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  • Westling, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Samlingsutveckling på svenska länsmuseer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Svensson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Konstruktionen av ”Det svenska”: Nationalism och Nordiska museet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • William-Olsson, Siri
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Konsten i Kyrkan: En museologisk redogörelse över konstens roll i kyrkan, samt kyrkans roll som utställningsarena för modern konst2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Gildner, Theresa E.
    et al.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Wu, Fan
    Guo, Yanfei
    Snodgrass, J. Josh
    Kowal, Paul
    Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Cognitive Test Performance: Testing a Modified Index of Life's Simple 7 Among Older Chinese Adults2018In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 6, article id 352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that cognitive decline in older adults is influenced by cardiovascular health (CVH), with metabolic and vascular mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the etiology of cognitive impairment. Research in high-income nations suggests that improved CVH is linked with decreased cognitive impairment risk, but it is unclear if this pattern is evident in low-income countries. Nationally-representative data collected in China were drawn from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGing and adult health Wave 1 (2007-2010; n = 11,295). Seven CVH factors were classified as "ideal" or "not ideal": smoking and drinking frequency, body mass index, physical activity level, blood pressure, diet, and self-reported anxiety. Additionally, scores from five cognitive performance tests (immediate and delayed verbal recall, forward and backward digit span, verbal fluency) were used to create a composite cognitive function variable. Linear regression analyses tested whether ideal CVH measures were associated with higher composite cognitive performance, controlling for sociodemographic factors. As hypothesized, ideal CVH was generally associated with higher cognitive performance. Low anxiety levels and reliable access to sufficient food (including produce) were particularly associated with higher cognitive function. These results suggest early detection and controlling modifiable CVH risks may protect aging individuals in China from cognitive decline.

  • Lukumay, Gift G.
    et al.
    Ndile, Menti L.
    Outwater, Anne H.
    Mkoka, Dickson A.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Backteman-Erlandson, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Provision of post-crash first aid by traffic police in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a cross-sectional survey2018In: BMC Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1471-227X, E-ISSN 1471-227X, Vol. 18, article id 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The availability of prehospital trauma care is an important means of reducing serious injuries and fatalities associated with road traffic injuries (RTIs). Lay responders such as traffic police play an important role in the provision of prehospital trauma care to RTI victims, especially where there is no established prehospital care system. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate knowledge, self-reported practice, and attitudes toward post-crash first aid among traffic police officers in Tanzania. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between July-September 2017 to investigate knowledge, self-reported practice and attitude among traffic police officers during provision of post-crash care. We used simple random technique to recruit 340 traffic police officers, self -administered questionnaires were used to collect data. The researchers used descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square tests to analyze the data. Results: A total of 340 traffic police officers were surveyed. Nearly two thirds (65.3%) reported having had post-crash first aid on-the job training; a slightly larger proportion (70.9%) reported that they had cared for RTI victims in the previous year. The survey responses showed that, generally, traffic police officers' level of knowledge about post-crash first aid to RTI victims was low-about 3% of the surveyed officers possessed knowledge at a level considered good. Also, there was a statistically significant correlation between higher educational attainment and greater knowledgeability (p = 0.015). Almost all of the officers (96%) had a positive attitude toward providing post-crash first aid to RTI victims. Conclusions: Improved training of Tanzania traffic police officers, by means of an updated post-crash first aid curriculum and updated resources is recommended. Also, user-friendly post-crash first aid leaflets should be provided to traffic police for their reference.

  • Behar, E.
    et al.
    Tabone, B.
    Saillenfest, M.
    Henri, P.
    Deca, J.
    Lindkvist, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Holmstrom, M.
    Nilsson, H.
    Solar wind dynamics around a comet A 2D semi-analytical kinetic model2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 620, article id A35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. We aim at analytically modelling the solar wind proton trajectories during their interaction with a partially ionised cometary atmosphere, not in terms of bulk properties of the flow but in terms of single particle dynamics. Methods. We first derive a generalised gyromotion, in which the electric field is reduced to its motional component. Steady-state is assumed, and simplified models of the cometary density and of the electron fluid are used to express the force experienced by individual solar wind protons during the interaction. Results. A three-dimensional (3D) analytical expression of the gyration of two interacting plasma beams is obtained. Applying it to a comet case, the force on protons is always perpendicular to their velocity and has an amplitude proportional to 1/r(2). The solar wind deflection is obtained at any point in space. The resulting picture presents a caustic of intersecting trajectories, and a circular region is found that is completely free of particles. The particles do not lose any kinetic energy and this absence of deceleration, together with the solar wind deflection pattern and the presence of a solar wind ion cavity, is in good agreement with the general results of the Rosetta mission. Conclusions. The qualitative match between the model and the in situ data highlights how dominant the motional electric field is throughout most of the interaction region for the solar wind proton dynamics. The model provides a simple general kinetic description of how momentum is transferred between these two collisionless plasmas. It also shows the potential of this semi-analytical model for a systematic quantitative comparison to the data.

  • Bruun, Signe
    et al.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Husby, Steffen
    Jacobsen, Lotte Neergaard
    Michaelsen, Kim F.
    Fowler, Christopher J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Zachariassen, Gitte
    Satiety Factors Oleoylethanolamide, Stearoylethanolamide, and Palmitoylethanolamide in Mother's Milk Are Strongly Associated with Infant Weight at Four Months of Age: data from the Odense Child Cohort2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation of appetite and food intake is partly regulated by N-acylethanolamine lipids oleoylethanolamide (OEA), stearoylethanolamide (SEA), and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), which induce satiety through endogenous formation in the small intestine upon feeding, but also when orally or systemic administered. OEA, SEA, and PEA are present in human milk, and we hypothesized that the content of OEA, SEA, and PEA in mother's milk differed for infants being heavy (high weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ)) or light (low WAZ) at time of milk sample collection. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of OEA, SEA, and PEA in milk samples collected four months postpartum from mothers to high (n = 50) or low (n = 50) WAZ infants. Associations between OEA, SEA, and PEA concentration and infant anthropometry at four months of age as well as growth from birth were investigated using linear and logistic regression analyses, adjusted for birth weight, early infant formula supplementation, and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index. Mean OEA, SEA, and PEA concentrations were lower in the high compared to the low WAZ group (all p < 0.02), and a higher concentration of SEA was associated with lower anthropometric measures, e.g., triceps skinfold thickness (mm) (beta = -2.235, 95% CI = -4.04, -0.43, p = 0.016), and weight gain per day since birth (g) (beta = -8.169, 95% CI = -15.26, -1.08, p = 0.024). This raises the possibility, that the content of satiety factors OEA, SEA, and PEA in human milk may affect infant growth.

  • Zhou, Yan
    et al.
    Ojeda-May, Pedro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, High Performance Computing Center North (HPC2N).
    Nagaraju, Mulpuri
    Kim, Bryant
    Pu, Jingzhi
    Mapping Free Energy Pathways for ATP Hydrolysis in the E. coli ABC Transporter HlyB by the String Method2018In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 1-22, article id 2652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HlyB functions as an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that enables bacteria to secrete toxins at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Our previous work, based on potential energy profiles from combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations, has suggested that the highly conserved H-loop His residue H662 in the nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of E. coli HlyB may catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP through proton relay. To further test this hypothesis when entropic contributions are taken into account, we obtained QM/MM minimum free energy paths (MFEPs) for the HlyB reaction, making use of the string method in collective variables. The free energy profiles along the MFEPs confirm the direct participation of H662 in catalysis. The MFEP simulations of HlyB also reveal an intimate coupling between the chemical steps and a local protein conformational change involving the signature-loop residue S607, which may serve a catalytic role similar to an Arg-finger motif in many ATPases and GTPases in stabilizing the phosphoryl-transfer transition state.

