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  • Sundin, Joe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Geomorphic and particle attributes influence on entrainment and sediment transport in semi-alluvial streams2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Streams around the world are shaped by physical processes between water and sediment transport which generates unique geomorphic structures for each stream. This study aimed to evaluated how geomorphic structures and grain attributes would influence entrainment frequency and transport distance of traced clasts. The morphologic structures observed were the clasts morphologic setting in the surface bed, constrainment type, clasts location and distance to immobile boulders, slope, dimensionless critical shear stress and bankfull shear stress. The grain attributes consisted of the length of the longest(L), intermediate(I) and shortest(S) axis and the ratio between I/L and S/I to classify the shape of the clasts. To observe this, passive integrated transponders (PIT) were inserted into 558 clasts and then implemented into a stream in northern Sweden. The study was set up with 15 transects with 10 meters apart in the summer of 2017. The clasts new position, morphologic setting and constrainment type were resurveyed in the summer of 2018 and 2019. The entrainment frequency was higher at 74% during 2017-2018 compared to 54% during 2018-2019 and the mean transport distance was 0.59m and 0.19m respectively. The results show that 7 out of 14 variables had a significant effect (α=0.05) on entrainment and transport distance during 2017-2018 and 5 out of 14 during 2018-2019. The explanatory value (R2) for each significant variable, however, was low between 0.01-0.04. The major difference in entrainment frequency and transport distance during 2017-2018 compared to 2018-2019 and low R2-value show complex relationship between stream characteristics and grain attributes in streams.

  • Nyström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    När mycket står på spel - Paternalistisk spellagstiftning för skydd mot problemspelande och fördelningen av ansvar mellan Spelinspektionen, spelbolagen och individen.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Mansouri, Kamel
    et al.
    Kleinstreuer, Nicole
    Abdelaziz, Ahmed M.
    Alberga, Domenico
    Alves, Vinicius M.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andrade, Carolina H.
    Bai, Fang
    Balabin, Ilya
    Ballabio, Davide
    Benfenati, Emilio
    Bhhatarai, Barun
    Boyer, Scott
    Chen, Jingwen
    Consonni, Viviana
    Farag, Sherif
    Fourches, Denis
    García-Sosa, Alfonso T.
    Gramatica, Paola
    Grisoni, Francesca
    Grulke, Chris M.
    Hong, Huixiao
    Horvath, Dragos
    Hu, Xin
    Huang, Ruili
    Jeliazkova, Nina
    Li, Jiazhong
    Li, Xuehua
    Liu, Huanxiang
    Manganelli, Serena
    Mangiatordi, Giuseppe F.
    Maran, Uko
    Marcou, Gilles
    Martin, Todd
    Muratov, Eugene
    Nguyen, Dac-Trung
    Nicolotti, Orazio
    Nikolov, Nikolai G.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Papa, Ester
    Petitjean, Michel
    Pür, Geven
    Pogodin, Pavel
    Poroikov, Vladimir
    Qiao, Xianliang
    Richard, Ann M.
    Roncaglioni, Alessandra
    Ruiz, Patricia
    Rupakheti, Chetan
    Sakkiah, Sugunadevi
    Sangion, Alessandro
    Schramm, Karl-Werner
    Selvaraj, Chandrabose
    Shah, Imran
    Sild, Sulev
    Sun, Lixia
    Taboureau, Olivier
    Tang, Yun
    Tetko, Igor V.
    Todeschini, Roberto
    Tong, Weida
    Trisciuzzi, Daniela
    Tropsha, Alexander
    Van Den Driessche, George
    Varnek, Alexandre
    Wang, Zhongyu
    Wedebye, Eva B.
    Williams, Antony J.
    Xie, Hongbin
    Zakharov, Alexey V.
    Zheng, Ziye
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Judson, Richard S.
    CoMPARA: Collaborative Modeling Project for Androgen Receptor Activity2020In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 128, no 2, p. 1-17, article id 027002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are xenobiotics that mimic the interaction of natural hormones and alter synthesis, transport, or metabolic pathways. The prospect of EDCs causing adverse health effects in humans and wildlife has led to the development of scientific and regulatory approaches for evaluating bioactivity. This need is being addressed using high-throughput screening (HTS) in vitro approaches and computational modeling.

    OBJECTIVES: In support of the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led two worldwide consortiums to virtually screen chemicals for their potential estrogenic and androgenic activities. Here, we describe the Collaborative Modeling Project for Androgen Receptor Activity (CoMPARA) efforts, which follows the steps of the Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project (CERAPP).

    METHODS: The CoMPARA list of screened chemicals built on CERAPP's list of 32,464 chemicals to include additional chemicals of interest, as well as simulated ToxCast (TM) metabolites, totaling 55,450 chemical structures. Computational toxicology scientists from 25 international groups contributed 91 predictive models for binding, agonist, and antagonist activity predictions. Models were underpinned by a common training set of 1,746 chemicals compiled from a combined data set of 11 ToxCast (TM)/Tox21 HTS in vitro assays.

    RESULTS: The resulting models were evaluated using curated literature data extracted from different sources. To overcome the limitations of single-model approaches, CoMPARA predictions were combined into consensus models that provided averaged predictive accuracy of approximately 80% for the evaluation set.

    DISCUSSION: The strengths and limitations of the consensus predictions were discussed with example chemicals; then, the models were implemented into the free and open-source OPERA application to enable screening of new chemicals with a defined applicability domain and accuracy assessment. This implementation was used to screen the entire EPA DSSTox database of similar to 875,000 chemicals, and their predicted AR activities have been made available on the EPA CompTox Chemicals dashboard and National Toxicology Program's Integrated Chemical Environment.

