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  • Nordin, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    REDD-initiativ och dess effekt påavskogningstakten.: Analys av Världsbankens FCPF inom ramen för teorinbakom miljökuznetskurvan.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatfrågan är en av vår tids största globala problem, där 17 procent av världensväxthusgasutsläpp sker på grund av avskogning. På senare tid har skogen fått en alltstörre roll inom de internationella klimatförhandlingarna, då det inte existerat någonreglering av växthusgasutsläpp från avskogning. I denna uppsats undersöksVärldsbankens FCPF (Världsbankens Forest Carbon Partnership Facility) inom ramen förteorin bakom miljökuznetskurvan. Miljökuznetskurvan är specificerad för sambandetmellan avskogningstakten och inkomsten per capita samt godkända finansieringsbeloppfinansierade av FCPF. Studien lägger fokus på 21 utvecklingsländer som VärldsbankensFCPF finansierat de senaste åren. Skattningsmetoden som används är en multipel linjärregression med fixa effekter samt en tidsserieanalys för respektive land under perioden1990 – 2015. Resultatet för en del av studiens utvecklingsländer indikerar på attförändringen i avskogning följer en miljökuznetskurva. De godkända bidragenfinansierade av Världsbankens FCPF har olika effekt på avskogningstakten beroende påvilket land som analyseras.

  • Vikström, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Långa räntor, skuldkvot och budgetbalans: En kvantitativ studie om skuldkvotens och budgetbalansens effekt på långa räntor i Europa.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många europeiska länder har under många år präglats av en stigande statsskuld och underskott i budgetbalansen. Detta har lett till att räntor på långa statsobligationer bland länder i Europa, som under början av eurosamarbetet nästan sammanstrålades, återigen börjat spridas mot olika håll. Denna studie har studerat 25 länder i den Europeiska Unionen och deras räntor på långa statsobligationer mellan det första kvartalet 2004 och det tredje kvartalet 2016. Med hjälp av tre olika modeller; en poolad regressionsanalys, en fixed effects model och en mixed effect model, har studien empiriskt undersökt och testat vilken effekt skuldkvoten och budgetbalansen har på långa räntor och om effekterna varierar mellan länder och år.

    Resultatet överensstämmer med en del tidigare forskning. Det visar på att statsskuld har en positiv effekt på långa räntor, vilket även bevisats i tidigare studier. Effekten av budgetbalans stämmer dock inte alltid överens med tidigare forskning, då modellen med fixed effects inte kan visa en statisitisk signifikant effekt. Resultatet i den tredje modellen indikerar på att det finns en stor variation i effekter mellan länder och år. Dessa skillnader kan bero på många faktorer, till exempel det faktum att nästan 70 procent av länderna i studien inte självständigt kan bedriva penningpolitik. Djupare slutsatser lämnas över till fortsatt forskning.

  • Allaberdyev, Maksat
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Den penningpolitiska fällan: En studie på de svenska hushållens ekonomi2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att få bukt med lågkonjunkturen efter finanskrisen 2008 förde Sverige en expansiv penningpolitik. Även om Sverige tog sig ur krisen relativt smärtfritt följdes det av en period med deflation. Det ledde till att reporäntan 2015 för första gången sänktes under nollgränsen, och därmed tog den svenska penningpolitiken ett historiskt steg för att nå inflationsmålet. De låga räntorna har lett till att priserna på bostadsmarknaden har skenat iväg och de svenska hushållens skulder har ökat avsevärt där den genomsnittliga skuldkvoten är uppe i 343 procent. Från de penningpolitiska protokollen uttrycker Riksbanken en stor oro för denna utveckling och föreslår riktade åtgärder i bostads-, och skattepolitiken. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka effekterna av penningpolitiska åtgärder samt utvecklingen av bostadspriserna har haft på de svenska hushållen skulder.

    Genom en VAR-modell, Granger-orsakssamband, Impulse-response test och stresstester har denna studie kunnat påvisa och kartlägga vad som händer med de svenska hushållens skulder vid en eventuell räntehöjning. Resultaten visar att en räntechock mellan 3–5 procent minskar framtida skuldsättning, och ekonomin anpassar sig till jämvikt efter 5–8 perioder vilket representerar 15–24 månader. Den ger därmed ett starkt stöd för penningpolitikens kausalitet. Resultaten visar dessutom att det finns hushåll med låg disponibel inkomst som lever under existensminimum idag, och vid en räntehöjning överstiger några hushåll sitt existensminimum med nästan 50 procent.

    Studiens teoretiska del ger en förklaring om penningpolitikens jobb och dess flöde till hushåll och företag. Den tar även upp tidigare forskning som har undersökt marknadsbeteende hos hushåll. 

  • Segerbrant, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Gymnasieskolans inverkan på den svenska ungdomsarbetslösheten: En paneldatastudie över den kommunala ungdomsarbetslösheten med utbildning som fokus2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats studerar skolans betydelse för ungdomsarbetslösheten samt undersöker vilka skolrelaterade bestämningsfaktorer som ligger bakom ungdomsarbetslösheten. Detta för att belysa skolans roll i såväl samhället som ekonomin samt se hur en förändring inom skolan skulle kunna påverka arbetslösheten. Detta studeras med hjälp av ett ekonometrisk paneldata över Sveriges samtliga 290 kommuner för åren 2001–2016. De bestämningsfaktorer som studeras är genomsnittligt betygspoäng, fullföljandet av gymnasieutbildning, föräldrars utbildningsnivå, andelen elever i friskola samt politisk färg i kommunen. Resultatet visar att skolan har en betydelse för ungdomsarbetslösheten i Sverige samt att samtliga bestämningsfaktorer har en statistisk signifikant påverkan. Vidare predikterar modellen värden som ligger nära den faktiska nivån på ungdomsarbetslösheten vilket tyder på att modellen är väl anpassad till verkligheten.

  • Meens Eriksson, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Wealth inequality and redistribution: Possibilities of redistributive policies with an application to Sweden, Germany and the UK.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to answer what governments can do to work against increasing wealth and income inequalities. In a theoretical part I describe how inheritance and income inequality are important driving factors to wealth inequality and the potential role of the government to counteract increasing monetary inequalities. The empirical part narrows the scope to income inequalities and how the governments of Sweden, Germany and the UK have conducted their redistribution policies between the 80’s and the mid 00’s. The most interesting results from the empirical part indicate that income inequalities before any income redistribution has risen in all three countries, income inequality after income redistribution has also risen but not as much. The UK clearly is the country which redistribute the least and in addition has the greatest post redistribution income inequality, much greater than both Sweden and Germany which redistribute about as much of income. Further, it is shown that poor citizens in all three countries in all years gain relatively more (net gain of redistribution as share of an individuals’ total income) than wealthy from the redistribution scheme. Due to lack of wealth data the empirical calculations were based on capital income as a proxy for wealth.

  • Norberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utredning av övertonsproblematik vid Bolidens industriella nät2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inside the industrial grid located in Boliden the presence of harmonic current is so high that It causes a total harmonic distortion of 12% in the voltage.  There is a large number of non-linear loads that can cause this distortion connected to the grid, furthermore there is phase compensating equipment connected that may enhance harmonic currents due to resonance. To investigate the cause and the consequences of harmonics in the grid measurements are conducted during four different modes of operation. Initially a large number of measurements are performed during normal operation to show the harmonic distribution. Then measurements at strategic places in the grid are performed while the phase compensating equipment is disconnected with the objective to show if this equipment is part of a resonance circuit. Finally, measurements are performed while the mills in the dressing plant are taken out of production and additional measurements while they are at standstill.

    The results of all these tests show that there is a high probability that the four mills at the dressing plant, regulated by inverters, causes large harmonic currents. A predominantly large portion of the harmonic current sources has been isolated in a small number of loads. The result also show that these harmonic currents are enhanced by resonance between the phase compensation equipment and inductive elements of the grid. The resulting distortion is of such gravity that it propagates to adjacent grids via the main grid.

    Since harmonics can cause breakdowns in rotating machinery, transformers and phase compensating equipment, the risk of this is investigated. Calculations show that at current levels the transformers connecting the industrial grid to the main grid can only be operated at 95,5%. The transformer is currently operating at a far lower rate and no risk of damage is at hand.

    The phase compensation equipment is exposed to large harmonic current. They are also part of a resonance circuit and the assessment is that they are at risk of breakdown.

    In the dressing plant, there is a 630kW induction motor connected directly to the grid. This motor Is subjected to large harmonic currents causing losses in copper wiring and the iron core but since this machine runs below rated power the assessment is that this does not put it at risk of breakdown. However, there are other ways that a machine of this kind can be damaged due to harmonics and further investigation into this may be warranted.

    There are plans of installing new, filtered, phase compensating equipment to the grid which most likely will reduce the harmonic content in accordance with the measurements in this report. However, the measurements also show that higher frequency harmonics in the voltage are enhanced when the phase compensation is disconnected, this may have to be taken in to account when the filters are designed. A number of alternative or additional solutions to the harmonic problem is presented in the report.

  • Elin, Hörnfeldt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Designing a visual regression testing tool: Decrease fear-driven development and enhance the quality assurance2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Testing a software is important to maintain the quality of the application. There are many ways of testing functionality of an application but not so many for testing the interface. When reusing CSS is a common approach, one change in the CSS can cause many visual changes on the interface. Not testing these changes, visual errors might occur which can decrease the quality of the application. Also, not knowing where the change is affecting, fear-driven development, i.e. the developers feels fear when changing code, can arise for the developers. In this thesis, a pre-study was made to investigate if any current feardriven development existed among developers. Then a visual regression testing tool was created, using a rapid prototyping process, to help the developers testing the interface during the evolving process of the application. The tool’s primary purpose is to show images of the visual changes that have occurred for the developers and as a result, the fear-driven development can decrease for the developers and the quality can be improved. The tool was implemented using AngularJS, NodeJS and ResembleJS and was tested on UI developers. The developers got a case where they had made CSS changes and then wanted to see how the changes affected the site they were working on. All of the developers felt, often or sometimes, fear when changing code. After using the tool, their feelings of fear-driven development was decreased and they all saw the tool as helpful when finding visual errors that might occur when CSS or web components are changed.