  • Karlsson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kulturarv- vad vinner och vad försvinner?: En studie på om synen på arkeologiska fornfynd har förändrats under 1900-talet fram tills idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will discuss whether you can detect a possible alteration in views of archaeological artefacts during the 1900’s until 2014 by local history societies and what their views are today. It will also discuss other aspects that can have contributed to potential changed views on the artefacts. The other aspects that will be investigated are heritage conservation, politics, museums/policies and disposal of archaeological artefacts. This paper will also discuss the Swedish definition of the concept “archaeological artefacts”, and if newspapers have contributed to a different view of archaeological artefacts. The conclusions of this paper are that local history societies have different views of archaeological artefacts, but not all of them have a changed view and some of them have similar views to other history societies. One more thing detected might be a drift between the public and the archaeologists which may have been affected by politics? These aspects have contributed to a different view but in different ways and not always at the same time. Newspaper have been a contributor to changed views because they spread information that is not always correct or fair and therefore misguide the general population – for example the definition of an archaeological artefact. Disposal of archaeological artefacts does not happen as often in Swedish museums as newspaper articles make it seem and the local history societies do not approve of disposal but concede that if it must happen, albeit with good documentation. A final conclusion is that things change when time passes, and so do views and opinions, but not always as much as one may think.

  • Eriksson Persson, Bianca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    En framtid utan dåtid: En studie av forskning kring förstörelse av kulturarv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyzes destruction of cultural heritage, and its impact on future archaeological research. A qualitative case study on four different events of destruction on cultural heritage to evaluate whether it can be positive or negative. It explores if this phenomenon is new or old. Hopefully, the essay also contributes to the knowledge gap that exists in today's analysis of systematic destruction of cultural heritage.

    First, the concept of cultural heritage and systematic destruction is analyzed. Thereafter, a variety of cases are considered to finally arrive at four different events to be analyzed. In these four different events, a case study is made that aims to contribute to a deeper understanding on destruction of culture heritage. If it contributes to something positive or negative to the people in that society, and a possible outcome on how we look back on history. The events that form the case study are the destruction of the Baalshamin Temple, the demolition of the southern state statues, the transplantation of the Abu simbel monuments from Egypt and the destruction of the Sami drums.

    The results found that systematic destruction of cultural heritage is a complex issue and does not have an absolute explanation. Destruction of cultural heritage usually affects archaeologists negatively as it prevents future research and results in a less nuanced image of history. Destruction of cultural heritage is usually considered negative, however, moving objects is considered to be more positive.

  • Hasselquist, Eliza Maher
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Polvi, Lina E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kahlert, Maria
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sandberg, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mckie, Brendan G.
    Contrasting Responses among Aquatic Organism Groups to Changes in Geomorphic Complexity Along a Gradient of Stream Habitat Restoration: Implications for Restoration Planning and Assessment2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 1465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many stream restoration projects aim to increase geomorphic complexity, assuming that this increases habitat heterogeneity and, thus, biodiversity. However, empirical data supporting these linkages remain scant. Previous assessments of stream restoration suffer from incomplete quantification of habitat complexity, or a narrow focus on only one organism group and/or one restoration measure, limiting learning. Based on a comprehensive quantification of geomorphic complexity in 20 stream reaches in northern Sweden, ranging from streams channelized for timber floating to restored and reference reaches, we investigated responses of macroinvertebrates, diatoms, and macrophytes to multiple geomorphic metrics. Sediment size heterogeneity, which was generally improved in restored sites, favored macroinvertebrate and diatom diversity and macroinvertebrate abundance. In contrast, macrophyte diversity responded to increased variation along the longitudinal stream profile (e.g., step-pools), which was not consistently improved by the restoration. Our analyses highlight the value of learning across multiple restoration projects, both in identifying which aspects of restoration have succeeded, and pinpointing other measures that might be targeted during adaptive management or future restoration. Given our results, a combination of restoration measures targeting not only sediment size heterogeneity, but also features such as step-pools and instream wood, is most likely to benefit benthic biota in streams.

  • Björklund, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Naturally ProducedOrganohalogens in Algae from the Baltic Sea and the Swedish West Coast2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Seres, Sandu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Resource recovery from MSW fly ash: Resource recovery from MSW fly ash2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Björn, Norlin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Introduction: Exploring Violence(s) in the History of Education2018In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Wilder-Smith, Annelies
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Tissera, Hasitha
    AbuBakar, Sazaly
    Kittayapong, Pattamaporn
    Logan, James
    Neumayr, Andreas
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Louis, Valerie R.
    Tozan, Yesim
    Massad, Eduardo
    Preet, Raman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Novel tools for the surveillance and control of dengue: findings by the dengueTools research consortium2018In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1549930Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dengue fever persists as a major global disease burden, and may increase as a consequence of climate change. Along with other measures, research actions to improve diagnosis, surveillance, prevention, and predictive models are highly relevant. The European Commission funded the DengueTools consortium to lead a major initiative in these areas, and this review synthesises the outputs and findings of this work conducted from 2011 to 2016. Research areas: DengueTools organised its work into three research areas, namely [1] Early warning and surveillance systems; [2] Strategies to prevent dengue in children; and [3] Predictive models for the global spread of dengue. Research area 1 focused on case-studies undertaken in Sri Lanka, including developing laboratory-based sentinel surveillance, evaluating economic impact, identifying drivers of transmission intensity, evaluating outbreak prediction capacity and developing diagnostic capacity. Research area 2 addressed preventing dengue transmission in school children, with case-studies undertaken in Thailand. Insecticide-treated school uniforms represented an intriguing potential approach, with some encouraging results, but which were overshadowed by a lack of persistence of insecticide on the uniforms with repeated washing. Research area 3 evaluated potential global spread of dengue, particularly into dengue-naive areas such as Europe. The role of international travel, changing boundaries of vectors, developing models of vectorial capacity under different climate change scenarios and strategies for vector control in outbreaks was all evaluated. Concluding remarks: DengueTools was able to make significant advances in methods for understanding and controlling dengue transmission in a range of settings. These will have implications for public health agendas to counteract dengue, including vaccination programmes. Outlook: Towards the end of the DengueTools project, Zika virus emerged as an unexpected epidemic in the central and southern America. Given the similarities between the dengue and Zika viruses, with vectors in common, some of the DengueTools thinking translated readily into the Zika situation.

  • Public defence: 2019-01-25 09:00 Föreläsningssal A unod T9, Umeå
    Panda, Swarupa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    The role and mechanism of ubiquitin system in innate immune regulation2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) include the cell surface or endosomal membrane localized Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the cytoplasmic PRRs such as RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and cytoplasmic DNA receptors (CDRs). Triggering of PRRs culminates in the transcriptional induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs) that coordinate protection against pathogens but require tight control to avert inflammatory diseases. The mechanisms underlying this strict regulation are unclear.

