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  • Norman, Anita J.
    et al.
    Stronen, Astrid V.
    Fuglstad, Geir-Arne
    Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz
    Kindberg, Jonas
    Street, Nathaniel R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Spong, Goran
    Landscape relatedness: detecting contemporary fine-scale spatial structure in wild populations2017In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 32, no 1, 181-194 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for detecting contemporary, fine-scale population genetic structure in continuous populations are scarce. Yet such methods are vital for ecological and conservation studies, particularly under a changing landscape. Here we present a novel, spatially explicit method that we call landscape relatedness (LandRel). With this method, we aim to detect contemporary, fine-scale population structure that is sensitive to spatial and temporal changes in the landscape. We interpolate spatially determined relatedness values based on SNP genotypes across the landscape. Interpolations are calculated using the Bayesian inference approach integrated nested Laplace approximation. We empirically tested this method on a continuous population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) spanning two counties in Sweden. Two areas were identified as differentiated from the remaining population. Further analysis suggests that inbreeding has occurred in at least one of these areas. LandRel enabled us to identify previously unknown fine-scale structuring in the population. These results will help direct future research efforts, conservation action and aid in the management of the Scandinavian brown bear population. LandRel thus offers an approach for detecting subtle population structure with a focus on contemporary, fine-scale analysis of continuous populations.

  • Sunduru, Naresh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Svensson, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Cipriano, Mariateresa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Marwaha, Sania
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, David C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Svensson, Richard
    Fowler, Christopher J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    N-aryl 2-aryloxyacetamides as a new class of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors2017In: Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry (Print), ISSN 1475-6366, E-ISSN 1475-6374, Vol. 32, no 1, 513-521 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a promising target for the development of drugs to treat neurological diseases. In search of new FAAH inhibitors, we identified 2-(4-cyclohexylphenoxy)-N-(3-(oxazolo[4,5-b] pyri-din-2-yl) phenyl) acetamide, 4g, with an IC50 of 2.6 mu M as a chemical starting point for the development of potent FAAH inhibitors. Preliminary hit-to-lead optimisation resulted in 2-(4-phenylphenoxy)-N-(3-(oxazolo[4,5-b] pyridin-2-yl)phenyl) acetamide, 4i, with an IC50 of 0.35 mu M.