  • Edlund, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Does economic freedom affect the growth rate?: Evidence from middle-income countries2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite half a century of aid programs, many countries have not shown a sufficient degree of economic development, leaving their population in poverty. The varying level of productivity has contributed to these dissimilarities and many economists argue that the degree of freedom experienced by citizens is the underlying source of differences in productivity, as it influences the freedom to perform economic activity. In this study, I examine the effect economic freedom has on the growth rate in middle-income countries. Liberal economists are arguing that higher degree of freedom surrounding economic activities is fundamental for economic growth. This point of view is largely adopted by a major lender to less developed countries; the IMF. Common conditions for loans provided by the IMF is to decrease the size of government, privatize public companies, and open up the nation to international trade. I my analysis, including 48 middle-income countries, I test whether these variables affect the economic growth though regression analysis during the years of 2000 to 2014. My results show that economic freedom is an important factor for economic growth, but that the components of economic freedom have different effects on the growth rate. Furthermore, the results differ greatly when comparing the richer and the poorer sections of middle-income countries. I find no evidence that the conditions of the IMF is a good model for development, rather that the countries have different characteristics and are affected differently. The legal system and respect for property rights is shown to have a positive effect on growth, as well as regulating the product, capital, and labor market, while high inflation is associated with low economic growth.

  • Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Participatory Constitution-Building in Nepal: A Comparison of the 2008-2012 and the 2013-2015 Process2017In: Journal of Politics and Law, ISSN 1913-9047, E-ISSN 1913-9055, Vol. 10, no 4, 29-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory constitution-building is a trend that appears to be here to stay; particularly when new constitutions are drafted in the aftermath of war or during transitions from authoritarian to democratic rule. Anticipations as to what the involvement of the public will achieve are several, and scholars are only recently starting to systematically investigate whether or not these expectations find empirical support. Previous research has shown that public participation in the making of the constitution can have certain positive effects at an individual level of analysis, but that the actions of political elites during constitutional negotiations might affect outcomes at a macro level of analysis more than what has hitherto be acknowledged in this strand of research. Nepal is one of the most recent cases of participatory constitution-building, and the country carried out not only one, but two, such processes within a time period of only seven years. The first resulted in failure as a draft constitution was never finalized; the other in success with the adoption of a constitution in 2015. This article takes an interest in exploring and comparing these two separate processes as regards the extent of public participation vis-à-vis political elite negotiations and bargaining behind closed doors. The article finds that what primarily sets the two processes apart, is how broad based public participation and secluded elite negotiations were sequenced. In light of other empirical examples, the article also discusses if elite bargains ought to be struck before the general public are invited to participate.

  • Eriksson, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kontinuitetsmetoden: Metod för kontiunitetsmätning av jordlinor i högspänningsnät2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The electricity supply is of great importance as a society function. In case of long or largeinterruptions it can generate extensive disturbances. If 130/220/400 kV-grid is not working asshould it can result in great consequences since it is the “heart” of the power system.Therefore it must be ensured that the grid is reliable, stable and secure. The regulations in thisline of business states that operation and maintenance controls should be executedperiodically and preventively. Measuring of grounding systems is a control, which should bedone since it is very important for function and facility safety, however controls of continuityare not included. If continuity does not exist the facility can lose its intended function and thatcan generate extensive disturbances. In SS-EN 61936-1 it is described that it should bepossible to execute continuity measurements on facilities, however that text is not reoccurringany other way in regulations, advice or instructions. Therefore it is neither an established nora conscious control in this line of business. That is why it needs to be highlighted.Continuity measurements have been executed on a total of 5 truss poles distributed on two400kV-grids. The instrument, CS3 Site Continuity Meter, is a new instrument for the Swedishmarket. It measures in powered plants. It is manufactured in Australia with conditions for thatspecific country, as an example the environment temperature for a measurement should be 0-50°C.Continuity measurements should be mandatory before commissioning of a new facility. Thenthe next measurement can be compared to it, which gives the best result when it comes toreviewing if the continuity has changed.Reviewing continuity based on measured values in comparison with theoretical values isuncertain since the theoretical calculations are based on a supposition of the ground line,length, material, conductor area and placement in ground. To find eventual connections, a lotof measurements and theoretical calculations based on documented information regarding theground line is required. To determine if continuity exists or not is easier to decide upon, bylooking at the measurements that are executed in its own range, for example around orbetween poles. If the values harmonize with each other and are under 250 mΩ then continuitycan be presumed existing in spite of noise and interruptions.Standardization of all components and their position on poles should exist. That wouldenhance quality and reduce the risk of inaccuracy in general measurements anddocumentation and especially in case of execution with different entrepreneurs. Purposeaccordant protocols should exist, preferably digital ones since that also should result inenhanced quality associated with registration of data. An early draft of a protocol in thecalculation software Excel has been started, a print-out on paper can be found in the appendix.Development and implement of a simple and safe business method regarding continuitymeasurement needs to be preceded by an investigation of business advice and standards,development of instrument and documentation and last but not least execution of moremeasurements to find distinct regulations. There are some parts that should be standardizedand established, although that needs to be investigated thoroughly since regulations also caninhibit development in this area.

  • Thomas, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Solcellers påverkan på landsbygdsnät2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Elnätets utformning står mitt i en stor förändring i och med decentraliseringen där allt fler upptäcker fördelarna med att producera egen el. Antalet nätanslutna solceller ökar och detta förväntas även gälla fortsättningsvis. Om solcellsanläggningar som nätansluts har hög effekt eller om elnätet är svagt kan förstärkande åtgärder vara nödvändiga. Detta projekt syftade till att utreda vilka problem solceller kan orsaka på svaga delar av nätet samt åtgärder för att minska problematiken. Projektet klargör även vad som bör beaktas vid dimensionering av elnät nät solceller ansluts.

    För att uppnå syftet inleddes projektet med informationsletande och producerande av en litteraturrapport. Därefter dimensionerades en framtida solcellsanläggning och nätet kring en befintlig anläggning utvärderades. Dimensioneringen och utvärderingen utfördes med hjälp av simuleringar i dpPower. Vid utvärderingen av den befintliga anläggningen genomfördes även en analys av elkvalitetsmätningar samt mätning av förimpedans på två olika lågspänningsnät. Den ekonomiska aspekten analyserades också i form av jämförelse av effektförluster i olika kablar.

    Nätet kring den framtida solcellsanläggningen undersöktes med avseende på spänningsändringar vid inkoppling av solcellsanläggningen och långsamma spänningsändringar. Resultatet från simuleringar visar att en anläggning på 21 kW kan anslutas till nätet utan behov av förstärkning. Enligt grovuppskattningskurvor för nödvändig nätstyrka vid anslutning av mikroproduktion som finns tillgängliga i handboken MIKRO blir resultatet 23 kW.

    Utvärderingen av nätet kring den befintliga solcellsanläggningen innefattade undersökning av spänningsvariationer, mätning och beräkning av förimpedans samt analys av elkvalitetsmätningar. Resultatet visar att den omdimensionering som utfördes i samband med att anläggningen nätanslöts var nödvändig och att nätet förmodligen kommer behöva förstärkas ytterligare med en större transformator om fler solcellsanläggningar ansluts i framtiden. Elkvalitetsmätningarna visar på höga flimmernivåer men det kan dock inte fastställas om dessa härrör från solcellsanläggningen.

    Genom mätning och beräkning av förimpedans drogs slutsatsen att mätinstrumentet påverkas vid mätning i närheten av en solcellsanläggning. De uppmätta värdena i närheten av solcellsanläggningen stämmer inte med de simulerade och beräknade värdena. Nyare versioner av mätinstrumentet finns tillgängliga hos leverantören och bör testas på samma nät för att se om mätvärdena stämmer bättre.

    Vid beräkning av effektförluster jämfördes olika kabelalternativ. Resultatet visar att det ofta lönar sig ekonomiskt att välja en grövre kabel med högre inköpspris och lägre förluster per meter kabel än tvärtom. De minskade förlustkostnaderna mellan en grövre och en klenare kabel är alltså större än skillnaden i inköpspris under kablarnas livslängd.

    Förutom de slutsatser för de specifika anläggningarna som projektet utmynnade i drogs även några mer generella. De vanligaste problemen som uppstår vid anslutning av solceller på nätets svaga delar är elkvalitetsproblem, oftast i form av spänningsvariationer. För att minska problematiken kan nätet behöva förstärkas, exempelvis i form av kabeldimensionering. Då bör spänningsändringar vid in- och urkoppling av solcellsanläggningen, långsamma spänningsändringar, effektförluster och möjlig utbyggnation av området beaktas.