    Ubiquitiation is a reversible post-translational modification that controls nearly all cellular processes including the immune system. We identified, H2A deubiquitinase myb-like SWIM and MPN domains 1 (MYSM1) a previously described as a key component of epigenetic signaling machinery as a key negative regulator of the innate immune system that guards against an overzealous self-destructive immune response. In response to microbial stimuli, MYSM1 accumulated in the cytoplasm where it interacted with and inactivated TRAF3 and TRAF6 complexes to terminate TLR, RLR and CDR pathways for pro-inflammatory and type I interferone responses. Consequently, MYSM1 deficiency in mice resulted in hyper-inflammation and enhanced viral clearance but also susceptibility to septic shock.

    NOD2, belonging to the intracellular NLR family. A focal point of NOD2 signalling is RIP2, which upon polyubiquitination nucleates the NOD2:RIP2 complex, enabling signaling events leading to inflammation, yet the precise nature and the regulation of the polyubiquitins coordinating this process remains unclear. We show that NOD2 signaling involves conjugation of RIP2 with K63, K48 and M1 polyubiquitin chains as well as with non-canonical K27 chains. Furthermore, we identify MYSM1 as the proximal deubiquitinase that attenuates NOD2- RIP2 complex assembly by selectively removing the K63, M1 and K27 chains. Consequently, MYSM1 deficient mice have unrestrained NOD2-mediated peritonitis and liver injury. Henceforth, this study provide a complete description of the polyubiquitin modifications in the NOD2:RIP2 signalling and reveal MYSM1 as a central negative regulator that prevents excessive inflammation.

    In order to overcome the host barrier to infection, some pathogens elude the immune defense by hijacking the ubiquitin system. Francisella tularensis is one of the most infectious bacteria. It employs several mechanisms to evade detection by the innate immune system, but how remains obscure. Here, we showed that Francisella triggers but concomitantly inhibits the TLRs, RLRs and CDRs pathway by inhibiting K63-linked polyubiquitination and assembly of TRAF6 and TRAF3 complexes that control the transcriptional responses of PRRs.

    In summary, my work identify MYSM1 as a key negative regulator of the innate immune system. Although, mainly located in the nucleus MYSM1 rapidly amass in the cytoplasm, where it interacts with and inactivates the key PRR signalling complexes. Afterward, MYSM1 undergoes proteaosomal degradation to avert sustained immune suppression. Thus, MYSM1 is part of a highly versatile negative feedback regulatory mechanism, which in response to biological danger is swiftly activated in “on-and-off” manner to restore immune homeostasis. Furthermore, Francisella targets the ubiquitin system to inhibt multiple PRRs hence allowing this bacterium to invade and proliferate in the host without evoking a self-limiting innate immune response.

  • Sabir Melldahl, Ezgi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    PEEK & BOOK: Transforming the outside into an imaginary playground2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, urban children are spending time indoors more than ever before and getting away from phenomenas of the outdoor world, which creates a big concern on how they develop their senses and get physical exercise. The tools, games and devices they interact with are preventing their imagination rather than sparking, by making kids consume content rather than asking for their participation.

    Peek transforms the outside into an imaginary playground for children, where interacting with the natural world takes the focus and the child’s simple acts and explorations can turn into their own stories. It is an expressive digital tool that invites children to explore the outside, capture audio and visual snippets, and build stories around them. It comes together with a physical book which triggers child’s imagination through guided explorations and allows the child to keep the stories they created.

    The result is a play experience designed for children aged between 5 and 8 years old. 

  • McIntyre, James
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Expressive Input2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Expressive input is the culmination of 18 weeks of prototyping, ideation and research conducted as my degree project at Umeå Institute of Design. The project presents three design provocations which aim to raise questions about the potential opportunity to create a dialogue with the physical controls we interact with. 

    While words like “smart” or “connected” get thrown around quite often, this work aims to show that there is a role for expression within the relationship we have with our devices. 

    Expression within this context is defined as how we can make user interfaces that leverage the advances in sensors and feedback in order to feel more human. 

    The work presents three scenarios that might exist within an Automotive context, and demonstrates solutions that encourage users to maintain visual attention on the task of driving. 

    The project was conducted by running a series of short sprints that were focused on specific problems, the intention of this approach was to identify unique opportunities for future design work to explore.

  • Bäckström, Julia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Häggström, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    FLEXIBILITET OCH TILLGÄNGLIGHET GÖR ATT JAG ÖVERLEVER SOM INDIVID: En kvalitativ studie om personalchefers upplevelser av ett gränslöst arbete och dess konsekvenser2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att beskriva och förstå hur personalchefer upplever ett gränslöst arbete och hur det påverkar deras välmående, samt hur de hanterar gränsdragningen mellan arbete och privatliv. Detta har undersökts med hjälp av en kvalitativ ansats med semistrukturerade intervjuer som datainsamlingsmetod.Resultatet visar att personalchefernas arbete kännetecknas av gränslöshet, till följd av att tillgänglighet och flexibilitet i arbetet suddat ut gränserna mellan arbete och privatliv. Gränslösheten är tidvis utmanande eftersom den resulterat i att personalcheferna utför arbetsrelaterade uppgifter även efter arbetstid. Samtidigt betraktas den som en viktig förutsättning för både välmående och upplevelsen av balans mellan sfärerna. Att ha möjlighet att arbeta när som helst och var som helst har bidragit tillen känsla av kontroll som uppskattas av många, samtidigt som det också skapat en känsla att det finns mer att göra och nya mål att uppnå. Personalcheferna har olika strategier för att hantera arbetets otydliga gränser, där vissa visat sig vara mer effektiva än andra. Trots att konsekvenserna av att inte kunna stänga av arbetet är negativa, tycks fördelarna som kommer av att styra sin egen tid väga tyngre och ingen av personalcheferna önskar gå tillbaka till en tid utan möjlighet till flexibilitet och uppkoppling.

  • Björkman, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lindberg, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Should I stay or should I go?: En undersökning om personliga assistenters erfarenhet av arbetslivet.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fler personer får personlig assistans idag, vilket skapar ett större behov av verksamma personliga assistenter. På grund av yrkets status och belastning som råder är rekryteringen av assistenter svår, vilket skapar en hög press hos arbetsgivaren att framkalla en god arbetsmiljö för att arbetstagarna ska stanna kvar. Assistans AB upplever att många assistenter säger upp sig i början av sin anställning och ser ett behov att undersöka vilka faktorer som påverkar genomströmningen av assistenterna. Studien genomfördes med en enkät och intervjuer bland de som blivit anställd under år 2017, vilket även inkluderar de som frivilligt valt att avsluta sin anställning. Resultatet tyder på att fler inskolningspass hos arbetstagaren leder till att fler stannar kvar i företaget. Däremot visar resultatet på att antalet introduktionspass och inskolning inte är de enda faktorerna till att arbetstagarna väljer att avsluta sin anställning, utan det kan bero på flera faktorer såsom upplevd motivation, arbetsmiljö och utveckling. Utöver det finns en viss osäkerhet bland de anställda inför en fortsatt framtid inom företaget.

