planning, work environment, production and experience feedback are all important steps in a process. During the job planning stage, all the planning required for the production is done. When that stage comes during the production, all the material, tools and the people needed should be available. A well-made job planning creates a good flow in the production which leads to better results. Every part of the building process has safety risks which needs to be minimized. Most safety risks are avoidable with the help of planning and accurate risk study to be prepared for when they do appear. Other causes and problems such as noise, there is auxiliary tools like ear protection. Experience feedback connects the whole project to improve future similar projects, be more efficient and thus reduce the expenses for the project. A descriptive manual for floor grading was developed through dialogues and discussions with Rekab’s staff who are involved in the work. Information how the employees think about the current situation is and works are analyzed, which gives an insight into what the employees think. For this report, it was considered a more appropriate way of working than interviews or questionnaires as it provides faster answers and a more open dialogue can be held. When different viewpoints of how one element of screed performed, the results were compiled. The manual presents all the four different parts described in the theory specifically for the momentary floor grading. What is important to think about, how this element is carried through and what should be included in planning and experience feedback. Even though the manual is followed carefully, and every step gets the time it demands, the result is varied. Much is about practicing it and getting routine for floor grading. The construction period for a whole project is long therefor the momentary floor grading occurs once a year, which makes it hard to practice it and get a routine for it. Unlike a company that only works with floor grading and doing it daily which leads to getting more exercise and therefore can deliver a better result.

  • Vinterek, Olivia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Bilders betydelse för textproduktion: En undersökning om bilders betydelse för berättande och beskrivande textproduktion2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    This research- survey concerns multimodality and how multimodality can be used in Swedish curriculum to facilitate students in their writing process. The survey focuses on detailed and nuanced writing which are coarse goals for both Swedish- and Arts curriculum. The survey is implemented in senior high school. Students have written describing and narrational texts with different environmental descriptions. The different descriptions contain either pictures, or exclusively word-based instruction.

     

    The results may not be entirely reliable based on the small scale of the survey, yet perhaps show a tendency among students to write stories that are not self- experienced when encountering pictures in the instructional phase of the writing process. This might indicate that students observing pictures are helped with imagination as well as perhaps motivational issues. Motivation is addressed in this survey as a strong basis, which every teacher should embrace in education.

     

    The survey suggests that multimodality is ascendant in society and a necessity to navigate in a culture groaning of imagery language. Used with awareness in language education and other theoretical subjects, multimodality can be used as a source and a didactical tool. This research- survey therefore suggests interdisciplinary work between aesthetic subjects and theoretical to enrich teaching methods. 

  • Sandgren, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nederstedt, Nike
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Att lyssna är att läsa?: En kvalitativ studie om skillnader och likheter mellan att läsa och lyssna ur ett pedagogiskt perspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Audiobooks have become increasingly popular and accessible during the past couple of years. Concurrently, students’ reading comprehension has decreased. Therefore, teachers must work toward improving students’ reading comprehension but also relate to audiobooks as a phenomenon. Thus, this qualitative study aimed to explore similarities and differences between reading comprehension and listening comprehension through previous research, an examination of the course Svenska 1 and interviews with three professionals within the target area. The curriculum of Svenska 1 legitimises the use of audiobooks and does not specify the concept of reading, therefore allowing teachers to interpret whether audiobooks should or can be used. Although the input is of different characters in the two modalities, the phase of processing and comprehending is similar. Moreover, listening comprehension is a biologically primary ability and can suit students with a limited working memory. According to the findings of this study, students struggling with word decoding can linguistically assimilate more complex texts through the auditive modality. Hence, audiobooks can be used in educational purpose since they provide linguistic content and practice students’ empathy. However, listeners mainly extract the gist of a text. Therefore, they rely more on background knowledge and logic rules when reconstructing a text. Consequently, listening can burden students’ working memory and listeners sometimes miss the intended meaning of a text. Finally, background knowledge, motivation, strategies and word decoding are what researchers believe to be most important for reading comprehension. Even more skilled readers need to practice their decoding skills and therefore a recommendation is to teach decoding parallel to knowledge acquisition, which can be provided through audiobooks. 

  • Marklund, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Lindholm, Elvira
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Litteraturval i klassrummet: Hur lärare ser på provocerande litteratur2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how teachers resonate when they chose what literature to use in the classroom. The focus of the study is how the teachers relate to using literature that have the potential to provoke and cause strong emotional responses. The method used was interviews with six teachers, which were then processed using a thematic analysis. The result showed that the teachers in our study, although initially positive towards the use of provocative literature, had some reservations regarding the actual use of literary texts with the potential to provoke and upset the students, but also themselves. For this, there were several reasons, and among them that the teachers felt the need to protect and care for their students' well-being, but also the fact that the teachers felt that it was hard to talk about morally reprehensible subjects with their students. The thesis concludes with a discussion regarding the provocative literatures position in education, the perceived distinction between “good” and “bad” provocations in the classroom and a short reflection about the didactic implications of the study and possible future research.  

  • Berggren, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Bygga tillit på mobila enheter: En studie av designpraktik2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing collection of user data in society raises issues of trust. How much information are we really prepared to share and what makes some services better than others in trustbuilding? Trust has been identified as necessary in vulnerable situations where risk is present, and many studies have highlighted the importance of trust on the web. For companies and organizations that collect sensitive user data, it becomes particularly important to build trust with their users. Mobile devices have characteristics that create both opportunities and challenges for user experience design. This study intends to find out how these influence design work from a trust perspective, and finally, how to build trust on mobile devices. Through qualitative interviews, the study has examined experiences of design work where sensitive user data has been involved. The results of the study show five themes, all of which are essential for building trust on mobile devices.

  • Larsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Nilsson, Joel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Svårigheter med att standardisera sensordata2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an increase in popularity surrounding the IoT phenomena and Internet connection taking its place in our everyday lives, wireless sensors have shaped their purpose of remotely monitoring the physical world to become a force to be reckoned with. However, as a result of the mass manufacturing of sensor units, hardware and software tends to fluctuate to the extent of impeding a common ground for sensors to operate on in sequence with different systems. The aim of this thesis is to investigate an attitude towards a potential standardisation of output data in sensors, but also the hardships of implementing such a standard and what effects it could possibly have on a market related to sensors in a near future. Our main source of understanding these questions have been through interviews with individuals we have deemed highly relevant because of their relation to a market involving the usage of sensors. Also, to better understand the concept what a standard is, and standardisation means we’ve turned to literature considered highly regarded in the field of standardisation. By examining the results of our interviews, we are able to determine the open mindedness and positivity towards a similarity in sensor data, which borders on transforming the initial estimate of a need to a pure must in developing an overall standard. But there are also concerns regarding ownership of data. If a standard would to be implemented, how will an organisation profit when they can no longer claim to be the sole owner of what a sensor is saying? We believe in a standardisation but that it won’t be controlled by a larger body and instead will happen naturally. But those in charge of a standardisation need to take in consideration of carefully addressing issues such as that of ownership. Convincing entire markets of the need for a standardisation of sensor data should not be seen as an easy task, especially when many organisations today focus on solutions that only benefits their agenda and no one else's.

  • Dahlberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Irmel, Tim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Forsström, Jacob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Android-användaren och appbehörigheter: Attityder och beteenden kopplat till säkerhet på mobilen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Android OS is ever growing on the global market, reaching more and more people. This have led to the distribution of millions of applications, that the Android user can interact with. However, the usage of Android apps is not risk free and there are various methods deployed by Google Play to protect the privacy of the Android owner. One of these protective measures are permissions. However, as permissions are controlled by the user, there is a need of comprehending the user behaviour and attitude to the permissions. Lack of understanding the importance, and of the permission itself, could present a real danger of privacy trespassing to the user. In this paper we evaluate the rate of attitude and behaviour by questionnaire and empirical quality-driven interviews. We compare and scrutinize our data with older studies. We identify factors contributing the failure to comply with permission warnings. Also, we find that there are connections between factors such as gender and age, for how the user behaviour and attitude conclude with permissions. In the end we present an exhaustive analysis and discussion to our results, ending with a conclusion that there are differences to be found from older studies and that there are connections in gender and age with how the user acts by permissions.