  • Bergvik, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Designing experiences for virtual reality, in virtual reality: A design process evaluation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Creating immersive experiences for virtual reality (VR) presents new design opportunities and challenges that do not appear when creating experiences on a screen. Creating prototypes and exploring concepts in VR is today limited to professionals with previous knowledge in 3D application development, and testing 3D experiences requires the usage of an Head-Mounted Display (HMD), which forces professionals to switch medium from the computer to an HMD. With new advances in this field, there have to be new solutions to these challenges. The goal of this thesis is to explore how VR technology can be utilized in the experience design process for VR. This is achieved through a literature study and conducting expert interviews, followed by a hardware evaluation of different HMDs and concept creation using rapid prototyping. From the interviews, a number of issues could be identified that correlates with the research from the literature study. Based on these findings, two phases were identified as suitable for further improvements; Concept prototyping and testing/tweaking of a created experience. Lo-fi and hi-fi prototypes of a virtual design tool were developed for HTC Vive and Google Daydream, which were selected based on the hardware evaluation. The prototypes are designed and developed, then tested using a Wizard of Oz approach. The purpose of the prototypes is to solve some of the issues when designing immersive experiences for HMDs in the suitable experience design phases that were identified by analyzing the interview results. An interactive testing suite for HTC Vive was developed for testing and evaluation of the final prototype, to verify the validity of the concept. Using Virtual Reality as a medium for designing virtual experiences is a promising way of solving current issues within this technological field that are identified in this thesis. Tools for object creation and manipulation will aid professionals when exploring new concepts as well as editing and testing existing immersive experiences. Furthermore, using a Wizard of Oz approach to test VR prototypes significantly improves the prototype quality without compromising the user experience in this medium. 

  • Alekzandra, Granath
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Filmskapande för nybörjare - steg för steg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about film making, wich parts that are included in film making and things that is good to think of when doing film for the first time. A short movie has been created and from this, this study has been done to figure out if the theory is like the reality. Also the report is based om the book ”How to get started in film making” by Tom Holden and interviews with people working with film.

  • Andersson, Rasmus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Hur maskulin är Donald Trump?: En jämförande diskursanalys av hur Donald Trumps maskulinitet(er) framställs på The New York Times, The Guardian & Aftonbladets hemsidor2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: How masculine is Donald Trump? – A comparative discourse analysis of how Donald Trumps masculinities are portrayed on The New York Times, The Guardian & Aftonbladets webpages

    The aim of this essay is to compare how Donald Trumps masculinities are portrayed in the news reporting by The New York Times, The Guardian and Aftonbladets webpages. The time period of the study capture Donald Trump before he was elected as president, after the election and then as the position as incumbent president to grasp one more dimension of his masculine identity throw different time periods and capture his subject position in the news reporting.

    The method that is used to examine this issue is Laclau and Mouffes discourse theory that work as a combination of discourse analysis as a method of analyzing the news text and locate different discourses. As well as in combination with theories about masculinities and previous studies about former presidents, macho culture and hegemonic masculinities.

    The result show Donald Trump with different masculine identities through both time and media channel. Donald Trump has first been seen as a masculine joke, a stunt like one of the Jackass-gang would pull in the TV-series. A man that is not afraid to take the challenge and run for president even if the odds are well against him, he represent a masculine crisis.

    Later on he take the form of a business man that hopefully will ”not” run USA like his worldwide affairs, fast and unpredictable. The latest chapter portray Donald Trump as a fearless president that do whatever he want in policy making and the media is afraid of what will happen to the world order. From a former identity of a ”business rockstar” that does what he wants with females and worldwide affairs to become one of the most fearsome manly leader of the western civilication. Alongside with the theory of masculinities Donald Trump try to defend the hegemonic masculinity of politics and business leders by playing on a possible ”mancard” like Ronald Reagan back in the 80 ́s, by reaching out to the industry workers that mostly are men and defending there chances of labour – when the society evolved form industrial to a more service economic society with women competing alongside men about workplace.

    The slogan ”America First” would rather be ”Masculinity First”, ”Make America Masculine Again” would be the text on the caps 

  • Pohjanen, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energibalans och inomhusklimat i ett parkeringshus under jord med behovsstyrd ventilation2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This graduate work was conducted in cooperation with the VVS-Consultants Skellefteå AB. It deals with the design of a parking garage regarding heat and ventilation and a comparison of ventilation systems in a parking garage that is scheduled to be ready 2019. The purpose of the work is to investigate how to design a parking garage ventilation and if you can save energy and expenses by using demand-controlled ventilation instead of constant ventilation. As it is more expensive to invest in demand- controlled ventilation, it will also investigate the repayment period for that investment. To do the studies, the IDA ICE program has been used to draw a model of the building and simulate its energy use to compare the results later and see the differences between the different ventilation systems. A proposal has been made on how ventilation can be drawn and how the radiators are to be installed and how the pipes are to be drawn. The result of the simulations resulted in total energy consumption decreased by 705,000 kWh / with demand-controlled ventilation compared to constant ventilation. The fan's energy consumption decreased by 75% and the heating energy decreased by 72%. The investment for controlled ventilation compared to constant flow ventilation is 600,000 kr more and, based on the calculations in this work the repayment period is 1 year. The life expectancy of the ventilation system is assumed to be 25-30 years.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-10 10:30 N320, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå
    Khan, Muhammad Sikandar Lal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Presence through actions: theories, concepts, and implementations2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During face-to-face meetings, humans use multimodal information, including verbal information, visual information, body language, facial expressions, and other non-verbal gestures. In contrast, during computer-mediated-communication (CMC), humans rely either on mono-modal information such as text-only, voice-only, or video-only or on bi-modal information by using audiovisual modalities such as video teleconferencing. Psychologically, the difference between the two lies in the level of the subjective experience of presence, where people perceive a reduced feeling of presence in the case of CMC. Despite the current advancements in CMC, it is still far from face-to-face communication, especially in terms of the experience of presence.

    This thesis aims to introduce new concepts, theories, and technologies for presence design where the core is actions for creating presence. Thus, the contribution of the thesis can be divided into a technical contribution and a knowledge contribution. Technically, this thesis details novel technologies for improving presence experience during mediated communication (video teleconferencing). The proposed technologies include action robots (including a telepresence mechatronic robot (TEBoT) and a face robot), embodied control techniques (head orientation modeling and virtual reality headset based collaboration), and face reconstruction/retrieval algorithms. The introduced technologies enable action possibilities and embodied interactions that improve the presence experience between the distantly located participants. The novel setups were put into real experimental scenarios, and the well-known social, spatial, and gaze related problems were analyzed.

    The developed technologies and the results of the experiments led to the knowledge contribution of this thesis. In terms of knowledge contribution, this thesis presents a more general theoretical conceptual framework for mediated communication technologies. This conceptual framework can guide telepresence researchers toward the development of appropriate technologies for mediated communication applications. Furthermore, this thesis also presents a novel strong concept – presence through actions - that brings in philosophical understandings for developing presence- related technologies. The strong concept - presence through actions is an intermediate-level knowledge that proposes a new way of creating and developing future 'presence artifacts'. Presence- through actions is an action-oriented phenomenological approach to presence that differs from traditional immersive presence approaches that are based (implicitly) on rationalist, internalist views.

  • Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Nilsson, Hans
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Schillings, Audrey
    Quantification of the total ion transport in the near-Earth plasma sheet2017In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 35, no 4, 869-877 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies strongly suggest that a majority of the observed O+ cusp outflows will eventually escape into the solar wind, rather than be transported to the plasma sheet. Therefore, an investigation of plasma sheet flows will add to these studies and give a more complete picture of magnetospheric ion dynamics. Specifically, it will provide a greater understanding of atmospheric loss. We have used Cluster spacecraft 4 to quantify the H+ and O+ total transports in the near-Earth plasma sheet, using data covering 2001-2005. The results show that both H+ and O+ have earthward net fluxes of the orders of 1026 and 1024 s(-1), respectively. The O+ plasma sheet return flux is 1 order of magnitude smaller than the O+ outflows observed in the cusps, strengthening the view that most ionospheric O+ outflows do escape. The H+ return flux is approximately the same as the ionospheric outflow, suggesting a stable budget of H+ in the magnetosphere. However, low-energy H+, not detectable by the ion spectrometer, is not considered in our study, leaving the complete magnetospheric H+ circulation an open question. Studying tailward flows separately reveals a total tailward O+ flux of about 0 : 5 x w10(25)s(-1), which can be considered as a lower limit of the nightside auroral region O+ outflow. Lower velocity flows (< 100 km s(-1)) contribute most to the total transports, whereas the high-velocity flows contribute very little, suggesting that bursty bulk flows are not dominant in plasma sheet mass transport.

  • Norris, Shane A.
    et al.
    Daar, Abdallah
    Balasubramanian, Dorairajan
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Stellenbosch Univ, Wallenberg Res Ctr, Stellenbosch Inst Adv Study STIAS, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth
    Macnab, Andrew
    Pauw, Christoff
    Singhal, Atul
    Yajnik, Chittaranjan
    Akazili, James
    Levitt, Naomi
    Maatoug, Jihene
    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi
    Moore, Sophie E.
    Nyirenda, Moffat
    Pulliam, Juliet R. C.
    Rochat, Tamsen
    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat
    Seedat, Soraya
    Sobngwi, Eugene
    Tomlinson, Mark
    Toska, Elona
    van Schalkwyk, Cari
    Understanding and acting on the developmental origins of health and disease in Africa would improve health across generations2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, no 1, 1334985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from many high- and low- or middle-income countries have linked exposures during key developmental periods (in particular pregnancy and infancy) to later health and disease. Africa faces substantial challenges with persisting infectious disease and now burgeoning non-communicable disease. This paper opens the debate to the value of strengthening the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) research focus in Africa to tackle critical public health challenges across the life-course. We argue that the application of DOHaD science in Africa to advance life-course prevention programmes can aid the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, and assist in improving health across generations. To increase DOHaD research and its application in Africa, we need to mobilise multisectoral partners, utilise existing data and expertise on the continent, and foster a new generation of young African scientists engrossed in DOHaD.