  • Berglund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    GDPR – HUR STORT KAN DET VARA?: En studie om hur HR-medarbetare upplever att de påverkas av och förbereder sig inför ikraftträdandet av dataskyddsförordningen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tjugofemte maj 2018 träder EU:s nya dataskyddsförordning, GDPR, i kraft vars syfte är att stärka individers skydd av personuppgifter, vilket kan innebära förändringar för hur organisationer hanterar personuppgifter. I Sverige ersätter GDPR den nu gällande Personuppgiftslagen, PuL, och innebär skärpta krav exempelvis genom att personuppgifter som samlas in, sparas och behandlas ska med ett tydligt syfte ha förankring i en av de sex rättsliga grunderna för att vara lagliga att behandla. Inom HR-funktioner behandlas personuppgifter i hög grad och studien syftar därför till att undersöka hur HR-medarbetare upplever att deras arbete kommer påverkas och hur de förbereder sig. Resultaten har studerats i förhållande till Kotters (1998) åttastegsprocess för att genomföra en större förändring, Löfgrens (2012) tankar om implementering av EU-lagar samt implementeringens faser beskrivna av Bertram, Blase och Fixsen (2015). Studien bygger på sex intervjuer med individer som aktivt arbetar med HR inom respektive organisation. Studien visar att HR-medarbetarna i studien upplever att de kommer påverkas i hög grad av GDPR, men att de nått olika långt i förberedelsearbetet på grund av skillnader i organisationerna och bristande information från officiellt håll. Deltagarna i studien är alla överens om att GDPR påverkar HR i allra högsta grad och att den stora skillnaden mot andra införda lagar är att GDPR går in i alla HR-processer. Då studien fokuserat på hur HR-medarbetares upplevelser inför GDPR föreslås en framtida studie om GDPR:s faktiska påverkan när den trätt ikraft.

  • Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Askmyr, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    NÄSTA AVGÅNG.: En studie om hur medarbetare som avslutar sin anställning upplever arbetsförhållanden på sin arbetsplats2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsgivare vill attrahera potentiella medarbetare som kan vara betydelsefulla för organisationen, likasom de vill behålla befintliga medarbetarna. Arbetsgivare måste kombinera båda dessa delar för att kunna vara en attraktiv arbetsgivare som ur ett långsiktigt perspektiv kan behålla medarbetarnas produktivitet och engagemang. Det som attraherar en medarbetare till anställning kan vara det som göra att medarbetare väljer att lämna en organisation. Att ta tillvara på medarbetarnas åsikter vid avslutsprocessen innebär värdefull information för arbetsgivaren. Studien undersöker hur motivation kan vara en faktor att ta hänsyn till gällande avslutet och tidigare anställdas skattning av ledarskap, lön, samarbete, utveckling, organisationskultur och arbetsuppgifter. En statistisk analys genomfördes grundad på datamaterial från en avgångsenkät, besvarad av medarbetare som på egen begäran valt att avsluta sin anställning. Resultatet visar att arbetsplats, position och anställningsform har en påverkan på hur medarbetare upplever de olika faktorerna. Det finns indikationer som tyder på att de olika faktorerna kan ha haft en påverkan till att medarbetarna valt att lämna organisationen. Resultatet visar även att de som slutar frivilligt uttrycker ett större missnöje till alla faktorer förutom lön än de som slutar ofrivilligt.

  • Andersson, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Westin, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    DIGITAL HR.: Är Personalvetare digitalt undernärda?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka vilken kompetens HR-anställda innehar kopplat till digital HR, vilka kunskaper de efterfrågar för att möta digitalisering och hur Personalvetarprogram matchar arbetsmarknaden. Metoden hade en kvalitativ ansats och empirin inhämtades genom semistrukturerade intervjuer. I studien deltog fem informanter, tre från offentlig sektor och två från privatsektor. Informanterna valdes ut genom ett målinriktat urval. Resultatet analyserades med hjälp av tematiseringen kopplat mot studiens tidigare forskning.Resultatet förmedlar en intressant utveckling som är både positiv och utmanande. HR anställda har idag överlag för låg kunskap för att möta digitaliseringens utveckling.Förändringen innebär fler digitala HR-verktyg, mer specialiserade roller och ökade kunskapskrav. Det leder till en utmaning som vi genomgående kommer tillbaka till. Hur organisationer på arbetsmarknaden ska kompetensförsörja sina HR-avdelningar. Det insamlade materialet visar att generisk kunskap om digital HR och dess system blir avgörande och att utbildningssystemet måste utvecklas i högre takt än vad det gör idag.

  • Ramirez Alvarez, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Guidelines for Onboarding: Developing guidelines by testing a process for onboarding.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smartphones and applications are becoming more and more popular. Although, the user knowledge varies. Onboarding has been described in other previous studies as a tool for costumers to get a better understanding of applications. This thesis aims to develop guidelines for onboarding by investigating previous studies and by comparing different applications. By investigating to what extent onboarding is beneficial for an application, the question of if it is worth the time and effort for a company to develop an onboarding is discussed. A hi- fi onboarding prototype will be developed to be able to test the guidelines. Simplicity, knowledge of the user, smooth navigation and user satisfaction are a few things that were kept in mind from previous studies when developing the guidelines. To be able to develop guidelines, questions regarding mobile devices, application developing, user behaviour and manuals have also been studied.

    Interviews combined with observations allowed for an analysis of the guidelines by conducting an A/B test. One group of test subjects received an application with onboarding, and the other group received the same application without onboarding. The result of the A/B test showed that onboarding helped the user to find functions that could be considered difficult to locate. The test also showed that many people often skip onboarding, but people that complete the onboarding process gets a better understanding of the application faster. Guidelines for an efficient development of an onboarding are presented. In conclusion, onboarding is a tool that should be utilized if the developer aims to allow as many users as possible to understand the full potential of the application as fast as possible.

  • Nilsson, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie
    Theos, Apostolos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Ferguson, Richard A.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Aerobic Variables for Prediction of Alpine Skiing Performance – A Novel Approach2018In: Sports Medicine International Open, ISSN 2367-1890, Vol. 2, no 4, p. E105-E112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive power of aerobic test results and anthropometric variables on FIS-ranking of junior elite alpine skiers. Results from twenty-three male and female adolescent elite alpine skiers from two seasons were included in the multivariate statistical models. Physical work capacity was determined by V̇O2peak, blood lactate concentration ([HLa]b), and heart rate (HR) during ergometer cycling. Anthropometric variables were body stature, body weight and calculated BMI. No significant correlation between competitive performance and aerobic work capacity or anthropometric data was observed neither in male nor female adolescent skiers. Pre-season physical tests and anthropometric data could therefore not predict end-season FIS-ranking. The best regression (R2) and prediction (Q2) models of FIS slalom (SL) and giant slalom (GS) rank reached R2=0.51 to 0.86, Q2=−0.73 to 0.18, indicating no valid models. This study could not establish V̇O2peak and other included variables as predictors of competitive performance. When combining results from commonly used tests for alpine skiers, and applying multivariate statistical models, investigated tests seems of limited used for athletes, coaches, and ski federations. Performance-specific pre-season tests must be developed and validated for prediction of performance and guidance of exercise training.

  • Hakobyan, Gohar
    et al.
    Davtyan, Hasmik
    Harutyunyan, Kristine
    Alexanyan, Knarik
    Amirkhanyan, Yelizaveta
    Gharibyan, Anna L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Asatryan, Liana
    Tadevosyan, Yuri
    Similarities in Blood Mononuclear Cell Membrane Phospholipid Profiles During Malignancy2018In: Medical Sciences, ISSN 2076-3271, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phospholipids (PLs), key elements of cellular membranes, are regulated reciprocally with membrane proteins and can act as sensors for alterations in physiological or pathological states of cells including initiation and development of cancer. On the other hand, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) play an important role in antitumor immune response by reacting to cancerous modifications in distant organs. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that tumor initiation and development are reflected in the alteration pattern of the MNC PL component. We analyzed MNC membrane PL fractions in samples from healthy individuals and from patients with diverse types of cancers to reveal possible alterations induced by malignancy. Compared to healthy controls, the cancer samples demonstrated shifts in several membrane PL profiles. In particular, when analyzing cancer data pooled together, there were significantly higher levels in lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine fractions, and significantly lower quantities in phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidic acid fractions in cancer samples compared to controls. The levels of sphingomyelins and diphosphatidylglycerols were relatively unaffected. Most of the differences in PLs were sustained during the analysis of individual cancers such as breast cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Our findings suggest the presence of a common pattern of changes in MNC PLs during malignancy.