  • Björk, Gabrielle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Karlsson, Matilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Effektiv crossmedia - Att äta kakan och ha den kvar: En kvalitativ studie om hur småföretag kan effektivisera sin marknadsföring2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Crossmedia is a phenomenon that is widely used for marketing despite the fact that far from everyone are familiar with the word. Crossmedia has many advantages if used effectively, although this is not always the case. Small business owners are facing many challenges, among which limited time and budget are the most common. Research shows that marketing is a challenge for small businesses and that they often lack concrete plans and strategies. It also suggests that some sort of guidance, for example in the shape of DIY-tools, would be beneficial for small business owners since hiring communication agencies usually is too expensive. Three local small business owners have been interviewed in this study in order to investigate the thoughts they have about marketing and to what extent they use crossmedia. It was found that all respondents use crossmedia to some extent and that all of them experience challenges related to marketing. All respondents also agreed that the need for assistance in marketing exists among small business owners. With this in mind, a checklist has been created as a part of this study to assist small business owners in their marketing practice and help them implement successful use of crossmedia. Surveys have been used to evaluate the checklist and the results show additional support for the thesis that this kind of help is useful for small business owners.

  • Grönlund, Emmy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Litterära avvikare i undervisningen: Om normbrytande karaktärer i svenskämnets värdegrundsarbete2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how literature can be used in value system education in the Swedish high school. It uses anti-oppressive theory to focus gender issues in three literary works, Jane Eyre (1847) by Charlotte Brontë, Orlando (1928) by Virginia Woolf and Mira (2016) by Eija Hetekivi Olsson. The novels are chosen with historical diversion so that they can be compared according to changing norm systems. The study is organized in two parts where the first, the literary analysis, examines how the characters relate to gender norms. The second part contains a didactic discussion on how the results from the literary analysis can be applied in the classroom. The study shows that the literary characters, even though they come from different times, deal with much the same kinds of power structures. The study argues that the characters can be used in different ways to discuss anti-oppressive questions and theory in the classroom, examples are the performative theories of Judith Butler and Iris Marion Young, and that value system education can be helped by providing students with theoretical approaches. It also argues that the supposed conflict between facts and value system knowledge is not inherent in the curriculum and can be solved by combining reading and literary analysis with anti-oppressive theory. It shows that Jane Eyre and Miira have many similarities in their relation to gender norms, while Orlando is an outsider among outsiders. Thus, Orlando can be used as a contrast to the other two in illustrating norms and in pinpointing how norms change while maintaining its regulating functions. The didactic discussion uses socio-cultural theory and critical literacy to argue that reading should take place in a social context where writing and class room dialogue are key parts of the learning process.

  • Wredendal, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Ungdomars ordförståelse ur ett språkligt och demokratiskt perspektiv: En forskningsöversikt samt två lärares syn på ordförståelse2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about young people’s vocabulary knowledge. The aim is to examine whether the vocabulary knowledge has changed for the worse, according to research, two teachers’ experiences and media. My hypothesis is that a change for the worse involves risks: it can become difficult for young people to be a part of the public dialogue and understand the academic literature. With public dialogue, I mean the dialogue in for example newspapers, TV, the office etcetera. The methods I have used are a literature study and interviews. The result indicates that the vocabulary knowledge has changed for the worse. The curriculum for the Swedish upper secondary school states that the students should learn how to participate in a process of making decisions in a democratic way, in society and at work. If the students reach these goals it should not be a problem to be a part of the public dialogue. Three studies from 1997, 2011 and 2017 show that the vocabulary knowledge is worse. The words that young people seem to not understand are words connected to politics and words that usually occur in newspapers and fiction. Moreover, the teachers’ experiences of the students’ vocabulary are the same as the result of the research. They think that the vocabulary knowledge is insufficient now compared to what it was a decade ago when they started to work. In addition, media does not seem to hesitate to enlighten people about a school in crisis. 

  • Åberg, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Skönlitteratur för läsförståelse: En kvalitativ undersökning om användningen av skönlitteratur i syfte att öka läsförståelse2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to standardized tests, Swedish students’ reading comprehension skills are getting worse. The Swedish National Agency for Education has also stated that the lack of sufficient reading comprehension skills is particularly noticeable in regards to reading fiction. This study aims to examine theories and methods for using fiction with the purpose of increasing reading comprehension in upper secondary school. The study of previous research is coupled with interviews where four teachers share their experiences on working with fiction and reading comprehension. The results show that researchers and teachers are largely agreed upon one thing: the reading experience should come first. The teachers also claim that the students’ interest in what they are reading has a considerable impact on the development of their reading skills. However, students’ interests and experiences while reading are not explicitly part of the regulatory documents teachers are required to relate their teaching to. Furthermore, the regulatory documents are conflicted on the purpose of reading literature. While the aim of the subject Swedish focuses in part on the merits of fiction as a source for self-awareness and understanding of other people’s experiences, this is not reflected in the knowledge requirements needed to pass in the subject. If interest and reading experience were deemed as important aspects in the regulatory documents it might become easier to increase students’ reading comprehension skills.

  • Strandell, Pelle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Lundmark Weinz, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    En knuff i rätt riktning: Beteendeförändringar i digitala transformationsprocesser2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the existence of many organizations are being threatened by a rapidly changing digital environment. To survive and stay competitive on the market organizations must adjust and become digital transformed. For all who succeed, the digital transformation can bring several competitive advantages, but many organizations fall short on the way. Scholars have investigated some critical organizational factors such as digital strategies and maturity models, but still many organizations are struggling hard to navigate through the process. This thesis aim at investigating the role of psychological and behavioral aspects in conjunction with the challenges which occur during the process. By interviewing business executives and employees from different industries whose company is undergoing a digital transformation, we identified a number of critical behavioral aspects. The contributions of this study are two-fold; first, it gives valuable insights for researchers, and we argue that elements such as motivation, insecurity, patience, and confirmation of others have a significant impact on the organization's digital transformation. We also identify vital choices that organizations have to make during the transformation process. Second, the study provides practitioners with a conceptual framework on how to overcome the barriers with the help of nudging.

  • Palmqvist, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Volume calculation of the thyroid gland from SPECT images based on Monte Carlo simulations2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the volume determination which is a part of the doseplanning for patients with thyrotoxicosis was investigated. The aim was to find an accurate method to determine the active volume with single photon emission tomography (SPECT) which in several studies have shown better results than with the currently used method planar scintigraphy (PS). This was implemented on the Xeleris 3.1 by General Electric (GE) at the University Hospital of Umeå (NUS).

    The examination time with SPECT is required not to be significantly longer than the examination time with PS. Despite the relatively short examination time, the accuracy of the volume determination should be more accurate. This was analyzed with a true value of the volume, conducted with Monte Carlo simulations of digital anthropomorphic phantoms. It is also important that the developed method is user friendly.

    The study included ten patients with thyrotoxicosis from which, relative activity uptakes were measured. These uptakes were specified in 22 digital XCAT phantoms which were random sampled with respect to phantom mass. The Monte Carlo program "simulating medical imaging nuclear detectors" (simind) was used to simulate the SPECT-system.

    The projection images were ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstructed and Butterworth filtered. Unfiltered images were used to compare volume calculations with filtered ones. The volume of the thyroid was segmented using threshold values applied to all voxels in the image-sets and the optimization of the thresholds was conducted by numerical calculations.

    The results in this study shows that the best choice of intensity threshold value is 21.1(24)% of the maximum voxel value for all phantoms. The threshold is valid for OSEM iteration number five and unfiltered image-sets. Butterworth filtered images were less suitable to use than unfiltered images when the thyroid volume was calculated with data from SPECT-simulations of phantoms.