  • Moradabbasi Fouladi, Arman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Farmaceuter i sjukvården: – En kvantitativ enkätundersökning utifrån farmaceuters och läkares perspektiv i multidisciplinära team i Sörmlands läns landsting2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hudson, Lawrence N.
    et al.
    Newbold, Tim
    Contu, Sara
    Hill, Samantha L. L.
    Lysenko, Igor
    De Palma, Adriana
    Phillips, Helen R. P.
    Alhusseini, Tamera I.
    Bedford, Felicity E.
    Bennett, Dominic J.
    Booth, Hollie
    Burton, Victoria J.
    Chng, Charlotte W. T.
    Choimes, Argyrios
    Correia, David L. P.
    Day, Julie
    Echeverria-Londono, Susy
    Emerson, Susan R.
    Gao, Di
    Garon, Morgan
    Harrison, Michelle L. K.
    Ingram, Daniel J.
    Jung, Martin
    Kemp, Victoria
    Kirkpatrick, Lucinda
    Martin, Callum D.
    Pan, Yuan
    Pask-Hale, Gwilym D.
    Pynegar, Edwin L.
    Robinson, Alexandra N.
    Sanchez-Ortiz, Katia
    Senior, Rebecca A.
    Simmons, Benno I.
    White, Hannah J.
    Zhang, Hanbin
    Aben, Job
    Abrahamczyk, Stefan
    Adum, Gilbert B.
    Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia
    Aizen, Marcelo A.
    Albertos, Belen
    Alcala, E. L.
    del Mar Alguacil, Maria
    Alignier, Audrey
    Ancrenaz, Marc
    Andersen, Alan N.
    Arbelaez-Cortes, Enrique
    Armbrecht, Inge
    Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor
    Aumann, Tom
    Axmacher, Jan C.
    Azhar, Badrul
    Azpiroz, Adrian B.
    Baeten, Lander
    Bakayoko, Adama
    Baldi, Andras
    Banks, John E.
    Baral, Sharad K.
    Barlow, Jos
    Barratt, Barbara I. P.
    Barrico, Lurdes
    Bartolommei, Paola
    Barton, Diane M.
    Basset, Yves
    Batary, Peter
    Bates, Adam J.
    Baur, Bruno
    Bayne, Erin M.
    Beja, Pedro
    Benedick, Suzan
    Berg, Ake
    Bernard, Henry
    Berry, Nicholas J.
    Bhatt, Dinesh
    Bicknell, Jake E.
    Bihn, Jochen H.
    Blake, Robin J.
    Bobo, Kadiri S.
    Bocon, Roberto
    Boekhout, Teun
    Bohning-Gaese, Katrin
    Bonham, Kevin J.
    Borges, Paulo A. V.
    Borges, Sergio H.
    Boutin, Celine
    Bouyer, Jeremy
    Bragagnolo, Cibele
    Brandt, Jodi S.
    Brearley, Francis Q.
    Brito, Isabel
    Bros, Vicenc
    Brunet, Jorg
    Buczkowski, Grzegorz
    Buddle, Christopher M.
    Bugter, Rob
    Buscardo, Erika
    Buse, Joern
    Cabra-Garcia, Jimmy
    Caceres, Nilton C.
    Cagle, Nicolette L.
    Calvino-Cancela, Maria
    Cameron, Sydney A.
    Cancello, Eliana M.
    Caparros, Rut
    Cardoso, Pedro
    Carpenter, Dan
    Carrijo, Tiago F.
    Carvalho, Anelena L.
    Cassano, Camila R.
    Castro, Helena
    Castro-Luna, Alejandro A.
    Cerda, Rolando B.
    Cerezo, Alexis
    Chapman, Kim Alan
    Chauvat, Matthieu
    Christensen, Morten
    Clarke, Francis M.
    Cleary, Daniel F. R.
    Colombo, Giorgio
    Connop, Stuart P.
    Craig, Michael D.
    Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo
    Cunningham, Saul A.
    D'Aniello, Biagio
    D'Cruze, Neil
    da Silva, Pedro Giovani
    Dallimer, Martin
    Danquah, Emmanuel
    Darvill, Ben
    Dauber, Jens
    Davis, Adrian L. V.
    Dawson, Jeff
    de Sassi, Claudio
    de Thoisy, Benoit
    Deheuvels, Olivier
    Dejean, Alain
    Devineau, Jean-Louis
    Diekoetter, Tim
    Dolia, Jignasu V.
    Dominguez, Erwin
    Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth
    Dorn, Silvia
    Draper, Isabel
    Dreber, Niels
    Dumont, Bertrand
    Dures, Simon G.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Edenius, Lars
    Eggleton, Paul
    Eigenbrod, Felix
    Elek, Zoltan
    Entling, Martin H.
    Esler, Karen J.
    De Lima, Ricardo F.
    Faruk, Aisyah
    Farwig, Nina
    Fayle, Tom M.
    Felicioli, Antonio
    Felton, Annika M.
    Fensham, Roderick J.
    Fernandez, Ignacio C.
    Ferreira, Catarina C.
    Ficetola, Gentile F.
    Fiera, Cristina
    Filgueiras, Bruno K. C.
    Firincioglu, Huseyin K.
    Flaspohler, David
    Floren, Andreas
    Fonte, Steven J.
    Fournier, Anne
    Fowler, Robert E.
    Franzen, Markus
    Fraser, Lauchlan H.
    Fredriksson, Gabriella M.
    Freire-, Geraldo B., Jr.
    Frizzo, Tiago L. M.
    Fukuda, Daisuke
    Furlani, Dario
    Gaigher, Rene
    Ganzhorn, Joerg U.
    Garcia, Karla P.
    Garcia-R, Juan C.
    Garden, Jenni G.
    Garilleti, Ricardo
    Ge, Bao-Ming
    Gendreau-Berthiaume, Benoit
    Gerard, Philippa J.
    Gheler-Costa, Carla
    Gilbert, Benjamin
    Giordani, Paolo
    Giordano, Simonetta
    Golodets, Carly
    Gomes, Laurens G. L.
    Gould, Rachelle K.
    Goulson, Dave
    Gove, Aaron D.
    Granjon, Laurent
    Grass, Ingo
    Gray, Claudia L.
    Grogan, James
    Gu, Weibin
    Guardiola, Moises
    Gunawardene, Nihara R.
    Gutierrez, Alvaro G.
    Gutierrez-Lamus, Doris L.
    Haarmeyer, Daniela H.
    Hanley, Mick E.
    Hanson, Thor
    Hashim, Nor R.
    Hassan, Shombe N.
    Hatfield, Richard G.
    Hawes, Joseph E.
    Hayward, Matt W.
    Hebert, Christian
    Helden, Alvin J.
    Henden, John-Andre
    Henschel, Philipp
    Hernandez, Lionel
    Herrera, James P.
    Herrmann, Farina
    Herzog, Felix
    Higuera-Diaz, Diego
    Hilje, Branko
    Hofer, Hubert
    Hoffmann, Anke
    Horgan, Finbarr G.
    Hornung, Elisabeth
    Horvath, Roland
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Isaacs-Cubides, Paola
    Ishida, Hiroaki
    Ishitani, Masahiro
    Jacobs, Carmen T.
    Jaramillo, Victor J.
    Jauker, Birgit
    Jimenez Hernandez, F.
    Johnson, McKenzie F.
    Jolli, Virat
    Jonsell, Mats
    Juliani, S. Nur
    Jung, Thomas S.
    Kapoor, Vena
    Kappes, Heike
    Kati, Vassiliki
    Katovai, Eric
    Kellner, Klaus
    Kessler, Michael
    Kirby, Kathryn R.
    Kittle, Andrew M.
    Knight, Mairi E.
    Knop, Eva
    Kohler, Florian
    Koivula, Matti
    Kolb, Annette
    Kone, Mouhamadou
    Koroesi, Adam
    Krauss, Jochen
    Kumar, Ajith
    Kumar, Raman
    Kurz, David J.
    Kutt, Alex S.
    Lachat, Thibault
    Lantschner, Victoria
    Lara, Francisco
    Lasky, Jesse R.
    Latta, Steven C.
    Laurance, William F.
    Lavelle, Patrick
    Le Feon, Violette
    LeBuhn, Gretchen
    Legare, Jean-Philippe
    Lehouck, Valerie
    Lencinas, Maria V.
    Lentini, Pia E.
    Letcher, Susan G.
    Li, Qi
    Litchwark, Simon A.
    Littlewood, Nick A.
    Liu, Yunhui
    Lo-Man-Hung, Nancy
    Lopez-Quintero, Carlos A.
    Louhaichi, Mounir
    Lovei, Gabor L.
    Lucas-Borja, Manuel Esteban
    Luja, Victor H.
    Luskin, Matthew S.
    MacSwiney G, M. Cristina
    Maeto, Kaoru
    Magura, Tibor
    Mallari, Neil Aldrin
    Malone, Louise A.
    Malonza, Patrick K.
    Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba
    Mandujano, Salvador
    Maren, Inger E.
    Marin-Spiotta, Erika
    Marsh, Charles J.
    Marshall, E. J. P.
    Martinez, Eliana
    Pastur, Guillermo Martinez
    Mateos, David Moreno
    Mayfield, Margaret M.
    Mazimpaka, Vicente
    McCarthy, Jennifer L.
    McCarthy, Kyle P.
    McFrederick, Quinn S.
    McNamara, Sean
    Medina, Nagore G.
    Medina, Rafael
    Mena, Jose L.
    Mico, Estefania
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Milder, Jeffrey C.
    Miller, James R.
    Miranda-Esquivel, Daniel R.
    Moir, Melinda L.
    Morales, Carolina L.
    Muchane, Mary N.
    Muchane, Muchai
    Mudri-Stojnic, Sonja
    Munira, A. Nur
    Muonz-Alonso, Antonio
    Munyekenye, B. F.
    Naidoo, Robin
    Naithani, A.
    Nakagawa, Michiko
    Nakamura, Akihiro
    Nakashima, Yoshihiro
    Naoe, Shoji
    Nates-Parra, Guiomar
    Gutierrez, Dario A. Navarrete
    Navarro-Iriarte, Luis
    Ndang'ang'a, Paul K.
    Neuschulz, Eike L.
    Ngai, Jacqueline T.
    Nicolas, Violaine
    Nilsson, Sven G.
    Noreika, Norbertas
    Norfolk, Olivia
    Noriega, Jorge Ari
    Norton, David A.
    Noeske, Nicole M.
    Nowakowski, A. Justin
    Numa, Catherine
    O'Dea, Niall
    O'Farrell, Patrick J.
    Oduro, William
    Oertli, Sabine
    Ofori-Boateng, Caleb
    Oke, Christopher Omamoke
    Oostra, Vicencio
    Osgathorpe, Lynne M.
    Eduardo Otavo, Samuel
    Page, Navendu V.
    Paritsis, Juan
    Parra-H, Alejandro
    Parry, Luke
    Pe'er, Guy
    Pearman, Peter B.
    Pelegrin, Nicolas
    Pelissier, Raphael
    Peres, Carlos A.
    Peri, Pablo L.
    Persson, Anna S.
    Petanidou, Theodora
    Peters, Marcell K.
    Pethiyagoda, Rohan S.
    Phalan, Ben
    Philips, T. Keith
    Pillsbury, Finn C.
    Pincheira-Ulbrich, Jimmy
    Pineda, Eduardo
    Pino, Joan
    Pizarro-Araya, Jaime
    Plumptre, A. J.
    Poggio, Santiago L.
    Politi, Natalia
    Pons, Pere
    Poveda, Katja
    Power, Eileen F.
    Presley, Steven J.
    Proenca, Vania
    Quaranta, Marino
    Quintero, Carolina
    Rader, Romina
    Ramesh, B. R.
    Ramirez-Pinilla, Martha P.
    Ranganathan, Jai
    Rasmussen, Claus
    Redpath-Downing, Nicola A.
    Reid, J. Leighton
    Reis, Yana T.
    Rey Benayas, Jose M.
    Carlos Rey-Velasco, Juan
    Reynolds, Chevonne
    Ribeiro, Danilo Bandini
    Richards, Miriam H.
    Richardson, Barbara A.
    Richardson, Michael J.
    Macip Rios, Rodrigo
    Robinson, Richard
    Robles, Carolina A.
    Roembke, Joerg
    Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad
    Ros, Matthias
    Rosselli, Loreta
    Rossiter, Stephen J.
    Roth, Dana S.
    Roulston, T'ai H.
    Rousseau, Laurent
    Rubio, Andre V.
    Ruel, Jean-Claude
    Sadler, Jonathan P.
    Safian, Szabolcs
    Saldana-Vazquez, Romeo A.
    Sam, Katerina
    Samnegard, Ulrika
    Santana, Joana
    Santos, Xavier
    Savage, Jade
    Schellhorn, Nancy A.
    Schilthuizen, Menno
    Schmiedel, Ute
    Schmitt, Christine B.
    Schon, Nicole L.
    Schuepp, Christof
    Schumann, Katharina
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Scott, Dawn M.
    Scott, Kenneth A.
    Sedlock, Jodi L.
    Seefeldt, Steven S.
    Shahabuddin, Ghazala
    Shannon, Graeme
    Sheil, Douglas
    Sheldon, Frederick H.
    Shochat, Eyal
    Siebert, Stefan J.
    Silva, Fernando A. B.
    Simonetti, Javier A.
    Slade, Eleanor M.
    Smith, Jo
    Smith-Pardo, Allan H.
    Sodhi, Navjot S.
    Somarriba, Eduardo J.
    Sosa, Ramon A.
    Soto Quiroga, Grimaldo
    St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues
    Starzomski, Brian M.
    Stefanescu, Constanti
    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf
    Stouffer, Philip C.
    Stout, Jane C.
    Strauch, Ayron M.
    Struebig, Matthew J.
    Su, Zhimin
    Suarez-Rubio, Marcela
    Sugiura, Shinji
    Summerville, Keith S.
    Sung, Yik-Hei
    Sutrisno, Hari
    Svenning, Jens-Christian
    Teder, Tiit
    Threlfall, Caragh G.
    Tiitsaar, Anu
    Todd, Jacqui H.
    Tonietto, Rebecca K.
    Torre, Ignasi
    Tothmeresz, Bela
    Tscharntke, Teja
    Turner, Edgar C.
    Tylianakis, Jason M.
    Uehara-Prado, Marcio
    Urbina-Cardona, Nicolas
    Vallan, Denis
    Vanbergen, Adam J.
    Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.
    Vassilev, Kiril
    Verboven, Hans A. F.
    Verdasca, Maria Joao
    Verdu, Jose R.
    Vergara, Carlos H.
    Vergara, Pablo M.
    Verhulst, Jort
    Virgilio, Massimiliano
    Van Vu, Lien
    Waite, Edward M.
    Walker, Tony R.
    Wang, Hua-Feng
    Wang, Yanping
    Watling, James I.
    Weller, Britta
    Wells, Konstans
    Westphal, Catrin
    Wiafe, Edward D.
    Williams, Christopher D.
    Willig, Michael R.
    Woinarski, John C. Z.
    Wolf, Jan H. D.
    Wolters, Volkmar
    Woodcock, Ben A.
    Wu, Jihua
    Wunderle, Joseph M., Jr.
    Yamaura, Yuichi
    Yoshikura, Satoko
    Yu, Douglas W.
    Zaitsev, Andrey S.
    Zeidler, Juliane
    Zou, Fasheng
    Collen, Ben
    Ewers, Rob M.
    Mace, Georgina M.
    Purves, Drew W.
    Scharlemann, Joern P. W.
    Purvis, Andy
    The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 1, 145-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.