  • Public defence: 2019-01-18 13:00 Hörsal E, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Kuuse, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    ”Liksom ett annat uppdrag”: iscensättning av social rättvisa i musikundervisningens retorik och praktik2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to identify, describe, and problematize constructions of social justice in Swedish music education. The thesis has an ethnographic design, and presents four empirical studies. The studies, in the shape of four scientific articles, emblematise musical practices in community schools of music and art, as well as in elementary schools. The conceptual framework of the concept of social justice precipitates a focus on the prime object of study, El Sistema. Music education as organised by El Sistema explicitly communicates social aims, and the programme operates in both Swedish community schools of music and art, and in elementary schools. All together, the empirical data consist of marketing material (films and written documents), observational field-notes and sound recordings from one semester’s fieldwork in a children’s music educational group (ages 7-9), as well as sound-recorded focus group interviews with music teachers from both community schools of music and art and elementary schools. Article I shows how different conceptions of music, children, emotions, and social transformation are constructed to legitimate El Sistema in the Swedish community schools of music and art. Here, the objects of study are films and written texts published on El Sistema’s Swedish website. Article II elaborates how musical agency is performed by participating children in relation to conceptions of music education and social justice constructed in the educational practice. Articles III and IV elaborate teachers’ negotiations and constructions of teacher roles and the educational task in relation to conceptions of social justice. Within a comprehensive social constructionist perspective, participants’ opportunities for action and negotiation, in practice, are perceived as determined by societal, institutional and local preconditions, and by overarching and established conceptions that are typical for certain eras. With this theoretical point of departure, both local and societal conceptions of the musical subject, its objectives, means, and aims, as well as conceptions about accessibility, equality, democracy and social justice, are constantly negotiated. Thus, apparently natural and established ideas can be problematized. Based on all studies’ results, relations between established conceptions, structural preconditions, and social relations are scrutinised from the way they influence performances of the music educational practice. The final discussion encompasses consequences for teachers’ ability to reflect, as well as children’s and young peoples’ meaning making through musical actions. The thesis’ critical perspective aims at evoking new questions, and generating new knowledge concerning the preconditions and the content of institutionally financed music education.

  • Public defence: 2019-01-25 10:00 S104, Umeå
    Sciuto, Claudia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Carved Mountains and Moving Stones: applications of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Mineral Characterisation in Provenance Studies2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of stone artefacts is a combination of anthropological archaeology and geology, rooted in analytical techniques for determining the materials’ composition, typological stylistic classification and interpretation of cultural patterns. In this thesis, the archaeology of materials is considered in the context of sites- and landscape transformation, economic history and development of techniques. Focus has been on applications of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for characterising minerals in different case studies. Interdisciplinary protocols are implemented in order to account for the various aspects of stone artefacts, merging geochemical investigation and digital documentation.

    This thesis consists of two parts: an introductory text and five research publications. In the first paper, a NIR portable probe is tested to measure iron oxide-based pigments in rock paintings in Flatruet (Sweden). The study demonstrates that the probe is useful for characterising different sections of paint in-situ and pinpointing similarities and dissimilarities in the pigments used for the figures. The second and third papers are aimed at studying the use of raw materials for tool production in a Mesolithic settlement in Northern Sweden. In the second paper is shown that hyperspectral imaging helps characterise the mineral composition of a selected group of tools and the spectral signature of quartz, quartzite, and flint are examined. In the third paper, hyperspectral imaging-based classification is applied to the entire dataset of lithic tools and flakes collected during excavation of the site. The objects are divided into categories of raw materials according to their spectral features and the distribution is visualised on a 3D GIS platform. The fourth paper deals with the application of hyperspectral imaging, a field probe (MicroNIR) and portable Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF), for in-situ characterisation of building materials on the inner wall of the fortified citadel of Carcassonne (France). The research shows how the combination of these analytical methods in conjunction with a stratigraphic study of the architecture helps to understand the use and re-use of materials in different construction phases. The last paper shows how an in-field NIR-probe may be used in landscape surveys for instant characterisations of different stone types. This study was carried out in the district of Montescaglioso, Southern Italy, to highlight patterns of use and distribution of artefacts made of local calcarenite (limestone) in the period between the 6th and 3rd century BC.

  • Dapi, Léonie N
    et al.
    Tambe, Ayuk Bertrand
    Axberg, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lundström, Linnéa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    After giving birth to a baby, breastfeeding becomes your responsibility: infant feeding perceptions and practices among women in Yaoundé, Bamenda and Bandja, Cameroon, Africa2018In: International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health, ISSN 2360-8803, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 38-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ministry of Public Health of Cameroon advises mothers to follow the World Health Organization’s recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life and to continue breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years or beyond. Despite these recommendations, malnutrition due to inadequate feeding practices is still prevalent in Cameroon. Therefore, this study aims to explore infant feeding perceptions and identify factors influencing infant feeding practices in Cameroon. Forty-nine women aged 19 to 38 who had infants aged 6 days to 15 months were purposively selected from hospitals during the vaccination days and interviewed until saturation. The research tools included six qualitative group interviews, with each group comprising 6 to 10 women. The study was conducted in the rural area of Bandja and the urban areas of Yaoundé and Bamenda. Data were analysed using content analysis. In the study, breastfeeding was agreed upon as the best way to feed infants and was commonly practised for 1 to 2 years. Nevertheless, few infants were breastfed exclusively. Complementary foods were often nutritionally inadequate; many children were not given fruit, vegetables or foods of animal origin on a daily basis. Cultural beliefs, tradition, community norms and low educational and economic levels negatively influenced the implementation of appropriate infant feeding recommendations. The short duration of exclusive breastfeeding and the poor food diversity are the main problems. In response, it is necessary to strengthen the position of women, increase the period of maternal leave, introduce sustainable and practical education for both parents about breastfeeding, and provide good, local complementary foods.

  • Johnson, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    En fallstudie om Endometriosföreningen och dess möjlighetatt påverka landstingspolitiker i Stockholms län2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Endometrios är en kronisk sjukdom som drabbar personer med livmoder. Endometriosvården ansesav många vara bristfällig. Patienter blir runtslussade och har svårt att få en tidig diagnos.Endometriosföreningen är en ideell förening som förutom att stötta drabbade patienter verkar för attpåverka beslutsfattare.Syftet med denna studie är att kartlägga Endometriosföreningens försök att påverkalandstingspolitiker i Stockholm. Studien, som är en fallstudie, ämnar att åskådliggöra hurEndometriosföreningen tar kontakt med landstingspolitiker och hur kontakten ter sig. Dettaanalyseras utifrån tre tematiker — Endometriosföreningens professionaliseringsgrad, hur kontaktenmellan Endometriosföreningen och landstingspolitiker ter sig samt vilka potentiella utmaningar somfinns för Endometriosföreningen. Resultatet utgår primärt ifrån tre telefonintervjuer och tvåmailintervjuer. En aktör från Endometriosföreningen och fyra politiker inkluderas. Materialet haranalyserats utifrån ”the constant comparative method”.I resultatet kan ses att Endometriosföreningen har vissa problem gällande första tematiken,professionaliseringsgrad. Kontakt mellan parterna finns men är högst sporadisk och kräver specifikafrågeställningar. Enskilda politikers intressen styr hur delaktig föreningen blir i den politiskakontexten. Vidare har flertalet utmaningar för föreningen utrönats, såsom fåtaliga medlemmar,bristfällig forskning om endometrios och att den politiska miljön styr föreningens arbete.