  • Li, Sherly X.
    et al.
    Imamura, Fumiaki
    Schulze, Matthias B.
    Zheng, Jusheng
    Ye, Zheng
    Agudo, Antonio
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Boeing, Heiner
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Dow, Courtney
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Grioni, Sara
    Gunter, Marc J.
    María Huerta, José
    Ibsen, Daniel B.
    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Key, Timothy J.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Mancini, Francesca Romana
    Molina-Portillo, Elena
    Murphy, Neil
    Nilsson, Peter M.
    Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte
    Palli, Domenico
    Panico, Salvatore
    Poveda, Alaitz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinical Research Center, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ramón Quirós, J.
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sluijs, Ivonne
    Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Tumino, Rosario
    Winkvist, Anna
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Sharp, Stephen J.
    Riboli, Elio
    Scott, Robert A.
    Forouhi, Nita G.
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Interplay between genetic predisposition, macronutrient intake and type 2 diabetes incidence: analysis within EPIC-InterAct across eight European countries2018In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 1325-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: Gene-macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: We investigated the influence of interactions between genetic risk scores (GRSs) for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI and macronutrient intake on the development of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a prospective case-cohort study across eight European countries (N = 21,900 with 9742 incident type 2 diabetes cases). Macronutrient intake was estimated from diets reported in questionnaires, including proportion of energy derived from total carbohydrate, protein, fat, plant and animal protein, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat and dietary fibre. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression, we estimated country-specific interaction results on the multiplicative scale, using random-effects meta-analysis. Secondary analysis used isocaloric macronutrient substitution.

    Results: No interactions were identified between any of the three GRSs and any macronutrient intake, with low-to-moderate heterogeneity between countries (I-2 range 0-51.6%). Results were similar using isocaloric macronutrient substitution analyses and when weighted and unweighted GRSs and individual SNPs were examined.

    Conclusions/interpretation: Genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI did not modify the association between macronutrient intake and incident type 2 diabetes. This suggests that macronutrient intake recommendations to prevent type 2 diabetes do not need to account for differences in genetic predisposition to these three metabolic conditions.

  • Manni, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Näs, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Åberg, Erika
    Umeå kommun.
    Sammansatta problem i undervisning för hållbar utveckling2017In: Nordisk arbeidsmodell for undervisning for bærekraftig utvikling / [ed] Eldri Scheie, Majken Korsager, Oslo: Naturfagsenteret , 2017, p. 14-19Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Olausson Eckl, Hampus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Österström, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Teknisk skuld inom IT-projekt: Ett adaptivt tillvägagångsätt för strategisk och förebyggande skuldhantering i praktiken2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The complex nature of technical debt and its implications has led to failures within IT-projects in aspects of exceeded budgets, failure to meet project objectives and to deliver a qualitative final product according to client specifications. The reasons IT-projects are struggling to succeed are many. Technical debt contributes in both a negative and positive aspect of project development and project management, and can, in certain cases, be held accountable for IT-project failures. Haeckel’s adaptive loop has been applied within the study, in two different aspects; technical debt and strategic debt, in relation to its planning, implementation and management. Bannerman’s multi-domain project success framework has been applied in accordance to Haeckel’s adaptive loop in the evaluation of the second loop, strategic debt. Respondents were chosen based on their previous knowledge and experience within the study area of interest, to participate in interviews. The collected data was analyzed through the perspective of Haeckel’s adaptive loop and followed with transliteration and extraction of themes and keywords. The objective of this study, is to present an analytical approach on how to manage technical debt within IT-projects, from both a technical and strategic point of view. Our proposed approach will contribute to a greater understanding of technical debt in terms of planning, strategy and implementation within IT-projects through collected data, based on real project situations and problems. 

  • Gidlund, Julia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Anna, Lundell Samuelsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Styrdokumenten är inte alltid det viktigaste": Lärares åsikter om ramfaktorer, möjligheter och svårigheter med att organisera ämnet idrott och hälsa i kunskapsområden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie fokuserar på lärare i gymnasie- och grundskolan i årskurserna 7-9. Studiens syfte är att undersöka lärares åsikter om att organisera idrott och hälsa i block, teman eller områden, som vi valt att kalla kunskapsområden. Två frågeställningar utformades utifrån syftet och innefattar vilka svårigheter och möjligheter lärarna anser om användningen av kunskapsområden och hur ramfaktorer försvårar och underlättar användningen av kunskapsområden i undervisningen. För att samla in lärares åsikter har enkät använts som metod. Studiens resultat visar på att de flesta lärarna i studien någon gång eller ständigt organiserar ämnet utifrån kunskapsområden. Lärarna anser att det finns en hel del möjligheter både för sin egen och elevernas vinning. Undervisningen får en röd tråd och lärarna kan lättare se en progression i elevernas utveckling samt att eleverna får större möjligheter att nå högre kunskapskrav. Svårigheter och ramfaktorer som lärare nämner i studiens resultat är främst kopplat till lokaler, personal och tidsbrist.

  • Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Att utveckla en stadsdel på ett hållbart sätt: en fråga om energi, transporter och människor2018Report (Other academic)
  • Kullberg, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Den traditionella produktionsplaneringens död2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report focuses on the planning of production in the construction sector. The objective of the planning is to manage the building process as time and cost effectively possible. Nevertheless the traditional method used by the industry for doing this has been proven to produce waste in resources and time. The intention of this report is to introduce alternative improvements to that traditional method which would reduce the waste generated by it.

    These improvements are selected from a different planning method called Last Planner System. That method comes from Lean Construction, a philosophy which aims to make the construction sector more efficient. Through a collection of tools within the Last Planner System the actual worker who execute the task planned, gets involved in the planning. In the traditional planning method the worker is excluded from the planning process which is handled by the management of the project. The worker has a unique ability to highlight predicaments on site that will affect the progression of the project and its tasks. Last Planner System believes that the inclusion of this knowledge amongst other things are keys that will make the finished schedule better.

    The expertise which the worker contribute to the planning costs a certain amount of their time but is repaid by the transparency to the projects intended development, otherwise only wagly known to the worker. It also makes it possible for the worker to approve the schedules ability to be executed, and in that way promise it to be. Knowledge about the projects planned development will give the daily work on the construction site a clearer meaning to the completion of the whole project. Knowledge of the importance of the work should increase the motivation to complete that work in time - according to the plan.

    This work is based on a literature study of the concepts Lean Production, Lean Construction and Last Planner as well as a qualitative research of the construction company Rekab Entreprenad AB's planning model. The qualitative research was made up of interviews with people responsible for planning at Rekab AB.

    The fact that Rekab is good at managing their projects with the traditional method they use today complicates the implementation of the four improvements presented in this report. However, they’re enthusiastic about always getting better, which gives hope that the results of this report will be introduced when the company finds time for it.

  • Orru, Kati
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Institute of Social Studies, Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia..
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Harzia, Hedi
    Estonian Health Board, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia..
    The role of perceived air pollution and health risk perception in health symptoms and disease: a population-based study combined with modelled levels of PM102018In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Adverse health impact of air pollution on health may not only be associated with the level of exposure, but rather mediated by perception of the pollution and by top-down processing (e.g. beliefs of the exposure being hazardous), especially in areas with relatively low levels of pollutants. The aim of this study was to test a model that describes interrelations between air pollution (particles < 10 &#x03BC;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">μμm, PM10), perceived pollution, health risk perception, health symptoms and diseases.

    Methods: A population-based questionnaire study was conducted among 1000 Estonian residents (sample was stratified by age, sex, and geographical location) about health risk perception and coping. The PM10 levels were modelled in 1 × 1 km grids using a Eulerian air quality dispersion model. Respondents were ascribed their annual mean PM10 exposure according to their home address. Path analysis was performed to test the validity of the model.

    Results: The data refute the model proposing that exposure level significantly influences symptoms and disease. Instead, the perceived exposure influences symptoms and the effect of perceived exposure on disease is mediated by health risk perception. This relationship is more pronounced in large cities compared to smaller towns or rural areas.

    Conclusions: Perceived pollution and health risk perception, in particular in large cities, play important roles in understanding and predicting environmentally induced symptoms and diseases at relatively low levels of air pollution.