  • Hasselquist, Eliza Maher
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hasselquist, Niles J.
    Sparks, Jed P.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Recovery of nitrogen cycling in riparian zones after stream restoration using delta N-15 along a 25-year chronosequence in northern Sweden2017In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 410, no 1-2, 423-436 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish boreal streams were modified to transport timber by pushing boulders to stream sides, creating levees that disconnected streams from riparian areas. Many streams have since been restored and our goal was to understand how this affects riparian nitrogen (N) cycling. We compared the natural abundance of delta N-15 isotopes in foliage and roots of Filipendula ulmaria plus soils and litter along streams restored 2-25 years ago. We measured sources of N, potential immobilization of N, namely plant diversity and biomass, and the amount and sources of carbon (C) to determine if these were important for describing riparian N cycling. The delta N-15 of F. ulmaria foliage changed dramatically just after restoration compared to the channelized, disconnected state and then converged over the next 25 years with the steady-state reference. The disturbance and reconnection of the stream with the riparian zone during restoration created a short-term pulse of N availability and gaseous losses of N as a result of enhanced microbial processing of N. With increasing time since restoration, N availability appears to have decreased, and N sources changed to those derived from mycorrhizae, amino acids, or the humus layer, or there was enhanced N-use efficiency by older, more diverse plant communities.

  • Bandau, Franziska
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta
    Gundale, Michael J.
    Genotypic variability in Populus tremula L. affects how anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment influences litter decomposition2017In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 410, no 1-2, 467-481 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal forests can receive substantial nitrogen (N) enrichment via atmospheric N deposition and industrial forest fertilization. While it is known that N enrichment can impact ecosystem properties, such as litter decomposition, it remains poorly understood how genetic variability within plant species modifies these impacts. We grew replicates of ten Populus tremula L. genotypes (GTs) under 3 N conditions; ambient, and levels representing atmospheric N deposition and industrial forest fertilization. We measured leaf and litter physical and chemical traits, and conducted a litter decomposition assay. Leaf traits varied due to N treatment, GT, and constitutive tannin levels. Leaf traits were in some cases correlated with litter traits, and decomposition was influenced by single and interactive effects of N and GT. Nitrogen addition unexpectedly decelerated decomposition, potentially due to changes in specific leaf area (SLA). Variation in decomposition rates among the GTs was best explained by their differences in SLA, and lignin:N ratio. Nitrogen addition also caused a shift in which traits most strongly influenced decomposition. Our findings highlight that the considerable diversity present in tree species can have a strong influence on ecosystem processes, such as decomposition, and how these processes respond to environmental change.

  • Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Namazzi, Gertrude
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, Mulago Hill Road, Kampala, Uganda.
    Mutebi, Aloysius
    Waiswa, Peter
    Oo, Htet
    Peters, David H.
    George, Asha S.
    Unlocking community capabilities for improving maternal and newborn health: participatory action research to improve birth preparedness, health facility access, and newborn care in rural Uganda2016In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 16, 638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Community capacities and resources must be harnessed to complement supply side initiatives addressing high maternal and neonatal mortality rates in Uganda. This paper reflects on gains, challenges and lessons learnt from working with communities to improve maternal and newborn health in rural Uganda. Methods: A participatory action research project was supported from 2012 to 2015 in three eastern districts. This project involved working with households, saving groups, sub county and district leaders, transporters and village health teams in diagnosing causes of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, developing action plans to address these issues, taking action and learning from action in a cyclical manner. This paper draws from project experience and documentation, as well as thematic analysis of 20 interviews with community and district stakeholders and 12 focus group discussions with women who had recently delivered and men whose wives had recently delivered. Results: Women and men reported increased awareness about birth preparedness, improved newborn care practices and more male involvement in maternal and newborn health. However, additional direct communication strategies were required to reach more men beyond the minority who attended community dialogues and home visits. Saving groups and other saving modalities were strengthened, with money saved used to meet transport costs, purchase other items needed for birth and other routine household needs. However saving groups required significant support to improve income generation, management and trust among members. Linkages between savings groups and transport providers improved women's access to health facilities at reduced cost. Although village health teams were a key resource for providing information, their efforts were constrained by low levels of education, inadequate financial compensation and transportation challenges. Ensuring that the village health teams and savings groups functioned required regular supervision, review meetings and payment for supervisors to visit. Conclusions: This participatory program, which focused on building the capacity of community stakeholders, was able to improve local awareness of maternal and newborn health practices and instigate local action to improve access to healthcare. Collaborative problem solving among diverse stakeholders, continuous support and a participatory approach that allowed flexibility were essential project characteristics that enabled overcoming of challenges faced.

  • Arne, Mats
    et al.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Lisspers, Karin
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Stallberg, Bjorn
    Availability of pulmonary rehabilitation in primary care for patients with COPD: a cross-sectional study in Sweden2016In: EUROPEAN CLINICAL RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, ISSN 2001-8525, Vol. 3, 31601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an important, evidence-based component for the management of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In daily practice, the majority of COPD patients are treated in primary care. However, information about the availability of PR in primary care in Sweden is lacking. The aim was to investigate the availability of rehabilitation resources in primary care settings for patients with COPD in Sweden. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design was applied, using web-based questionnaires sent to all primary care centres in four regions, comprising more than half of the 9.6 million inhabitants of Sweden. The main questionnaire included questions about the content and availability of rehabilitation resources for COPD patients. PR was defined as exercise training and one or more of the following activities: education, nutritional intervention, energy conservation techniques or psychosocial support. Results: A total of 381 (55.9%) of the 682 primary care centres answered the main questionnaire. In addition to physicians and nurses, availability of healthcare professionals for rehabilitation in primary care settings was physiotherapists 92.0%, occupational therapists 91.9%, dieticians 83.9% and social workers or psychologists 98.4%. At 23.7% of all centres, PRwas not available toCOPD patients - neither in primary care nor at hospitals. Conclusion: Despite high availability of professionals for rehabilitation in primary care settings, about one-quarter of managers at primary care centres stated that their COPD patients had no access to PR. This indicates a need to structure resources for rehabilitation and to present and communicate the available resources within the healthcare system.

  • Amroussia, Nada
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hernandez, Alison
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Reproductive health policy in Tunisia: women's right to reproductive health and gender empowerment2016In: Health and Human Rights: An International Journal, ISSN 1079-0969, E-ISSN 2150-4113, Vol. 18, no 2, 183-194 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Tunisia is regarded as a pioneer in the Middle East and North Africa in terms of women's status and rights, including sexual and reproductive health and rights, evidence points to a number of persisting challenges. This article uses the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument (HeRWAI) to analyze Tunisia's reproductive health policy between 1994 and 2014. It explores the extent to which reproductive rights have been incorporated into the country's reproductive health policy, the gaps in the implementation of this policy, and the influence of this policy on gender empowerment. Our results reveal that progress has been slow in terms of incorporating reproductive rights into the national reproductive health policy. Furthermore, the implementation of this policy has fallen short, as demonstrated by regional inequities in the accessibility and availability of reproductive health services, the low quality of maternal health care services, and discriminatory practices. Finally, the government's lack of meaningful engagement in advancing gender empowerment stands in the way as the main challenge to gender equality in Tunisia.

  • Sloniecka, Marta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
    Backman, Ludvig J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Danielson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
    Antiapoptotic Effect of Acetylcholine in Fas-Induced Apoptosis in Human Keratocytes2016In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, no 14, 5892-5902 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To investigate the possible antiapoptotic effect of acetylcholine (ACh) in Fas-mediated apoptosis of primary human keratocytes in vitro, and to explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS. Primary human keratocytes were isolated from healthy corneas. Fas ligand (FasL) was used to induce apoptosis in keratocytes. Cell death was assessed by ELISA. Activity of caspase-3, -7, -8, and -9 was measured with luminescent caspase activity assays. Expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) gene was assessed with RT-quantitative (q)PCR. Cytochrome c release apoptosis assay kit was used to extract mitochondria and cytosol. Cytochrome c release, cleavage of Bid, and expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were determined by Western blot. RESULTS. Cell death ELISA revealed that ACh is able to reduce Fas-induced apoptosis in keratocytes. Analysis of the activity of effector caspases-3 and -7 showed that ACh, when added to Fas-treated cells, decreases the activation of both these enzymes. The activity of initiator caspases -8 and -9 also decreased when ACh was added to Fas-treated cells. This antiapoptotic effect of ACh was dependent on ACh concentration and activation of muscarinic ACh receptors. Analysis of the antiapoptotic mechanisms triggered by ACh showed that ACh downregulates expression of FasL-induced NF-kappa B RNA expression, upregulates expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, downregulates expression of proapoptotic protein Bad, reduces cytochrome c release, and prevents proapoptotic Bid protein cleavage. CONCLUSIONS. Acetylcholine has an antiapoptotic effect in a Fas-apoptosis model of human primary keratocytes in vitro. It is therefore possible that ACh may play a role in corneal wound healing, by modulating its initiation phase.