  • Li, Chen
    et al.
    Stoma, Svetlana
    Lotta, Luca A.
    Warner, Sophie
    Albrecht, Eva
    Allione, Alessandra
    Arp, Pascal P.
    Broer, Linda
    Buxton, Jessica L.
    Da Silva Couto Alves, Alexessander
    Deelen, Joris
    Fedko, Iryna O.
    Gordon, Scott D.
    Jiang, Tao
    Karlsson, Robert
    Kerrison, Nicola
    Loe, Taylor K.
    Mangino, Massimo
    Milaneschi, Yuri
    Miraglio, Benjamin
    Pervjakova, Natalia
    Russo, Alessia
    Surakka, Ida
    van der Spek, Ashley
    Verhoeven, Josine E.
    Amin, Najaf
    Beekman, Marian
    Blakemore, Alexandra I.
    Canzian, Federico
    Hamby, Stephen E.
    Hottenga, Jouke-Jan
    Jones, Peter D.
    Jousilahti, Pekka
    Mägi, Reedik
    Medland, Sarah E.
    Montgomery, Grant W.
    Nyholt, Dale R.
    Perola, Markus
    Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Sillanpää, Elina
    Suchiman, H. Eka
    van Heemst, Diana
    Willemsen, Gonneke
    Agudo, Antonio
    Boeing, Heiner
    Boomsma, Dorret I.
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinical Research Center, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, 20502 Malmö Sweden.
    Gieger, Christian
    Eriksson, Johan Gunnar
    Gunter, Marc
    Hagg, Sara
    Hovatta, Iiris
    Imaz, Liher
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Key, Timothy
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Martin, Nicholas G.
    Melander, Olle
    Metspalu, Andres
    Moreno, Concha
    Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte
    Nilsson, Peter
    Ong, Ken K.
    Overvad, Kim
    Palli, Domenico
    Panico, Salvatore
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
    Quirós, J. Ramón
    Riitta Jarvelin, Marjo
    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel
    Scott, Robert A.
    Severi, Gianluca
    Slagboom, P. Eline
    Spector, Tim D.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Tumino, Rosario
    Uitterlinden, André G.
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Denchi, Eros Lazzerini
    Matullo, Giuseppe
    Butterworth, Adam S.
    Danesh, John
    Samani, Nilesh J.
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Nelson, Christopher P.
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Codd, Veryan
    Genome-wide Association Analysis in Humans Links Nucleotide Metabolism to Leukocyte Telomere Length2020In: American Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 0002-9297, E-ISSN 1537-6605, Vol. 106, no 3, p. 389-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a heritable biomarker of genomic aging. In this study, we perform a genome-wide meta-analysis of LTL by pooling densely genotyped and imputed association results across large-scale European-descent studies including up to 78,592 individuals. We identify 49 genomic regions at a false dicovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 threshold and prioritize genes at 31, with five highlighting nucleotide metabolism as an important regulator of LTL. We report six genome-wide significant loci in or near SENP7, MOB1B, CARMIL1 , PRRC2A, TERF2, and RFWD3, and our results support recently identified PARP1, POT1, ATM, and MPHOSPH6 loci. Phenome-wide analyses in >350,000 UK Biobank participants suggest that genetically shorter telomere length increases the risk of hypothyroidism and decreases the risk of thyroid cancer, lymphoma, and a range of proliferative conditions. Our results replicate previously reported associations with increased risk of coronary artery disease and lower risk for multiple cancer types. Our findings substantially expand current knowledge on genes that regulate LTL and their impact on human health and disease.

  • Karlsson, Edvin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Biological Agents, Division of CBRN Defense and Security, Swedish Defense Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anna-Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Ahlinder, Jon
    Lundkvist, Moa J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Singh, Navinder J.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Forsman, Mats
    Stenberg, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Biological Agents, Division of CBRN Defense and Security, Swedish Defense Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Airborne microbial biodiversity and seasonality in Northern and Southern Sweden2020In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 8, article id e8424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms are essential constituents of ecosystems. To improve our understanding of how various factors shape microbial diversity and composition in nature it is important to study how microorganisms vary in space and time. Factors shaping microbial communities in ground level air have been surveyed in a limited number of studies, indicating that geographic location, season and local climate influence the microbial communities. However, few have surveyed more than one location, at high latitude or continuously over more than a year. We surveyed the airborne microbial communities over two full consecutive years in Kiruna, in the Arctic boreal zone, and Ljungbyhed, in the Southern nemoral zone of Sweden, by using a unique collection of archived air filters. We mapped both geographic and seasonal differences in bacterial and fungal communities and evaluated environmental factors that may contribute to these differences and found that location, season and weather influence the airborne communities. Location had stronger influence on the bacterial community composition compared to season, while location and season had equal influence on the fungal community composition. However, the airborne bacterial and fungal diversity showed overall the same trend over the seasons, regardless of location, with a peak during the warmer parts of the year, except for the fungal seasonal trend in Ljungbyhed, which fluctuated more within season. Interestingly, the diversity and evenness of the airborne communities were generally lower in Ljungbyhed. In addition, both bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly within and between locations, where orders like Rhizobiales, Rhodospirillales and Agaricales dominated in Kiruna, whereas Bacillales, Clostridiales and Sordariales dominated in Ljungbyhed. These differences are a likely reflection of the landscape surrounding the sampling sites where the landscape in Ljungbyhed is more homogenous and predominantly characterized by artificial and agricultural surroundings. Our results further indicate that local landscape, as well as seasonal variation, shapes microbial communities in air.

  • Burman, Jenni
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Behavioral Alteration of Ninespine Stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and Threespined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) when Exposed to the Anxiolytic Drug Oxazepam.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the environmental hazards the aquatic ecosystem is faced with today is pollution by pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic system through wastewater from hospitals, manufacturing processes and improper disposal by the public. Benzodiazepines are a class of anxiolytic pharmaceuticals that have been shown to have behavioral modifying effects on exposed biota. The aim of this study was to investigate if exposure to a concentration (40 µg/l) of oxazepam (a common benzodiazepine) has an impact on the activity, boldness and sociability of Ninespine sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) and Threespined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Sticklebacks (n=100) collected from the harbor of Rovögern, Täfteå, were divided equally into control and exposed groups. The exposed groups were placed in water containing oxazepam (40 µg/l) for seven days and behavioral evaluations on activity, boldness and sociality were conducted on each individual pre- and post-treatment. Surprisingly, the results showed no significant change in the activity, boldness or sociality in response to oxazepam. However, the control fish were less social and showed a trend towards reduced activity in the second behavioral test, which may suggest that oxazepam has a behavioral effect on sticklebacks. Comparisons between species showed that P. pungitius individuals were less social than G. aculeatus in the control treatment after exposure, but they did not differ in boldness. However, in the exposed group post-treatment, P. pungitius only showed a trend of being less social than G. aculeatus, and they also showed a trend towards being less bold after exposure of oxazepam.

  • Persson, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vad påverkar betestrycket av älg?: En statistisk analys av ÄBIN-data av älgars betestryck på tall längs väg E4 i Norrland med fokus på viltstängsel och trädslagsammansättning2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish forest is valuable from many different perspectives in the form of forestry, climate change, biodiversity, and recreation. In order to utilize the forest and meet all needs, it is important to investigate potential factors affecting the growth of the forest. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how road barriers in the form of fencing can affect browsing on pine along highway E4 in northeast Sweden. In addition, tree density, tree species composition, area of young forest, ground vegetation, and interactions between these different factors were investigated. The study is based on data from the moose-grazing-on-pine inventory (ÄBIN) carried out by the Swedish Forest Agency between 2015-2019. The data were analysed in a multiple regression analysis. Results showed that road fencing have some effect on moose grazing on pine and that tree density, tree species composition and the amount of young forest also affect the amount of grazing damage on pine. Higher densities of pine, spruce and birch can lower the proportion of damaged pines. Hence, in order to reduce the browsing damage on pine, forest owners should increase the tree densities and the diversity of tree species in young forests, thereby creating more heterogenous forests that can benefit forestry, biodiversity, recreation and to decrease climate change.