  • Palmgren, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Hyperkonvergerad lösning med Storage spaces direct, för och nackdelar2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses questions about Storage Spaces Direct in Windows 2016 server. How to install a hyper converged solution and what to be careful about when installing it is a big part of the paper. During the papers time two major’s questions get answer on, “how good is Storage Spaces Direct?” and “is it possible and suitable to implement the function in a company at this stage?”. It was possible to do this project with the help of a company called TeamNorr and with the use of their hardware. Storage Spaces Direct is a function that works well and is in the front at the market today. This is if you have the correct information, have enough expertise about the function and does a thoroughly work before starting. Two different installations of the server will be compared, one with desktop experience and the other with the PowerShell solution. Both these ways can be used to install Storage Spaces Direct and they have different pros and cons. My results and personal opinion is that using PowerShell while installing is the optimized solution and it is the most secure. The result went as excepted and storage spaces direct is the best way to set up an IT environment and use at a company today. It is easy to use and maintain and is also more cost-efficient for companies.

  • Fredriksson, Mio
    et al.
    Eriksson, Max
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Tritter, Jonathan
    Who wants to be involved in health care decisions?: Comparing preferences for individual and collective involvement in England and Sweden2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patient and public involvement (PPI) is framed as positive for individuals, the health system, public health, as well as for communities and society as a whole. We investigated whether preferences for PPI differed between two countries with Beveridge type health systems-Sweden and England. We measured willingness to be involved in individual treatment decisions and in decisions about the organization and provision of local health and social care services. Methods: This was a comparative cross-sectional study of the general population's preferences. Together, the two samples included 3125 respondents; 1625 in England and 1500 in Sweden. Country differences were analysed in a multinomial regression model controlling for gender, age and educational attainment. Results: Overall, 68% of respondents wanted a passive patient role and 44% wanted to be involved in local decisions about organization and provision of services. In comparison with in Sweden, they were in England less likely to want a health professional such as a GP or consultant to make decisions about their treatment and also more likely to want to make their own decisions. They were also less likely to want to be involved in local service development decisions. An increased likelihood of wanting to be involved in organizational decision-making was associated with individuals wanting to make their own treatment decisions. Women were less likely to want health professionals to make decisions and more likely to want to be involved in organizational decisions. Conclusions: An effective health system that ensures public health must integrate an effective approach to PPI both in individual treatment decisions and shaping local health and social care priorities. To be effective, involvement activities must take in to account the variation in the desire for involvement and the implications that this has for equity. More work is needed to understand the relationship between the desire to be involved and actually being involved, but both appear related to judgements of the impact of involvement on health care decisions.

  • Koller-Smith, Louise I. M.
    et al.
    Shahr, Prakesh S.
    Ye, Xiang Y.
    Sjoers, Gunnar
    Wang, Yueping A.
    Chow, Sharon S. W.
    Darlow, Brian A.
    Lee, Shoo K.
    Håkansson, Stellan
    Umeå University.
    Lui, Kei
    Comparing very low birth weight versus very low gestation cohort methods for outcome analysis of high risk preterm infants2017In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 17, 166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Compared to very low gestational age (<32 weeks, VLGA) cohorts, very low birth weight (<1500 g; VLBW) cohorts are more prone to selection bias toward small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants, which may impact upon the validity of data for benchmarking purposes. Method: Data from all VLGA or VLBW infants admitted in the 3 Networks between 2008 and 2011 were used. Two-thirds of each network cohort was randomly selected to develop prediction models for mortality and composite adverse outcome (CAO: mortality or cerebral injuries, chronic lung disease, severe retinopathy or necrotizing enterocolitis) and the remaining for internal validation. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) of themodels were compared. Results: VLBW cohort (24,335 infants) had twice more SGA infants (20.4% vs. 9.3%) than the VLGA cohort (29,180 infants) and had a higher rate of CAO (36.5% vs. 32.6%). The two models had equal prediction power for mortality and CAO (AUC 0.83), and similarly for all other cross-cohort validations (AUC 0.81-0.85). Neither model performed well for the extremes of birth weight for gestation (<1500 g and >= 32 weeks, AUC 0.50-0.65; >= 1500 g and >= 32 weeks, AUC 0.60-0.62). Conclusion: There was no difference in prediction power for adverse outcome between cohorting VLGA or VLBW despite substantial bias in SGA population. Either cohorting practises are suitable for international benchmarking.

  • Wettström, Rune
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kan vi tro på kvalia?: En granskning av Amy Kinds underkännande av transparenstesen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis Amy Kind’s argument for qualia realism is scrutinized. In the paper from 2008, “How to Believe in Qualia”, she claims that the transparency thesis pose a threat to qualia realism. A major part of this thesis therefore deals with investigating her refutation of the transparency thesis. The thesis gives her some, but not fully, conclusive support and consequently gives some support for qualia realism. The thesis also sets out other arguments against the transparency thesis, arguments which however pose a threat to qualia realism.

  • Hjälmarö, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Om det existerar objektiva värden, har objektivismen då löst frågan om livets mening?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I intend to presuppose the existence of objective value and investigate the problems that the objective view faces further ahead, in its effort to answer the question of life’s meaning. Objectivism claims that in order for a life to be meaningful, one must engage in some way with values that are objective, values that exists independent of the subject. The aim here is to show that even with the existence of objective values the objective view hasn’t yet finally answered the question. In order for the objectivistic answer to be relevant for us we need to know what it is that has objective value and thereto, that this is a meaning-giving value. In addition, we either need to find internal reasons to engage in it, otherwise objectivism need to, besides assuming the existence of objective value, also assume the existence of external reasons.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-08 09:00 KB.E3.03 (stora hörsalen), KBC-huset, Umeå
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Design strategies for new drugs targeting multicomponent systems: focusing on class II MHC proteins and acetylcholinesterase2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving. Aided by advances within techniques as well as knowledge of biological systems, increasingly complex targets and drugs can be considered. This thesis includes two projects focusing on the design of drugs targeting multicomponent systems, referring to systems for which multiple components must be considered during the drug design process.

    In the first project, the long-term goal is to develop a vaccine against the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The cause of RA is unknown, but it is genetically linked to expression of class II MHC proteins that present antigens to T-cell receptors (TCRs), responsible for initiating an immune response. A glycopeptide fragment, CII259–273, from type II collagen has shown promising results as a vaccine against arthritis resembling RA in mice. CII259–273 binds to the class II MHC protein followed by presentation to the TCR, forming a multicomponent system.

    We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect that modifications of CII259–273 have on the multicomponent system. Non-native amino acids and amide bond isosteres have been introduced. This has demonstrated the importance of retaining the backbone conformation of CII259–273, as well as the hydrogen bonds formed to the backbone. The ability to introduce such modifications would be of value to affect the potency towards the MHC protein, and prevent degradation of the glycopeptide. The studies have revealed a multicomponent system that is highly sensitive to even small modifications that can affect the dynamics of the entire complex.

    In the second project, the long-term goal is to develop a broad-spectrum antidote against nerve agents. Nerve agents are extremely toxic compounds that act by covalently inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is essential for termination of nerve signalling. A major limitation of current antidotes is that their efficiency is dependent on the type of nerve agent. A broad-spectrum antidote must be able to bind to the multicomponent system consisting of AChE covalently inhibited by different nerve agents. It will then act by performing a nucleophilic attack on the nerve agent adduct, thus breaking the covalent bond to AChE.

    We have used statistical molecular design (SMD) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling to identify a fragment with a potency for AChE inhibited by different nerve agents. A nucleophilic component able to restore the enzyme to the active form was thereafter introduced. This resulted in a functional reactivator, efficient for multiple nerve agents. Furthermore, the mechanism of reactivation has been investigated through structural studies, enabled by a combination of X-ray crystallography and molecular modelling. A high flexibility of the reactivator, as well as the ability to bind to AChE in multiple conformations, are defined as important properties for a broad-spectrum antidote.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-08 10:00 Föreläsningssal 5, Falun
    Borg, Farhana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Caring for people and the planet: preschool children’s knowledge and practices of sustainability2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Children across the globe today are continuously being exposed to and affected by various kinds of real-world complexities and challenges; however, research on their knowledge and practices in terms of sustainability is limited, in particular with regards to how preschool- and home-related factors are associated with their learning for sustainability. Since 1998, different types of eco-certification have been awarded by the Swedish National Agency for Education and Keep Sweden Tidy Foundation to promote education for sustainability (EfS) in all areas of education and learning. Despite certificates having been granted in Sweden since 1998, no studies have been conducted at the national level to investigate whether eco-certification has any role to play in children’s learning for environmental and sustainability issues. This knowledge is important to develop pedagogical activities to engage young children meaningfully in learning for sustainability at preschool. This study was undertaken so as to address this research gap in a Swedish context.

    The overall aim of this study was to enhance the existing knowledge about preschool children’s learning for sustainability in Sweden. The objectives of this study have been to investigate and compare the knowledge and self-reported practices of sustainability among children attending eco-certified and non-eco-certified preschools, respectively, and to explore the extent to which preschool- and home-related factors are associated with children’s knowledge and practices of sustainability. Further, this study explored children’s perceived sources of such knowledge. The term ‘knowledge’ in this text refers to the descriptions of children’s ideas and thoughts. Similarly, eco-certified preschool refers to a school that work explicitly with EfS.

    The study was designed from a "child’s perspective": this means that it was designed by adults to understand children’s perceptions and actions. Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory and Bruner’s (1961) iconic (image-based) modes of representation were applied in various stages of the study. A conceptual framework was developed within the three-interlocking-circles model of sustainability that illustrates how environmental, social and economic dimensions are interconnected. The concept of sustainability was operationalized in four themes: economic equality, resource sharing, recycling and transport use.

    With the use of illustrations and semi-structured questions, final-year preschool children (n=53), aged five to six years, and the directors (n=7) at six eco-certified and six non-eco-certified preschools were interviewed, while guardians (n=89) and teachers (n=74) filled out questionnaires. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed using content analysis and Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), respectively. The quality and complexity of children’s responses were assessed and classified using the SOLO Taxonomy (Biggs & Collis, 1982).