  • Resch, Ulrike
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Tsatsaronis, James Anthony
    Le Rhun, Anais
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany.
    Stuebiger, Gerald
    Rohde, Manfred
    Kasvandik, Sergo
    Holzmeister, Susanne
    Tinnefeld, Philip
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Charpentier, Emmanuelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany; Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
    A Two-Component Regulatory System Impacts Extracellular Membrane-Derived Vesicle Production in Group A Streptococcus2016In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 7, no 6, e00207-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Export of macromolecules via extracellular membrane-derived vesicles (MVs) plays an important role in the biology of Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria have also recently been reported to produce MVs; however, the composition and mechanisms governing vesiculogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria remain undefined. Here, we describe MV production in the Gram-positive human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS), the etiological agent of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. M1 serotype GAS isolates in culture exhibit MV structures both on the cell wall surface and in the near vicinity of bacterial cells. A comprehensive analysis of MV proteins identified both virulence-associated protein substrates of the general secretory pathway in addition to "anchorless surface proteins." Characteristic differences in the contents, distributions, and fatty acid compositions of specific lipids between MVs and GAS cell membrane were also observed. Furthermore, deep RNA sequencing of vesicular RNAs revealed that GAS MVs contained differentially abundant RNA species relative to bacterial cellular RNA. MV production by GAS strains varied in a manner dependent on an intact two-component system, CovRS, with MV production negatively regulated by the system. Modulation of MV production through CovRS was found to be independent of both GAS cysteine protease SpeB and capsule biosynthesis. Our data provide an explanation for GAS secretion of macromolecules, including RNAs, lipids, and proteins, and illustrate a regulatory mechanism coordinating this secretory response. IMPORTANCE Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen responsible for more than 500,000 deaths annually. Establishment of GAS infection is dependent on a suite of proteins exported via the general secretory pathway. Here, we show that GAS naturally produces extracellular vesicles with a unique lipid composition that are laden with proteins and RNAs. Interestingly, both virulence-associated proteins and RNA species were found to be differentially abundant in vesicles relative to the bacteria. Furthermore, we show that genetic disruption of the virulence-associated two-component regulator CovRS leads to an increase in vesicle production. This study comprehensively describes the protein, RNA, and lipid composition of GAS-secreted MVs and alludes to a regulatory system impacting this process.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-17 09:00 Hörsal E04, Byggnad 6A, Umeå
    Nordstrand, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Prostate cancer and bone cell interactions: implications for metastatic growth and therapy2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The skeleton is the most common site of prostate cancer bone metastasis, and at present, there are no curable treatments for these patients. To further understand what stimulates tumor cell growth in the bone microenvironment and to find suitable therapies, reliable model systems are needed. For this purpose, we have developed an in vitro co-culture system that can be used to study interactions between tumor cells and murine calvarial bones. To validate the model, we measured the release of collagen fragments and monitored changes in expression levels of genes normally expressed during active bone remodeling.

    One of the major reasons why prostate cancer cells colonize bone is the abundance of tumor-stimulating factors, such as insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), present in this milieu. We found that the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was one of the most highly activated receptor tyrosine kinases in tumor cell lines stimulated with bone conditioned media. Since IGF-1 is known to be a strong survival factor for tumor cells, we hypothesized, that concurrent inhibition of IGF-1R signaling can enhance the effects of apoptosis-inducing therapies, such as castration. We used our co-culture model to target human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and 22Rv1, with simvastatin (an inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway and an inducer of apoptosis), in combination with anti-IGF-1R therapy. Tumor cell viability declined with either one of the therapies used alone, and the effect was even more pronounced with the combined treatment. The hypothesis was also tested in rats that had been inoculated with rat prostate cancer cells, Dunning R3327-G, into the tibial bone, and treated with either anti-IGF-1R therapy, castration, or a combination of both therapies. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate therapeutic effects on tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as tumor cell effects on bone remodeling. The tumor cells were found to induce an osteoblastic response, both in vivo in rats, and in vitro using the co-culture model. Interestingly, the therapeutic response differed depending on whether tumor cells were located within the bone marrow cavity or if they had leaked out into the knee joint cavity, highlighting the role of the microenvironment on metastatic growth and therapeutic response. Therapies targeting the IGF-1R have been tested in clinical trials, unfortunately with disappointing results. By immunohistochemical evaluation of bone metastases from patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, we found a large variance in IGF-1R staining within this group of patients. Hence, we postulate that the effects of anti-IGF-1R therapies could be more beneficial in patients with high tumoral IGF-1R-activity than in IGF-1R negative cases. We also believe that side effects, such as hyperglycemia, associated with anti-IGF-1R therapy, could be reduced if this treatment is administered only to selected patients and for shorter time periods.

    In a separate study, using whole-genome expression data from bone metastases obtained from prostate cancer patients, we present evidence that a high activity of osteoblasts is coupled to a high activity of osteoclast. Moreover, we found that high bone remodeling activity is inversely related to tumor cell androgen receptor (AR) activity. The results from this study may be of importance when selecting therapy for patients with bone metastatic cancer, especially when bone-targeting therapies are considered, and could aid in the search for novel therapeutic targets.

    In summary, we present an in vitro model for studies of the bidirectional interplay between prostate cancer cells and the bone microenvironment. We also demonstrate the importance of IGF-1 in prostate cancer bone metastases and suggest that inhibition of IGF-1R signaling can be used to treat prostate cancer as well as to enhance effects of other treatments such as androgen deprivation therapy. Furthermore, we emphasize the possibility of molecular tumor characterization when designing treatment plans for individual patients, thereby maximizing the therapeutic effects.

  • Lundström, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ivarsson, Catarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    "Kvinnor kan amma, män kan inte": Mäns erfarenhet och upplevelse av amning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Kvinnor kan amma, män kan inte” Mäns erfarenhet och upplevelse av amning Sammanfattning Det har visat sig att amningsfrekvensen har minskat i Sverige. Om amning ska fungera är det viktigt att involvera partnern. Partnern har en viktig roll för hur länge kvinnan väljer att amma sitt barn. Trots detta fokuserar vården endast på kvinnan. Syftet med studien är att belysa mäns upplevelse och erfarenhet av amning. Metod för att studera detta ämne gjordes en Kvalitativ intervjustudie. Genom semistrukturella intervjuer har författarna tagit del av mäns erfarenheter och upplevelser av amning. Åtta män intervjuades och kvalitativ innehållsanalys

    användes som metod när resultatet analyserades. Resultat visade att männen upplevde amning som något naturligt och det bästa för barnet. Männen upplevde att det var kvinnan som tagit beslut om att amma och detta sågs som en självklarhet eftersom män inte kan amma. Det framkom att männen känt sig hjälplösa och utanför den närhet som mamma och barn får genom amning. De upplevde att de varit behjälpliga i den mån de kunnat under amningsperioden. De hade funnits där som stöd för kvinnan genom att utföra både praktiska och emotionella moment. Dock framkom att de känt sig oförberedda och att de önskat mer information och stöd från vården. Upplevelsen var att fokus låg på kvinnan. Slutsats För att männen ska bli delaktiga i amningen är det viktigt att på ett tidigt stadie engagera männen i amningsprocessen. Resultatet visar att mäns status behöver höjas när det kommer till amning och deras betydelse måste synliggöras. Nyckelord: Amning, män, partner, upplevelser, erfarenheter

  • Övling, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Kvarnström, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Barn som anhörig: distriktssköterskors hantering inom primärvården i Västerbotten2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Barn till föräldrar med svår psykisk eller somatisk sjukdom, med missbruk eller som avlidit, har ökad risk för framtida psykisk ohälsa. Hälso- och sjukvårdslagen samt Patientsäkerhetslagen fick ett tillägg 2010/2011 med syfte att uppmärksamma och stärka gruppen barn som anhöriga. Tilläget i lagen har tagit lång tid att implementera i sjukvården.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva i vilken omfattning distriktssköterskor inom primärvården i Västerbotten identifierar barn till förälder/annan närstående med missbruk, psykisk ohälsa, allvarlig fysisk sjukdom eller när förälder/annan närstående avlider och om dessa barn följs upp med information, råd och stöd.

    Metod: En omarbetad version av en enkät som använts i en uppsats på Masterprogrammet i hälsovetenskap vid Karlstad universitet användes. Enkäten skickades först ut som webbenkät men på grund av låg svarsfrekvens distribuerades en pappersenkät under distrikssköterskedagarna i Umeå. Studien vände sig till 190 distriktssköterskor på hälsocentraler i Västerbotten, varav 79 deltog. SPSS 23 användes för analysering av materialet.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att vetskap om riktlinjer samt utbildning inom området bidrar till att barn som anhöriga identifieras i högre grad. Kunskap om journalföring samt vetskap om riktlinjer är låg och det är få distriktssköterskor som har fått utbildning inom ämnet barn som anhörig. 

    Slutsats: Utbildning, kunskap om riktlinjer och journalföring är de viktigaste faktorerna för att öka medvetenheten om barn som anhöriga.  

     

    Nyckelord: Barn som anhöriga; psykiskt sjuk förälder; somatiskt sjuk förälder; förälder med missbruk; familjefokuserad omvårdnad.

  • Bergman, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Johansson, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att arbeta med telefonrådgivning: -En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of having telephone triage is to decrease the number of doctor appointments and to increase the availability by getting the patient to the right level of care from the start. The nurses working with telephone triage should make adequate and informed decisions based on the patient's health problem. They should also give the patient a sense of security. Telephone triage is an independent and challenging work task that requires the nurse to be competent.  