  • Bayadsi, Haytham
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Bergman, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Hennings, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Invasiveness and Metastatic Aggressiveness in Small Differentiated Thyroid Cancers: Demography of Small Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas in the Swedish Population2020In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 461-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The western world is seeing a rising incidence of thyroid cancer. Improved diagnostic methods do not entirely explain this increase. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common subtype of thyroid cancer. Small PTC (<= 20 mm) and especially papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC <= 10 mm) are considered to be low-risk tumors but some cases are considerably more aggressive. Sufficient understanding of these mechanisms is a long-term goal for more efficient and safer treatment of these tumors.

    Methods: We identified 959 cases of small PTCs in the validated Scandinavian Quality Register for Thyroid, Parathyroid and Adrenal Surgery, grouped according to lymph node metastasis. These were analyzed according to age, gender, tumor size and geographic region.

    Results: Patients with N1b disease (lateral lymph nodes metastases) had a smaller tumor size compared to patients with N1a disease (8.6 mm vs 10.1 mm respectively, p < 0.05). Patients and specifically females with N1b disease were younger than those with N0 or N1a disease. Patients with N1b disease had a lower proportion of females (60%) compared to N0 and N1a groups (81% and 78%, respectively). The incidence of operated small PTCs and of lymph node engagement differs between geographic regions in Sweden.

    Conclusions: Small PTC and especially PTMC seem to show different patterns of aggressiveness and demography regarding lateral lymph node metastases and 7% had N1b disease and tumor <1 cm, underscoring the importance of lymph node evaluation in PTMC patients. More understanding of predictive factors, mechanisms for metastatic disease and causes of regional differences, is needed.

  • Yang, Qi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.
    Blanco, Nicolás E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Centre of Photosynthetic and Biochemical Studies (CEFOBI-CONICET), Faculty of Biochemical Science and Pharmacy, Rosario National University, Rosario, Argentina.
    Hermida-Carrera, Carmen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Lehotai, Nóra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Hurry, Vaughan
    Strand, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Two dominant boreal conifers use contrasting mechanisms to reactivate photosynthesis in the spring2020In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal forests are dominated by evergreen conifers that show strongly regulated seasonal photosynthetic activity. Understanding the mechanisms behind seasonal modulation of photosynthesis is crucial for predicting how these forests will respond to changes in seasonal patterns and how this will affect their role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. We demonstrate that the two co-occurring dominant boreal conifers, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies), use contrasting mechanisms to reactivate photosynthesis in the spring. Scots pine downregulates its capacity for CO2 assimilation during winter and activates alternative electron sinks through accumulation of PGR5 and PGRL1 during early spring until the capacity for COassimilation is recovered. In contrast, Norway spruce lacks this ability to actively switch between different electron sinks over the year and as a consequence suffers severe photooxidative damage during the critical spring period.

  • Johansson, Suzanne
    et al.
    Lund University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Markström, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Larsson, Maria E.
    Gothenburg University, Department of Neuroscience and Physiology.
    Bejerholm, Ulrika
    Lund University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Implementation of a novel return-to-work approach for persons with affective disorders in a traditional vocational rehabilitation context: a case study2020In: International Journal of Mental Health Systems, ISSN 1752-4458, E-ISSN 1752-4458, Vol. 14, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The person-centred Individual Enabling and Support (IES) model is a novel return-to-work (RTW) intervention for people with affective disorders that was developed from evidence-based supported employment for persons with severe mental illness. Typically, supported employment is integrated into mental healthcare and provides a network around the service user and close collaboration with employment and insurance services and employers. Introducing integrated models into a highly sectored welfare system that includes traditional mental healthcare and vocational rehabilitation is challenging. Greater knowledge is needed to understand how facilitating or hindering factors influence this introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate essential components in implementation of the IES model.

    Methods: A case-study was conducted and included four mental healthcare services. Data collection was comprised of semi-structured interviews with 19 key informants, documentation from meetings, and reflection notes. Analyses were performed according to directed content analysis, using the components of the Consolidated Framework of Implementation Research (CFIR) as a guiding tool. Fidelity assessments were performed at 6 and 12 months.

    Results: Anticipating RTW support for the target group, and building collaborative relationships and a network with employment specialists that engaged staff in every organization were components that resulted in the greatest facilitation if IES implementation. Barriers consisted of difficulty in integrating employment specialists into the mental healthcare teams, insufficient engagement of first line managers, reorganization and differing perceptions of the IES model fit into a traditional vocational context. Delivery of the IES model had good fidelity.

    Conclusions: The IES model can be implemented with good fidelity, several model advantages, and context adaptation. Team integration difficulties and negative perceptions of model fit in a traditional vocational rehabilitation context can be overcome to a certain degree, but this is insufficient for sustainable implementation on a larger scale. Policy and guidelines need to promote integrative and person-centred RTW approaches rather than a segregated stepwise approach. Further implementation studies in the traditional vocational rehabilitation context are needed.

  • Olsson, Beatrice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Skatteflyktslagen och handeln med underskottsföretag. Skatteflykt vid ägarförändringar som utlöser beloppsspärren – förenligt med principerna om neutralitet och legalitet?2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Perä, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    En förutsebar skattskyldighet? En komparativ studie av Sveriges, Australiens och USA:s reglering av skattskyldigheten vid vistelser och bosättning.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Paulin-Rosell, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Egendomsskyddet i fastighetsbildning - Ett stärkt skydd för den enskilde eller ett större utrymme för statens godtycke?2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ahlström Rivarola, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Våldtäktsbrottets tillämplighet vid sexualbrott över internet.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Stenros, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Kulturarvet och vattenkraften: En rättsvetenskaplig studie av skyddet för fornminnen vid Sveriges reglerade vattendrag.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Stark, Bo-Axel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    The Hateful Cake - The Colorado Baker Case and Åke Green; Judicial views on Homosexuality and the Freedom of Religion.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Blomberg, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    El Ghoul, Leo
    Intragovernmental Mergers: A case study into the impact on employees by the merger of Region Västerbotten and Västerbottens läns landsting.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “How has the merger of Region Västerbotten impacted the employees from a change resistance, merger theory and communication theory perspective”. At the moment there is a demand for governmental organisations to spend money more efficiently and save money where possible from the taxpayers. A results of this pressure is the idea of merging governmental organisations, this in an effort to reduce costs and streamline their core activities. The most recent example of such a governmental merger is the one conducted by Region Västerbotten and Västerbottens Läns Landsting. This merger was conducted because both of these organisations’ core activities go hand in hand, the merger is supposed to help those activities blossom further. In this thesis the effects on employees affected by the merger was looked upon from a change resistance and merger theory perspective. It was concluded that the merger could have been handled better through more involvement of employee suggestions and listening to their opinions in the so called deal negotiation phase leading up to the merger. A number of employees were interviewed regarding their experience with the merger and their opinions on what had worked well and what had not worked. To summarize the opinions of the interviewed employees there were no clear and obvious improvements for them but instead everything had in their opinion become worse in some way.