    The results showed that by the time the children completed preschool, many had acquired some knowledge about how to use money, about the sorting of different recyclable items at home and at preschool, and about the impact of different modes of transport on the environment and people’s lives. They also had ideas about the lives of other children in the world and what it can mean to share resources with other people. There was a positive relationship between children’s declarative (understanding) and functional (practice) knowledge of sustainability issues and the involvement of teachers and guardians in sustainability-related discussions and activities. No statistically significant differences between eco-certified and non-eco-certified preschools in terms of children’s declarative and functional knowledge were found. Parents were reported to be the main sources of children’s knowledge along with the children themselves, teachers and media.

    The findings offer support for integrating environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainability into the daily pedagogical activities of preschools and for giving children opportunities to participate in discussions and practical activities that concern their lives. Further studies are needed to investigate the extent to which different educational activities contribute to developing children’s understanding and behavior when it comes to a sustainable society.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-01 09:00 Sal 135, byggnad 9 A, Allmänmedicin, Umeå
    Muindi, Kanyiva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Air pollution in Nairobi slums: sources, levels and lay perceptions2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Air quality in Africa has remained a relatively under-researched field. Most of the African population is dependent on biomass for cooking and heating, with most of the combustion happening in low efficiency stoves in unvented kitchens. The resulting high emissions are compounded by ingress from poor outdoor air in a context of poor emissions controls. The situation is dire in slum households where homes are crowded and space is limited, pushing households to cook in the same room that is used for sleeping. This study assessed the levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter £ 2.5 microns (PM2.5) in slum households and people's perceptions of and attitudes towards air pollution and health risks of exposure in two slum areas, Viwandani and Korogocho, in the Nairobi city.

    Methods

    The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods. For the quantitative study, we used structured questionnaires to collect data about the source of air pollution among adults aged 18 years and above and pregnant women residing in the two study communities. We used the DustTrak™ air samplers to monitor the indoor PM2.5 levels in selected households. We also collected data on community perceptions on air pollution, annoyance and associated health risks. We presented hotspot maps to portray the spatial distribution of perceptions on air pollution in the study areas. For the qualitative study, we conducted focus group discussions with adult community members. Groups were disaggregated by age to account for different languages used to communicate with the younger and older people. We analysed the qualitative data using thematic analysis.

    Results

    Household levels of PM2.5 varied widely across households and ranged from 1 to 12,369μg/m3 (SD=287.11). The household levels of PM2.5 levels were likely to exceed the WHO guidelines given the high levels observed in less than 24 hours of monitoring periods (on average 10.4 hours in Viwandani and 11.8 hours in Korogocho). Most of the respondents did not use ventilation use in the evening which coincided with the use of cookstove and lamp, mostly burning kerosene. The levels of PM2.5 varied by the type of fuels, with the highest emissions in households using kerosene for cooking and lighting. The PM2.5 levels spiked in the evenings and during periods of cooking using charcoal/wood. Despite these high levels, residents perceived indoor air to be less polluted compared with the outdoor air, possibly due to the presence of large sources of emissions near the communities such as dumpsites and industries. The community had mixed perceptions on the health impacts of air pollution, with respiratory illnesses perceived as the main consequence while vector or sanitation related diseases such as diarrhoea was also perceived to be related to air pollution.

    Conclusions

    With poor housing and reliance on dirty fuels, households in slums face potentially high levels of exposure to PM2.5 with dire implications on health. To address the poor perception on air pollution and knowledge gaps on the health effects of air pollution, education programs need to be developed and tailored. These programs should aim to provide residents with information on air quality and its impact on the health; what they can do as communities as well as empower them to reach out to government/stakeholders for action on outdoor sources of pollution such as emissions from dumpsites or industries. The government has a larger role in addressing some of the key pollution sources through policy formulation and strong implementation/enforcement.

  • Kristoffer, Johansson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utveckling av insticksprogram för DigiSign2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    DigiSign is a web application which is developed by a company called Omegapoint. The application is used to control so called “Digital Signage” monitors and to administrate the content they show. The application is lacking a function which lets the user create own templates. The goal with this project is to create a plugin that integrates with DigiSign where the user can create their own templates and that facilitates the usage of DigiSign by the customers.

    This project describes the development of the plugin and the integration with DigiSign. The plugin which is being developed is created with Microsoft ASP.NET Web forms and JavaScript.

    The work during the project has been divided into to three phases, pre-study, development of the user interface and integration with the plugin in DigiSign. In the pre-study the technical options was explored, how competing products worked and a plan for the project was created. After deciding which technique to use and studying those techniques where knowledge was missing a meeting with the company was held. During the meeting, it was decided which requirements and features the plugin should have. Then the development for the plugin started. The result of the work is a plugin which the customers can use to create own templates to use with their slideshows.

  • Wikström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Knowledge Transfer between User Interfaces: Exploring mental model influence in learning new UI - A case study at Skatteverket.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of mental models has long been studied in both cognitive science and HCI, yet their impact in knowledge transfer between user interfaces are not as commonly studied. Rarely are practical examples of this phenomenon studied from an academic perspective. Using a real world example, Skatteverket’s (Swedish tax authorities) information system Basregister, this case study seeks to explore the role of mental models in knowledge transfer between user interfaces.

    Method of investigation entailed utilizing two design iterations, three interview phases, and five participants employed at Skatteverket. This study investigated if, and how much design elements from well-known external- and the original- system impact the acquisition of new mental models for the newly produced user interface designs. Main results conclude that both external and internal design elements may be to tremendous benefit when the goal is to design with maximum knowledge transfer, as to reduce cognitive load on the user. However, that such implementations should be carefully instigated when designing new UI, and always from a user-centric approach.

  • Tärnholm, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wallén, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mellanchefers intention att stanna kvar på sin tjänst inom privat omsorg: betydelsen av psykosocial arbetsmiljö2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research shows that the psychosocial work environment is important for employee health and that different factors in the work environment has impact on employees intention to stay. The work environment for managers differs from other employees and the knowledge in the area is still limited. The purpose of the study was to examine the psychosocial work environment of managers in a private health care company and possible relations between work environment factors and intentions to stay in current managerial position. A websurvey was distributed to 146 managers in a private health care company, of which 87 replied. The survey contained background questions, questions about the psychosocial work environment from QPS-Nordic and a question concerning intention to quit. The collected data regarding managers psychosocial work environment was compared with nordic reference data from the QPS-Nordic manual (Dallner et al., 2000). Independent t-tests showed that participants reported higher estimate with regard to decision demands, role conflict, supervisor support, decision latitude and commitment to the organization than comparable reference data. Supervisor support and role conflict was, according to hierarchical regression analysis, the environmental factors that had significance for managers intention to quit, with control for number of employees. Lower supervisor support and higher role conflict predicted intention to quit. According to the results it is important for an organization to minimize the risk of role conflicts and promote social support, especially supervisor support.

  • Jansson, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    SharePoint Online: Arbeta bland molnen2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud services has come to be a major part for both small and big companies because it can be a more profitable solution in comparison to similar traditional “on premise” IT-infrastructure. SharePoint Online (SPO) together with Microsoft Office 365 is a tool for such a solution. This report covers the creation of one of those web platform solutions for the fictive company K800. SPO was chosen because SPO is a collaborative platform with many different applications and functions that will help companies to work together online. SPO has an easy way of administrate accounts and users, you get lots of storage space that can be expanded. Updates are incorporated automatically without the help of an administrator. Employees have access from wherever they may be independent of what equipment they use, and you only pay for the licenses that you use. Within SPO a website was built for the company’s internal needs, where users can use different sites and functions depending on what limitations and authorization-level they have been given. SPO can be complicated for beginners, but thanks to all the material available online it’s possible to learn by yourself. However, there were some complications and difficulties along the way but thanks to Microsoft’s many different support teams and others mentioned the issues could be solved and a complete website collaboration platform to K800 was delivered.

  • Söderlund, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Objectivity and realms of explanation in academic journal articles concerning sex/gender: a comparison of Gender studies and the other social sciences2017In: The Scientist (Philadelphia, Pa.), ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 112, no 2, 1093-1109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender studies (GS) has been challenged on epistemological grounds. Here, we compare samples of peer-reviewed academic journal publications written by GS authors and authors from closely related disciplines in the social sciences. The material consisted of 2805 statements from 36 peer-reviewed journal articles, sampled from the Swedish Gender Studies List, which covers > 12,000 publications. Each statement was coded as expressing a lack of any of three aspects of objectivity: Bias, Normativity, or Political activism, or as considering any of four realms of explanation for the behaviours or phenomena under study: Biology/genetics, Individual/group differences, Environment/culture, or Societal institutions. Statements in GS publications did to a greater extent express bias and normativity, but not political activism. They did also to a greater extent consider cultural, environmental, social, and societal realms of explanation, and to a lesser extent biological and individual differences explanations.

  • Fortner, Renee T.
    et al.
    Tolockiene, Egle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Schock, Helena
    Oda, Husam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Lakso, Hans-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Toniolo, Paolo
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Early pregnancy sex steroids during primiparous pregnancies and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study in the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort2017In: Breast Cancer Research, ISSN 1465-5411, E-ISSN 1465-542X, Vol. 19, 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pregnancy and parity are associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest a role for pregnancy sex steroid hormones.

    Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study in the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (1975–2007). Eligible women had provided a blood sample in the first 20 weeks of gestation during a primiparous pregnancy leading to a term delivery. The current study includes 223 cases and 417 matched controls (matching factors: age at and date of blood collection). Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status was available for all cases; androgen receptor (AR) data were available for 41% of cases (n = 92). Sex steroids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression.

    Results: Higher concentrations of circulating progesterone in early pregnancy were inversely associated with ER+/PR+ breast cancer risk (ORlog2: 0.64 (0.41–1.00)). Higher testosterone was positively associated with ER+/PR+ disease risk (ORlog2: 1.57 (1.13–2.18)). Early pregnancy estrogens were not associated with risk, except for relatively high estradiol in the context of low progesterone (split at median, relative to low concentrations of both; OR: 1.87 (1.11–3.16)). None of the investigated hormones were associated with ER–/PR– disease, or with AR+ or AR+/ER+/PR+ disease.