  • Vermeulen, Roel
    et al.
    Saberi Hosnijeh, Fatemeh
    Bodinier, Barbara
    Portengen, Lützen
    Liquet, Benoît
    Garrido-Manriquez, Javiera
    Lokhorst, Henk
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A
    Johansson, Ann-Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Georgiadis, Panagiotis
    Melin, Beatrice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Palli, Domenico
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Panico, Salvatore
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vineis, Paolo
    Castagné, Raphaële
    Chadeau-Hyam, Marc
    Botsivali, Maria
    Chatziioannou, Aristotelis
    Valavanis, Ioannis
    Kleinjans, Jos C S
    de Kok, Theo M C M
    Keun, Hector C
    Athersuch, Toby J
    Kelly, Rachel
    Lenner, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Hallmans, Goran
    Stephanou, Euripides G
    Myridakis, Antonis
    Kogevinas, Manolis
    Fazzo, Lucia
    De Santis, Marco
    Comba, Pietro
    Bendinelli, Benedetta
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Airaksinen, Riikka
    Ruokojarvi, Paivi
    Gilthorpe, Mark
    Fleming, Sarah
    Fleming, Thomas
    Tu, Yu-Kang
    Lundh, Thomas
    Chien, Kuo-Liong
    Chen, Wei J
    Lee, Wen-Chung
    Kate Hsiao, Chuhsing
    Kuo, Po-Hsiu
    Hung, Hung
    Liao, Shu-Fen
    Pre-diagnostic blood immune markers, incidence and progression of B-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma: univariate and functionally informed multivariate analyses2018In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent prospective studies have shown that dysregulation of the immune system may precede the development of B‐cell lymphomas (BCL) in immunocompetent individuals. However, to date, the studies were restricted to a few immune markers, which were considered separately. Using a nested case–control study within two European prospective cohorts, we measured plasma levels of 28 immune markers in samples collected a median of 6 years before diagnosis (range 2.01–15.97) in 268 incident cases of BCL (including multiple myeloma [MM]) and matched controls. Linear mixed models and partial least square analyses were used to analyze the association between levels of immune marker and the incidence of BCL and its main histological subtypes and to investigate potential biomarkers predictive of the time to diagnosis. Linear mixed model analyses identified associations linking lower levels of fibroblast growth factor‐2 (FGF‐2 p = 7.2 × 10−4) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF‐α, p = 6.5 × 10−5) and BCL incidence. Analyses stratified by histological subtypes identified inverse associations for MM subtype including FGF‐2 (p = 7.8 × 10−7), TGF‐α (p = 4.08 × 10−5), fractalkine (p = 1.12 × 10−3), monocyte chemotactic protein‐3 (p = 1.36 × 10−4), macrophage inflammatory protein 1‐alpha (p = 4.6 × 10−4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (p = 4.23 × 10−5). Our results also provided marginal support for already reported associations between chemokines and diffuse large BCL (DLBCL) and cytokines and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Case‐only analyses showed that Granulocyte‐macrophage colony stimulating factor levels were consistently higher closer to diagnosis, which provides further evidence of its role in tumor progression. In conclusion, our study suggests a role of growth‐factors in the incidence of MM and of chemokine and cytokine regulation in DLBCL and CLL.

  • Fischer, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Functional Programming and Legacy Software Using PureScript to Extend a Legacy JavaScript System2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Legacy systems are everywhere. Immense resources are placed on fixing problems caused by them, and on legacy system maintenance and reverse engineering. After decades of research, a solution has yet to be found. In this thesis, both the viability of using purely functional programming to mitigate problems of legacy systems is investigated, as well as the possibility that purely functiona lprogramming can lead to code that is less likely to lead to legacy problems in the first place. This was done by developing a genome browser in PureScript that embeds, interfaces with, and extends, an existing genome browser written in JavaScript.The resulting codebase is examined, and various characteristics of purely functional programming, and how they helped solve or avoid problems related to legacy systems, are presented. In Conclusion, PureScript is found to be an excellent tool for working with legacy JavaScript, and while the nature of the project limits the conclusions that can be drawn, it appears likely that using purely functional programming, especially with a language suchas PureScript that provides a powerful type-system for ensuring program correctness, leads to code that is more easily understandable, and thus avoids the problems of legacy code.

  • Niklas, Palmqvist
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Volume calculation of the thyroid gland from SPECT images based on Monte Carlo simulations2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the volume determination which is a part of the doseplanning for patients with thyrotoxicosis was investigated. The aim was to find an accurate method to determine the active volume with single photon emission tomography (SPECT) which in several studies have shown better results than with the currently used method planar scintigraphy (PS). This was implemented on the Xeleris 3.1 by General Electric (GE) at the University Hospital of Umeå (NUS).

    The examination time with SPECT is required not to be significantly longer than the examination time with PS. Despite the relatively short examination time, the accuracy of the volume determination should be more accurate. This was analyzed with a true value of the volume, conducted with Monte Carlo simulations of digital anthropomorphic phantoms. It is also important that the developed method is user friendly.

    The study included ten patients with thyrotoxicosis from which, relative activity uptakes were measured. These uptakes were specified in 22 digital XCAT phantoms which were random sampled with respect to phantom mass. The Monte Carlo program "simulating medical imaging nuclear detectors" (simind) was used to simulate the SPECT-system.

    The projection images were ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstructed and Butterworth filtered. Unfiltered images were used to compare volume calculations with filtered ones. The volume of the thyroid was segmented using threshold values applied to all voxels in the image-sets and the optimization of the thresholds was conducted by numerical calculations.

    The results in this study shows that the best choice of intensity threshold value is 21.1(24)% of the maximum voxel value for all phantoms. The threshold is valid for OSEM iteration number five and unfiltered image-sets. Butterworth filtered images were less suitable to use than unfiltered images when the thyroid volume was calculated with data from SPECT-simulations of phantoms.

  • Hussain-Alkhateeb, Laith
    et al.
    Kroeger, Axel
    Olliaro, Piero
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Institute of Public Health, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sewe, Maquins Odhiambo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Tejeda, Gustavo
    Benitez, David
    Gill, Balvinder
    Hakim, S. Lokman
    Carvalho, Roberta Gomes
    Bowman, Leigh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Petzold, Max
    Early warning and response system (EWARS) for dengue outbreaks: recent advancements towards widespread applications in critical settings2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 5, article id e0196811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dengue outbreaks are increasing in frequency over space and time, affecting people's health and burdening resource-constrained health systems. The ability to detect early emerging outbreaks is key to mounting an effective response. The early warning and response system (EWARS) is a toolkit that provides countries with early-warning systems for efficient and cost-effective local responses. EWARS uses outbreak and alarm indicators to derive prediction models that can be used prospectively to predict a forthcoming dengue outbreak at district level.

    Methods: We report on the development of the EWARS tool, based on users' recommendations into a convenient, user-friendly and reliable software aided by a user's workbook and its field testing in 30 health districts in Brazil, Malaysia and Mexico.

    Findings: 34 Health officers from the 30 study districts who had used the original EWARS for 7 to 10 months responded to a questionnaire with mainly open-ended questions. Qualitative content analysis showed that participants were generally satisfied with the tool but preferred open-access vs. commercial software. EWARS users also stated that the geographical unit should be the district, while access to meteorological information should be improved. These recommendations were incorporated into the second-generation EWARS-R, using the free R software, combined with recent surveillance data and resulted in higher sensitivities and positive predictive values of alarm signals compared to the first-generation EWARS. Currently the use of satellite data for meteorological information is being tested and a dashboard is being developed to increase user-friendliness of the tool. The inclusion of other Aedes borne viral diseases is under discussion.

    Conclusion: EWARS is a pragmatic and useful tool for detecting imminent dengue outbreaks to trigger early response activities.