  • Jamroskovic, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Doimo, Mara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Chand, Karam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Obi, Ikenna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kumar, Rajendra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brännström, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Hedenström, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Das, Rabindra Nath
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Akhunzianov, Almaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russia.
    Deiana, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kasho, Kazutoshi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Sulis Sato, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Pourbozorgi-Langroudi, Parham
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mason, James E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Medini, Paolo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Öhlund, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wanrooij, Sjoerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Chorell, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sabouri, Nasim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Quinazoline Ligands Induce Cancer Cell Death through Selective STAT3 Inhibition and G-Quadruplex Stabilization2020In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 142, no 6, p. 2876-2888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein is a master regulator of most key hallmarks and enablers of cancer, including cell proliferation and the response to DNA damage. G-Quadruplex (G4) structures are four-stranded noncanonical DNA structures enriched at telomeres and oncogenes' promoters. In cancer cells, stabilization of G4 DNAs leads to replication stress and DNA damage accumulation and is therefore considered a promising target for oncotherapy. Here, we designed and synthesized novel quinazoline-based compounds that simultaneously and selectively affect these two well-recognized cancer targets, G4 DNA structures and the STAT3 protein. Using a combination of in vitro assays, NMR, and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that these small, uncharged compounds not only bind to the STAT3 protein but also stabilize G4 structures. In human cultured cells, the compounds inhibit phosphorylation-dependent activation of STAT3 without affecting the antiapoptotic factor STAT1 and cause increased formation of G4 structures, as revealed by the use of a G4 DNA-specific antibody. As a result, treated cells show slower DNA replication, DNA damage checkpoint activation, and an increased apoptotic rate. Importantly, cancer cells are more sensitive to these molecules compared to noncancerous cell lines. This is the first report of a promising class of compounds that not only targets the DNA damage cancer response machinery but also simultaneously inhibits the STAT3-induced cancer cell proliferation, demonstrating a novel approach in cancer therapy.

  • Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University.
    Arvidsjaur, flygplatsen och tillväxten2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arvidsjaur flygplats är betydelsefull för invånarna och aktörer i Arvidsjaur, Arjeplog och Sorsele kommuner. Flygplatsen har dessutom varit avgörande för tillväxten inom biltestnäringen i Sverige. Den har även betydelse för andra näringar i regionen och för tillgängligheten till omvärlden. Flygplatsen är en av ett betydande antal icke-statligt ägda flygplatser i Sverige, de ingår inte i statliga Swedavia, men matar trafik relativt Swedavias nät. I Arvidsjaur ägs flygplatsen av Arvidsjaur kommun. Kommunen ger ett årligt ägarbidrag för att finansiera flygplatsens icke-kommersiella verksamhet, dvs den grundläggande flygservicen. Sverige har således valt en modell som skiljer sig från t.ex. i Norge, där motsvarande flygplatser kan ingå i det samordnade statliga nätet av flygplatser.

    Syftet med denna studie är mot den bakgrunden att från ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv studera flygplatsens betydelse för Sveriges ekonomi, för Arvidsjaur kommun samt för det europeiska näringslivet. Är det mot en den bakgrunden möjligt att motivera kommunens engagemang i flygplatsen?

    Vi visar att ur ett nationellt transportekonomiskt perspektiv är Arvidsjaur flygplats med betydande sannolikhet samhällsekonomiskt lönsam. Vi gör även troligt att det ur ett kommunalekonomiskt perspektiv, inom vissa ramar, är rätt att Arvidsjaur kommun säkrar flygplatsens existens, även som nu när svenska staten inte tar ansvar för flygplatsens operativa bas.

    Vi konstaterar samtidigt att flygplatsens bidrag till Arvidsjaur, Arjeplog och Sorsele kan stärkas ytterligare, och att kommunerna kan agera för att öka det lokala underlaget för flygplatsen. Avgörande är att fastighetsmarknaden utvecklas och en befolkningstillväxt säkras. Fler lägen för villor och lägenheter bör skapas, och marknaden för kommersiella fastigheter måste aktiveras. Flygplatsen kan via en ny väg bättre integreras med centrala Arvidsjaur, flygplatsen kan även självt utveckla sin verksamhet. Verksamheten vid flygplatsen samt dess läge i Norrland gör det möjligt att utveckla ett kunskapscentrum för flygplatser i Arktisk miljö.

  • Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Growing More Equal and Growing Apart?: Socioeconomic Status and the Rise of Divorce in Sweden2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A negative association between socioeconomic status (SES) and divorce has been established for most Western nations after 1960, yet we know little about this relationship further back in time when divorce was rare. In low divorce contexts, we expect a positive association between SES and divorce because higher social strata are better equipped to overcome barriers to divorce. According to socioeconomic growth theory, this relationship reverses with industrialization and modernization since the economic and normative barriers to divorce diminish for many. We investigate SES and other micro-level determinants of divorce among men and women in Sweden, 1880-1960, making use of longitudinal data from parish registers covering Västerbotten County. Results confirm a positive association between SES and divorce, which shifted to a negative association among couples who divorced from the mid-1930s onwards. This reversal resulted in an increase in the divorce rate as it extended to broader layers of the population.

  • Nethander, Maria
    et al.
    Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Vandenput, Liesbeth
    Lorentzon, Mattias
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Mellström, Dan
    Ohlsson, Claes
    BMD-Related Genetic Risk Scores Predict Site-Specific Fractures as Well as Trabecular and Cortical Bone Microstructure.2020In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 105, no 4, article id dgaa082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: It is important to identify patients at highest risk of fractures.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the separate and combined performances of bone-related genetic risk scores (GRSs) for prediction of forearm, hip and vertebral fractures separately, as well as of trabecular and cortical bone microstructure parameters separately.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Using 1103 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) independently associated with estimated bone mineral density of the heel (eBMD), we developed a weighted GRS for eBMD and determined its contribution to fracture prediction beyond 2 previously developed GRSs for femur neck BMD (49 SNPs) and lumbar spine BMD (48 SNPs). Associations between these GRSs and forearm (ncases = 1020; ncontrols = 2838), hip (ncases = 1123; ncontrols = 2630) and vertebral (ncases = 288; ncontrols = 1187) fractures were evaluated in 3 Swedish cohorts. Associations between the GRSs and trabecular and cortical bone microstructure parameters (n = 426) were evaluated in the MrOS Sweden cohort.

    RESULTS: We found that eBMDGRS was the only significant independent predictor of forearm and vertebral fractures while both FN-BMDGRS and eBMDGRS were significant independent predictors of hip fractures. The eBMDGRS was the major GRS contributing to prediction of trabecular bone microstructure parameters while both FN-BMDGRS and eBMDGRS contributed information for prediction of cortical bone microstructure parameters.