    Conclusions: Consistent with experimental models, high progesterone in early pregnancy was associated with lower risk of ER+/PR+ breast cancer in the mother. High circulating testosterone in early pregnancy, which likely reflects nonpregnant premenopausal exposure, was associated with higher risk of ER+/PR+ disease.

  • Nilsson, Tohr
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hand-arm vibration and the risk of vascular and neurological diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 7, e0180795Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Increased occurrence of Raynaud's phenomenon, neurosensory injury and carpal tunnel syndrome has been reported for more than 100 years in association with work with vibrating machines. The current risk prediction modelling (ISO-5349) for "Raynaud's phenomenon" is based on a few studies published 70 to 40 years ago. There are no corresponding risk prediction models for neurosensory injury or carpal tunnel syndrome, nor any systematic reviews comprising a statistical synthesis (meta-analysis) of the evidence. Objectives Our aim was to provide a systematic review of the literature on the association between Raynaud's phenomenon, neurosensory injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure. Moreover the aim was to estimate the magnitude of such an association using meta-analysis. Methods This systematic review covers the scientific literature up to January 2016. The databases used for the literature search were PubMed and Science Direct. We found a total of 4,335 abstracts, which were read and whose validity was assessed according to pre-established criteria. 294 articles were examined in their entirety to determine whether each article met the inclusion criteria. The possible risk of bias was assessed for each article. 52 articles finally met the pre-established criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. Results The results show that workers who are exposed to HAV have an increased risk of vascular and neurological diseases compared to non-vibration exposed groups. The crude estimate of the risk increase is approximately 4-5 fold. The estimated effect size (odds ratio) is 6.9 for the studies of Raynaud's phenomenon when including only the studies judged to have a low risk of bias. The corresponding risk of neurosensory injury is 7.4 and the equivalent of carpal tunnel syndrome is 2.9. Conclusion At equal exposures, neurosensory injury occurs with a 3-time factor shorter latency than Raynaud's phenomenon. Which is why preventive measures should address this vibration health hazard with greater attention.

  • Eriksson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Saliva and tooth biofilm bacterial microbiota in adolescents in a low caries community2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 5861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oral cavity harbours a complex microbiome that is linked to dental diseases and serves as a route to other parts of the body. Here, the aims were to characterize the oral microbiota by deep sequencing in a low-caries population with regular dental care since childhood and search for association with caries prevalence and incidence. Saliva and tooth biofilm from 17-year-olds and mock bacteria communities were analysed using 16S rDNA Illumina MiSeq (v3-v4) and PacBio SMRT (v1-v8) sequencing including validity and reliability estimates. Caries was scored at 17 and 19 years of age. Both sequencing platforms revealed that Firmicutes dominated in the saliva, whereas Firmicutes and Actinobacteria abundances were similar in tooth biofilm. Saliva microbiota discriminated caries-affected from caries-free adolescents, with enumeration of Scardovia wiggsiae, Streptococcus mutans, Bifidobacterium longum, Leptotrichia sp. HOT498, and Selenomonas spp. in caries-affected participants. Adolescents with B. longum in saliva had significantly higher 2-year caries increment. PacBio SMRT revealed Corynebacterium matruchotii as the most prevalent species in tooth biofilm. In conclusion, both sequencing methods were reliable and valid for oral samples, and saliva microbiota was associated with cross-sectional caries prevalence, especially S. wiggsiae, S. mutans, and B. longum; the latter also with the 2-year caries incidence.

  • Winbo, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics. Department of Physiology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Stattin, Eva-Lena
    Westin, Ida Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics.
    Norberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics.
    Persson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Jensen, Steen M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Rydberg, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Sex is a moderator of the association between NOS1AP sequence variants and QTc in two long QT syndrome founder populations: a pedigree-based measured genotype association analysis2017In: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 18, 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sequence variants in the NOS1AP gene have repeatedly been reported to influence QTc, albeit with moderate effect sizes. In the long QT syndrome (LQTS), this may contribute to the substantial QTc variance seen among carriers of identical pathogenic sequence variants. Here we assess three non-coding NOS1APsequence variants, chosen for their previously reported strong association with QTc in normal and LQTS populations, for association with QTc in two Swedish LQT1 founder populations.

    Methods: This study included 312 individuals (58% females) from two LQT1 founder populations, whereof 227 genotype positive segregating either Y111C (n = 148) or R518* (n = 79) pathogenic sequence variants in the KCNQ1 gene, and 85 genotype negatives. All were genotyped for NOS1AP sequence variants rs12143842, rs16847548 and rs4657139, and tested for association with QTc length (effect size presented as mean difference between derived and wildtype, in ms), using a pedigree-based measured genotype association analysis. Mean QTc was obtained by repeated manual measurement (preferably in lead II) by one observer using coded 50 mm/s standard 12-lead ECGs.

    Results: A substantial variance in mean QTc was seen in genotype positives 476 ± 36 ms (Y111C 483 ± 34 ms; R518* 462 ± 34 ms) and genotype negatives 433 ± 24 ms. Female sex was significantly associated with QTc prolongation in all genotype groups (p < 0.001). In a multivariable analysis including the entire study population and adjusted for KCNQ1 genotype, sex and age, NOS1AP sequence variants rs12143842 and rs16847548 (but not rs4657139) were significantly associated with QT prolongation, +18 ms (p = 0.0007) and +17 ms (p = 0.006), respectively. Significant sex-interactions were detected for both sequent variants (interaction term r = 0.892, p < 0.001 and r = 0.944, p < 0.001, respectively). Notably, across the genotype groups, when stratified by sex neither rs12143842 nor rs16847548 were significantly associated with QTc in females (both p = 0.16) while in males, a prolongation of +19 ms and +8 ms (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02) was seen in multivariable analysis, explaining up to 23% of QTc variance in all males.

    Conclusions: Sex was identified as a moderator of the association between NOS1AP sequence variants and QTc in two LQT1 founder populations. This finding may contribute to QTc sex differences and affect the usefulness of NOS1AP as a marker for clinical risk stratification in LQTS.

  • Strandberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Portfolio Optimization with NonLinear Instruments2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Rohr, Julia K.
    et al.
    Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier
    Rosenberg, Molly
    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer
    Geldsetzer, Pascal
    Wagner, Ryan G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Houle, Brian
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Berkman, Lisa
    Baernighausen, Till
    Performance of self-reported HIV status in determining true HIV status among older adults in rural South Africa: a validation study2017In: Journal of the International AIDS Society, ISSN 1758-2652, E-ISSN 1758-2652, Vol. 20, 691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In South Africa, older adults make up a growing proportion of people living with HIV. HIV programmes are likely to reach older South Africans in home-based interventions where testing is not always feasible. We evaluate the accuracy of self-reported HIV status, which may provide useful information for targeting interventions or offer an alternative to biomarker testing.

    Methods: Data were taken from the Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI) baseline survey, which was conducted in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A total of 5059 participants aged ≥40 years were interviewed from 2014 to 2015. Self-reported HIV status and dried bloodspots for HIV biomarker testing were obtained during at-home interviews. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for self-reported status compared to “gold standard” biomarker results. Log-binomial regression explored associations between demographic characteristics, antiretroviral therapy (ART) status and sensitivity of self-report.

    Results: Most participants (93%) consented to biomarker testing. Of those with biomarker results, 50.9% reported knowing their HIV status and accurately reported it. PPV of self-report was 94.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 92.0–96.0), NPV was 87.2% (95% CI: 86.2–88.2), sensitivity was 51.2% (95% CI: 48.2–54.3) and specificity was 99.0% (95% CI: 98.7–99.4). Participants on ART were more likely to report their HIV-positive status, and participants reporting false-negatives were more likely to have older HIV tests.

    Conclusions: The majority of participants were willing to share their HIV status. False-negative reports were largely explained by lack of testing, suggesting HIV stigma is retreating in this setting, and that expansion of HIV testing and retesting is still needed in this population. In HIV interventions where testing is not possible, self-reported status should be considered as a routine first step to establish HIV status.

  • Olsson, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Graphene Growth through Chemical Vapor Deposition - Optimization of Growth and Transfer Parameters2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis work is to investigate the possibility to grow graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on copper foil with acetylene as a precursor and varigon (5\% H$_2$ in Ar) as a carrier gas. The possibility of nitrogen doping by ammonia treatment during the growth process is also investigated. The possibility of graphene transfer, with the use of Poly(Methyl Metacrylate) (PMMA), from the copper onto another target substrate, Flourine doped Tin Oxide (FTO), is also explored. The main technique of characterization of the grown and transfered graphene is Raman spectroscopy, a great tool for investigating the number of graphene layers and amount of defects. Other characterization methods used are Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate morphology and elemental composition, respectively.

    The result of this thesis study is that graphene growth is entirely possible with acetylene as a precursor, as shown by the Raman spectroscopy, XPS and SEM. The grown graphene has a high quality with few layers and a low number of defects. The ammonia treatment, however, doesn't seem to have an immediate effect on the graphene growth. The XPS data indicates that there are no nitrogen doping in the graphene, though there might be a correlation between the ammonia and the number of layers, but further investigations has to be made. Transfer is also proven possible with the method developed. However, improvements to the transfer method can be done since there are both larger tares, caused by the transfer onto the FTO, as well as microscopic tares, possibly caused by thermal expansion of the PMMA.