  • Lindh, E. Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Lundberg, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Lanz, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Mindemark, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Department of Chemistry - Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    The Weak Microcavity as an Enabler for Bright and Fault-tolerant Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 6970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) is functional at substantial active-layer thickness, and is as such heralded for being fit for low-cost and fault-tolerant solution-based fabrication. We report here that this statement should be moderated, and that in order to obtain a strong luminous output, it is fundamentally important to fabricate LEC devices with a designed thickness of the active layer. By systematic experimentation and simulation, we demonstrate that weak optical microcavity effects are prominent in a common LEC system, and that the luminance and efficiency, as well as the emission color and the angular intensity, vary in a periodic manner with the active-layer thickness. Importantly, we demonstrate that high-performance light-emission can be attained from LEC devices with a significant active-layer thickness of 300 nm, which implies that low-cost solution-processed LECs are indeed a realistic option, provided that the device structure has been appropriately designed from an optical perspective.

  • Halleros, Solya
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Nordqvist, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    The strength of digital narratives: Expolring value creation and customer influence2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become one of the main platforms for telling stories, not only for individualsbut also for corporations of all sizes. The published content on these platforms can be assimple as a picture or lines of text as long as they captures the attentions of other users theywill qualify as a digital story or narrative. This opens up for effortless interaction betweencustomers and corporation, but also for value creation alongside the two parties. Otherresearchers has contributed with different takes of how this value creation can be conductedand defined. Our contribution aims to closer examine how consumer interaction and valuecreation can strengthen digital narratives. We will not aim to standardise how a digital storyshould be told, but provide guidelines for designing narratives that include the public as astory contributor by seeing if there is a correlation between the choice of social mediaplatforms used and the type of stories the organizations narrate.

  • Kylander, Malin E.
    et al.
    Martínez-Cortizas, A.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kaal, Joeri
    Sjöström, Jenny K.
    Hansson, Sophia V.
    Silva-Sánchez, Noemi
    Greenwood, Sarah L.
    Gallagher, Kerry
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Rauch, Sebastien
    Mineral dust as a driver of carbon accumulation in northern latitudes2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 6876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peatlands in northern latitudes sequester one third of the world's soil organic carbon. Mineral dusts can affect the primary productivity of terrestrial systems through nutrient transport but this process has not yet been documented in these peat-rich regions. Here we analysed organic and inorganic fractions of an 8900-year-old sequence from Store Mosse (the "Great Bog") in southern Sweden. Between 5420 and 4550 cal yr BP, we observe a seven-fold increase in net peat-accumulation rates corresponding to a maximum carbon-burial rate of 150 g C m-2 yr-1 - more than six times the global average. This high peat accumulation event occurs in parallel with a distinct change in the character of the dust deposited on the bog, which moves from being dominated by clay minerals to less weathered, phosphate and feldspar minerals. We hypothesize that this shift boosted nutrient input to the bog and stimulated ecosystem productivity. This study shows that diffuse sources and dust dynamics in northern temperate latitudes, often overlooked by the dust community in favour of arid and semi-arid regions, can be important drivers of peatland carbon accumulation and by extension, global climate, warranting further consideration in predictions of future climate variability.

  • Engdahl, Cecilia
    et al.
    Bondt, Albert
    Harre, Ulrike
    Raufer, Jasmin
    Pfeifle, René
    Camponeschi, Alessandro
    Wuhrer, Manfred
    Seeling, Michaela
    Mårtensson, Inga-Lill
    Nimmerjahn, Falk
    Krönke, Gerhard
    Scherer, Hans U.
    Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Schett, Georg
    Estrogen induces St6gal1 expression and increases IgG sialylation in mice and patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a potential explanation for the increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis in postmenopausal women2018In: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 20, article id 84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) preferentially affects women, with the peak incidence coinciding with estrogen decrease in menopause. Estrogen (E2) may therefore have intrinsic immune-regulatory properties that vanish with menopause. Fc sialylation is a crucial factor determining the inflammatory effector function of antibodies. We therefore analyzed whether E2 affects immunoglobulin G (IgG) sialylation.

    Methods: Postmenopausal (ovariectomized) mice were immunized with ovalbumin and treated with E2 or vehicle. Total and ovalbumin-specific IgG concentrations, sialylation, and Fc. receptor expression were analyzed. Postmenopausal women with RA receiving hormone replacement therapy, including E2, or no treatment were analyzed for IgG sialylation. Furthermore, effects of E2 on the expression of the sialylation enzyme beta-galactoside a2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (St6Gal1) were studied in mouse and human antibody-producing cells.

    Results: E2 treatment significantly increased Fc sialylation of total and ovalbumin-specific IgG in postmenopausal mice. Furthermore, E2 led to increased expression of inhibitory Fc. receptor IIb on bone marrow leukocytes. Treatment with E2 also increased St6Gal1 expression in mouse and human antibody-producing cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for the increase in IgG-Fc sialylation. In postmenopausal women with RA, treatment with E2 significantly increased the Fc sialylation of IgG.

    Conclusions: E2 induces anti-inflammatory effector functions in IgG by inducing St6Gal1 expression in antibodyproducing cells and by increasing Fc sialylation. These observations provide a mechanistic explanation for the increased risk of RA in conditions with low estrogen levels such as menopause.

  • Lenman, Annasara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Liaci, A. Manuel
    Liu, Yan
    Frängsmyr, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Frank, Martin
    Blaum, Bärbel S.
    Chai, Wengang
    Podgorski, Iva I.
    Harrach, Balázs
    Benko, Mária
    Feizi, Ten
    Stehle, Thilo
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Polysialic acid is a cellular receptor for human adenovirus 522018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 18, p. E4264-E4273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human adenovirus 52 (HAdV-52) is one of only three known HAdVs equipped with both a long and a short fiber protein. While the long fiber binds to the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor, the function of the short fiber in the virus life cycle is poorly understood. Here, we show, by glycan microarray analysis and cellular studies, that the short fiber knob (SFK) of HAdV-52 recognizes long chains of α-2,8-linked polysialic acid (polySia), a large posttranslational modification of selected carrier proteins, and that HAdV-52 can use polySia as a receptor on target cells. X-ray crystallography, NMR, molecular dynamics simulation, and structure-guided mutagenesis of the SFK reveal that the nonreducing, terminal sialic acid of polySia engages the protein with direct contacts, and that specificity for polySia is achieved through subtle, transient electrostatic interactions with additional sialic acid residues. In this study, we present a previously unrecognized role for polySia as a cellular receptor for a human viral pathogen. Our detailed analysis of the determinants of specificity for this interaction has general implications for protein-carbohydrate interactions, particularly concerning highly charged glycan structures, and provides interesting dimensions on the biology and evolution of members of Human mastadenovirus G.

  • Kauppi, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Fan, Chun Chieh
    McEvoy, Linda K.
    Holland, Dominic
    Tan, Chin Hong
    Chen, Chi-Hua
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Desikan, Rahul S.
    Dale, Anders M.
    Combining Polygenic Hazard Score With Volumetric MRI and Cognitive Measures Improves Prediction of Progression From Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease2018In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 12, article id 260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved prediction of progression to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) among older individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is of high clinical and societal importance. We recently developed a polygenic hazard score (PHS) that predicted age of AD onset above and beyond APOE. Here, we used data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) to further explore the potential clinical utility of PHS for predicting AD development in older adults with MCI. We examined the predictive value of PHS alone and in combination with baseline structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data on performance on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE). In survival analyses, PHS significantly predicted time to progression from MCI to AD over 120 months (p = 1.07e-5), and PHS was significantly more predictive than APOE alone (p = 0.015). Combining PHS with baseline brain atrophy score and/or MMSE score significantly improved prediction compared to models without PHS (three-factor model p = 4.28e-17). Prediction model accuracies, sensitivities and area under the curve were also improved by including PHS in the model, compared to only using atrophy score and MMSE. Further, using linear mixed-effect modeling, PHS improved the prediction of change in the Clinical Dementia Rating—Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) score and MMSE over 36 months in patients with MCI at baseline, beyond both APOE and baseline levels of brain atrophy. These results illustrate the potential clinical utility of PHS for assessment of risk for AD progression among individuals with MCI both alone, or in conjunction with clinical measures of prodromal disease including measures of cognitive function and regional brain atrophy.