    CONCLUSIONS: The eBMDGRS independently predicts forearm and vertebral fractures while both FN-BMDGRS and eBMDGRS contribute independent information for prediction of hip fractures. We propose that eBMDGRS captures unique information about trabecular bone microstructure useful for prediction of forearm and vertebral fractures. These findings may facilitate personalized medicine to predict site-specific fractures as well as cortical and trabecular bone microstructure separately.

  • Standar, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Sharing is caring? En kartläggning av barns integritetsskydd på vårdnadshavares sociala medier.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Att rita i NO-undervisningen2020Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolverkets presentation av moduldelen: 

    Elever får ofta rita som en del i NO-undervisningen. Den här delen ställer frågan varför eleverna ska rita och på vilket sätt ritande kan användas som utgångspunkt för samtal och för att introducera eleverna till naturvetenskaplig praktiker som observationer och experiment. Målet är att väcka tankar om närhur och varför det kan vara värdefullt för eleverna att rita och hur det kan kombineras med skrivande.

  • Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Naturvetenskapsverb2020Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolverkets presentation av moduldelen:

    Substantiv som vatten och is är ofta utgångspunkt för undervisning i naturvetenskap. Den här delen handlar om hur man kan få syn på naturvetenskapliga processer och fenomen i vardagen genom att istället ha verb som smälta och stelna som startskott för praktiska undersökningar som både utvecklar elevernas kunskaper i naturvetenskap och deras språk. 

  • Eskilsson, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Lehti, Arja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Sturesson, Marine
    Region Västerbotten.
    Elwér, Sofia
    Region Västerbotten.
    Lewis, Charlotte
    Region Västerbotten.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nording, Sofia
    Region Västerbotten.
    Arbetsplatsdialog AD-A: metodstöd för arbetsgivare vid ohälsa och sjukfrånvaro2019Book (Other academic)
  • Sternad Fackel, Rozanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    The Truncated Tribunal Doctrine - What Authority do Truncated Tribunals Have to Proceed and Can They Render Valid and Enforceable Awards?2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sjögren, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Rimligt tvivel eller(o)jämställdhet? En jämförande rättsfallsstudie av domstolarnas uttalanden i samkönade respektive icke-samkönade våldtäktsmål.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Vikström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Skyddade stränder och levande landsbygd - Uppfyller utformningen och tillämpningen av LIS-reglerna syftet med LIS?2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.
    Myléus, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Chatterji, Somnath
    Valentine, Nicole
    Health systems responsiveness among older adults: Findings from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health2020In: Global Public Health, ISSN 1744-1692, E-ISSN 1744-1706, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health system responsiveness is an indicator that can be used for evaluating how well healthcare systems respond to people's needs in non-clinical areas such as communication, autonomy and confidentiality. This study analyses health system responsiveness from the perspective of community-dwelling adults aged 50 and over in China, Ghana, India, the Russian Federation and South Africa using cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health. The aim is to assess and compare how individual, health condition and healthcare factors impact differently on outpatient and inpatient responsiveness.Poor responsiveness is measured according to participants' responses to questions on a five-point Likert scale. Five univariate and multiple logistic regression models test associations between individual, health condition and healthcare factors and poor responsiveness. The final model adjusts for country.Key results are that travel time is a major contributor to poor responsiveness across all countries. Similarly there are wealth inequalities in responsiveness. However no clear difference in responsiveness was observed in presentations for chronic versus other types of conditions.This study provides an interesting baseline on older patients' perceived treatment within outpatient and inpatient facilities in five diverse low- and middle-income countries.

  • Westberg, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Physical microhabitat requirements for Margaritifera margaritifera and the influence of hydro- and morphodynamics on mussel bed stability2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Margaritifera margaritifera is an endangered freshwater pearl mussel with population declines throughout its Holarctic range. Boulder-bed channels with little input of fine sediment in previously channelized streams are abundant in Sweden. Hence, restoration efforts for M. margaritifera and its host fish (Salmo trutta) are carried out by reintroducing large boulders and creating mussel beds with suitable gravel. In order to improve the restoration methods currently in use I investigated M. margaritifera microhabitat preferences and the stability and suitability of introduced gravel aimed as habitat for mussels. Also, since monitoring of the success of intra-river translocation of mussels is rare or insufficient, movement of mussels after translocation was tracked. Mussel abundance and microhabitat data were collected at a site with a stable M. margaritifera population. At a site where mussel translocation was planned, substrate stability was investigated by surveying erosion and deposition of 0.4x0.4 m painted gravel squares placed on the channel bed. Erosion and deposition were analyzed in relation to physical parameters and morphological features. Mussels were PIT-tagged to track their movement after translocation. Depth, water velocity and the median grain size (D50) affected the mussel density, whereas substrate stability was mainly determined by proximity to large boulders and D50. However, large variations in stability for gravel close to upstream boulders suggests complex hydraulic patterns; thus, high boulder densities are not necessarily desirable when restoring previously channelized streams for the freshwater pearl mussel. The results have implications for restoration of mussel beds and show the importance of understanding how large grains and their configuration affect surrounding hydrodynamics and shear stress.

  • Reichwaldt, Kai
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Som att kämpa mot ett spöke: Om den outtalade längdnormen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As early as 1970 the term ”heightism” was coined by sociologist Saul Feldman. Butvery little research has been done on general height discrimination other than in terms of what ismeans for men to be short in regards to career and romantic relations.This thesis is an attempt to investigate the experiences of nine noticably below average heightpeople from Sweden by means of qualitative reflexive interviews, with the theoretical framework offenomenology, and analytical tools taken from literature about heightism itself, but also works onweight discrimination and crip theory. Via thematic analysis I worked out two main focus areas: ”ToDeviate from Norms” and ”Integrity – Safe and Unsafe Rooms”, where I by examples from thesepeople's daily lives illustrate how they experience their shortness intersecting with body, gender andethnicity norms, considering their treatment by others and their reactions to this treatment.

  • Karlson, Agnes M. L.
    et al.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Gårdmark, Anna
    Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep
    Casini, Michele
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Sundelin, Brita
    Karlsson, Olle
    Bergström, Lena
    Linking consumer physiological status to food-web structure and prey food value in the Baltic Sea2020In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 391-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Declining physiological status in marine top consumers has been observed worldwide. We investigate changes in the physiological status and population/community traits of six consumer species/groups in the Baltic Sea (1993-2014), spanning four trophic levels and using metrics currently operational or proposed as indicators of food-web status. We ask whether the physiological status of consumers can be explained by food-web structure and prey food value. This was tested using partial least square regressions with status metrics for gray seal, cod, herring, sprat and the benthic predatory isopod Saduria as response variables, and abundance and food value of their prey, abundance of competitors and predators as predictors. We find evidence that the physiological status of cod, herring and sprat is influenced by competition, predation, and prey availability; herring and sprat status also by prey size. Our study highlights the need for management approaches that account for species interactions across multiple trophic levels.