  • Forsberg, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Shopping for emotion - Evaluating the usefulness of emotion recognition data from a retail perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study researches the usefulness of emotion recognition technology and respective data within the retail space. Emotion recognition is a relatively novel technology that promises to pinpoint a subjects emotional state. While the use cases could be many for a retailer there is still little available research on how to implement these tools and how to interpret their data. This study aims to provide an answer to those questions by reviewing current studies in emotion recognition and by setting up a rudimentary field test to compare data gathered by the Microsoft Emotion Recognition service with standard user satisfaction measurements. The responses are examined to determine if a subjects’ identified emotion has any connection to their perceived satisfaction with an experience. No such connection is found within the gathered data however, but several other points of interest are discovered. The study concludes that current emotion recognition tools may not live up to their hype and offer little in terms of useful data. They tend to require exaggerated emotional expressions and perform subpar to humans in many cases. The reasons for this, and possible improvements to these tools are also discussed.

  • Lundström, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Rosberg, Rasmus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Socially Responsible Investments?: -An empirical study on why investors do not invest in SRI2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society sustainability has become a highly discussed topic due to the increase in global average temperatures and changing ecosystems. Despite differentiating views regarding the origins of these changes, a proportion of the society have begun to adjust themselves into having more green profiles. This has led to an uprising among the number of investors who focus on making socially and responsible investments. However, on the contrary, there is still a substantial proportion of investors who do not invest in environmentally, animal and human friendly products. Which in turn may negate the pace of the ethical and sustainable development of our society. This issue leads to this study’s research question:

    What are the reasons or hindrances as to why students at Umeå School of Business and Economics do not invest in SRI financial products?  

    The main purpose of this paper is to explore why individuals at Umeå School of Business and Economics do not invest in SRI financial products. Furthermore, the paper aim to have an extra emphasis on information. In addition to the main purpose, the thesis will investigate if any links exist between investing ethically/sustainable and one’s daily behaviour. In order to explore these purposes, the authors uses past research within this area together with theoretical concepts regarding “Investment Decisions”, “Markowitz Portfolio Optimisation Model” and “Pro-Social Behaviour”. To conduct this study, the paper uses a quantitative approach with both primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected through a survey sent out to 917 students at Umeå School of Business and Economics. In order to achieve the purposes of this study, the data from non-SRI investors was used to analyse their investment behaviours.  

    The results of this study indicate that the majority of non-SRI investors are men. Furthermore, the findings illustrate that the expected financial return of SRI and risk when investing is significantly related to the probability of not investing in SRI. Additionally, the results point at that the demeanour of not investing in SRI products are significantly due to a lower level of knowledge concerning financial return of SRI. In conclusion, the authors argue that the attraction of capital ethical and sustainable investments can be greatly increased by educating investors in SRI products. Consequently, the increase in awareness and attraction of capital can aid solving the ethical and sustainable issues that exists today.

  • Gidlund, Alexander
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Lund, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The Norwegian Gender Quota Law and its Effects on Corporate Boards2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has examined which medium-term effects the Norwegian gender quota law has had on corporate boards listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange from 2009 to 2015. Wehave studied the gender quota law’s impact on different corporate board factors, such as board composition, the number of directorships held, basic remuneration, board size, andthe age of directors. Further, we also compared the gender quota law’s effects on these factors with similar studies made in earlier periods. The reason for that is to recognise whether there is a tendency of convergence over time.

    The study have been conducted using a quantitative approach by gathering information from mostly annual reports. Since, this is a comparative study, we will be using the same methods as previous researchers. These methods are arithmetic averages and standard deviations. We have also included some other methods to strengthen the results, such as geometric average, median, correlations, and significance test.

    The results of our research show that the number of directorships held by female directors decreased in both absolute numbers as well as in averages and dispersion. Remuneration for female directors increased. However, it diverged with male directors. The average board size did not remain significantly constant over time. We also found that the average age of board directors both increase and converges between the genders. We also believed that the proportion of female directors was depended on the firm’s board size, which the results showed was an incorrect assumption.

    This paper has applied an overarching theory called contingency theory. Further, other complementary theories within the area of corporate governance have also been used such as stakeholder theory, agency theory, and resource dependency theory. When analysing the results from this paper, there were too many plausible and contrasting theoretical explanations for why the various outcomes occurred. Therefore, we do not believe that the existing theoretical frameworks available are appropriate to explain how the gender quota law will impact corporate boards.

    The main contribution of this study is the results that show how both female and maledirectors’ average age and directorships held are converging over the observed period. Also, that the gender quota law has enabled female directors to gain more experience, which has led to a higher proportion of female directors.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-22 09:00 KBE303-Stora hörsalen, KBC-huset
    Zhou, Yang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Regulation of pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Messenger RNAs are transcribed and co-transcriptionally processed in the nucleus, and transported to the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, mRNAs serve as the template for protein synthesis and are eventually degraded. The removal of intron sequences from a precursor mRNA is termed splicing and is carried out by the dynamic spliceosome. In this thesis, I describe the regulated splicing of two transcripts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I also describe a study where the mechanisms that control the expression of magnesium transporters are elucidated.

    The pre-mRNA retention and splicing (RES) complex is a spliceosome-associated protein complex that promotes the splicing and nuclear retention of a subset of pre-mRNAs. The RES complex consists of three subunits, Bud13p, Snu17p and Pml1p. We show that the lack of RES factors causes a decrease in the formation of N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) in tRNAs. This phenotype is caused by inefficient splicing of the pre-mRNA of the TAN1 gene, which is required for the formation of ac4C in tRNAs. The RES mutants also show growth defects that are exacerbated at elevated temperatures. We show that the temperature sensitive phenotype of the bud13Δ and snu17Δ cells is caused by the inefficient splicing of the MED20 pre-mRNA. The MED20 gene encodes a subunit of the Mediator complex. Unspliced pre-mRNAs that enter the cytoplasm are usually degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway, which targets transcripts that contain premature translation termination codons. Consistent with the nuclear retention function of the RES complex, we find that NMD inactivation in the RES mutants leads to the accumulation of both TAN1 and MED20 pre-mRNAs. We also show that the cis-acting elements that promote RES-dependent splicing are different between the TAN1 and MED20 pre-mRNAs.

    The NMD pathway also targets transcripts with upstream ORFs (uORFs) for degradation. The ALR1 gene encodes the major magnesium importer in yeast, and its expression is controlled by the NMD pathway via a uORF in the 5’ untranslated region. We show that the ribosome reaches the downstream main ORF by a translation reinitiation mechanism. The NMD pathway was shown to control cellular Mg2+ levels by regulating the expression of the ALR1 gene. We further show that the NMD pathway targets the transcripts of the vacuolar Mg2+ exporter Mnr2p and the mitochondrial Mg2+ exporter Mme1p for degradation.

    In summary, we conclude that the RES complex has a role in the splicing regulation of a subset of transcripts. We also suggest a regulatory role for the NMD pathway in maintaining the cellular Mg2+ concentration by controlling the expression of Mg2+ transporters.

  • Sebastian, Pettersson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    IPMA- certifierade projektledares upplevelser av att vara certifierad2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the experience of the Swedish certification process at the Swedish Project Management Association, and whether the certification contributed to an increased competence and an additional value of the individuals who have certified themselves. The research was designed to bring a broader insight into the value of individuals through certification, as well as to provide the Swedish Project Management Association with tools for improving the Swedish certification process. A qualitative content analysis with a summative approach was used and conducted through 11 semi-structured interviews conducted with IPMA-certified (International Project Management Association) project managers, selected from the Swedish Project Management Association databases. Based on the topic concerned, the following questions emerged from the analysis: How do IPMA-certified project managers describe their potential skills enhancement with the certification? And what value do they assign to an IPMA-certification? The results demonstrated that participants experienced competence enhancement and an additional value through IPMA-certification. Additionally, findings identified a gap in previous research pertaining to reflection and assessment.

  • Linder, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykologers subjektiva upplevelser av den egna psykosociala arbetsmiljön inom företagshälsovården2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psychologists belongs to the occupational group in which long-term sick leave due to stress-related causes is most common. At the same time, there seems to be a lack of knowledge about the psychologist’s work environment. Furthermore, the work environment in occupational health services appears to be an unexplored area. The aim of this study was to look into how psychologists active in the occupational health services experience their own psychosocial work environment. The study involved six psychologists active in the occupational health services. Semi-structured telephone interviews were used to collect data and an inductive thematic analysis was conducted. The analysis resulted in eight overall themes and 29 sub-themes. The results showed, for example, that there are clear economic goals that the psychologists have to comply with. At the same time as the demands in some cases were perceived as high, there was a need for more resources. Furthermore, cooperation was rarely taken place, opportunities for collegial support were sometimes absent and a lack of management support existed in some cases. The conclusion that can be made is that it appears to be shortcomings in both the organizational and social conditions.  