  • Pencik, Ales
    et al.
    Casanova-Sáez, Ruben
    Pilarova, Veronika
    Zukauskaite, Asta
    Pinto, Rui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Luis Micol, José
    Ljung, Karin
    Novák, Ondrej
    Ultra-rapid auxin metabolite profiling for high-throughput mutant screening in Arabidopsis2018In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 69, no 10, p. 2569-2579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) plays fundamental roles as a signalling molecule during numerous plant growth and development processes. The formation of local auxin gradients and auxin maxima/minima, which is very important for these processes, is regulated by auxin metabolism (biosynthesis, degradation, and conjugation) as well as transport. When studying auxin metabolism pathways it is crucial to combine data obtained from genetic investigations with the identification and quantification of individual metabolites. Thus, to facilitate efforts to elucidate auxin metabolism and its roles in plants, we have developed a high-throughput method for simultaneously quantifying IAA and its key metabolites in minute samples (<10 mg FW) of Arabidopsis thaliana tissues by in-tip micro solid-phase extraction and fast LC-tandem MS. As a proof of concept, we applied the method to a collection of Arabidopsis mutant lines and identified lines with altered IAA metabolite profiles using multivariate data analysis. Finally, we explored the correlation between IAA metabolite profiles and IAA-related phenotypes. The developed rapid analysis of large numbers of samples (>100 samples d(-1)) is a valuable tool to screen for novel regulators of auxin metabolism and homeostasis among large collections of genotypes.

  • Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Tillväxtanalys.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Regional agglomeration of skills and earnings: from convergence to divergence?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse the geographical distribution of skills and the human capital content of migration flows between Swedish local labour markets. The study is based on detailed longitudinal population register data. During the last three decades, we find a distinct pattern of skill divergence across regions. The uneven distribution of human capital is reinforced by the mobility of the highly educated population. The pattern of skill divergence coincides with declining or even reversed income convergence across Swedish regions. The skilled regions become both more skilled and richer, while the less skilled regions lag behind. This development has potentially important implications for both regional and national economic policy.

  • Nguyen, Quoc Khanh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    On using a zero lower bound on the physical density in Material DistributionTopology Optimization2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Material distribution topology optimization methods aim to place optimally material within a given domain or space. These methos use a socalled material indicator function r to determine for each point within the design domain whether it contains material (r 1) or void (r 0).

    The most common topology optimization problem is the minimum compliance problem. This thesis studies the problem to minimize the compliance of a cantilever beam subject to a given load. The displacement of the beam is governed by a differential equation. Here, we use the finite element method to solve this continuous problem numerically. This method approximates the problem by partitioning the given domain into a finite number of elements. In material distribution topology optimization, each element En is assigned a design variable rn that indicates whether this element is void (rn 0) or contains material (rn 1). There is a problem of allowing rn 0 to represent the voids: the linear system arising from the finite element approximation may be (will almost surely be) ill-conditioned. Generally, by using a weak material to approximate the voids (letting rn r, where 0   r ! 1, represent void), the finite-dimensional problem is solvable.

    The choice of parameter r in the weak material approximation is tradeoff between accuracy (a smaller r gives a smaller error) and conditioning (the condition number grows as r decreases). Therefore, instead of using a weak material approximation, we use rn 0 and rn 1 to represent void and material, respectively. To alleviate the ill-conditioning problem, we introduce a preconditioner, which for each degree of freedom is based on the sum of design variables in elements neighbouring the corresponding node.

    To study the effect of the preconditioning, we consider a one-dimensionalbar and show that, under certain assumptions, the linear system becomes well-conditioned after preconditioning. Moreover, we use the proposed preconditioning method as part of a material distribution based algorithm to solve the problem to minimize the compliance of a cantileverbeam subject to a given load. We present results obtained by solvinglarge-sclae optimization problems; these results illustrate that the proposed preconditioning approach ensures a well-conditioned linear system through the optimization process.

  • Lundsten, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Timander, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    De fyra Hörnstenarna: En fallstudie om kontinuerliga leveranser av mjukvara i agil systemutveckling2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the traditional approach to system development transitioned over to agile methods the demand for ways to continuously deliver valuable software increased. With the increasing interest in these methods the umbrella term DevOps were introduced in 2008. DevOps is the practice to shorten the time, as well as streamlining the process, between changes in the source code and when it reaches the customer. This study aimed at investigating the process of adopting DevOps practices and identify success factors and challenges in this transition. We conducted a quality approached case study on a DevOps team in a multinational IT-consulting firm. Four explorative interviews were conducted based on categories identified in relevant literature as well as basis provided by the case company. We discovered that an implementation of continuous practices is far more complex than we initially thought. It is related to more fields outside the technical aspect that must be considered during a transition.  Our findings include four critical success factors for a successful DevOps implementation; conscious staff, conscious organization, functional infrastructure and adapted business model. Embedded in these critical success factors we were able to identify challenging fields that should be considered when adopting DevOps. These critical success factors and challenges was the basis for our model presented in the study.

  • Adolfsson, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Kaljevic, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    DIGITALA SYSTEM INOM PRESTATIONSLEDNING: En fallstudie om digitala systems återspegling av medarbetares arbetsprestation och påverkan på motivation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations are in need of systems and methods to evaluate their performances.Performance management systems are used to gather information about theorganizational performance, in order to give management increased control. This paperexamines digital applications within performance management systems and the wayindividuals regard the applications to reflect their performance as well as how theyaffect their work motivation. Our study focuses on one company in the contact centerbusiness, referred in this paper as Service AB. In this paper, we aim to find out howindividuals´ work motivation is affected and what they think of digital applications’representation of their work performance on a general level. To collect data, we conducta survey and group interviews with workers from Service AB. The results from thisstudy show that there are three main factors - fairness, relevance and understanding -that affect the individual’s perception of how well their work is digitally represented.Furthermore, this study shows that digital applications within a performancemanagement system have an impact on the workers motivation. The paper also showsthat workers think that the digital data doesn´t fully represent their work performance.

  • Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Samiska markrättigheter i förändring?: Hovrättens dom i Girjas-målet väcker frågor om innebörden av rättigheter till fast egendom2018In: Juridisk Publikation, ISSN 2000-2920, no 1, p. 25-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I januari 2018 meddelade Hovrätten för Övre Norrland dom i det så kallade Girjas-målet. Tvisten gäller frågan om Girjas sameby eller staten innehar jakt- och fiskerättigheterna inom samebyns marker ovan odlingsgränsen och vem som därmed har rätt att bestämma över de upplåtelser som görs till andra. Vid en första anblick tycks målet främst gälla förhållandena i Norrland och dess intressegrupper. Tvisten berör dock flera rättsliga frågeställningar som är av intresse även ur ett mer övergripande juridiskt perspektiv. I artikeln beskrivs den historiska bakgrunden till tvisten och domstolarnas bedömningar i målet. Därefter behandlas ett antal rättsliga frågeställningar om markrättigheters innebörd som aktualiseras genom hovrättens dom. Det konstateras att det är nödvändigt att ytterligare klargöra vissa rättsfrågor, vilket gör att förutsättningarna för prövningstillstånd hos Högsta domstolen bör vara goda.

  • Lundmark, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Inkomstbeskattning av streaming - En analys av den inkomstskatterättsliga hanteringen av streaming på webbplattformen Twitch.tv.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Myte, Robin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Gylling, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Häggström, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Schneede, Jörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Löfgren-Burström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Huyghe, Jeroen R.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Meyer, Klaus
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    One-carbon metabolism biomarkers and genetic variants in relation to colorectal cancer risk by KRAS and BRAF mutation status2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e0196233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, intracellular reactions involved in nucleotide synthesis and methylation, likely increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, results have been inconsistent. To explore whether this inconsistency could be explained by intertumoral heterogeneity, we evaluated a comprehensive panel of one-carbon metabolism biomarkers and some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to the risk of molecular subtypes of CRC defined by mutations in the KRAS and BRAF oncogenes. This nested case-control study included 488 CRC cases and 947 matched controls from two population-based cohorts in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. We analyzed 14 biomarkers and 17 SNPs in prediagnostic blood and determined KRAS and BRAF mutation status in tumor tissue. In a multivariate network analysis, no variable displayed a strong association with the risk of specific CRC subtypes. A non-synonymous SNP in the CTH gene, rs1021737, had a stronger association compared with other variables. In subsequent univariate analyses, participants with variant rs1021737 genotype had a decreased risk of KRAS-mutated CRC (OR per allele = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.50, 1.05), and an increased risk of BRAF-mutated CRC (OR per allele = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.30), with weak evidence for heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity = 0.01). This subtype-specific SNP association was not replicated in a case-case analysis of 533 CRC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (P = 0.85). In conclusion, we found no support for clear subtype-specific roles of one-carbon metabolism biomarkers and SNPs in CRC development, making differences in CRC molecular subtype distributions an unlikely explanation for the varying results on the role of one-carbon metabolism in CRC development across previous studies. Further investigation of the CTH gene in colorectal carcinogenesis with regards to KRAS and BRAF mutations or other molecular characteristics of the tumor may be warranted.