  • Engström, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eriksson, Satu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Vi lär icke för skolan utan för livet": Specialpedagogisk verksamhet betraktad genom specialpedagogiska glasögon2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    " We don´t learn for school but for life", is a title well considered, because at the end we look upon the result through remedial spectacles. The main purpose of this study is to describe and analyze remedial teaching in school to examine what promotes the aim of fulfillment. This by comparing the informants´ experiences in different grades. Since the remedial teaching lack in giving students the help they need and are entitled to, it is of relevance to special need education to shed some light and share working teaching strategies to promote development and learning in school. The questions in our study are: How is the special needs education organized on an organization-, group- and individual level? In what way has the remedial teaching been documented, evaluated and followed-up? Which working methods and influences promote the students´ learning and development? We chose a qualitative method with a phenomenological approach, since we intended to in depth study and compare selected professions' work with students in need of remedial teaching. We have chosen to interview special pedagogues, counselors, principals and teachers, a total of twelve people from different grades. The result reveals that besides remedial teaching and teaching strategies, good relations, distinction and interaction between students and early interventions best promote students' learning and development.

  • Cantoni, Eva
    et al.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Semiparametric inference with missing data: Robustness to outliers and model misspecification2020In: Econometrics and Statistics, ISSN 2452-3062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classical semiparametric inference with missing outcome data is not robust to contamination of the observed data and a single observation can have arbitrarily large influence on estimation of a parameter of interest. This sensitivity is exacerbated when inverse probability weighting methods are used, which may overweight contaminated observations. Inverse probability weighted, double robust and outcome regression estimators of location and scale parameters are introduced, which are robust to contamination in the sense that their influence function is bounded. Asymptotic properties are deduced and finite sample behaviour studied. Simulated experiments show that contamination can be more serious a threat to the quality of inference than model misspecification. An interesting aspect of the results is that the auxiliary outcome model used to adjust for ignorable missingness by some of the estimators, is also useful to protect against contamination. Both adjustment to ignorable missingness and protection against contamination are achieved through weighting schemes. A case study illustrates how the resulting weights can be studied to gain insights on how the two different weighting schemes interact.

  • Flodin, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Rätten att vila i frid.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Fabian, Felicia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Straffrättsliga mognadsbedömningar av barn.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Forsman, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Informationsskyldigheten i Industriutsläppsdirektivet – ett miljödemokratiskt perspektiv.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fahlman, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sex differences in the number of scientific publications and citations when attaining the rank of professor in Sweden2020In: Studies in Higher Education, ISSN 0307-5079, E-ISSN 1470-174XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of women tends to decrease the higher the academic rank, following a global pattern. Sweden has taken comprehensive measures to decrease this gap across 30 years, and many countries are following a similar path. Yet today only 27% of faculty with the rank of professor in Sweden are female. A common explanation is that academia is biased against women. According to this hypothesis, women have to reach higher levels of scholarly achievement than men to be appointed to the same academic rank. Publication metrics when attaining the rank of professor were compiled from the Web of Science for samples of the whole population of 1345 professors appointed at the six largest universities in Sweden during a six-year period. Men had significantly more publications and citations in both medicine and in the social sciences, rejecting the hypothesis that women are held to a higher scholarly standard in this context.

  • Fagerudd, Lowisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Är incestlagstiftningen överflödig? En historisk analys av incestlagstiftningen och dess funktion i dagens samhälle.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hayenhjelm, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Are Moral Emotions Key to Informed Risk Decisions?: A Commentary on Sabine Roeser, Risk, Technology, and Moral Emotions.2020In: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Johansson, Ann-Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Ett klassrumsklimat för alla: En studie av elevers tankar om klassrumsklimatets betydelse för inlärning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete syftade till att öka kunskapen om och få ett elevperspektiv på faktorer som kan påverka inlärningen i klassrumsmiljö på ett högstadium. En enkätstudie genomfördes av 37 elever i år 8 och år 9. Resultatet tematiserades och visar att trygghet, sammanhållning i klassen och att våga säga sin åsikt är viktiga faktorer för dessa högstadieelever. Analysen visar att värdegrundsarbete borde vara prioriterat för alla undervisande lärare. Behov av vidare studier kring hur vi kan öka tryggheten och främja ett tillåtande klassrumsklimat finns likväl som forskning om varför vi inte riktigt lyckas med detta viktiga arbete behövs och är önskvärt.

  • Fors, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Investigating Primer Effects on Top Coat Structure: A Study Made at Volvo GTO, Umeå2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Quality control is an integral part in all production industry. One important part of this control is the examination of the surface structure. This is especially important in automotive industries where the visual appearance is a big part of the general perception of quality for the customer. Structure defects and irregularities become even more apparent in trucks than in cars due to the large flat vertical surfaces being painted. In this thesis we explore the possibilities of modeling the relation between primer structure and top coat structure in truck cabs at Volvo Trucks, Umeå, Sweden. We also investigate how the painting parameters of the primer affect the structure of the top coat. The study regarding the structure is conducted on previously collected data (N=384). Due to the measurements not having been taken on the same specimen throughout all treatments in the process the cabs with primer measurements are matched to the top coat measurements based on proximity in production ID number. Significant models are found (P<0.001) and they perform marginally better than the null model in cross-validation. An experiment is designed to investigate the effects of primer painting parameters (paint flow, bell speed and oven temperature) on the top coat surface (N=20). The models constructed from the selected painting parameters were significant (P<0.001) with the best model having an R2 of 0.88. We conclude that in a lab setting we can use the painting parameters to predict the structure of the top coat. We make efforts to validate our study including measuring cabs in production. Results are discussed and we give suggestions for further investigation.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-17 09:00 Hörsal B, Målpunkt T, vån 9, Umeå
    Biström, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Environmental risk factors for the occurrence of multiple sclerosis2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and degenerative disease of the central nervous system that typically debuts around age 30. About 2.3 million people are affected in the world today, and besides trauma it is the most common cause of neurological disability among young adults in the western world. The disease likely develops via a complex interplay of genetic vulnerability and environmental risk factors, and adolescence is assumed to be a critical time for disease initiation. The aim of this study was to investigate how MS risk in different age groups is influenced by vitamin D, infections with Epstein-Barr virus and Human herpesviruses 6A and B as well as the metabolic markers leptin and insulin.

    Methods. In this nested case-control study we identified pre-symptomatically drawn blood samples from individuals below age 40, that later developed relapsing remitting MS. This was done through crosslinking of the Swedish MS registry, or a local database, with six Swedish biobanks containing remainders of samples used in microbiological analyses. For each case, one control matched for biobank, sex, date of sampling and age of sampling was selected. These samples were then analysed to determine antibody reactivity against Epstein-Barr virus and Human herpesvirus 6A and B, as well as measure concentrations of leptin, insulin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The effect of these variables on MS risk was estimated using conditional logistic regression, both in the entire case-control material as well as stratified into three groups by age at sampling (<20, 20-29 and 30-39) and by sex.