  • Langefeld, Carl D.
    et al.
    Ainsworth, Hannah C.
    Graham, Deborah S. Cunninghame
    Kelly, Jennifer A.
    Comeau, Mary E.
    Marion, Miranda C.
    Howard, Timothy D.
    Ramos, Paula S.
    Croker, Jennifer A.
    Morris, David L.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Almlof, Jonas Carlsson
    Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo M.
    Alarcon, Graciela S.
    Babini, Alejandra M.
    Baca, Vicente
    Bengtsson, Anders A.
    Berbotto, Guillermo A.
    Bijl, Marc
    Brown, Elizabeth E.
    Brunner, Hermine I.
    Cardiel, Mario H.
    Catoggio, Luis
    Cervera, Ricard
    Cucho-Venegas, Jorge M.
    Rantapää Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    D'Alfonso, Sandra
    Da Silva, Berta Martins
    de la Rua Figueroa, Inigo
    Doria, Andrea
    Edberg, Jeffrey C.
    Endreffy, Emoke
    Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge A.
    Fortin, Paul R.
    Freedman, Barry I.
    Frostegard, Johan
    Garcia, Mercedes A.
    Garcia de la Torre, Ignacio
    Gilkeson, Gary S.
    Gladman, Dafna D.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Guthridge, Joel M.
    Huggins, Jennifer L.
    James, Judith A.
    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.
    Kamen, Diane L.
    Karp, David R.
    Kaufman, Kenneth M.
    Kottyan, Leah C.
    Kovacs, Laszlo
    Laustrup, Helle
    Lauwerys, Bernard R.
    Li, Quan-Zhen
    Maradiaga-Cecena, Marco A.
    Martin, Javier
    McCune, Joseph M.
    McWilliams, David R.
    Merrill, Joan T.
    Miranda, Pedro
    Moctezuma, Jose F.
    Nath, Swapan K.
    Niewold, Timothy B.
    Orozco, Lorena
    Ortego-Centeno, Norberto
    Petri, Michelle
    Pineau, Christian A.
    Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.
    Pope, Janet
    Raj, Prithvi
    Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind
    Reveille, John D.
    Russell, Laurie P.
    Sabio, Jose M.
    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.
    Scherbarth, Hugo R.
    Scorza, Raffaella
    Seldin, Michael F.
    Sjowall, Christopher
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Thompson, Susan D.
    Toloza, Sergio M. A.
    Truedsson, Lennart
    Tusie-Luna, Teresa
    Vasconcelos, Carlos
    Vila, Luis M.
    Wallace, Daniel J.
    Weisman, Michael H.
    Wither, Joan E.
    Bhangale, Tushar
    Oksenberg, Jorge R.
    Rioux, John D.
    Gregersen, Peter K.
    Syvanen, Ann-Christine
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Criswell, Lindsey A.
    Jacob, Chaim O.
    Sivils, Kathy L.
    Tsao, Betty P.
    Schanberg, Laura E.
    Behrens, Timothy W.
    Silverman, Earl D.
    Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.
    Kimberly, Robert P.
    Harley, John B.
    Wakeland, Edward K.
    Graham, Robert R.
    Gaffney, Patrick M.
    Vyse, Timothy J.
    Transancestral mapping and genetic load in systemic lupus erythematosus2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 16021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with marked gender and ethnic disparities. We report a large transancestral association study of SLE using Immunochip genotype data from 27,574 individuals of European (EA), African (AA) and Hispanic Amerindian (HA) ancestry. We identify 58 distinct non-HLA regions in EA, 9 in AA and 16 in HA (similar to 50% of these regions have multiple independent associations); these include 24 novel SLE regions (P < 5 x 10(-8)), refined association signals in established regions, extended associations to additional ancestries, and a disentangled complex HLA multigenic effect. The risk allele count (genetic load) exhibits an accelerating pattern of SLE risk, leading us to posit a cumulative hit hypothesis for autoimmune disease. Comparing results across the three ancestries identifies both ancestry-dependent and ancestry-independent contributions to SLE risk. Our results are consistent with the unique and complex histories of the populations sampled, and collectively help clarify the genetic architecture and ethnic disparities in SLE.

  • Carlsson, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Profiting from serial correlation: Constructing a trading strategy on the DAX2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how technical analysis has been used throughout historyand constructs a technical trading strategy to be used in a computer algorithm.The strategy is based on a linear regression indicator and aims to prot fromthe assumption that markets, in this case the DAX, has some degree of serialcorrelation in daily price-movements. The strategy developed in this paper doesbeat a buy and hold with a substantial margin. Further, I test the validity of theseresults by simulating two different sets of random stock-paths using monte-carlosimulations; one following a geometric Brownian motion and the other a wienerprocess with serial correlation. I nd that the strategy based on a linear regressionhas signicantly higher returns than a buy and hold strategy over the same timeperiod and that the results generated by the strategy on the DAX give some degreeof evidence for serial correlation in daily prices on the DAX.

  • Hörnblad, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Laborationer för integration och naturvetenskapligt lärande?: Aspekter på ett laborativt möte2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien har en naturvetenskaplig laboration genomförts som en gemensam aktivitet för en gymnasieklass som läser Biologi 1 och en språkintroduktionsklass som läser NO. Aktiviteten har sedan utvärderats med avseende på elevernas tillägnande av det naturvetenskapliga innehållet, deras användande av naturvetenskapligt språk, vilka kommunikationsvägar som uppstod, elevernas försök till samarbete, samt elevernas och lärarnas subjektiva upplevelser. Studien visade att den här typen av aktiviteter är genomförbara på ett mycket heterogent elevunderlag avseende både etniska-, sociala och förkunskapsmässiga faktorer. De naturvetenskapliga laborationerna har därmed en potential i att fungera som verktyg både i ämnesinlärning och som arena för integration. Vidare visade studien på behovet av kommunikationsverktyg utöver listor med ämnesspecifika ord och begrepp både för elever med svenska som andraspråk och med svenska som modersmål. För utveckling av det naturvetenskapliga språket föreslås en utförligare uppföljning av laborationsaktiviteten än den som gjordes inom ramen för den här studien.

  • George, Karl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coping with Anxiety Sensitivity during Adolescence2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between Anxiety Sensitivity (AS) and certain anxiety disorders such as Panic Disorder and the panic response itself are well established by theory and research. Adolescence is understood to be a risk period for the development of Anxiety disorders. Certain styles of coping such as avoidance has beensuggested to be risk factors as well. In this study, the relation between AS and coping is explored using self-report measures (CASI-R and A-COPE), aiming to see if adolescents with high or low AS have an association with certain coping styles, understood by theory also to be potential risk factors. No reliable association were found between groups with high or low AS and any coping style. AS and total extent of coping did not correlate. A small and negative, significant correlation was found between age and AS.

  • Zimmerman, Malin
    et al.
    Enes, Sara Rolandsson
    Skarstrand, Hanna
    Pourhamidi, Kaveh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Gottsater, Anders
    Wollmer, Per
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla
    Dahlin, Lars B.
    Temporal trend of autonomic nerve function and HSP27, MIF and PAI-1 in type 1 diabetes2017In: Journal of clinical and translational endocrinology, ISSN 2214-6237, Vol. 8, 15-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1D) has numerous complications including autonomic neuropathy, i.e. dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system. This study focuses on Heat Shock Protein 27 (HSP27), Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF), Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and HbA1c and their possible roles in effects of diabetes on the autonomic nervous system.

    Methods: Patients with T1D (n = 32, 41% women) were recruited in 1985 and followed up on four occasions (1989, 1993, 1998, and 2005). Autonomic function was tested using expiration/inspiration (E/I-ratio). Blood samples, i.e. HSP27 (last three occasions), MIF, PAI-1 (last two occasions) and HbA1c (five occasions), were analyzed.

    Results: Autonomic nerve function deteriorated over time during the 20-year-period, but levels of HSP27, MIF, and PAI-1 were not associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. MIF and PAI-1 were lower in T1D than in healthy controls in 2005. Increased HbA1c correlated with a decrease in E/I-ratio.

    Conclusions: Neither the neuroprotective substance HSP27 nor the inflammatory substances, MIF and PAI-1 were associated with measures of cardiovascular autonomic nerve function, but a deterioration of such function was observed in relation to increasing HbA1c in T1D during a 20-year follow-up period. Improved glucose control might be associated with protection against autonomic neuropathy in T1D.

  • Gaziano, Thomas A.
    et al.
    Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika
    Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier
    Wade, Alisha
    Crowther, Nigel J.
    Alam, Sartaj
    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer
    Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.
    Wagner, Ryan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa ; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana ; Africa Wits-INDEPTH Genomic Studies of Cardiovascular Disease, University of the Witwatersrand.
    Rohr, Julia
    Montana, Livia
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa ; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana ; Africa Wits-INDEPTH Genomic Studies of Cardiovascular Disease, University of the Witwatersrand.
    Baernighausen, Till W.
    Berkman, Lisa F.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Cardiometabolic risk in a population of older adults with multiple co-morbidities in rural south africa: the HAALSI (Health and Aging in Africa: longitudinal studies of INDEPTH communities) study2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A consequence of the widespread uptake of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is that the older South African population will experience an increase in life expectancy, increasing their risk for cardiometabolic diseases (CMD), and its risk factors. The long-term interactions between HIV infection, treatment, and CMD remain to be elucidated in the African population. The HAALSI cohort was established to investigate the impact of these interactions on CMD morbidity and mortality among middle-aged and older adults. Methods: We recruited randomly selected adults aged 40 or older residing in the rural Agincourt sub-district in Mpumalanga Province. In-person interviews were conducted to collect baseline household and socioeconomic data, self-reported health, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), HbA1c, HIV-status, and point-of-care glucose and lipid levels. Results: Five thousand fifty nine persons (46.4% male) were enrolled with a mean age of 61.7 +/- 13.06 years. Waist-to- hip ratio was high for men and women (0.92 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.89 +/- 0.08), with 70% of women and 44% of men being overweight or obese. Blood pressure was similar for men and women with a combined hypertension prevalence of 58.4% and statistically significant increases were observed with increasing age. High total cholesterol prevalence in women was twice that observed for men (8.5 vs. 4.1%). The prevalence of self-reported CMD conditions was higher among women, except for myocardial infarction, and women had a statistically significantly higher prevalence of angina (10.82 vs. 6.97%) using Rose Criteria. The HIV- persons were significantly more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, or be overweight or obese than HIV+ persons. Approximately 56% of the cohort had at least 2 measured or self-reported clinical co-morbidities, with HIV+ persons having a consistently lower prevalence of co-morbidities compared to those without HIV. Absolute 10-year risk cardiovascular risk scores ranged from 7.7-9.7% for women and from 12.5-15.3% for men, depending on the risk score equations used. Conclusions: This cohort has high CMD risk based on both traditional risk factors and novel markers like hsCRP. Longitudinal follow-up of the cohort will allow us to determine the long-term impact of increased lifespan in a population with both high HIV infection and CMD risk.