    Purpose: To illustrate how nurses experience working with telephone triage

    Method: Eight nurses working with telephone triage were interviewed using semi-structured questions. A qualitative analysis was performed to review and interpret the results.  

    Results: By performing the qualitative analysis five categories and some subcategories were found to be important. The five categories are; To give good service, The need of recovery, To be challenged, To be professional and To develop at work.

    Conclusion: This study has given light to the complexity of working with telephone triage to people with various symptoms in all ages. The job requires extensive experience, competence and the ability to work independently. The study has shown that the nurses have a positive experience of working with telephone triage and shows that it requires clear strategies for it to be performed without risking the patient safety.  

  • Westin, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sjögren, Ann-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Vad kännetecknar skolsköterskans hälsofrämjande arbete med nyanlända och asylsökande barn?: - En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Background. Sweden is one of the European countries that received the largest number of refugees in recent years and a large proportion of these are children. Asylum-seeking children are at greater risk of mental and physical illness. Since all children living in Sweden have the right to go to school, the school nurse has a unique role in the detection of illness and health promotion for this group of children. Objective. To describe what characterizes the school nurse's health promotion work with newly arrived and asylum-seeking children. Method. The study has a qualitative, inductive approach. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted in the Umeå region. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. Results. The result is presented in three categories. Under the category dedication descriptions of school nurses focus on the children's needs, personal involvement and meeting challenges is reported. Under development descriptions of how adaptation of procedures and their priority, of time is presented. Finally, under collaboration descriptions of cooperation and collaboration with family, school staff and external agencies is described. Conclusion. To develop procedures and forms of cooperation would simplify and streamline the work of school nurses and make more time for health promoting and preventative work with newly arrived and asylum-seeking children. A need for more knowledge about this student group was identified. Targeted training and education for school nurses could enhance the experience of professional skills in the work with newly arrived and asylum-seeking children. Keywords. School nurse, refugee children, mental health, student health, experience, health promotion.

  • Landström, Amanda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lidström, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Vietnamese nursing students’ knowledge and attitudes to hospital-acquired infections and hygiene guidelines: An empirical cross-sectional study2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Vietnamese nursing students’ knowledge and attitudes to hospital-acquired infections and hygiene guidelines.

    Background: Increased hospital-acquired infections are a global concern. Compliance to hygiene guidelines is essential to prevent infections in health care. Knowledge and attitudes are important factors that affect implementations of precautions in health care.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitudes of Vietnamese nursing students’ in year 2, 3 and 4 regarding hospital-acquired infections and hygiene guidelines.

    Method: An empirical cross-sectional study were 2 questionnaires with set responses was answered by 235 nursing students at a Vietnamese university.

    Result: The result showed that the students’ knowledge was overall at a moderate level. The 3rd year students reported best amount of knowledge, 2nd year the next best and 4th year students reported the lowest. Students’ attitudes regarding hand hygiene were mostly positive. Questions students reported negative attitudes into were regarded priorities due to lack of time and resources, the effort of remember hand hygiene actions and comfort in reminding other health care workers. Students in 4th year were the ones with the least positive attitudes while year 2 and 3 were more equal.

    Conclusion: The scores on the hand hygiene (HH) knowledge test improved from year 2 to year 3 but decreased in year 4. The amount of positive attitudes in the subject was equal in year 2 and 3 but less positive in year 4. This indicates that infection control training needs to be ongoing during all the education. We also think it should be highlighted to clinical supervisors and other HCWs that they have a responsibility to emphasize the importance of hand hygiene when teaching future nurses.

  • Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Larsson, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Tolken som min röst: Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att arbeta medtolksamtal i asylhälsan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim was to study nurses' experience of working with interpreter conversations inmigrant health.Background: The last years increase in refugees has created rising demands on migranthealth and interpreters in primary healthcare. Lack of communication can hinder nurses' careand knowledge of the experience of interpreter conversations is therefore important,something lacking in research. The National Board of Health and Welfares survey describedproblems of availability of medical interpreters and an unequal situation nationwide.Methods: The study was a qualitative interview study with seven nurses. Interviews wererecorded, transcribed and analyzed with qualitative content analysis.Results: Three main categories were identified: The interpreter’s role affects the conversationdescribed how interpreter professionality could enable or disable the conversation as couldinterpreter sex and culture. The nurses' role affects the conversation described how theprofessionality of the nurse was essential as they needed to find own solutions workwise aswell as the pursuit of a caring conversation with the patient. The organization affects theconversation described a limiting organization with a lack of interpreters, structure andcooperation between healthcare and authorities. Education was stressed as quality-assurance.Conclusions: Nurses need the interpreter as bridge for their voice to enable good care. Thereis need for a systematic way to work with interpreters through education and Nurse-Interpreter training. This would quality-assure healthcare and improve working conditions.Competence in transcultural nursing is important for equal health care in today's multiculturalSweden

  • Edström, Emelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Simmons, Ella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Avvikelserapportering: En möjlighet och skyldighet men finns förutsättningarna?: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av avvikelserapportering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Bakgrund: Tio procent av de patienter som vårdas på svenska sjukhus drabbas av en vårdskada. Avvikelserapportering är en av hörnstenarna i patientsäkerhetsarbetet som syftar till att undvika uppkomst av vårdskador. Att arbeta patientsäkert är en del av sjuksköterskans kärnkompetenser och utöver det är sjuksköterskor enligt patientsäkerhetslagen skyldiga att rapportera händelser, som har eller hade kunnat resultera i en vårdskada.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av avvikelserapportering.

    Metod: En kvalitativ intervjustudie utfördes. Sex yrkesverksamma sjuksköterskor som arbetade på ett större sjukhus i norra regionen i Sverige intervjuades.

    Resultat: Sjuksköterskornas främsta motiv till att skriva avvikelserapporter var att belysa fel i verksamheten. Det fanns flera hinder för skriva avvikelserapporter. Dessa var hög arbetsbelastning, tidsbrist, organisatoriska problem och att det av olika skäl kan vara känsligt att skriva en avvikelserapport. Samtliga sjuksköterskor hade erfarenheter av återkoppling men ansåg att den återkoppling som brukade ges var undermålig och de ansåg även att avvikelserapporterer sällan leder till någon förändring i verksamheten.

    Konklusion: Det finns flera faktorer som försämrar sjuksköterskors förutsättningar för att skriva avvikelserapporter. Ökad kunskap inom området skulle kunna generera att fler avvikelserapporter skrivs. Det skulle i sin tur bidra till en patientsäkrare vård.

  • Bäckman, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Helena, Grundberg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hur agerar vi när vi ser?: En studie om sjuksköterskors anmälningsbenägenhet gällande barn som far eller riskerar att fara illa2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte. Syftet med studien var att kartlägga sjuksköterskors anmälningsbenägenhet angående barn som far illa samt jämföra anmälningsbenägenhet avseende arbetsplats, erfarenhet och ålder inom primärvården. Bakgrund. Trots rådande anmälningsplikt gällande barn som far eller riskerar att fara illa anmäls endast en bråkdel av de fall där misstanke finns. Riktlinjer för tillvägagångssätt saknas ofta och sjuksköterskor utrycker bristande stöd från arbetsgivare och kollegor vid en orosanmälan. Osäkerhet och en vilja att bibehålla goda relationer med föräldrarna leder till minskad benägenhet att anmäla. Design. Tvärsnittsstudie med enkäter. Metod. 39 sjuksköterskor, barnsjuksköterskor och distriktssköterskor inom primärvården i Västerbotten, Sverige besvarade enkäten. Bakgrundsvariabler och skattning av intervention efter läst fallbeskrivning användes i studien och analyserades med frekvenser, genomsnittsmått, spridningsmått. Gruppjämförelser utfördes med hjälp av Mann-Whitney U-test. Resultat. Sjuksköterskor med lång erfarenhet har högre grad av anmälningsbenägenhet jämfört med sjuksköterskor med kort erfarenhet. De avvaktade i lägre grad samt tillfrågade verksamhetschefen i lägre grad jämfört med sjuksköterskor med kort erfarenhet. Resultatet visar även att yngre sjuksköterskor i högre grad avvaktar och ser hur det utvecklas jämfört med äldre sjuksköterskor. Konklusion. Skillnader i hanteringssätt av orosanmälan hos sjuksköterskor visar att vem barnet möter har betydelse. Sammantaget ser resultatet av studien ut att peka mot att lång erfarenhet och hög ålder är betydelsefulla variabler när sjuksköterskor handhar ett ärende som berör barn som far illa. 

  • Nordström, Pernilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Tyboni, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Att leva med tarmstomi: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: En tarmstomi är en öppning på magen för tarmen, från vilken avföring kommer ut och samlas upp i en påse. Den kan anläggas vid olika sjukdomstillstånd, för att tarmen ska avlastas eller för att en bit av den ska opereras bort. Förutom en förändring av kroppen och förlust av kontrollen över tarmen kan en tarmstomi innebära att livskvaliteten påverkas. Den kan ge upphov till problem med gaser och läckage och kan medföra livsstilsförändringar. Sexualiteten kan också påverkas.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva personers upplevelser av att leva med tarmstomi.