  • Blåhed, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Indigenous peoples as political actors within the Arctic Council: A case study2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Indigenous peoples as political actors in the Arctic Council is an understudied subject.Indigenous peoples have a unique status as Permanent Participants to the Arctic Council,enabling them to affect the policy-making and decisions made within the Council. There areconcerns, however, to the level of Indigenous peoples’ inclusion. Research shows that theworking relationships between the eight Arctic member states of the Council and thePermanent Participants creates dependency, among other things because the PermanentParticipants rely on funding from the member states. This in turn questions the status of thePermanent Participants, and whether they are included into the Arctic Council as independentpolitical actors. This paper aims to build upon research done by Michaela Louise Coote andMonica Tennberg, researchers whom both have contributed to this field of research.

  • Pettersson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Strävan efter världsmakt via främjandet av internationell fred: En fallstudie av Kinas agerande på den internationella arenan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to examine if UN (United Nations) peacekeeping operations an be used as a tool to promote great powers own interests and enable power maximization for states in the international system. In other words, if great powers really cooperate with each other to promote peace or if they only seek to maximize their own power position. Based on the assumption that the state’s own interests benefit from its commitment to the UN and that it ultimately can increase the state’spower position, it becomes thus important to identify a state’sown interests to contribute to an explanation of how states act within international institutions. The case of China and its actions in African countries through the UN peacekeeping operations MONUSCO and UNMIS are evaluated, to verify if China applies to 4 of the 5 assumptions raised in John Mearsheimer’s theory of offensive realism. This, to illustrate how states attempt to use economic, military and multilateral means to increase their power position in the international system. The conclusion of the analysis is that 3 (possibly 4) of Mearsheimer’s assumptions are encountered by China’s actions. After demonstrating that China applies to some of theas sumptions of offensive realism, this study suggests further research concerning the connection between great powers pursuit of power and its commitment to UN peacekeeping operations.

  • Muzito-Bagenda, Florence
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Emergenta grupper: en förstärkningsresurs för svensk krisberedskap?: En studie om icke-traditionella frivilliga grupper i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien är baserad på en kvalitativ jämförande fallstudie och behandlar olika typer av frivilliga organisationer i Sverige. Syftet med denna studie har varit att förstå och kartlägga olika typer av frivilliga organisationer inom svensk krisberedskap och krishantering. Studien har fokuserat på icke-traditionella frivilliga grupper och deras roll inom svensk krishantering. Det teoretiska ramverket för denna studie utgår ifrån krishanteringslitteratur vilken rör frivilliga organisering och Disaster Research Centers (DRC) typologi. Intervjuer genomfördes med respondenter vilka var delaktiga i verksamheter som icke-traditionella grupper utförde. Dessa tillsammans med skrivna dokument från traditionella frivilliga organisationer i Sverige utgjorde studiens empiriska material. Resultatet för denna studie indikerar att det finns potential att utöka gruppen som utgör förstärkningsresurser inom svensk krisberedskap. De icke-traditionella grupperna i denna studie har påvisat denna potential. Arbetet är uppdelat i åtta delar.

  • Livingstone, Alma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Påverkan eller medverkan: En retorikanalys av offentligt tryck föregående militära interventionen i Libyen 20112018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to uncover the rhetoric strategies foreign policy makers usedto persuade and influence the Swedish voters and public opinionprior to thedecision regardingSwedishparticipation in the international military operation in Libya in 2011.By analyzing the propositions placed by the Swedish Government and the opposingSwedish Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna)through three rhetorical concepts, ethos, logos and pathos, the study found that the Swedish Government used argumentsthat had a closer link to the public’s perception of their legitimacy and the voters’own feelings and values. the Swedish Democratsused a strategy of trying to convince the public of logical arguments that was sometimes used to frame the Government in somewhat of a bad light.The rhetorical strategy culminatedwith arguments that would introduce the Swedish Democratsas the better and more reliable option.The differing strategies could be attributed to the reasoning behind the Swedish Democrats’ political profiling,andwas used as an ideological demonstration with the purpose of influencing the public opinion.

  • Linna Lundström, Molly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Stora stygga vargen?: Porträtteringen av Ryssland och dess inverkan på svensk försvars- och säkerhetspolitik, 2008–20182018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on a theoretical framework based on securitization and threat construction, the attempt in this study was to broaden the understanding of how the perception of a Russian threat in the Baltic Sea is influencing Swedish defence and security policy. The method used was based on Bacchis WPR-approach. Three questions were asked at the beginning of this study, regardning how Russia is viewed in Sweden, how the representation of Russia has changed from the war in Georgia in 2008 until 2018, as well as how Sweden is to strengthen it's defence capacity, nationally and through cooperation, to tacle the Russian threat. Four key aspects of Russian behaviour that is considered threatening were identified. Russia is viewed as a country with power ambitions and expansionist tendencies; characterised as tactically unpredictable; looked upon as a risk calculating actor; and considered misstrusting in its views of the West. The perception of Russia is complex which creates difficulties regarding how the threat is to be met. Policy makers have urged the strengthening of Swedish national defence capacity to create a conflict threshold in the region. To further strengthen this threshold, the bilateral defence cooperation with Finland has deepened. In addition, the question of military non-alignment has been raised in relation to a possible Swedish membership in Nato. The answer to whether or not Sweden should join depends on political affiliation. This underlines the theoretical assumptions; security and defence policy is not merely a response to an external circumstance, but rather the result of an interplay between circumstance and actor.

  • Kolli, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Cyberkonflikten i Ukraina: Cyberattacker som instrument i tvingande diplomati2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe and explain the Russian use of cyberattacks in the Ukrainian conflict. Two major cyber events, BlackEnergy in 2015 and NotPetya in 2017, are analysed by the theoretical framework of coercive diplomacy developed by Daniel Byman and Matthew Waxman, as well as the theory of cyber coercion made by Daniel R. Flemming and Neil C. Rowe. This paper concludes that the Russian use of cyberattacks could be understood as an extension of their already widespread practice of coercive diplomacy as a foreign policy tool. The cyberattacks were developed to pressure the Ukrainian energy and economic sector, through destabilisation of the economic powerbase and the country as a whole. The cyber offenses are developed to push the Ukrainian politics from western influence back towards the Russian political orbit. This due to the political, economic, and power interests Russia finds in the post-soviet state of Ukraine.

  • Hoffsten, Theodor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demokratiseringsprocesser: En komparativ studie av Ghana och Elfenbenskusten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Atthe beginning of the 19th century, the world consisted of about ten democracies. During the 1990showever, more than 60 of the world's countries counted as democratized.Intherecent decades, the number of democracies in the world has increased by a great deal. Democracy is, in what Samuel P. Huntington describes in his book "The Third wave" its third democratization wave. The first wave started in 1828 and lasted for almost a hundred years. At the same time as thefirstwave slowed down, the first wave of oppression began with the start of the great depression of the 1920s. Atthe end of the Second World War, the second, and short-lived, democratization wave began. It lasted until the mid-1970s. The third, and lastwave,as described by Huntington,is the one that has been going on since 1974 until his book was publishedin 1991.