  • Candy, David C. A.
    et al.
    Van Ampting, Marleen T. J.
    Nijhuis, Manon M. Oude
    Wopereis, Harm
    Butt, Assad M.
    Peroni, Diego G.
    Vandenplas, Yvan
    Fox, Adam T.
    Shah, Neil
    West, Christina E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Garssen, Johan
    Harthoorn, Lucien F.
    Knol, Jan
    Michaelis, Louise J.
    A synbiotic-containing amino-acid-based formula improves gut microbiota in non-IgE-mediated allergic infants2018In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 677-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prebiotics and probiotics (synbiotics) can modify gut microbiota and have potential in allergy management when combined with amino-acid-based formula (AAF) for infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA).

    Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of an AAF-including synbiotic blend on percentages of bifidobacteria and Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group (ER/CC) in feces from infants with suspected non-IgE-mediated CMA. Feces from age-matched healthy breastfed infants were used as reference (healthy breastfed reference (HBR)) for primary outcomes. The CMA subjects were randomized and received test or control formula for 8 weeks. Test formula was a hypoallergenic, nutritionally complete AAF including a prebiotic blend of fructo-oligosaccharides and the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve M-16V. Control formula was AAF without synbiotics.

    Results: A total of 35 (test) and 36 (control) subjects were randomized; HBR included 51 infants. At week 8, the median percentage of bifidobacteria was higher in the test group than in the control group (35.4% vs. 9.7%, respectively; P<0.001), whereas ER/CC was lower (9.5% vs. 24.2%, respectively; P<0.001). HBR levels of bifidobacteria and ER/CC were 55% and 6.5%, respectively.

    Conclusion: AAF including specific synbiotics, which results in levels of bifidobacteria and ER/CC approximating levels in the HBR group, improves the fecal microbiota of infants with suspected non-IgE-mediated CMA.

  • Huang, Hongyun
    et al.
    Young, Wise
    Chen, Lin
    Feng, Shiqing
    Al Zoubi, Ziad M.
    Sharma, Hari Shanker
    Saberi, Hooshang
    Moviglia, Gustavo A.
    He, Xijing
    Muresanu, Dafin F.
    Sharma, Alok
    Otom, Ali
    Andrews, Russell J.
    Al-Zoubi, Adeeb
    Bryukhovetskiy, Andrey S.
    Chernykh, Elena R.
    Domanska-Janik, Krystyna
    Jafar, Emad
    Johnson, W. Eustace
    Li, Ying
    Li, Daqing
    Luan, Zuo
    Mao, Gengsheng
    Shetty, Ashok K.
    Siniscalco, Dario
    Skaper, Stephen
    Sun, Tiansheng
    Wang, Yunliang
    Wiklund, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Xue, Qun
    You, Si-Wei
    Zheng, Zuncheng
    Dimitrijevic, Milan R.
    El Masri, W. S.
    Sanberg, Paul R.
    Xu, Qunyuan
    Luan, Guoming
    Chopp, Michael
    Cho, Kyoung-Suok
    Zhou, Xin-Fu
    Wu, Ping
    Liu, Kai
    Mobasheri, Hamid
    Ohtori, Seiji
    Tanaka, Hiroyuki
    Han, Fabin
    Feng, Yaping
    Zhang, Shaocheng
    Lu, Yingjie
    Zhang, Zhicheng
    Rao, Yaojian
    Tang, Zhouping
    Xi, Haitao
    Wu, Liang
    Shen, Shunji
    Xue, Mengzhou
    Xiang, Guanghong
    Guo, Xiaoling
    Yang, Xiaofeng
    Hao, Yujun
    Hu, Yong
    Li, Jinfeng
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Ao, Qiang
    Wang, Bin
    Zhang, Zhiwen
    Lu, Ming
    Li, Tong
    Clinical Cell Therapy Guidelines for Neurorestoration (IANR/CANR 2017)2018In: Cell Transplantation, ISSN 0963-6897, E-ISSN 1555-3892, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 310-324Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell therapy has been shown to be a key clinical therapeutic option for central nervous system diseases or damage. Standardization of clinical cell therapy procedures is an important task for professional associations devoted to cell therapy. The Chinese Branch of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) completed the first set of guidelines governing the clinical application of neurorestoration in 2011. The IANR and the Chinese Association of Neurorestoratology (CANR) collaborated to propose the current version "Clinical Cell Therapy Guidelines for Neurorestoration (IANR/CANR 2017)". The IANR council board members and CANR committee members approved this proposal on September 1, 2016, and recommend it to clinical practitioners of cellular therapy. These guidelines include items of cell type nomenclature, cell quality control, minimal suggested cell doses, patient-informed consent, indications for undergoing cell therapy, contraindications for undergoing cell therapy, documentation of procedure and therapy, safety evaluation, efficacy evaluation, policy of repeated treatments, do not charge patients for unproven therapies, basic principles of cell therapy, and publishing responsibility.

  • Larsson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Den revolutionära historieläraren: En kvalitativ studie om gymnasielärarens undervisning av den amerikanska, franska och ryska revolutionen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this study is to discern what Swedish history teachers and a few select text books view on history is and how they work around the planning and teaching surrounding political revolutions. The revolutions that have been studied for this thesis is the American, French and Russian revolutions, which have been picked for their magnitude and significance for Europe and the outside world in their respective time frame. The method chosen for the thesis is a qualitative content analysis, which has been applied onto both interviews that were held with four teachers of history, as well as onto an analysis of three different Swedish school books. The chosen theoretical framework was incorporated into the content analysis and is focused on views of history dependent on different historical perspectives on what has driven history forward. These views consist of: ideological/operator-driven, historical materialism, gender-based, ‘from-below’, ‘from-above’ and structural perspectives. The interviewed teachers claimed to operate after many different historical perspectives, and that their educational methods were mainly concerned with teaching the students to consider what their own perspectives were. The text books showed that they, at most times, operated after an ideological/operator-driven perspective with elements of historical materialism and structural perspectives. Both the teachers and text books spent the most time on the French revolution and the least amount of time on the Russian revolution.

  • Jonsson, Lydia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Äldreomsorg - en kvinnofråga?: En kvantitativ analys av kvinnorepresentationens påverkan på äldreomsorgens kvalitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine in what ways female representation in municipal councils in Sweden has an influence on the quality of eldercare. The theory of the politics of presence constitutes the theoretical framework. The theory suggests that eldercare is one of several issues that are in women’s interest and hence is best represented by female politicians. According to Statistics Sweden (SCB), the elder part of the population will increase with 76 percent over the coming 20 years. It is a remarkable demographic change and, therefore, it is of interest to map out what influence female politicians have on eldercare as a political matter. To do this, statistical analysis, primarily multiple regression, is used as the methodological tool. The results indicate that female representation does not have a significant effect on the quality of eldercare. After controlling for institutional and structural variables, it appears that the portion of elderly amongst the population is what has the most evident effect on the quality of eldercare. Some final words are given on how to interpret the results, and when placing this study in relation to earlier research, it is however argued that there is not sufficient support to question the relevance of the theory of the politics of presence.