    Metod: Resultatet på 10 kvalitativa, vetenskapliga artiklar har granskats, analyserats och sammanställts utifrån en kvalitativ ansats. Sökningarna gjordes i Cinahl och Pubmed.

    Resultat: Resultatet utmynnade i tre huvudkategorier med sju, två och fyra underkategorier: Svårigheter- En förändrad kropp och försämrad självbild, Att vilja dölja, Att inte acceptera och kontrollbehov, Oro samt känslor av skam och orenhet, Sexualitet- och relationsproblem, Sociala och ekonomiska problem, Informationsbrist, materialproblem och dåligt anpassade toaletter. Ett förändrat liv- Ständig planering, Förändrat kostintag. Ett bra fungerande liv- Anpassning och acceptans, Anhörigas betydelse, Arbete och utbildning, Ökad livskvalitet och nya möjligheter.

    Konklusion: En stomi innebär en förändring av både kroppen och av livet. Det är viktigt för sjuksköterskan att i möte med personer med stomi vara lyhörd för de olika upplevelser en stomi kan ge upphov till.

    Nyckelord:  Tarmstomi, upplevelse, kroppsbild, sexualitet

  • Hollsten, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Tollofsén, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelser av att ge egenvårdsråd via telefon2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskor som arbetar med telefonrådgivning är ofta utbildade distriktssköterskor. Vid telefonrådgivning ska sjuksköterskan kunna bedöma patientens tillstånd och vilken vårdnivå som är lämplig. Vid tillstånd där det är lämpligt föreslås egenvårdsråd. Som stöd för besluten används ofta rådgivningsstöd.

    Syfte: Beskriva distriktssköterskors upplevelser av att ge egenvårdsråd via telefon.

    Metod: Kvalitativ metod användes. Datainsamling har gjorts genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med tolv distriktssköterskor. Intervjuerna analyserades med manifest kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Analysen resulterade i tre kategorier; ’Faktorer som försvårar att ge goda egenvårdsråd’, ’Faktorer som underlättar att ge goda egenvårdsråd’ och ’Faktorer som påverkar i sökandet efter egenvårdsråd’. Dessa kategorier utmynnade i sammanlagt tio underkategorier; ‘Att inte se patienten’, ‘Kommunikativa och kulturella problem’, ‘Att ge goda råd kan vara en stressande och betungande uppgift’, ‘Betydelsen av kunskap och erfarenhet’, ‘Rådgivningsstöd underlättar vid osäkerhet’, ‘Att skapa förtroende’, ‘Vikten av en grundlig anamnes’, ‘Betydelsen av motivation och uppföljning’, ‘Kön och åldersfaktorer’ och ‘Patienters kunskap och informationssökande’.

    Slutsats: Att ge egenvårdsrådgivning i telefon är många gånger en utmaning men även utvecklande för distriktssköterskor. Distriktssköterskans möjlighet att skapa förtroende under telefonsamtalet kan underlätta möjligheten att ge goda egenvårdsråd. Vid egenvårdsrådgivning i telefon är det viktigt att medvetandegöra och utveckla förmågan att lyssna eftersom distriktssköterskan inte ser patienten. Rådgivningsstöd anses vara bra men det kan inte ersätta distriktssköterskors individuella kunskaper. 

  • Olsson, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Alstergren, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Upplevelsen att leva med en kvinnlig partner som behandlas för bröstcancer: En Litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease for women. Each year, around 9700 individuals develop breast cancer worldwide. Being diagnosed with breast cancer often cause great concern and uncertainty towards the future, which also applies to the women’s partners who also gets affected. Therefore, it can be important that health care professionals don’t forget to give partners support and help, as partners might feel powerless and undergo enormous suffering.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how partners to women with breast cancer experience their situation.

    Method: The design of this study was a systematic literature study based on 11 scientific articles. Data acquisition was conducted by research in the Medline and Cinahl databases. Quality checks and analyses of the articles were made through manifest content analyzes.

    Results: Partners to women with breast cancer are affected by the women’s disease as well. Their experience of the situation varies and is very individual. The suffering of the partners can be relieved by support, information and meetings with health care professionals. These meetings are important for the partners well-being and for them to cope with their new life circumstances.

    Conclusion: Health care professionals have a key role in easing the suffering that partners experience as a result of the women’s breast cancer. More time from health care professionals should be devoted into identifying adequate support measures for partners.

     

    Keywords: spouses, breast cancer, experiences, information

  • Nordqvist, Ann-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Westerlund, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Är föräldrar viktiga?: En studie om föräldrasamverkan i särskolan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har undersökt hur personal i särskolan upplever och beskriver sin föräldrasamverkan. Studien belyser vilka möjligheter och hinder personalen beskriver att det finns i samarbetet med föräldrar och hur föräldrarna påverkar barnets skolgång genom sitt eget intresse och engagemang. De frågeställningar som ligger till grund för studien är hur personalen beskriver föräldrasamverkan och sin relation till föräldrar. Hur personalen uppfattar och beskriver föräldrars roll, engagemang och intresse i elevens skolgång. Dessutom vilka möjligheter och hinder som personalen uppfattar finns i samarbetet med föräldrar. Huvudmetod för studien har genomförts med webbenkäter till anställda inom flera olika särskoleverksamheter. Dessutom har intervjuer gjorts med två informanter. Resultaten från enkäter och intervjuer har sammanställts och analyserats. I studien konstateras att personalen anser att föräldrasamverkan är viktigt ur flera olika synvinklar och att det är mycket viktigt att föräldrar skall känna sig trygga med skolan och personalen som arbetar där för att eleverna skall lyckas i skolan.

  • Löfgren, Amanda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Myrman, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av bemötandet från hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal vid endometrios: -En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    Background: Endometriosis consists of endometrial tissue outside the uterus and affects approximately one in every ten women. Symptoms such as dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysuria and dischezi are common. Endometriosis is experienced by women as a very painful disease, and their lives are affected daily from it. Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe women’s experience with health professionals and their encounters with them, while living with endometriosis. Method: In this literature study ten articles were quality controlled and a qualitative manifest content analysis was made to receive a result. Searches for articles has been done in three databases, PubMed, Cinahl and PsychINFO. Results: Three main categories were identified, lack of a favourable encounter, lack of knowledge and positive health care meetings. The literature study shows that the women was encountered with disbelief, normalization of symptoms and difficulties in getting a referral to specialists. Conclusion: The result of the literature study shows that a lack of knowledge among health professionals exists and that this should be addressed. A better knowledge of endometriosis could lead to an improved encounter between women with endometriosis and health professionals.

  • Moberg-Venter, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jag ville hoppa av min utbildning och min framtid": En studie om avhopp från gymnasieskolans yrkesprogram och vikten av skolans insatser för att förhindra avhopp2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to statistics, it is common that Upper Secondary school students in vocational programs drop out. The aim of this study was to find out why these students decide to complete their education after having considered a dropout. How many students considered dropping out, who are those students and what reasons did they have? What thoughts and experiences did they have of the schools attempt to prevent them from dropping out? To collect data to this study a survey was used, followed by qualitative interviews. The data was later analyzed based on Antonovsky’s Sense of Coherence. The results showed that half of the students had at some point considered dropping out of school. The three main reasons for dropping out were: low motivation, mental health problems and that the education lacked quality. The top three reasons for wanting to pursue their education were: wanting an education, parents´ expectations and social interaction with friends. All students agreed that they have good relations with someone working at the school whom is willing to listen to them. One conclusion is that a healthy and safe school environment and good relations between school staff and students is a key to prevent school dropouts.

  • Alieva, Jamila
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Retail Management: factors influencing profit maximization and customer satisfaction.: A case study of airport operations and concession management.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Airport performance is highly depended on effective retail management and management of airport concession. This thesis is tend to find the answer for two research questions developed, with a purpose to offer optimization of the dependency in a most convenient way:

     

    What are the factors influencing successful retail operations in airports?

    and

    How to increase profit maximization and customers satisfaction through effective concession management?

     

    The purpose of these research questions is to discover what is retail management in airport business sector. How airport operations management planning, implementing and evaluating their strategic decisions to generate revenues. More specifically, the purpose is focused on customers satisfaction and profit maximization approaches discovering airports. What is a correlation between attributes affecting airport revenue generation and operations management approaches, applied in different cases, when building relations with concessionaires. After conducting the survey with thirty international airports around the world, the importance of each attribute creating direct impact on customer satisfaction was measured and evaluated. The correlation between airport concession management types and the profit maximization was also identified and discussed. The research also became a starting point to investigate more factors influencing retail operations in airports.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-17 10:00 Lilla hörsalen, Umeå
    Nilsson, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kinetic stabilization of transthyretin and its role as an inhibitor of Aβ amyloid formation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Amyloid formation occurs when normally soluble proteins and peptides misfold and aggregate into intractable threadlike structures called fibrils. There are currently more than 30 proteins associated with this aberrant structure, including the Aβ peptide in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and transthyretin (TTR) in TTR amyloidosis. TTR is a homotetrameric transporter protein present in both cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Dissociation of its tetrameric structure is required for the formation of amyloid fibrils. Small molecule ligands able to bind and stabilize the tetrameric structure of TTR thus represent a potential therapeutic intervention. Interestingly, apart from TTR’s role as a toxic agent in TTR amyloidosis, it also has a role as an inhibitor of the Aβ toxicity associated with AD. The work presented in this thesis focused on small molecules that have the potential ability to prevent TTR amyloidosis. We also sought to gain a greater understanding of the interaction between TTR and the Aβ peptide with respect to Aβ fibril formation.