    In thisthird democratization wave, states went from having a non-democratic rule of law to a democratic system with free elections. Many countries went from being dictatorships to becoming democracies. In the opposing waves, fewer countries went from a democratic government to a more authoritativeonethan in the democratization waves. After the decolonization of the 1960s, the vast majority of African states had embraced authoritarian non-democratic governance and the continent was characterized by one-party states. One of the few countries that followed this wave of democratization was Ghana, a country that counts as a democratic highlightamong dictatorships and hybrid-regimes in the region. Ghana’s peaceful many transitions of powers since their democratization process began in the mid-1990sis standing out amongst their neighbors. What has caused Ghana to succeed? Can Huntington's third democratization wave say anythingabout the reason? And why have not more countries been democratically successful?

  • Hardell, Georg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    PESCO – ett hot mot svensk alliansfrihet?: En kritisk studie av svensk utrikespolitiskpolicy och utökade militära samarbeten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur uppfattas den svenska militära alliansfrihetens ställning i takt med utökade militära samarbeten? Sveriges ingående av PESCO (Permanent Structured Cooperation), ett försvars-och säkerhetspolitiskt samarbete inom EU, har presenterats som ett steg i mot ett militariserat EU. Syftet med den här uppsatsen har varit att redogöra för och förstå underliggande problemframställningar till Sveriges säkerhets-och försvarspolicy samt vilken innebörd svenska policyskapare anseratt ökade samarbeten har för alliansfriheten. För att besvara syftet har regeringens utrikesdeklaration 2018, statens offentliga utredningar om säkerhetssamarbeten och propositionen om Sveriges ingående av PESCO analyserats med Carol Lee Bacchis kritiska policyanalys, What’s the problem represented to be?, och tolkats utifrån det teoretiska ramverket om nationell säkerhet och regionala säkerhetskomplex. Dominerande problemframställningar har presenterats utgöras av ryska aggressioner i östersjöområdet och Ukraina där både den svenska nationella säkerheten och EU:s regionala säkerhet upplevs hotad. Studiens slutsatser sammanfattas till att den nationella och regionala säkerheten upplevs förbättras med PESCO. Policyskapare anser även att alliansfriheten stärks och är beroende av ökade militära samarbeten, något som presenterats som ett nära steg till en allians, men studien kan inte avgöra hur allians friheten skulle påverkas av en direkt konflikt där en involverad stat undertecknat PESCO.

  • Granström, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Den svenska försvarsomställningen: Teknologi, politik eller kultur – en kvalitativ motivanalys2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kalla krigets slut kom att innebära en ökad andel militära försvarsomställningar. Ända sedan dess har det rått delade meningar i forskarvärlden angående hur militära försvarsomställningar ska förklaras; Farrell och Terriff är några av de forskare som försökt förklara dessa genom att skapa en teoretisk förklaringsmodell. Den teoretiska förklaringsmodellen utgår ifrån tre förklarande kategorier: teknologibaserade, politiskastrategiska och kulturbaserade. För att uppfylla syftet med denna uppsats genomfördes en teoriprövning med Farrell och Terriffs teoretiska förklaringsmodell som utgångspunkt för att testa om den kunde förklara den svenska försvarsomställningen. För att kunna genomföra teoriprövningen genomfördes en motivanalys av proposition 2014/15:109 Försvarspolitisk inriktning – Sveriges försvar 2016-2020. Utifrån det analyserade materialet drogs slutsatsen att den teoretiska förklaringsmodellen kunde förklara den svenska försvarsomställningen, främst genom politiska-strategiska orsaker, men att den behöver utvecklas ytterligare för att på ett mer strukturerat och omfattande sätt kunna förklara försvarsomställningar.

  • Burlin, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Varför/varför inte hemberedskap?: Riskmedvetenhet och hemberedskap i Boden kommun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Globalt råder det en enad bild av hushåll som en viktig aktör i krishanteringssystem. Stor del av den tidigare forskningen har visat på att hushåll i Sverige saknar en hemberedskap för att klara sig i 72 timmar utan hjälp från myndigheter, men inte anledningen till varför så är fallet. Därmed identifierades en kunskapslucka om varför vissa hushåll förbereder sig medan andra inte gör det. Syftet för denna studie var därför att finna en förklaring till varför en del hushåll förbereder sig medan andra inte gör det. För att uppfylla syftet användes teorin Relational Theory of Risk vilken förklarar varför och hur individer uppfattar risker och därefter agerar för att förebygga riskerna. Den valda metoden var semi-strukturerade intervjuer med 6 stycken hushåll i Boden kommun, där inriktningen på intervjuerna var vilka risker respondenterna identifierade som hotfulla mot deras hushåll, vilka förberedelser de vidtagit samt hur god deras hemberedskap var. Resultatet visade på att hushåll som hade en lägre riskmedvetenhet hade en sämre hemberedskap respektive de hushåll som hade en högre riskmedvetenhet hade en bättre hemberedskap. Slutsatsen som drogs var att vilka risker hushållen identifierade påverkade deras hemberedskap.

  • Blomqvist, Linnéa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gender Quotas in the Constitution: A method to achieve gender equality?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on earlier research and theories regarding female political representation and its effects on gender equality, the attempt in this study is to investigate whether political gender quotas, legislated in the constitution, has a positive association and effect on gender equality in a society. A substantial number of studies supports the notion that quotas increase female representation in the political context. Yet, few studies examine gender quotas effect on women’s everyday life. The study investigates the variation in gender equality amongst new democracies where countries with gender quotas are compared to countries without. The overall findings appoint that political gender quotas demonstrate more far-reaching effects than to increase the number of women elected. Having a high female representation does affect women’s everyday life and a quota will increase gender equality in a society. This should be regarded as a solid argument in favour of an implementation of a gender quota. Additionally, the results from this study indicate that Anne Phillips theory the Politics of Presence, which points out the importance of having high female representation, does exert an effect.

  • Nair, Sujith
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The temporal dimensions of business incubation: a value-creation perspective2018In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503, E-ISSN 2043-6882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to develop an understanding of business incubation along its temporal dimensions from a value creation perspective. We explore the temporal dimensions of business incubation by conducting a case study of six Swedish incubators with 43 semi-structured interviews of entrepreneurs and incubator coaches and managers. We show that temporality could be understood along the content and process of value creation. Such a delineation brings out the temporal tensions associated with the value creation processes in incubation. Our study adds to the current incubator literature by providing a more comprehensive explanation of its processes from a value creation perspective.

  • Schmidt, Tobias T.
    et al.
    Sharma, Sushma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Reyes, Gloria X.
    Gries, Kerstin
    Gross, Maike
    Zhao, Boyu
    Yuan, Jui-Hung
    Wade, Rebecca
    Chabes, Andrei
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Hombauer, Hans
    A genetic screen pinpoints ribonucleotide reductase residues that sustain dNTP homeostasis and specifies a highly mutagenic type of dNTP imbalance2018In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The balance and the overall concentration of intracellular deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are important determinants of faithful DNA replication. Despite the established fact that changes in dNTP pools negatively influence DNA replication fidelity, it is not clear why certain dNTP pool alterations are more mutagenic than others. As intracellular dNTP pools are mainly controlled by ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), and given the limited number of eukaryotic RNR mutations characterized so far, we screened for RNR1 mutations causing mutator phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 24 rnr1 mutant alleles resulting in diverse mutator phenotypes linked in most cases to imbalanced dNTPs. Among the identified rnr1 alleles the strongest mutators presented a dNTP imbalance in which three out of the four dNTPs were elevated (dCTP, dTTP and dGTP), particularly if dGTP levels were highly increased. These rnr1 alleles caused growth defects/lethality in DNA replication fidelity-compromised backgrounds, and caused strong mutator phenotypes even in the presence of functional DNA polymerases and mismatch repair. In summary, this study pinpoints key residues that contribute to allosteric regulation of RNR’s overall activity or substrate specificity. We propose a model that distinguishes between different dNTP pool alterations and provides a mechanistic explanation why certain dNTP imbalances are particularly detrimental.