  • Hitimana, Regis
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Nzayirambaho, Manasse
    Condo, Jeanine
    Sengoma, Jean Paul Semasaka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences. School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Health-related quality of life determinants among Rwandan women after delivery: does antenatal care utilization matter? A cross-sectional study2018In: Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, ISSN 1606-0997, E-ISSN 2072-1315, Vol. 37, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite the widespread use of antenatal care (ANC), its effectiveness in low-resource settings remains unclear. In this study, self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was used as an alternative to other maternal health measures previously used to measure the effectiveness of antenatal care. The main objective of this study was to determine whether adequate antenatal care utilization is positively associated with women's HRQoL. Furthermore, the associations between the HRQoL during the first year (113 months) after delivery and socio-economic and demographic factors were explored in Rwanda.

    Methods: In 2014, we performed a cross-sectional population-based survey involving 922 women who gave birth 1-13 months prior to the data collection. The study population was randomly selected from two provinces in Rwanda, and a structured questionnaire was used. HRQoL was measured using the EQ-5D-3L and a visual analogue scale (VAS). The average HRQoL scores were computed by demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The effect of adequate antenatal care utilization on HRQoL was tested by performing two multivariable linear regression models with the EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores as the outcomes and ANC utilization and socio-economic and demographic variables as the predictors.

    Results: Adequate ANC utilization affected women's HRQoL when the outcome was measured using the EQ-VAS. Social support and living in a wealthy household were associated with a better HRQoL using both the EQ-VAS and EQ-5D. Cohabitating, and single/unmarried women exhibited significantly lower HRQoL scores than did married women in the EQ-VAS model, and women living in urban areas exhibited lower HRQoL scores than women living in rural areas in the ED-5D model. The effect of education on HRQoL was statistically significant using the EQ-VAS but was inconsistent across the educational categories. The women's age and the age of their last child were not associated with their HRQoL.

    Conclusions: ANC attendance of at least four visits should be further promoted and used in low-income settings. Strategies to improve families' socio-economic conditions and promote social networks among women, particularly women at the reproductive age, are needed.

  • Segall, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    What Peace? Grasping the Empirical Realities of Peace(s) in Post-war Mitrovica2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urban peacebuilding has proved particularly challenging in cities contested on grounds of state legitimacy where group identities are salient. Ever since the end of the Kosovo War in 1999, the city of Mitrovica has remained divided and been further polarized by outbreaks of violence, post-war politics, and strained inter-group relations. This single case study describes and conceptualizes the empirical realities of peace in the post-war city by applying the Peace Triangle as an analytical tool for understanding the quality and characteristics of the peace that prevails beyond the cessation of large-scale violence. The author builds on the conceptual model by arguing that a more multifaceted and peace-grounded analysis of peace is necessary. The research paper concludes by suggesting an altered analytical model that may yield a more nuanced understanding of peace(s) by encompassing aspects grounded in peace-conducive activities.

  • Paixao, Enny S.
    et al.
    Leong, Wei-Yee
    Rodrigues, Laura C.
    Wilder-Smith, Annelies
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Asymptomatic Prenatal Zika Virus Infection and Congenital Zika Syndrome2018In: Open Forum Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2328-8957, Vol. 5, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate to what extent asymptomatic vs symptomatic prenatal Zika virus infections contribute to birth defects, we identified 3 prospective and 8 retrospective studies. The ratio varied greatly in the retrospective studies, most likely due to recruitment and recall bias. The prospective studies revealed a ratio of 1: 1 for asymptomatic vs symptomatic maternal Zika infections resulting in adverse fetal outcomes.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-11 10:15 Hörsal E, Umeå
    Larsson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    National environmental evaluation systems: guiding towards sustainability?2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dealing with environmental threats is one of the largest, if not the largest, challenge contemporary societies face. One way to better deal with this challenge would be to produce knowledge that can be used to improve environmental work and environmental policy and thus ultimately contribute to sustainable development. National environmental evaluations, which this thesis explores, could potentially fill this function because they are supposed to generate applicable and useful knowledge for improving environmental policy and practice for a sustainable transition. However, what different environmental actors view as useful knowledge varies, and needs to be empirically investigated. Against this background, the aim of this thesis is to investigate whether, and how, national environmental evaluation systems contribute to key actors’ environmental work and sustainable development. The thesis explores two national environmental evaluation systems in Sweden.

    Method: A mixed methods approach is applied that combines three methods. Firstly, a narrative synthesis is developed and applied to compile a list of sustainable development effects from national environmental evaluations. Secondly, a critical program theory is used to investigate the evaluation system’s underlying logic and to assess the likelihood of it achieving its intended effects. Thirdly, a directed content analysis is used to explore the usability and use of environmental evaluations and evaluation systems. The methods are applied to various documents, interviews with key actors, and observations at two environmental seminars.

    Results: The results show that, to contribute to sustainable development in the context of evaluation systems and network governance, environmental evaluations need to be of sufficient quality and meet different stakeholders’ knowledge needs. However, only some evaluations meet this demand. The main value of national environmental evaluations and evaluation systems is that they reinforce the national objectives, provide a recurrent report on achievement of objectives, and push actors to take responsibility to improve their environmental work.

  • Berglind, Daniel
    et al.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Willmer, Mikaela
    Persson, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Wells, Michael
    Forsell, Yvonne
    An eHealth program versus a standard care supervised health program and associated health outcomes in individuals with mobility disability: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial2018In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 19, article id 258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Young adults with mobility disability (MD) are less likely to engage in regular physical activity (PA) compared with their able-bodied peers and inactive adults with a MD are more likely to report one or more chronic diseases compared to those who are physically active. Despite the vast amount of research published in the field of PA interventions over the past decades, little attention has been focused on interventions aiming to increase PA among individuals with MD. Thus, we propose to compare the effects of an eHealth program compared to a usual care supervised health program on levels of PA and other health behaviors. 

    Methods: The current intervention will use a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with two treatment groups (an eHealth program and a usual care supervised health program) in young adults with newly acquired MD. In total, 110 young adults (aged 18-40 years) with a MD, acquired within the past 3 years, will be recruited to participate in a 12-week intervention. The primary study outcome is accelerometer-measured time spent in moderate to vigorous PA. Secondary outcomes includes health-related quality of life, depression, stress, fitness, body composition, diet, musculoskeletal pain, motivation to exercise and work ability.

    Discussion: There is a lack of RCTs investigating effective ways to increase levels of PA in young adults with MD. Increased levels of PA among this physically inactive population have the potential to substantially improve health-related outcomes, possibly more so than in the general population. The trial will put strong emphasis on optimizing exercise adherence and investigating feasibility in the two treatment programs. The Ethical Review Board (EPN) at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study (2017/1206-31/1).

  • Murina, Victoriia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Kasari, Marje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Atkinson, Gemma C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Antibiotic resistance ABCF proteins reset the peptidyl transferase centre of the ribosome to counter translational arrest2018In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 3753-3763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several ATPases in the ATP-binding cassette F (ABCF) family confer resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins (MLS) antibiotics. MLS are structurally distinct classes, but inhibit a common target: the peptidyl transferase (PTC) active site of the ribosome. Antibiotic resistance (ARE) ABCFs have recently been shown to operate through direct ribosomal protection, but the mechanistic details of this resistance mechanism are lacking. Using a reconstituted translational system, we dissect the molecular mechanism of Staphylococcus haemolyticus VgaA(LC) and Enterococcus faecalis LsaA on the ribosome. We demonstrate that VgaA(LC) is an NTPase that operates as a molecular machine strictly requiring NTP hydrolysis (not just NTP binding) for antibiotic protection. Moreover, when bound to the ribosome in the NTP-bound form, hydrolytically inactive EQ(2) ABCF ARE mutants inhibit peptidyl transferase activity, suggesting a direct interaction between the ABCF ARE and the PTC. The likely structural candidate responsible for antibiotic displacement by wild type ABCF AREs, and PTC inhibition by the EQ(2) mutant, is the extended inter-ABC domain linker region. Deletion of the linker region renders wild type VgaA(LC) inactive in antibiotic protection and the EQ(2) mutant inactive in PTC inhibition.