    Results. Human herpesvirus 6A, but not B, was consistently associated with an increased risk of developing MS. In contrast, Epstein-Barr virus demonstrated an age dependent pattern indicating that early infection may be protective against MS while later infection increases the risk. As for the metabolic markers, insulin was not associated with MS while elevated levels of leptin showed an association with increased MS risk both among individuals below 20 years of age and among all men. For women there was instead an inverse association in the oldest group, aged 30-39, when adjusting the leptin analysis for insulin concentrations. Finally, having vitamin D concentrations in the top quintile was associated with decreased MS risk, without evidence of a stronger effect in young subjects.

    Conclusion. These results implicate Human herpesvirus 6A and leptin as risk factors for MS development. They also further support a protective role for vitamin D in MS etiology and provide serological evidence of an age dependency of Epstein-Barr virus infection as it relates to MS risk.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-17 10:15 Humanisthuset, hörsal F, Umeå
    Wikström, Jenny Jarlsdotter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Materiella vändningar: läsningar av Parland, Lispector, Berg och Byggmästar2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the dissertation is to examine the analytical potential of  the ”material turn” within the field of literary studies. In particular, it explores how theoretical perspectives associated with the material turn may shed light on the work of four writers: Henry Parland (Finland, 1908–1930), Clarice Lispector (Brazil, 1920–1977), Aase Berg (Sweden, b. 1967), and Eva-Stina Byggmästar (Finland, b. 1967). As is demonstrated, however, these works of fiction and poetry also pose a challenge to the theories of the material turn. Recognizing this tension, fiction, theory, and poetry are engaged on an equal footing in an investigation of subjectivity, matter, nature, and their possible conceptualization.

            The study begins with an overview of the theoretical research field, discussing five influential research anthologies of the material turn published between 2008 and 2015. The introductory chapter also reviews current research on the material turn in a Swedish context, concluding with a discussion of reading as an affirmative philosophical practice. 

    The first part of the dissertation then examines Parland’s novel Sönder (1930) in relation to object-oriented ontology and feminist readings of the novel. Part two takes Lispector’s Água viva (1973) as its object, discussing it in connection to critical plant studies and the way plants present themselves in texts. Part three uses the frameworks of material feminism to discuss themes and motifs in Berg’s lyrical motherhood trilogy (2002–2007). Part four highlights cuteness, detail-centered aesthetics, nomadism, the pastoral trope, and the forest as a place of queer resistance in five poetic works (2006–2014) by Byggmästar. In different ways, the four case studies all center on issues of how the intricate relation between humans and nonhumans can be explored and expressed in writing, and what implications artistic exploration may have on an ethical and political level.

            As the dissertation concludes, the material turn reassesses many of the fundamental philosophical categories (i.e. subject and object, nature and culture, human and nonhuman). The major theorists of the field – Karen Barad, Jane Bennett, Rosi Braidotti, Elizabeth Grosz, and Timothy Morton – all stress the need to destabilize given concepts of nature and culture, establishing matter, materiality, and the environment as agents beyond human control. This standpoint, however, has problematic consequences for literary studies, given that literary scholars work with aesthetic representations created by humans. If, as many of the above-mentioned theorists assert, nature has its own powers, can it then be said to write fiction or poetry? If we answer the question affirmatively, how does this nature-writing-itself into fiction happen? These complications often lead to analytic aporias, but as the dissertation argues, such aporetic readings are not discouraging per se. On the contrary, the aporias or failures produced by the four case studies highlight the need for even more careful readings of literary as well as theoretical texts, and provide the grounds for a discussion on the ethical dimensions of reading fiction.

  • Grooten, Johannes Andreas
    et al.
    Tseli, Elena
    Äng, Björn Olov
    Boersma, Katja
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Enthoven, P
    Elaborating on the assessment of the risk of bias in prognostic studies in pain rehabilitation using QUIPS: aspects of interrater agreement2019In: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research, ISSN 2397-7523, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have been performed to identify important prognostic factors for outcomes after rehabilitation of patients with chronic pain, and there is a need to synthesize them through systematic review. In this process, it is important to assess the study quality and risk of bias. The “Quality In Prognosis Studies” (QUIPS) tool has been developed for this purpose and consists of several prompting items categorized into six domains, and each domain is judged on a three-grade scale (low, moderate or high risk of bias). The aim of the present study was to determine the interrater agreement of the risk of bias assessment in prognostic studies of patients with chronic pain using QUIPS and to elaborate on the use of this instrument.

  • Magaard, Gustaf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Sörlin, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Öhberg, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Berggren, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Grollmuss, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Hu, Xiao-Lei
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Identifying sub-acute rehabilitation needs among individuals after transient ischaemic attack using rehab-compass as a simple screening tool in the outpatient clinic2019In: Journal of Rehabilitation clinical communications, E-ISSN 2003-0711, Vol. 2, article id 1000018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate comprehensive unmet rehabilitation needs by using a novel graphic screening tool, Rehab-Compass, among individuals in the sub-acute stage after first-ever transient ischaemic attack.

    Methods: A pilot prospective cohort study investigated 47 individuals with first-ever transient ischaemic attack in an outpatient clinic setting. By using Rehab-Compass, based on well-validated patient-reported outcome measure questionnaires, this study examined comprehensive unmet rehabilitation needs among individuals at 4-month follow-up after the onset of transient ischaemic attack.

    Results: Rehab-Compass identified that most participants were independent in their daily lives (modified Rankin Scale; mRS 0–1) with a relatively good quality of life (median EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ-5D) 0.85), but certain limitations in participation in their daily lives. Rehab-Compass showed that, at 4 months after transient ischaemic attack, the most common condition affected was mood (reported by 89% of participants), followed by bladder function (70%), sexual life (52%), strength (51%) and fatigue (26%). Symptoms of depression and anxiety were reported by 6% and 17% of participants, respectively.

    Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that Rehab-Compass might be a suitable simple screening tool for use in the outpatient clinic setting to identify the multidimensional rehabilitation needs of individuals after transient ischaemic attack.