  • Brännström, Christin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Fredagsmys - Varför det?En undersökning om upplevelsen av meningsfullhet och påverkan.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sten, Agaton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Gruvan och luftslottet: En undersökning om den regionalpolitiska investeringen i Stekenjokkgruvan 1952-1988 och återspeglingen med Stålverk 802018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen kartlägger Stekenjokkgruvans historiska utveckling utifrån en politisk beslutsprocessmodell. Undersökningsperioden tar start redan vid upptäckten av

    Stekenjokkmalmen år 1918 men uppsatsen fokuserar främst på det tidiga 70-talet, då Stekenjokkgruvan blev en politisk fråga, fram till gruvans nedläggning i november 1988. Idag har Stekenjokkgruvan åter blivit aktuell eftersom ett gruvbolag vill återuppta gruvdriften i området. Utgångspunkten är att problematisera vad staten hade för motiv att investera i Stekenjokkgruvan utifrån en Industrial policy-ansats. Uppsatsen återspeglar även processerna i Stekenjokkfrågan med Stålverk 80 som var en annan samtida statlig industriinvestering.  Detta för att stärka bilden av hur beslutsprocessen gick till vid statliga industriinvesteringar under 70-talet och för att fånga upp vilka faktorer som påverkade beslutet. I denna uppsats dras slutsatsen att statens ingripande i Stekenjokkgruvan kan förklaras av det tidiga 70-talets regionalpolitiska målsättning. Politiken inriktades mot att minska den dåvarande utflyttningstrenden från landsbygden, genom att skapa sysselsättning i form av industrisatsningar i framförallt Norrland. Staten hade även starka samhällsekonomiska skäl att investera i Stekenjokkgruvan. Stålverk 80 kunde även motiveras av liknande anledningar men med skillnad att Stålverk 80 förväntades vara ett mycket företagsekonomiskt lönsamt projekt som till och med skulle förbättra den svenska handelsbalansen.

  • Wenell, Sam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Kyrkoherdens lön i Björklinge församling 1910-1932: En undersökning av dess vardagliga funktion med grund i Martin Heideggers Vara och tid2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master's thesis combines three fields of study, namely the economic history of the Church of Sweden, the Swedish history of wage development, and Martin Heidegger. Initially, I suggest that the wages of the clergy is the best starting point for an economic historian wishing to approach the study of the Church of Sweden. I conclude with regards to previous research on the subject of wage development on the Swedish labor market, that the term ”wage” has been dealt with to an unsatisfying degree on the microhistorical level I have opted to call ”the level of the human condition”. To approach this level I define the term ”wage” based on Martin Heidegger's theory about the human being and her possibilities in the everyday world. Starting out with Heidegger's Being and Time, I analyze the payment of cash wages to the vicar of Björklinge parish 1910-1932, as well as the parsonage tied to that position. The results show that the use of Heidegger's ontology can prove fruitful, though its applicability in matters of empirical studies is yet limited, and that continued theoretical work is needed.

  • Schoemaker, Minouk J.
    et al.
    Nichols, Hazel B.
    Wright, Lauren B.
    Brook, Mark N.
    Jones, Michael E.
    O'Brien, Katie M.
    Adami, Hans-Olov
    Baglietto, Laura
    Bernstein, Leslie
    Bertrand, Kimberly A.
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Braaten, Tonje
    Chen, Yu
    Connor, Avonne E.
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Dossus, Laure
    Eliassen, A. Heather
    Giles, Graham G.
    Hankinson, Susan E.
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Key, Timothy J.
    Kirsh, Victoria A.
    Kitahara, Cari M.
    Koh, Woon-Puay
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    Linet, Martha S.
    Ma, Huiyan
    Masala, Giovanna
    Merritt, Melissa A.
    Milne, Roger L.
    Overvad, Kim
    Ozasa, Kotaro
    Palmer, Julie R.
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Riboli, Elio
    Rohan, Thomas E.
    Sadakane, Atsuko
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Tamirni, Rulla M.
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Ursin, Giske
    Vatten, Lars
    Visvanathan, Kala
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Willett, Walter C.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Yuan, Jian-Min
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    Sandler, Dale P.
    Swerdlow, Anthony J.
    Association of body mass index and age With subsequent breast cancer risk in premenopausal women2018In: JAMA Oncology, ISSN 2374-2437, E-ISSN 2374-2445, Vol. 4, no 11, article id e181771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as wei ght in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation.

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This multicenter analysis used pooled individual-level data from 758 592 premenopausal women from 19 prospective cohorts to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of premenopausal breast cancer in association with BMI from ages 18 through 54 years using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median follow-up was 9.3 years (interquartile range, 4.9-13.5 years) per participant, with 13 082 incident cases of breast cancer. Participants were recruited from January 1,1963, through December 31, 2013, and data were analyzed from September 1.2013, through December 31, 2017.

    EXPOSURES Body mass index at ages 18 to 24, 25 to 34,35 to 44, and 45 to 54 years.

    MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Invasive or in situ premenopausal breast cancer.

    RESULTS Among the 758 592 premenopausal women (median age, 40.6 years; interquartile range, 35.2-45.5 years) included in the analysis, inverse linear associations of BMI with breast cancer risk were found that were stronger for BMI at ages 18 to 24 years (HR per 5 kg/m(2) [5.0-U] difference, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) than for BMI at ages 45 to 54 years (HR per 5.0-U difference, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). The inverse associations were observed even among nonoverweight women. There was a 4.2-fold risk gradient between the highest and lowest BMI categories (BMI >= 35.0 vs <17.0) at ages 18 to 24 years (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.14-0.40). Hazard ratios did not appreciably vary by attained age or between strata of other breast cancer risk factors. Associations were stronger for estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive than for hormone receptor-negative breast cancer for BMI at every age group (eg, for BMI at age 18 to 24 years: HR per 5.0-U difference for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.70-0.81] vs hormone receptor-negative tumors, 0.85 [95% CI: 0.76-0.95]); BMI at ages 25 to 54 years was not consistently associated with triple-negative or hormone receptor-negative breast cancer overall.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The results of this study suggest that increased adiposity is associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer at a greater magnitude than previously shown and across the entire distribution of BMI. The strongest associations of risk were observed for BMI in early adulthood. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.

  • Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Makrofossilanalys av jordprover från kulturlager inom Sandarnaboplatsen, Raä Göteborg 15:1, Västergötland2018Report (Other academic)
  • Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Makrofossilanalys av sex prover från en boplatsmiljö inom Raä 218, Växjö socken, Småland2018Report (Other academic)
  • Wallin, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Pollenanalys av ett prov från ett vattenhål/kallkälla inom Fjelie socken, Raä 54, Lomma kommun, Skåne2018Report (Other academic)