    The ability of a drug to stabilize TTR is directly correlated to its binding affinity. However, since TTR is a plasma protein, it is of great importance that the drug binds selectively to TTR. In paper I, we used a newly developed urea denaturation assay, in combination with isothermal titration calorimetry, to show that, in a complex environment such as plasma, the enthalpy of binding correlates better with a drug’s ability to stabilize TTR than the binding affinity. In paper II, we modified the highly selective but rapidly degraded TTR ligand luteolin in order to increase its resistance against biotransformation. Using a liver-based microsome assay, in combination with HPLC, we show how the luteolin analogues have gained increased stability. However, using the urea assay, we also show that the analogues have lost much of luteolin’s selectivity. In paper III, we show that tetrabromobisphenol A is a highly selective binder of TTR in plasma and is able to rescue cells from TTR-induced toxicity. In paper IV, we studied the interaction of TTR with Aβ and its effect on Aβ fibril formation. We used a ThT fluorescence-based assay and dot blotting to show that TTR inhibits Aβ amyloid formation and promotes the formation of high molecular weight assemblies with an open N-terminus. Using surface plasmon resonance, we further show how TTR is unable to inhibit fibril elongation and instead targets the nucleation processes, both primary and fibril-catalyzed secondary nucleation. To conclude, we present new molecules with the ability to selectively stabilize TTR that can serve as scaffolds in drug design. We also elucidate TTR’s inhibiting effects on toxic Aβ amyloid formation.

  • Mangal, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Konsumentrapportering av läkemedelsbiverkningar jämfört med rapportering från sjukvården: – En retrospektiv analys av den svenska databasen för biverkningsrapportering 2012 och 20142017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Peterson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Characterization of drugrelated problems and associated factors at a clinical pharmacy-naïve hospital in the northern part of Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Logeswaran, Suthanthan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hand preference and manual midline crossing in 12-month-old infants2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has found that hand preference can be detected reliably in infants as young as 6 months of age through the use of reach-grasp tasks. While many studies have targeted their efforts at discerning hand preference in infants younger than 12-months of age, a lack of knowledge about hand preference during the ages of 1-2 years remain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 12-month-old infants demonstrate a clear hand use preference during unimanual reaching and grasping. Participants consisted of 54 healthy, full term 12-month-old infants (+2/-2 weeks). Goal objects were placed at a reachable distance, in front of the infants and randomly allocated to either left, midline or right positions. Infant hand choices and the success of each grasp were coded offline from video recordings made of the reach-grasp sessions and an overall lateralisation index (LI) was calculated later for each infant. The results demonstrated that the 12-month-old infants were generally right-preferred. Additionally, almost double the frequency of grasps were accounted for by right hand grasps. Further, a significant right hand preference was found when children reached across the midline to grasp objects. The findings imply that hand preference may be readily observed in the prehension activities of 12-month-old infants, and particularly prominent when reaching across the midline.

  • Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kron, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trafiksäkerhet ur ambulansförares perspektiv: En kvalitativ studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate paramedics’ view on traffic safety. This was to highlight factors that create traffic risks and thereby give suggestions for improvements that will reduce the risk factors. Sixteen paramedics at an ambulance station in a medium-sized Swedish city were interviewed using a semi-structured interview method. A thematic analysis was performed on the content of the interviews. The analysis demonstrated four main themes regarding traffic risk factors and one theme regarding the participants’ suggestions for improvements. The conducted study shows that the interviewed paramedics have a clear safety philosophy. However, many improvements can be made regarding, for example, the driver’s environment in the ambulance as well as the interaction between ambulances and other road users.

  • Rönnqvist, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hur gör du för att se mig?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många ungdomar i gymnasieskolan saknar någon form av ett skyddsnät i sitt liv, det kan till exempel vara att det saknas en vuxen i familjen som hjälper och stöttar eleven under skolgången. Det är då av stor vikt att ungdomarna möter mentorer i skolan som genom att uppmärksamma eleven snabbt kan se hur måendet är. Det är i kontakten med mentorn och ett nära samarbete med skolans elevhälsa som det kan säkerställas om stödinsatser behöver sättas in, mentorer behöver se, tolka och agera på ett sätt som är gynnsamt för eleven. Genom intervjuer med nio gymnasielever har elevernas syn på mentorskapet visat på att mentorer som tar sig tid, uppmärksammar och visar ett genuint intresse för sina mentorselever når fram till dessa elever och har möjlighet att sätta in eventuella åtgärder. Den teori som använts för resultattolkning är det kommunikativa och relationsinriktade perspektivet, KoRP. Resultatet i studien visar att det finns ett antal ramfaktorer, som till exempel organisationen på skolan, hur mycket tid som ges till mentorskapet och vilken kunskap mentorn har kring mentorskap och specialpedagogik, som kan påverka och försvåra mentorskapet dessa ramfaktorer behöver synliggöras och diskuteras på skolan genom ett samarbete mellan mentor, skolledning och elevhälsan behövs för att få mentorskapet till det mest framgångsrika verktyget till att hjälpa eleverna i sitt lärande.

  • Nilsson, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Musik – en väg att inkludera: En studie av ett försök att inkludera elever med neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar med hjälp av musikprojektet El Sistema.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats består av en observationsstudie av projektet El Sistema i Umeå kommuns regi med fokus på inkludering av elever med neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar. Syftet med studien var att beskriva och analysera hur projektet El Sistema lyckats med att inkludera elever i musikundervisningen. Utifrån syfte och den allmänt kända problematiken kring inkludering av elever med neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar i skolan belystes följande frågor: Hur anpassar projektet El Sistema musikundervisningen för elever med neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar? Vilka effekter bedömer projektets pedagoger att musikundervisningen haft för elever med neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar? Studien var kvalitativ där tonvikten oftare ligger på ord än på siffror vid analys och insamling av data. Forskaren hade en kunskapsteoretisk ståndpunkt där huvudfokus låg på att få en förståelse av den sociala verkligheten. De datakällor som användes var deltagande observation samt videobaserad observation. Den huvudsakliga analysen har skett "kontinuerligt under själva datainsamlingsmomentet". Ytterligare information samlades in med hjälp av skriftliga källor och med intervju. Enligt studiens resultat medförde kontinuiteten av att ha musikundervisning två gånger i veckan under en hel termin att de flesta elever som från början inte ville delta i musikundervisningen deltog mer frekvent i slutet av densamma samt att de kände sig lugnare och tryggare.

  • Hänström, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Barnlitteraturens betydelse i förskolan: en kvalitativ studie kring pedagogers syn på böcker i förskolans verksamhet2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på hur ett antal pedagoger ser på barnlitteratur i förskolan och hur de arbetar med litteraturen för att nå ett lärande. Studien är av kvalitativ form och fokuserar på informaternas uppfattningar kring arbetet med barnlittertur. Tre förskollärare på tre olika förskolor intervjuades. Resultaten utifrån denna studie visar att informanterna anser att barnlitteratur är en viktig del av förskolans verksamhet som främjar barns språkutveckling. Böcker används dagligen i både underhållande och lugnande syfte men till största del ett medel för att utveckla barns språkmedvetenhet. Men boken anses även som ett bra verktyg i många andra avseenden så som en start på ett temaarbete, innehåll i en samling och ett sätt att hantera konflikter och svåra känslor.

  • Bergqvist, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Tillman Karlsson, Fanny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att placera barn inom nätverket - möjligheter, svårigheter och skillnader: En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares erfarenheter kring nätverksplaceringar i jämförelse med ”främmande” familjehem.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Granlund, Jeanette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    ” Spiteful as a woman, but not so nervous”: En kvalitativ studie om representationen av kvinnlighet i utvalda dikter av Sylvia Plath2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie analyseras sju dikter ur Sylvia Plaths diktsamling ”Ariel”. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka representationen av kvinnlighet och manlighet i utvalda dikter från Sylvia Plaths diktsamling ”Ariel”. Metoden som har använts är diskursanalys som använder begreppen av Laclau och Mouffe. Dessa begrepp användes även som teori, samt att teorier av Judith Butler och Lena Gemzöe har använts. Studien visade på att kvinnligheten i Plaths dikter är väldigt ambivalent, detta gällde även för de manliga subjekten som figurerar i texten men kunde dock ses som mer normativa.