  • Tornevi, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Ekebom, Agneta
    Molnar, Peter
    Olstrup, Henrik
    Spanne, Mårten
    Luftföroreningars effekt på akutbesök för andningsorganen och uttag av astmamedicin2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar den femte studien för Naturvårdsverkets hälsorelaterade miljöövervakning inom detta område, och syftar till att analysera luftföroreningars korttidseffekter på antalet akutbesök för astma och övriga sjukdomar i andningsorganen under perioden 2013-2018 i tre storstadsområden: Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö. Som ett tillägg i denna studie har också samband mellan luftföroreningar och läkemedelsuttag för astmabesvär utvärderats som en alternativ indikator på akuta effekter av luftföroreningar på astma. Luftföroreningsdata kommer från respektive miljöförvaltning och avser bakgrundshalter (taknivå) vid huvudmätstationen för respektive studieområde (Stockholm: Södermalm, Malmö: Rådhuset, Göteborg: Femmanhuset). Även pollenhalter, väder, veckodag, tid på året mm har beaktats i analyserna. Uppgifter om akutbesök och läkemedelsuttag kommer från Socialstyrelsens register.

    Analysen med alla tre områden och hela befolkningen (alla åldrar) visar att akutbesök för astma påverkas av de senaste två dygnens halt av alla tre föroreningstyperna: partiklar som PM10, ozon och kvävedioxid, medan det för övriga akutbesök för andningsorganen enbart är PM10 som visar ett statistisk säkerställt samband totalt sett (alla orter och alla åldrar).I jämförelse med tidigare analysers resultat angående sambanden mellan PM10 och akutbesök för astma så ses ingen säkerställd trend sedan 2001, men den senaste perioden ger störst ökning med omkring 4% fler akutbesök per 10 μg/m3 för PM10 (alla åldrar).

    Medan det främst finns samband mellan partikelkoncentrationen som PM10 och akutbesök, ses för uttag av astmaläkemedel främst ett samband med halten av kvävedioxid, och särskilt för barn 0-17 år. För alla tre studieområdena och båda typerna av astmaläkemedel uppvisades liknande samband mellan NO2 och uttag av medicin, vilket kan motivera fördjupade analyser kring avgaskomponenter och mildare uttryck för astmabesvär än akutbesök.

  • Wang, Xi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Linnean Centre for Plant Biology, Department of Plant Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bernhardsson, Carolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Linnean Centre for Plant Biology, Department of Plant Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Linnean Centre for Plant Biology, Department of Plant Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Demography and Natural Selection Have Shaped Genetic Variation in the Widely Distributed Conifer Norway Spruce (Picea abies)2020In: Genome Biology and Evolution, ISSN 1759-6653, E-ISSN 1759-6653, Vol. 12, p. 3803-3817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under the neutral theory, species with larger effective population size are expected to harbor higher genetic diversity. However, across a wide variety of organisms, the range of genetic diversity is orders of magnitude more narrow than the range of effective population size. This observation has become known as Lewontin’s paradox and although aspects of this phenomenon have been extensively studied, the underlying causes for the paradox remain unclear. Norway spruce (Picea abies) is a widely distributed conifer species across the northern hemisphere, and it consequently plays a major role in European forestry. Here, we use whole-genome resequencing data from 35 individuals to perform population genomic analyses in P. abies in an effort to understand what drives genome-wide patterns of variation in this species. Despite having a very wide geographic distribution and an corresponding enormous current population size, our analyses find that genetic diversity of P. abies is low across a number of populations (π = 0.0049 in Central-Europe, π = 0.0063 in Sweden-Norway, π = 0.0063 in Finland). To assess the reasons for the low levels of genetic diversity, we infer the demographic history of the species and find that it is characterized by several reoccurring bottlenecks with concomitant decreases in effective population size can, at least partly, provide an explanation for low polymorphism we observe in P. abies. Further analyses suggest that recurrent natural selection, both purifying and positive selection, can also contribute to the loss of genetic diversity in Norway spruce by reducing genetic diversity at linked sites. Finally, the overall low mutation rates seen in conifers can also help explain the low genetic diversity maintained in Norway spruce.

  • Backman, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Dept of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden..
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Dept of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden..
    Stridsman, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Dept of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden..
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    FEV1 decline in relation to blood eosinophils and neutrophils in a population-based asthma cohort2020In: The World Allergy Organization journal, ISSN 1939-4551, Vol. 13, no 3, article id 100110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between lung function decline and eosinophils and neutrophils has important therapeutic implications among asthmatics, but it has rarely been studied in large cohort studies.

    Objective: The aim is to study the relationship between blood eosinophils and neutrophils and FEV1 decline in a long-term follow-up of a population-based adult asthma cohort.

    Methods: In 2012-2014, an adult asthma cohort was invited to a follow-up including spirometry, blood sampling, and structured interviews, and n = 892 participated (55% women, mean age 59 y, 32-92 y). Blood eosinophils, neutrophils and FEV 1 decline were analyzed both as continuous variables and divided into categories with different cut-offs. Regression models adjusted for smoking, exposure to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes (VGDF), use of inhaled and oral corticosteroids, and other possible confounders were utilized to analyze the relationship between eosinophils and neutrophils at follow-up and FEV1 decline.

    Results: The mean follow-up time was 18 years, and the mean FEV 1 decline was 27 ml/year. The annual FEV1 decline was related to higher levels of both blood eosinophils and neutrophils at follow-up, but only the association with eosinophils remained when adjusted for confounders. Further, the association between FEV1 decline and eosinophils was stronger among those using ICS. With EOS <0.3 × 109/L as reference, a more rapid decline in FEV1 was independently related to EOS ≥0.4 × 109/L in adjusted analyses.

    Conclusions and clinical relevance: Besides emphasizing the importance of smoking cessation and reduction of other harmful exposures, our real-world results indicate that there is an independent relationship between blood eosinophils and FEV1 decline among adults with asthma.

  • Hagenbjörk-Gustavsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Kväeveoxid- och kvävedioxidhalter i Umeå: Sammanställning av mätningar gjorda med diffusionsprovtagare mellan november 2009 och december 20192020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Två veckomätningar (sommartid respektive vintertid) av kvävedioxid (NO2) och kväveoxider (NOx) har under 2019 utförts med diffusionsprovtagare på 41 platser i Umeå. Två veckomätningar har gjorts varje år på dessa platser sedan 2009 och totalt 21 mätningar har utförts på samma sätt över åren. Mätplatsernas geografiska läge kan ha varierat något över tid, provtagare har ibland plockats ned av förbipasserande, och det ha uppstått andra tekniska fel, varför alla mätplatser inte har maximalt antal mätningar. Det finns 23 respektive 24 mätplatser där mätningar har gjorts vid alla 21 tillfällen för NO2 respektive NOx.

    De högsta halterna har uppmätts på trafikerade platser under vinterhalvåret p.g.a. större utsläpp och stillastående luft, s.k. inversion. Vid mätningarna 2019 uppmättes de högsta halterna NO2 både sommartid och vintertid vid en husfasad belägen på Västra Esplanaden, centralt i Umeå (19 μg/m3 respektive 64 μg/m3). NOx-halten vintertid var högst vid samma mätpunkt på Västra Esplanaden (151 μg/m3) medan halten vid sommarmätningen var högst vid Östra Kyrkogatan, mittemot Navet (51 μg/m3).