  • Engberg, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Parallellhandel med läkemedel. Missbrukar dominanta läkemedelsföretag sin ställning i försöken att begränsa parallellhandeln?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Gainulina, Vasilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Setiawan, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    CSR Integration in SMEs: An Exploratory Study of Corporate Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility in SMEs in the Nordic Countries2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of addressing the topic of sustainable development has been widely acknowledged, and the researchers call for future studies that would develop new perspectives on integrating sustainability in the business context. Currently, most of such studies focus on large companies, whereas it has been shown that the impact of SMEs on the economy, the society and the environment is also significant.

    The present work aims at exploring the integration of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate sustainability (CS) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Nordic countries. Adopting a qualitative dominant mixed research method, the following objectives are achieved: using content analysis, we analyse the activities disclosed by SMEs and describe their type and focus. Further, the multiple case study of 13 SMEs operating in Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark and Iceland allows exploration of the process of CSR integration in companies in more detail.

    Using the abductive approach to analysis and systematically combining the existing approaches to analysing CSR integration with the empirical findings, we are able to distinguish several specifics of SMEs. Namely, the process of CSR integration in SMEs may be different due to increased role of the top management commitment and the varying degree of externally formalising CSR and CS through obtaining certifications. This allows us to design suggestions for the updated model of CSR integration, which would reflect these specifics of SMEs.

    The present work contributes to current research by exploring CSR and CS integration in the context of SMEs, which have been previously identified as research gaps. We develop suggestions for modifying an existing framework for analysing CSR integration that combines the focus on specific business operations and the stages that a company can undergo in implementing CSR. The developed model could be used as a practical tool for analysing the company and the potential areas that would lead to CSR integration on a more strategic level. The qualitative nature of the present work and supporting the theoretical reflections with quotes from SME managers and owners provides opportunities for naturalistic generalisations and gaining insights on what activities could be implemented in companies.

    We acknowledge that our work has several limitations. The qualitative nature of the study does not allow statistical generalisation; thus, further research is recommended to enhance the findings and test the developed model in different context and using different methods, as well as targeting not only managers and owners whose responsibilities are related to strategy and sustainability, but also employees from other functions. Quantitative and qualitative studies of SMEs in the analysed region conducted by native speakers are also recommended. 

  • Chona-Rouvali, Ariadni
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the effect of non-verbal drama activities on shyness with a focus on the behavioural component2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory study attempted to observe the behavioural characteristics of shyness of participants with some level of shyness who took part in a set of group drama activities. There was also interest to see if the more shy participants would achieve relaxation and self-expression. The Revised Cheek and Buss Shyness scale was administered to 20 individuals in order to measure shyness. A thematic content analysis was performed on data from open-ended questions. Out of the study’s sample there were no participants scoring high on the shyness scale causing difficulties to draw conclusions. There were some indications that more shy people were able to express themselves as they perform drama activities while interacting with others. Nevertheless the findings were difficult to evaluate since the way more shy were divided from the less shy participants was not solid.

  • Göthberg, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Våldtäktsparagrafen utifrån ett brottsofferperspektiv. En jämförelse mellan gällande reglering och föreslagen bestämmelse.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Schmidt, Rebecca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Skydd för information i know-howlicenser: skyddet av kommersiellt viktig information efter licensavtalets upphörande.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hammar, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Error 404: Domstolen kan inte finna lösningen du sökte.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Öhlèn, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Straffbarhetsåldern - är den ändamålsenligt utformad med hänvisning till barns mognad och utveckling?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hübinette, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Om samtalsmotorn inte finns. Hur samspelar vi då?": En studie om pedagogers arbetssätt med social och kommunikativ kompetens i träningsskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Socialt samspel och kommunikation är centralt för elevers utveckling inom träningsskolan. Det finns inte mycket forskning på området och det är oklart vilka metoder och arbetssätt som idag tillämpas inom träningsskolan för att stärka eleverna i sociala samspel. Det övergripande syftet med studien är därför att identifiera och beskriva olika arbetssätt som praktiseras i svenska träningsskolan för att främja elevers samspel med andra inom ramen för ämnesområdet kommunikation och mer specifikt samtala och samspela. I studien ställs frågorna om hur pedagogerna arbetar med sociala samspel, vilka svårigheter eleverna har och vilken roll som alternativ och kompletterande kommunikationshjälpmedel (AKK) har för att förstärka kommunikation och samspel hos elever i träningsskolan. För att belysa detta har semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med sju pedagoger vid fem olika träningsskolor. I studien framgår att detta arbete handlar om att pedagogerna använder tydlighet och struktur för eleverna. Genom användandet av t.ex. bilder, tecken och andra konkreta föremål ser pedagogerna att de stöttar eleverna i kommunikation. Pedagogerna ser vikten av att vara en närvarande pedagog för att tolka elevernas kommunikation. Svårigheterna hos eleverna märks främst genom utåtagerande beteende. Pedagogerna vill ha kunskaper och stöttning i olika alternativa kommunikationssätt för att se vilka som passar eleven. Ytterligare forskning kan belysa vilka arbetssätt pedagogerna har omkring kommunikation och delaktighet inom de andra ämnesområdena i träningsskolan.

  • Ottosson, Iris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Betygssättning i gymnasiesärskola och i särskild undervisning för vuxna: Elevperspektiv på kunskapsbedömning2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har undersökt hur elever i gymnasiesärskolan och i särskild undervisning för vuxna ser på kunskapsbedömning och betygssättning. Syftet har varit att undersöka vilka uppfattningar och erfarenheter elever har av olika bedömningsformer och betygssättning, samt i vilken grad betyg är en motiverande faktor för elevernas lärande och framtida liv. En frågeställning har även varit att få en uppfattning om vilken kännedom eleverna har om kunskapskraven, som ligger till grund för betygssättningen, för olika skolämnen och hur de upplever dem. Studien konstruerades i form av halvstrukturerade kvalitativa livsvärlds-intervjuer med sex elever från gymnasiesärskolan och fem elever från särskild undervisning för vuxna. Resultatet har analyserats ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på lärande och utveckling. Studien visar att betygssättning är betydelsefullt för den intervjuade gruppen, fastän betygen inte garanterar gruppen att kunna ha bruk av dem i framtiden i något speciellt syfte. Betygen visar sig vara en motiverande faktor för lärande, för cirka hälften av de intervjuade eleverna. Elevernas kännedom om kunskapskraven förefaller inte vara särskilt stor. Formativ bedömning är den bedömningsform som eleverna upplever som den metod som förbättrar lärandet mest samt som bidrar till att ge dem förmågor som de anses behöva i skolan och i framtiden.

  • Stenlund, Tova
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Assessing the Willingness to Elaborate among Young Students: Psychometric Evaluation of a Swedish Need for Cognition Scale2017In: Frontiers in Education, ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 2, 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The personality trait Need for Cognition (NFC) has been studied for many years, and found to be important for individuals’ educational achievement. The original NFC-scale was developed in the eighties, and during the following decade the scale was translated and adapted into a number of other languages. A renewed interest for the personality trait of NFC has made these scales interesting to use. It is though vital that instruments used for studies of individual differences in the area of educational research, or in any other area, can portray valid results today. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate validity and reliability of the short version of the Mental Effort Tolerance Questionnaire, a Swedish adaption of the NFC-scale made in 1991, which has not been previously evaluated. This study involved 420 young students, and the evaluation of reliability includes a study of temporal stability (test-retest), as well as internal stability. Further, the evaluation of validity includes construct and criterion validity. Regarding reliability, the results showed a test-retest reliability coefficient of .88 (n = 108), and an internal stability (Cronbach’s alpha) of .88 (n = 420). Evaluation of construct validity found evidence for a five factor dimensional structure (n = 420), discriminant validity to measures of general intelligence (r = .25; n = 122), working memory (r = .22; n =164), and the personality trait Grit (r = .26; n = 169). Finally, criterion validity was found for grades (r =.35; n =125). Overall, the results of the evaluation show that the inferences made from the results of the short version of the Swedish NFC-scale exhibits satisfactory reliability and validity, suggesting that the questionnaire can be used in educational contexts. The questionnaire might, however, benefit from being even more shortened.

  • Öhman, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    The dialogic classroom: Bakhtin and the valuating perspective2017In: LIR.journal, E-ISSN 2001-2489, no 8, 12-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the idea of the dialogic classroom and its influence on the pedagogic discussion in Sweden, especially in the teaching of literature as part of Swedish language education. Through a discussion of Bakhtin’s theory of the dialogic, I argue that it is problematic to construct an opposition between experience-based teaching of Swedish and a more traditional approach that emphasises the literary canon. The teacher’s valuative relationship towards what he or she is teaching is important in order to initiate a dialogue with students, regardless whether the material being taught belongs to the literary canon or to popular literature. It is argued that Bakhtin’s theory has an unrecognized potential for the teaching of literature.

  • Matz, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Att förena ömsesidigt erkännande respektive förtroende med absoluta mänskliga rättigheter. En analys av den europeiska arresteringsordern i svensk internationell          straffprocessrätt.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Starsmark, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Culpabedömningar i inomobligatoriska förhållanden - En uppsats om ansvaret för fel och brister i nybyggda hus.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis