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  • Bunker, Aditi
    et al.
    Sewe, Maquins Odhiambo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sié, Ali
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sauerborn, Rainer
    Excess burden of non-communicable disease years of life lost from heat in rural Burkina Faso: a time series analysis of the years 2000-20102017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 11, article id e018068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Investigate the association of heat exposure on years of life lost (YLL) from non-communicable diseases (NCD) in Nouna, Burkina Faso, between 2000 and 2010.

    Design: Daily time series regression analysis using distributed lag non-linear models, assuming a quasi-Poisson distribution of YLL.

    Setting: Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Kossi Province, Rural Burkina Faso.

    Participants: 18 367 NCD-YLL corresponding to 790 NCD deaths recorded in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance Site register over 11 years.

    Main outcome measure: Excess mean daily NCD-YLL were generated from the relative risk of maximum daily temperature on NCD-YLL, including effects delayed up to 14 days.

    Results: Daily average NCD-YLL were 4.6, 2.4 and 2.1 person-years for all ages, men and women, respectively. Moderate 4-day cumulative rise in maximum temperature from 36.4 degrees C (50th percentile) to 41.4 degrees C (90th percentile) resulted in 4.44 (95% CI 0.24 to 12.28) excess daily NCDYLL for all ages, rising to 7.39 (95% CI 0.32 to 24.62) at extreme temperature (42.8 degrees C; 99th percentile). The strongest health effects manifested on the day of heat exposure (lag 0), where 0.81 (95% CI 0.13 to 1.59) excess mean NCD-YLL occurred daily at 41.7 degrees C compared with 36.4 degrees C, diminishing in statistical significance after 4 days. At lag 0, daily excess mean NCD-YLL were higher for men, 0.58 (95% CI 0.11 to 1.15) compared with women, 0.15 (95% CI -0.25 to 9.63) at 41.7 degrees C vs 36.4 degrees C.

    Conclusion: Premature death from NCD was elevated significantly with moderate and extreme heat exposure. These findings have important implications for developing adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce ambient heat exposure and preventive measures for limiting NCD in Africa.

  • Flank, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Läsförståelse och läsmotivation i de tidiga skolåren: en studie om hur lärare kan arbeta för att utveckla läsförståelse och läsmotivation i klassrummet.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to describe how teachers do when teaching primary school children in reading comprehension and how they motivate children to read and promote their interest in reading. Four primary school teachers were interviewed about the methods that they use in their teaching. The study also presents the teachers views on the methods and resources available for them and whether they use different methods when teaching children with reading difficulties. The study also used observations of the teachers at work. The results showed that the teachers worked in a similar way when teaching reading. They worked on children's vocabulary and showed them ways how to ask questions about the contents of the text in beforehand and during reading. The teachers also agreed on the methods that should be used when teaching children with reading difficulties. All the teachers pointed out that their teacher education did not provide them with skills needed to teach reading comprehension. All the teachers were, however, satisfied with the methods and resources that their schools were offering.

  • Thelander Lööf, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Att styra en konferensenhet med gester2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project is conducted in cooperation with a company that manufactures conference units. Conference units usually consist of a user interface aimed at the person who sets up the meeting, limiting the other participants' ability to interact with the device. The purpose of the project is to facilitate other participants to interact with conference units, which can be done by means of gestures. The aim of the project is to produce a product for evaluation and testing. The product should be able to convert detected gestures to commands to control speaker volume and microphone. After a comparison of different methods and techniques, a phase-based gesture detection was selected with an infrared proximity sensor. Two PCBs were made, one consisting of a microcontroller and one consisting of a proximity sensor with three infrared LEDs. A software was developed for gesture detection. Test was done with hand movements to the right, left, up and down with a distance of approx. 30 cm between hand and sensor. The result shows a gesture detection of four different gestures. In future developments, these can be converted into commands that can control speaker volume as well as microphone on conference device.

  • Salberg, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kungen, drottningen och folket: En studie i folkligt motstånd och genus i 1700-talets Sverige2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine ordinary people’s resistance against the king and queen between the years of 1718 and 1790 in Sweden. This is done by examining court cases of treasonous and defamatory words used against the king and queen. The criticism and resistance towards the king and queen are analysed and compared to see how men and women in powerful positions were perceived differently. This essay also tries to answer how the dominant elite respond to the resistance. To analyse the everyday resistance, James C. Scott’s theories about hidden and public transcript are used. Criticism against the royal family was illegal in 18th century Sweden and was therefore often spoken in private settings. When the criticism or defamation was spoken in public places, it was often the result of drunkenness, outbursts of strong feelings or mental illness. The resistance found in these words can also be publicly displayed when the sender was disguised, either by anonymous texts or using a physical disguise.

    The king was the main subject of the critique; in 17 of 21 cases the king was criticised and the queen in 6 cases. These numbers includes cases where both were criticised. Criticism against the king often concerned political issues or a person’s discontent about something. In contrast, the queen was subject to slander against her character. The king was also more often represented as an abstract power figure in the analysed cases. This is connected to the king’s formal power, whereas the queen’s power was more informal.

    Both the king and queen was criticised for their reckless spending, since society’s divisions affected both men and women. Class also affected how the resistance was performed, where people from higher classes gave written criticism and lower classes tended to express their criticism more spontaneously.

  • Åberg, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energikartläggning och utredning av klimatpåverkande kylanläggning: Ett examensarbete för ökad energieffektivitet och reducerad klimatpåverkan på en glassgrossist2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report presents the results of the energy mapping and the investigation of the cooling system performed at the ice cream wholesaler GB Glass in Umeå. An overall study of the entire operation with all technical systems has been performed. GB glass aims to reduce its climate impact caused by energy consumption in the property as well as leakage of refrigerant from the cooling system and vehicle refrigeration equipment. Except fuel for trucks the wholesaler only consumes electricity. The following energy aspects have been identified as significant for the business:

     

    Total energy use                                       394 MWh

    Cooling system plant                                258 MWh      (65% of total total energy use)

    Refrigeration trucks                                 75   MWh      (19% of total total energy use)

    The cooling system plant constitutes a major part of the wholesaler's total energy use and must be rectified due to a decision by the EU's F-Gas Regulation by 2020 when a service and maintenance prohibition carries out for the existing refrigerant.

    The investigation concerns how to best accommodate this prohibition, convert and replace the refrigerant for continued operation of the existing plant or invest in a new climate-neutral type. After inspection of the cooling system and completed study of cooling systems and refrigerants, it is recommended to invest in a new climate-neutral transcritical carbon dioxide plant. A price estimate has been made and has been estimated to cost between 1.3 - 1.5 million.

     Transmission (thermal loss through climate scale) and infiltration (involuntary ventilation) accounts for 50% of the total energy delivered. Ceded heat energy by the cooling plants condenser fans on the roof accounts for 18% and the truck's cooling units 19%. Proposals for efficiency enhancements developed after the energy survey are as follows: 

    • Install an air curtain to reduce infiltration flows in the doorway between freezing and storage
    • Install timer-controlled engine heaters on the yard
    • Add a new ventilation unit with rotary heat exchanger
    • Seal around the emergency exit on the freezer

    Performing all efficiency measures is estimated to reduce energy consumption by 42 MWh, which represents 11% of the wholesaler's total energy supply. In connection with the installation of a transcritical carbon dioxide cooling system, there is a great opportunity to install the system so that the high temperature condenser heat can be used for heat recovery. The hot gas heater can preheat the supply air in the ventilation units as well as heating the tap water. This would help to further reduce the overall energy demand.

  • Nilsson, Josefine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Optical durability of reflector materials for solar energy applications2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In line with The Paris Agreement, the world is now changing towards more sustainable options for all sorts of energy development. The solar energy sector is growing rapidly as a result of this. One area that holds great potential in changing many of the worlds heating processes, is concentrating solar power (CSP). The basic principle of CSP is to reflect incoming sunlight and concen- trate it to heat a fluid. To do so, it is crucial to find a reflector material that shows both good optical performance initially as well as over time to produce heat in the most efficient way possible and compete with the fossil fueled options.

    In this investigation, four different, commercially available reflecting materi- als, for concentrating solar power, have been tested under accelerated aging conditions to simulate the wear of outside conditions for many years. Impacts from humidity, temperature fluctuations, UV radiation and acid rain have been included in the study.

    From the results, it will be argued that a silver based polymer film is the best option, out of the four tested, in terms of the combination of durability and high reflectance properties. However, conclusions about how to properly mea- sure the reflectance of a solar reflector is also presented and advices on how to get reliable results in a similar investigation in the future is presented. 

  • Public defence: 2018-03-09 10:00 Nbvh 1031, Umeå
    Nordvall, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognition in interned adolescents: Aspects of executive functions and training2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis examines adolescents with a history of antisocial behavior with a focus on investigating executive functioning, impulsivity and experiences of everyday executive problems. The thesis further investigates the associations between self-reported and performance-based measures. Finally, it investigates whether processed-based executive function training can influence trained and non-trained executive functions and related scholastic abilities.

    Antisocial behavior is a complex concept, associated with high costs of personal, interpersonal and societal nature. In general, people implement the majority of their life´s share of delinquent and antisocial behaviors around the adolescent years, as described by the so-called age-crime curve. This period is associated with rapid cognitive development, and deficits in this period of time have been associated with an increased susceptibility to partake in antisocial behavior. Also, larger impairments are associated with more severe behaviors. In many western countries, there exist a duality of both welfare and judicial considerations in the case of antisocial individuals who are minors. As compared to adults, persons under the age of criminal responsibility typically face a different combination of rehabilitative and penal consequences from maladaptive, delinquent or antisocial behaviors. In this context, increased understanding of the cognitive underpinnings of antisocial behavior, and how best to support sound cognitive development are therefore relevant to the furthering of rehabilitative practice. This thesis expands on existing knowledge by examining interned adolescents from an executive functions framework and also investigates how it relate to other constructs of clinical relevance.

    This is done in three empirical studies. The first two are cross-sectional and aimed at assessing a number of cognitive constructs and associated behaviors. The third study is aimed at examining the effects of a training intervention on said constructs. The studies indicated poorer pre-test performance by the interned adolescents as compared to their non-interned counterparts. However, no deficits specific to any one executive function was discernable. The results also showed that the internees self-reports expressed more perceived problems with inhibiting behaviors and managing unplanned prompts to shift from a planned activity. They also indicated it harder to resist impulsive behaviors related to negative affect, lower premeditative ability, and had more issues with persevering in prolonged tasks. In addition, there were a few connections between the performance-based and the self-reported accounts of executive functioning. Of particular interest was that the majority of group effects in self-reported constructs was related to the specific executive function updating, a finding not previously reported. This executive function has previously been suggested to be antecedent of antisocial behavior though. As for the training, the only substantial improvement was to perceptual speed, which occurred irrespective of training progression or experimental condition. This was mirrored by the posttest self-reports whose rather modest gains were also unrelated to both experimental conditions and training improvements.

    In conclusion, executive functioning and trait-based cognition are related to some degree, and both associate to antisocial behavior as operationalized by internment status. Process-based cognitive training can however not feasibly be determined to affect or alter these relations.

  • Säfbom, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Vilken betydelse har kosten för studieresultatet: På vilka sätt påverkar hälsovanorna betyget2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Is there any substance in the phrase "you get smarter of eating fish" or is it just a myth? The purpose of the study is to investigate whether diet, sleep and physical activity have any significance for students' study results, in terms of grades in compulsory school grade eight, and if there are differences related to gender. To highlight what is important in the composition of the diet, eating habits and how it affects cognition. Other important factors are physical activity and sleep, to achieve good study results. Survey methods, tables, principal component analysis and Pearsson correlation coefficient have been used. The tendency is that the better the health habits, the better the grade. Hopefully, this study will help to broaden the knowledge of the link between healthy lifestyle (including components of diet, sleep and physical activity) and unhealthy health habits and study results in Home- and consumer knowledge.Please print the work in color, it increases understanding.

  • Skogsgrdh, Addy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Slöjdval: Spelar det någon roll vad man väljer?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen var att öka förståelsen för elevernas möjlighet att välja materialinriktning i åk 8-9 i grundskolan. Jag ville ta reda på varför vissa skolor väljer den här modellen av slöjdundervisningens organisation. I undersökningen använde jag mig av kvalitativ data med intervjuer med två rektorer, fyra lärare och åtta elever från olika skolor för att få fram olika åsikter kring valet av materialinriktning i åk 8-9 i grundskolan.

    Litteratur och tidigare forskning visar att bestämmelsen angående val av materialinriktning i slöjden för elever i åk 8-9 är ett lokalt beslut som är baserat på slöjdämnets historia samt tradition. De visar också att det inte finns tydliga riktlinjer i styrdokumentet som preciserar vilka material som ska kombineras på slöjden i åk 7-9 i grundskolan. Organiseringen av slöjdundervisningen ser olika ut och sker på lokal nivå. Lärare och rektorer tolkar styrdokument olika vilket kan påverka elevernas kunskapsutveckling. Att eleverna väljer materialinriktning gör att skolan inte förhåller sig till kursplanen och kunskapskraven för ämnet slöjd. Detta resulterar i att eleverna går miste om en del kunskapsområde som behandlas i grundskolan.

  • Sjöroos, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Skrivinlärning för elever i skrivsvårigheter2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt Ingvar Lundberg finns det fem dimensioner som bör uppfyllas i ordning för att man skall kunna vara en god skrivare. Dessa fem dimensioner har han delat in i; stavning, meningsbyggnad och text, funktionell skrivning, skapande skrivning och intresse och motivation.1 Syftet med den här studien är att identifiera hur pedagoger definierar skrivsvårigheter och hur de arbetar med elever i skrivsvårighet. Jag har använt mig utav kvalitativa metoder, så som intervjuer och observationer och genom en tematisk innehållsanalys har jag komma fram till mitt resultat. I resultat och analysdelen kan man utläsa hur 3 lärare och 3 specialpedagoger beskriver skrivsvårigheter och hur de bedömer vilka som är i skrivsvårigheter. Vidare beskrivs även vilka metoder de använder för att kunna ge elever i skrivsvårigheter en likvärdig utbildning som de andra eleverna i klassen. I diskussionen tar jag upp problematiken av att urskilja skrivsvårigheter från läs- och skrivsvårigheter och hur man kan uppfatta att någon är i skrivsvårigheter och vilka arbetsmetoder som finns till hjälp. Vidare forskning behövs om hur elever i skrivsvårigheter upplever att de får möjlighet till utveckling genom stöd av specialpedagog eller resurs.

  • Op de Beeck, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Modersmålsundervisning - hur värdesätts den?: Språkundervisning i det mångkulturella samhället2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Språkundervisning i ett större perspektiv - med anledning av modersmålundervisning som ett marginaliserat skolämne -inom eller utanför timplanen- tas upp i det här examensarbetet. Undersökningen gäller värdesättning av modersmål i en norrländsk kommun.

    Syftet var från början att bidra till ökad kunskap om hur modersmålselever, deras föräldrar och deras klasslärare värderar befintlig modersmålsundervisning och dess upplägg i kommunens regi. Särskilt fokus lades på placeringen av modersmål inom eller utanför skoldagen.

    Syftet med arbetet utvidgades under litteraturstudien som gav nya synpunkter för en möjlig attitydförändring gentemot modersmålundervisning i nutidens samhälle.

    Intervjuer med de tre grupperna av informanter och utvärdering av svaren genom en tematisk analys ska bidra till en förbättrad insikt på hur man på basen ser på ämnet.

    Studiens deltagare bedöms värdesätta modersmålsundervisningen främst utifrån privata aspekter. Placeringen av ämnet i skoldagens timplan avgör deltagande och praktisk hantering. Det visar indirekt informanternas värdering.En viktig slutsats är att det finns en stor diskrepans mellan den undersökta skolpraktiken och aktörernas värdesättning gentemot i litteraturen hittade sociologiska, pedagogiska aspekter och forskningsresultat, samt ideologiska-politiska målsättningar. Den diskrepansen står även för marginaliseringen av ämnet, respektive för den breda ometvetenheten om attityden i frågor gällande inkludering av nyanlända invånare.

  • Manninen, Kai
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Kategorisering av övningsfrågor med Blooms reviderade Taxonomi utifrån läromedel i ämnet Historia2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att utifrån olika tryckta läromedel för elever i årskurs 7 skapa kunskap om vilka frågor, frågetyper, i läromedlen som beaktas. Läromedlen var från två olika bokförlag. Kategorisering av frågorna gjordes utifrån kunskapstyperna i Blooms reviderade taxonomi: faktakunskap, begreppskunskap, procedurkunskap och metakognitiv kunskap. Då taxonomin är tvådimensionell, betraktas också kognitiva processer. Utöver kunskapsdimensionen är taxonomin indelad i sex olika kognitiva process kategorier. Dessa gör det enklare att kategorisera kunskapstyper, eftersom ett visst samband finns mellan kunskapstyp och kognitiv process kategori.

    Faktakunskap och begreppskunskap kunde urskiljas samt process kategorierna minnas och förstå utifrån frågornas karaktär från gällande studie. Övriga kunskapstyper och process kategorier är mer svåröverskådliga och frågor knutna till dessa är inte av samma omfattning. Process kategorin skapa har jag inte funnit. Metakognitiv kunskap är svår att behandla i en lärobok. Metakognitiv kunskap utvecklas under en längre tid.

    Utifrån kategoriseringen av frågor verkar faktakunskap och begreppskunskap i båda läroböcker dominera. Detsamma gäller de kognitiva process kategorierna minnas och förstå.

    Faktakunskap utgör en stor andel av läroböckerna. I de böcker jag analyserade bestod faktakunskap för 79 % respektive 55 % av samtliga frågor. Analyserar man istället process kategorierna minnas och förstå utifrån frågor i böckerna utgör dessa kategorier sammantaget över 85 % i läroböckerna. Andelen frågor som kan kategoriseras i respektive kategori minnas och förstå är ungefär lika stora i läroböckerna.

  • Kärsbo, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Slöjd & digital teknik: Den reviderade kursplanen2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet har varit att undersöka hur slöjdlärare arbetar med digital teknik i sin undervisning. Jag vill också se hur de tolkar och tar sig an de nya direktiven från Skolverket som handlar om digital kompetens.

    Mina grundläggande frågeställningar:

    • Hur väljer slöjdlärare att tolka de tillägg som handlar om digital kompetens i styrdokumenten?
    • Hur arbetar slöjdlärare med digitala verktyg och maskiner i sin undervisning? 

    • Vilka appar och program skulle man kunna använda sig av i undervisningen? 

    • Tycker slöjdlärare att det krävs mer pengar för att kunna arbeta med modern teknik i skolan? 


    För att studien ska leda till evidensbaserad praktik har jag valt att intervjuat fem slöjdlärare samt att jag har lagt ut ett frågeformulär till verksamma slöjdlärare via Facebook. Jag har gjort djupintervjuer, intervjun sker en längre stund där jag diskuterar ett visst ämne. 


    Mitt resultat visar stora skillnader på hur man kommer till att arbeta med digital teknik i skolan samt skillnader i kompetens och tillgänglighet. Det är tre viktiga faktorer som spelar oerhört stor roll för att eleverna ska få en likvärdig utbildning. Genom arbetets gång har viktiga funderingar klarnat och jag har fått svar på mina fyra huvudfrågor, samtidigt som nya funderingar växt till liv. Jag funderar på om det verkligen blir en likvärdig utbildning när lärare tolkar det centrala innehållet så olika och om den här revideringen verkligen gör att vi närmar oss varandra eftersom tolkningsutrymmet är så stort. 


  • Kjosnes, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    The art of assessment: How to utilise multiple-choice within the field of law2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay then is to gain insight into the utilisation of MCQ’s within the field of law at Swedish upper secondary schools and in this question what kind of knowledge requirements can be tested with MCQ. Also, the difference in test results between non-MCQs and MCQ was analyses in large and when it came to gender. Here a MCQ test was evaluated based upon the knowledge requirements while quantitative date gathered from a utilisation of MCQ within the field of employment law was analysed. It was found that it should be possib- le to utilise MCQ within the field of law. With regards to difference in results between non- MCQ and the MCQ under scrutiny it was found that high performing students scored above one grade lower on MCQ than the average of three non-MCQ’s in other subjects. Low per- forming students experienced a little improvement in their results. There was a slightly diffe- rence when it came to score in between gender. Although the average female score on all tests where higher than their male counterpart, females scored a little lower on their first MCQ test. It was felt that the scope of this research is too small to allow any conclusions to be drawn.

  • Göransson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Kollegialt lärande: Kort och gott en kaffepaus med kollegorna eller en reflektion utifrån betydelsen att stanna upp2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to gain and increased understanding about teacher ́s views on and experiences of collegiate learning. The method used is written interviews with five teachers from different schools and two teachers from different municipalities. The results of the study show that the concept of collegiate learning is wide and can have different meaning to different teachers. From the results a number of factors can be distinguished that either enables or challenges collegiate learning. One factor that teachers see provides good opportunities is, among other things, that the educational work can be developed for the better by the exchange of lessons between colleagues. A major factor that can be challenging is the time. The study also describes the collegiate learning as a part of the skills development of the teachers ́ work.

  • Franzon, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Utvärdering av mikrobubblor i ett dialyssystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dialysis is performed to remove waste products and water from the blood. During dialysis treatment micro air bubbles occurs in the blood that goes back into the patient. Micro bubbles in blood may cause risk to the patient during treatment when these pass the lung barrier. This bachelor thesis was completed in research purposes to find out if the concentration of the blood and/or the flow rate in the system has any impact on the number and volume of micro air bubbles that passes the air chamber in haemodialysis. This report addresses how the measurements and analysis were done and how the results of the project turned out.

    The study proves that the flow rate 400ml/min results in the largest amount of micro air bubbles that passes the systems air chamber and goes back into the patient. It seems that when the concentration of the blood is 120HB and higher the flow rate 300ml/min is more effective in reducing air than when the flow rate is 200ml/min. The study proves that the flow rate 400ml/min shouldn’t be used to treat patients because the air chamber doesn’t reduce the amount of micro bubbles or volume air as well as the lower flow rates.

  • Heith, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Laestadius and Laestadianism in the contested field of cultural heritage: a study of contemporary Sámi and Tornedalian texts2018 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Viklund, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hur arbetar lärare med formativ bedömning inom Idrott och hälsa?: En studie om formativ bedömning i grundskolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning tyder på att det finns en utmaning med att arbeta med formativ bedömning inom skolämnet Idrott och hälsa. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur Idrott och hälsa-lärare i grundskolan arbetar med formativ bedömning i sin undervisning utifrån Dylan Wiliams fem nyckelstrategier för formativ bedömning. Studien undersöker också vilka pedagogiska verktyg som lärarna använder i sin undervisning för att skapa lärande. Studien inriktar sig på ett specifikt kunskapskrav inom Idrott och hälsa i grundskolan. Undersökningen har genomförts via intervjuer med fyra lärare inom Idrott och hälsa i Umeå Kommun. Resultatet visar att lärare arbetar med ett formativt förhållningssätt inom ämnet i stor grad, både medvetet och omedvetet, i undervisningen och att de pedagogiska verktygen som används är teoretiska och praktiska övningar kopplat till det aktuella momentet.

  • Blixt, Dennis
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eriksson, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skola i förändring.: En studie om lärares arbete med måluppfyllelse i Idrott och hälsa efter senaste läroplansreformen Lgr11.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrott och hälsa hade under Lpo94 så otydliga mål att lärarnas arbete mot målen kunde se nästan hur som helst ut. 2011 antogs Lgr11 men olika studier visar fortfarande på varierande arbete med måluppfyllelse. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka hur åk 7-9 lärare i Idrott och hälsa arbetar med måluppfyllelse utifrån Lgr11. Frågeställningarna som studien behandlar är: vilka metoder använder lärare i sitt arbete med måluppfyllelse i relation till kursplanen i Lgr11 och hur likartat arbetar lärare i relation till kursplanen i Lgr11? För att undersöka detta har en kvalitativ studie genomförts. I denna fallstudie har åtta lärare intervjuats i hur de arbetar med måluppfyllelse utifrån Idrott och hälsas kursplan i Lgr11. Resultatet visar på olika metoder lärare använder i sitt arbete med måluppfyllelse i relation till Lgr11. Resultatet visar också på att lärarna arbetar relativt likartat med måluppfyllelse i relation till Lgr11.

  • Thalén, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Fläska på eller skära ned?: - om några högstadieelevers tankar kring etik, hållbarhet och köttkonsumtion2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har syftat till att ta reda på hur högstadieelever tänker kring en eventuell neddragning av sin köttkonsumtion samt om de upplever att de blir utmanade i skolämnet hem- och konsumentkunskap att göra så. Tre semistrukturerade intervjuer med totalt sju elever har gjorts vartefter det inspelade materialet transkriberats, analyserats och sedan strukturerats i teman. Eleverna upplever att de blir utmanade i undervisningen. Det finns olika pedagogiska redskap (däribland tallriksmodellen och konceptet S.M.A.R.T.) som syftar till mer balanserade måltider för att främja hälsa och miljö. Dessa används i olika utsträckning av eleverna, ibland mycket sparsamt eller inte alls trots uppmaning från läraren. Djurvälfärd kom högt på elevernas dagordning när olika kötträtter skulle rangordnas. Flera elever skulle sakna kött om det inte ingick i måltiden däremot tycker eleverna att en köttfri dag på skolan är acceptabelt. Information om fördelarna med minskad köttkonsumtion är viktigt liksom inspirerande matlagningstips och recept men även att konsumenten har en genuin vilja krävs för att intentionerna ska resultera i handling. Ämnesövergripande arbetssätt främjar förståelsen av de många gånger komplexa sambanden inom hållbar utveckling. Detta har eleverna varit med om, vilket ligger i linje med läroplanen. 

  • Müller-Sandvik, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Gruppinriktat stöd: En studie om högstadielärares stödinsatser pågruppnivå2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to study Swedish secondary school teachers’ thoughts on and experiences of support measures that do not fall under the categories defined in the Swedish Education Act. The existing defined support measures are constructed as adaptations forindividual students and therefore this study looked at support measures implemented on a group basis. Special focus was given to studying what type of support measures the teachers saw themselves implement, the reasoning behind their implementation, how they evaluated them and what conditions the teachers thought affected their ability to implement and evaluate them. Research data was gathered by conducting eight semi-structured interviews. Findings indicate a trend towards the teachers implementing instructional adaptations for entire student groups. The support measures tended to be implemented to meet the needs of several students in each class. The interviewed teachers’ evaluation of their support measures was for the most part undocumented, individual and informal, rarely employing their colleagues’ input. Lastly, the teachers generally considered time constraints to impact their work with adaptations negatively, and the support of colleagues to support them positively.

  • Lindgren, Ditte
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordström, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lärplatta som verktyg för elever i behov av särskilt stöd!: En specialpedagogisk studie om hur elever i åk 4-7 använder lärplatta i klassrummet och hur uppföljning av användningen sker 2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att få kunskap om hur lärplatta används som verktyg för elever i behov av särskilt stöd i åk 4-7, samt om lärplattan används utifrån specialpedagogens syfte för den enskilda eleven med den. Använda datainsamlingsmetoder är kvalitativa intervjuer med specialpedagoger, lärare och elever, samt elevobservationer. De frågeställningar som studien sökt svar på är: i vilket syfte valdes lärplatta som verktyg av specialpedagog för elever i behov av särskilt stöd, hur använder elever i behov av särskilt stöd lärplatta och dess appar i skolarbetet utifrån specialpedagogens syfte med den, vad finns det för möjligheter och hinder i användandet av lärplatta, vad har elever, lärare och specialpedagoger för fortbildning i att använda lärplatta och appar och hur följs användandet av lärplatta för dessa elever upp? De teorier eller perspektiv som använts som utgångspunkt i studien är det sociokulturella och de specialpedagogiska perspektiven. Resultaten visade att elever i behov av särskilt stöd i hög grad använde lärplattan utifrån den specialpedagogiska intentionen med den. Elever, specialpedagoger och lärare var positiva till lärplatta som verktyg och kan se flera fördelar men även vissa nackdelar, som att eleverna i behov av särskilt stöd kan känna sig exkluderade samt att det krävs kunskap, tid, fortbildning, uppföljning och engagemang för att användandet ska fungera bra.

  • Flank, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karlsson, Ann-Christin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Vi är i början av allt kan man säga": En studie av en grundskolas pågående förändringsarbete om stärkt digital kompetens ur specialpedagogiskt perspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att ur ett specialpedagogiskt perspektiv undersöka ett pågående förändringsarbete på en fristående grundskola i mellersta Sverige. Förändringsarbetets mål är att ställa om skolans organisation för att kunna möta regeringens nya krav, gällande stärkt digital kompetens, som skrevs in i skolans styrdokument 2017. I studien tillämpades sociokulturellt perspektiv och specialpedagogiska perspektiv. Mixed methods användes för datainsamlingen. En enkätundersökning riktad till skolans samtliga lärare gjordes, för att kartlägga skolans nuvarande digitala lärmiljö. Sedan gjordes semistrukturerade intervjuer med lärare, specialpedagog och rektor. Resultaten visade att såväl tillgång som användande av digitala verktyg skiljde sig åt mellan skolans stadier, där lågstadiet hade den lägsta tillgången. Digitala verktyg införskaffades, men kompetensutbildning har hittills inte getts. Vidare visar resultaten exempel på en samarbetande kultur, samtidigt som vissa uttrycker ensamhet i förändringsarbetet. I studien identifieras ett antal nyckelfaktorer som påverkar förändringsarbetets kapacitet: tid, kompetensutbildning, ekonomi, ledarskap och organisationens struktur. Lärarna och specialpedagogen ser att specialpedagogens roll och arbete kommer att förändras med ökad digitalisering, samt anser att digital teknik kan användas för att stötta elever i behov av särskilt stöd. En önskan finns om en framtida specialpedagogisk kompetens innefattande kunskap om hur IT kan användas. Denna kunskap kan enligt lärarna i studien leda till ökad inkludering.

  • Bergqvist, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Främja och förankra: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om specialpedagogens roll och hur specialpedagogiska insatser kan påverka hälsofaktorer i lärmiljön2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie gör ett försök att förtydliga en liten del av det hälsofrämjande arbetet inom förskola, grundskola samt gymnasieskola med fokus på specialpedagogens uppfattningar om sin roll och sina insatser i respektive verksamhet. Det är en kvalitativ intervjustudie där informanterna representeras av åtta specialpedagoger. Studiens syfte är att studera specialpedagogernas uppfattningar om sin roll, på vilka sätt de arbetar med hälsofrämjande insatser samt på vilka sätt specialpedagogerna upplever att specialpedagogiska insatser påverkar hälsofaktorer i lärmiljön. Vidare ställs frågan vilka utmaningar specialpedagogerna upplever finns kopplade till rollen. Studien tar utgångspunkt från ett salutogent perspektiv, där känsla av sammanhang (KASAM), kopplas till specialpedagogens främjande insatser, då både KASAM och specialpedagogiska insatser handlar om att stärka motståndsresurser för att kunna hantera svårigheter. I studien är fokus på de svårigheter som kan kopplas till kunskapsutvecklingen för barn och elever, samt de svårigheter lärarna ställs inför där specialpedagogens insatser behövs. Resultatet av studien visar att specialpedagogen har en komplex roll, med ett stort pedagogiskt ansvar. De främjande insatserna består både av stödsamtal till lärare och pedagoger och ansvar för den pedagogiska utvecklingen av lärmiljön, där förändring är ett begrepp som kan kopplas till båda dessa områden. De hälsofaktorer som specialpedagogerna upplever påverkas av de specialpedagogiska insatserna, är självkänsla och kunskap, som enligt tidigare forskning visat ha starka samband med hälsa samt även med KASAM. En slutsats utifrån studiens resultat är att i specialpedagogens roll ingår hälsofrämjande insatser i förskola, grundskola och gymnasieskola, men där förutsättningarna ser olika ut. I förskolan handlar det mer om handledning av pedagoger i jämförelse med grundskolan och gymnasieskolan, där specialpedagogens främjande insatser istället ingår som en del av elevhälsan. I gymnasiet innebär specialpedagogens främjande insatser att ge det stöd som en elev behöver för att nå examen.

  • Eriksson, Nicklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sandström, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Feedback för lärande: En studie om hur coacher i crossfit ger feedback på gruppass2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback is a powerful tool for coaches and instructors in the learning process as well as an important tool regarding motor skill development. The aim of the study was to investigate how feedback is used in a crossfit environment, focusing on what types of feedback are used and what the coaches’ approach to feedback is. To achieve this, six crossfit coaches were observed and interviewed. The study found that the frequency of feedback varied greatly between the coaches. The feedback was given both individually and to the whole group, and visual and verbal feedback were often combined. The main purposes of the feedback seemed to be to improve the participants’ performance and to promote a fun environment. The coaches also seemed to believe that it is important to adjust the feedback to the individual participants.

  • Ruiqi, Cui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Challenges of Outsourcing IT to China: A literature review2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IT outsourcing has been studied by many scholars throughout the world in much detail. The People’s Republic of China, as one of the leading IT outsourcing markets in the world, nonetheless, is still considered as a developing market. Not many IT outsourcing studies have set their focus on China. Although there are summary overviews, few studies have sought to answer why China should be studied or what should foreign companies be aware of before searching for any Chinese service providers. Through a literature review of conducted research, this study aims to provide an overview of the challenges of IT outsourcing to China by answering the following research question: How does extant research portray the fundamental challenges of outsourcing IT to China? In sum, this study concludes that there are three main challenges including guanxi/relationship, legal risks, workforce/professional skills in outsourcing IT to China, offering insights as to why and how foreign companies need to understand and face these challenges before outsourcing IT to China.

  • Lindkvist, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Granåsen, Gabriel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Grönlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Precontractile optical response during excitation-contraction in human muscle revealed by non-invasive high-speed spatiotemporal NIR measurement2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During muscle contraction the excitation-contraction process mediates the neural input and mechanical output. Proper muscle function and body locomotion depends on the status of the elements in the same process. However, non-invasive and in-vivo methods to study this are not available. Here we show the existence of an optical response occurring during the excitation-contraction process in human biceps brachii muscle. We developed a non-invasive instrument from a photodiode array and light emitting diodes to detect spatially propagating (similar to 5 m/s) and precontractile (similar to 6 ms onset) optical signals closely related to the action potential during electrostimulation. Although this phenomenon was observed 60 years ago on isolated frog muscle cells in the lab, it has not been shown in-vivo before now. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for a new category in-vivo studies, characterising alterations in the excitation-contraction process in patients with neuromuscular disease and to monitor effects of therapy.

  • Wikholm, Marielle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Elevers övergång mellan förskolaoch förskoleklass: Förskollärare och specialpedagogers syn påövergångsprocessen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att via förskollärare och specialpedagogers berättelser om övergången från förskola till förskoleklass, nå kunskap om hur dessa går till och vilka framgångsfaktorer de återger. För att nå informanters berättelse användes en kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer vilka spelades in och transkriberades för att sedan analyseras och sorteras utifrån forskningsfrågorna i ett resultat. Resultatet jämfördes sedan mot tidigareforskning samt styrdokument, allmänna råd och riktlinjer och utifrån denna analys kunde en slutsats dras. Ansatsen var även att ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv synliggöra hur lärandet i processen, på olika nivåer, gått till utifrån berättelserna. Studien visade på ett stortengagemang, goda kunskaper och intentioner hos informanterna att gen omföra övergångar anpassade efter de unga elevernas olika behov. Informanternas berättelser om framgångsfaktorer samstämmer med tidigare forskning och styrdokumentens rekommendationer för goda övergångsprocesser. I studiens intervjuer framträder en avsaknad av gemensamma möten för diskussion och spridning av all den samlade kunskapen samt ett redskap; en systematisk plan hur arbetet med processen kan genomföras. Övergångar kan innebära risker för att elevers inlärning hindras och då nästan alla elever i sexårsåldern berörs och så många som hälften känner oro inför övergången, gör frågan viktig att beakta. Forskning och informanters berättelser tyder på att elever i behov av stöd löper högre risk att inlärning bromsas upp samt riskerar att hamna utanför gemenskapen, exkluderas, om inte information om förhållningssätt och styrkor blir tydligt återgivna samt väl mottagna av förskoleklassens förskollärare och specialpedagog i aktuell skola. Komplexiteten i processen bör bli känd och diskuterad i möten mellan berörda aktörer och på så vis leda till utökad kunskap att förvalta i en gemensamt framtagen plan, ett årshjul.

  • Johan, Wallgren
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Graphical user interface for evaluation of knee proprioception and how it is affected by an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury- a functional brain imaging study: Ett grafiskt användargränssnitt för utvärdering av knäproprioception och hur det påverkas av en korsbandsskada - en funktionell magnetresonanstomografisk studie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a big risk that neuroreceptors located in the knee, responsible for our proprioceptive ability, are damaged after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury occurs. This may cause miscommunication between the neuroreceptors and motoric function in the brain. Due to the brains plasticity, it has been shown that brain activity patterns, presented as blood oxygen dependent level-signal (BOLD-signal), achieved from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) differs between healthy and injured individuals when performing certain tasks involving knee movement. As there is little consensus on how a proprioceptive test should be performed, a unique test were participants uses blindfold during a knee bending exercise was created at U Motion Lab, Umeå University. A Matlab based general user interface (GUI) was created for evaluation of the proprioceptive test. This GUI is communicating with the third party toolbox SPM12 and performs necessary preprocessing fMRI-image steps for statistical analysis and statistical parametric mapping of the BOLD-signal for both a healthy control- and ACL-injured group. The fMRIimages preprocessed by the GUI were generated by a 3 T GE scanner and the motion data was collected using an eight-camera 3D-motion analysis system. Time events for three different tasks was investigated. These were passive resting, memorizing and proprioceptive events. For both the control (5 participants)- and ACL (2 participants) group the main area of brain activation during the proprioceptive tests occurred in the frontal lobe. For the control group, brain activation was found in the cerebellum anterior lobe which is a possible origin for unconscious proprioception. For the ACL group activation was found in the inferior parietal lobule which involves visuomotor integration. Activation was also found in the inferior frontal gyrus which according to previous studies, may indicate risk-taking/”out of character” decisions. The results of this study indicates that the proprioceptive test seems to be a promising tool for evaluation of proprioceptive ability. However, more subjects need to be included to validate the result of this study.

  • Hallman, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nyman, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att lyckas i övergången: En intervjustudie om pedagogers erfarenheter avövergångsprocessen mellan förskola och förskoleklass2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att nå kunskap om faktorer som möjliggör en lyckad övergångsprocess för barn och elever. Kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer användes för att fånga tankar och erfarenheter hos pedagoger verksamma i förskola och förskoleklass. Svar söktes om hur samverkan mellan förskola och förskoleklass skildras, vilka framgångsfaktorer och hinder som beskrivs samt på vilket sätt pedagoger i förskola och förskoleklass arbetar för att skapa kontinuitet och progression för barnen i övergångsprocessen. Helhetsperspektivet i Bronfenbrenners utvecklingsekologiska modell, där barnets utveckling sätts i relation till den omgivande miljön, har varit en utgångspunkt för tolkning och analys av studiens resultat. Resultatet visade, i flera verksamheter, på brister i samverkan och samsyn mellan förskola och förskoleklass och flera pedagoger uttryckte ett behov av mer ledningsstöd och utveckling. Resultatet visade också att handlingsplaner för övergångar inte alltid används samt att kommunikation i övergångsprocessen många gånger är bristfällig, dels mellan pedagoger i förskola och förskoleklass, dels mellan ledning för förskola och skola och dessutom mellan Barnhälsan i förskolan och Elevhälsan i skolan. I studien framgick att pedagoger i förskola och förskoleklass ger uttryck för liknande beskrivningar av vad som möjliggör en lyckad övergångsprocess, exempelvis trygghet och goda relationer. Som hinder i övergångsprocessen lyfter pedagoger i förskolan brister i samsyn och kommunikation, medan pedagogerna i förskoleklass framhäver sekretessbestämmelser som försvårande. Brister framkom även i uppföljning och utvärdering av övergångsprocessen samt i återkoppling mellan verksamheter och mellan ledning och personal. Dessa brister kan innebära diskontinuitet och avstannad progression för det enskilda barnet. En slutsats av studien var att insatser behövs på flera nivåer för ökade möjligheter till en lyckad övergångsprocess. På samhällsnivå kan styrdokumentens mål behöva konkretiseras för att tydliggöra processen och på kommunnivå kan övergripande planer och dokument utgöra ett stöd. En annan slutsats gällde vikten av att utveckla samverkan och kommunikation mellan berörda parter för att, genom samordning av stöd och interaktioner, bidra till en lyckad övergång för alla barn, inte minst de barn som är i behov av särskilt stöd i övergångsprocessen.

  • Johansson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Ord och mummelmummel: Hur gymnasieelever tolkar och använder sig av kunskapskraven i kursen Svenska 32018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har visat att både lärare och elever upplever kunskapskraven som otydliga. Syftet med mitt examensarbete har varit att ta reda på hur lärare och elever på gymnasiet uppfattar och tolkar kunskapskraven och dess progressionsord, hur eleverna använder sig av kunskapskraven samt om det finns något samband mellan elevernas förväntningar på sig själva och användandet av kunskapskraven. Intervjuer med gymnasieelever och lärare visade, liksom tidigare studier, att både elever och lärare upplever kunskapskraven som otydliga. Resultatet av undersökningen visade också att eleverna har svårt att se vilken nytta de skulle kunna ha av progressionsorden och att få väljer att använda sig av kunskapskraven när de utför uppgifter eller i syfte att uppnå önskat betyg. Ett samband mellan att ha höga förväntningar på sig själv och att använda kunskapskraven har också kunnat urskiljas.

  • Loite, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Glosor i matte?: En kvalitativ studie om fem lärares användning av formellt/informellt matematikspråk samt om deras uppfattning om dessa två begrepp2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Språket i matematiken är speciellt på många sätt – det är abstrakt, precist och kan innehålla ord som även finns i det språket vi använder i vardagen. Också ord och begrepp som räknas som rent matematiska kan vara mer eller mindre korrekta beroende på sammanhang. Skolverket har presenterat en uppdelning av matematikspråket där ord och begrepp indelas i formella, informella och vardagliga matematikord. Till exempel, ord som ”gångra” och ”multiplicera” kan användas synonymt i klassrumssituationer men inte i någon mer formell situation.

    Syftet med detta arbete har varit att få fördjupad kunskap om lärares språkanvändning inom ämnet matematik i gymnasieskolan, och detta har nåtts genom att besvara följande forskningsfrågor: (1) i vilken utsträckning använder lärarna det formella respektive det informella matematikspråket i sin undervisning? (2) på vilket sätt anser de undervisande lärarna att det formella språket respektive det informella språket bör användas i undervisningen.

    Klassrumsobservationer, som användes för att besvara den första forskningsfrågan, visade att lärare gör olika vad som handlar om deras användning av det formella matematikspråket beroende på typen av kommunikation medan omfattningen av informellt och vardagligt språk i klassrumskommunikationen inte är beroende av det lika mycket.

    Intervjustudien, som användes för att ta reda på hur lärarna anser att det formella och det informella matematikspråket bör användas, visade att lärarna på överlag är överens om att både det formella och informella språket är viktigt att använda i klassrummet. Som exempel för situationer där det formella matematikspråket kan användas nämndes av lärarna bland annat provsituation och introduktion av ett nytt material, och som exempel på situationer där det informella matematikspråket kan användas nämndes situationer där elever behöver hjälp med förståelse av koncept samt allmänt arbete med matematik i klassrummet.

  • Ten, Yulia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Social Media as an Internal Communication Tool in Project Management Practices.: Exploring an Impact of Social Media Use on Employee Communication in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Uzbekistan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media is progressively implemented in work organizations as means of communication among employees. Thus, it is of crucial importance to develop understanding how they empower and limit communicative activities which shape the network through which organizational tasks are accomplished, as it is these very dynamics that enforce and eternalizecompanies. Given these trends, the time seems ripe to investigate how Social media is used in internal communication processes in organizations, thatis the main purpose of this study. Additionally, this study aims to explore positive and negative consequences of Social media use perceived by employees. The research was guided by the following research questions:How is Social media used for communication and collaboration of project teams?What are the perceived advantages and disadvantages of Social media use in work by projectteammembers?The research adopts a grounded theory strategy which is considered to be appropriate for investigations in the field with scarce theoretical background. The data collection was conducted in two rounds: with seven unstructured interviews in the first round and five semi-structured interviews in the second round. The sample of the research comprised employees and managers of small and medium-sized companies specialized in Social Media Marketing and Digital Journalism in Uzbekistan. In accordance with the grounded theory approach, the data analysis was conducted through a coding process, which consists of three stages: open, axial and selective coding.The research questions were answered through developing a model which visualizes the use of Social media and its possible positive/negative impacts on communication and collaboration in organizations. The model was developed basedon the dataderived from the interviews. The central part of the model is metaphorically named Social media as a circulatory system of a company, thatexplains how Social media supports vital activity of a company through maintaining smooth functioning of key organizational processes. The possible positive and negative consequences of Social media use are also represented through two core categories: digitalization of social relationships and humanization of Social media. The first concept suggests that excessive use of Social media by employees leads to development of disingenuous relationships among users and increased pressure that stems from highercontrol and surveillance by management which areafforded by social media use. The second core category suggests that Social media, in contrast, may enhance social connectivity, employee commitment, engagement and develop a feeling of a family within a company. To provide this management should use Social media as another avenue for collaboration and display company informal meetings, achievements, and corporate culture.

  • Alici, Elif Nur
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Cengizoglu, Ece
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The Effect of Knowledge Management in Start-ups: Exploring the Transition Process of a Start-up from Temporary to a Permanent Organization2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the three different stages of start-ups’ life and brings lights into the impacts of knowledge management practices on the transition processes between these stages. Start-ups are described as newly created enterprises which aim to disrupt the current state of play of the industry with their innovative products or services. During their initial stages,they demonstrate similar characteristics with temporary organizations; however, as they are developed and turn into a permanent organization the similarities start to diminish. Effects of knowledge management practices during start-up’s journey from a temporary organization to a permanent organization were explored with the guidance of the following research question:How does knowledge management influence the transition of a start-up from a temporary to a permanent organization?The term start-up and its organizational practices remain a mystery in the academic literature. Moreover, there are a limited amount of academic studies about the implementation of knowledge management model within entrepreneurial enterprises. Therefore, this thesis aims to contribute to academic studies by exploring in what extent knowledge management activities are practiced and how these practices affect the development of a start-up from a temporary organization to a permanent organization. The theoretical findings are supported by the empirical findings, and a theory is built with the accordance.Grounded theory is chosen as a research methodology for this research paper due to the lack of literature and study in this research area. Thus, first eight unstructured and then five semi-structured interviews are conducted with the chosen start-ups which have successfully finalized their initialtwostages. During the data analysis, open, axial and selective coding methods are used as it is recommended for the grounded theory.The research question is investigated and answered with the guidance of the collected data from the interviews. With the empirical study, the life-cycle of start-ups is explored. Overall, the life of an enterprise consists of three stages: existence, survival and success. Start-ups share many similarities with temporary organizations during their existence and survival phases regarding the characteristics of their teams, projects (tasks) and time limitation. However, they aim to transform into a permanent organization since their goal is to grow and assure their position in the industry. Besides, knowledge management activities, including knowledge acquiring, transformation, storage and creation, have been prioritized by various types of organizations in order to improve their practices and gain a competitive advantage over their rivals. Similarly, implementation of knowledge management activities within a start-up provides many benefits to development and improvement of the enterprise. Accordingly, it improves their organizational practices and enhances their transition process from the temporary organization to a permanent organization.

  • Nilsson, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lärarens beslut, vad ligger bakom?: En undersökning om undervisning om deabrahamitiska religionerna i gymnasiet.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Johansson, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Den tvetydiga andligheten: En tematisk studie om otydligheten i begrepp som används i undervisningen om hinduism och buddhism2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to investigate which kind of concept teachers at secondary level use in their education about the two religions, Buddhism and Hinduism. The study also aims to investigate if there is an ambiguity in the different concept and to see where teachers gather their information about the different concept. The study is inductive where written interviews have been used when collecting data. The results show that teachers use their textbooks available at their school to gather material. The results also show that there is a certain ambiguity in what kind of words that can be classified as concept. Words for buildings et cetera have been used by teachers as concept. The study also show that textbooks are different in their opinions about meaning of different concept and that concept used by teachers are not described in the mentioned textbooks.

  • Dolk, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lärare och religionskunskap: En kvalitativ studie om lärares inställning till religionsämnets centrala innehåll2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie avser undersöka lärares inställningar till läroplanens centrala innehåll i religionsämnet på högstadiet och gymnasiet för att kartlägga lärares intryck av den senaste läroplanen. Vidare skall studien undersöka huruvida lärare upplever tydligheten i progressionen. Genom en kvalitativ skriftlig intervju skall svar samlas in från lärare genom en Facebook-grupp för religionslärare samt svar från ämnesexperter som skickas ut genom mejl. Resultatet analyseras med hermeneutiska metoder samt jämförs med tidigare forskning och svar från ämnesexperter. Studiens resultat visar att lärare har svårt att hinna med sin undervisning för att innehållet i kursplanerna är allt för omfattande. Lärare har oftast inte heller någon koll på progressionen mellan högstadiet och gymnasiet. Dock menar lärare att läroplanen är tydlig och det är inga större problem med att tolka den.

  • Yruretagoyena Conde, Ruben
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Analysis of the rigid multibody tire2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A brief description  of the multibody system mechanics is given as the first step in this thesis to present the dynamical equations which will be the main tool to analyze the two-body tire model.  After establishing the basic theory about multibody systems to understand the main character in the thesis (the tire)  all the  physical components playing in the tire terrain interaction  will be defined together with some of the developed ways and models to describe the  tire rolling  on non-deformable terrain and the  tyre rolling on the deformable terrain. The two-body tire model definition and general description will be introduced.  Using the tools acquired on the course of the thesis  the  dynamic equations will be solved for the particular case of the two-body tire model rolling on a flat rigid surface. After solving the equation we are going to find out some incongruences with respect to reality and then we are going to have a proposal to adjust the model to agree with  real tires.

  • Frigerio, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The Role of Transfer in Italian High School Students' Written Production in English2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at exploring to what extent transfer plays a role for young Italian learners of English. The informants consisted of a group of Italian high school students whose English written compositions are investigated. The collection of data is made up of an error analysis based on Pit Corder’s methodology (Corder in Ellis 2008: 46), in which six different linguistic categories are examined such as collocations, word order, the past tenses with special focus on the simple present perfect versus the simple past, furthermore the null subject parameter, false friends and subject-verb agreement. A brief discussion is also dedicated to the difference between what constitutes an error and a mistake. What emerges in this study is that the category of collocations is the one in which most instances of transfer errors are found followed by word order and the use of the simple past tense. Finally, the research aims to find out what could be the plausible reasons as to why certain categories appear to be more subject to the transfer phenomena.

     

  • Arnell, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Chefers inställning till den nationella värdegrunden inom äldreomsorgen i Sverige2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie baseras på sex kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med chefer inom särskilt boende i äldreomsorgen. Studien har genomförts utifrån syftet att undersöka chefers attityder och värderingar till den nationella värdegrunden inom äldreomsorgen och vad de anser om möjligheterna att genomdriva förändringar i linje med densammaIntervjuerna har analyserats genom en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. I analysen har även systemteori och organisationsteori använts som teoretiska utgångspunkter. Resultatet visade att kunskapen kring värdegrunden ansågs vara god. Inställningen till värdegrunden varierade men ett av de mest frekventa svaren var att det föreligger ett behov av en nationell värdegrund inom äldreomsorgen. Den ansågs även bland annat kunna kvalitetssäkra och utgöra ett påtryckningsmedel för förändring. Vad som även framkom i resultatet var att det ansågs föreligga vissa faktorer som antingen möjliggör eller hindrar implementering av den nationella värdegrunden. Hindren kunde med hjälp av systemteori kopplas till olika nivåer. Resultatet visade även att det ansågs ha genomförts förändringar i linje med värdegrunden. Dock poängterades även att det fanns vissa utvecklingsområden för förändring.Det råder brist på forskning kring den nationella värdegrundens inom äldreomsorgen och dess mottagande och effektivitet. Studien bör således endast ses som ett första nedslag i en lokal kontext.

  • Sandström, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Preventiva roller:: Knut Wicksell och Hinke Bergegren i kampen för födelsekontroll 1880-19352017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Kairento, Karl-Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Konsolidering av bearbetningsfixturer till lyftarmar2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company Cranab, located in Vindeln, manufactures cranes in varius sizes mostly to forest machines, since a year back they also manufactures cranes to trucks. A crane consists of different components in various sizes such as crane piller, lifting arms, rocker arms, middle boom and inner boom. These components are welded constructions and consists of different details, the different details are produced in a laser cutting process and then welded on to the arm itself. When the arm is complete it is put into a CNC-machine where it is processed. When the arm is ready for the CNC-machine it is placed in a fixture to ensure a more stable processing an mostly to readuce vibrations. The current situation at Cranab is that they use one specific fixture to one specific arm. For this reason it takes a lot of time to change between arms and the fixtures itself takes a lot of place in the workshop. The purpose of this project is to construct a flexible fixture that is able to handle a couple of arms by changing the fixture in a smooth way. A lot of varius factors are important when constructing a fixture that ensures a stable and safe process in the CNC-machine. Cranab are investing a lot of money in a new CNC-machine that will process these arms, the new machine is going to rotate the whole fixture 45 degreese. The fixture that are now used are not able to handle this kind of rotation so except the current requirements the new fixture must be able to hold the whole weight of the arm. During this project the lifting arm to forwarders will be analyzed which is the most complicated part of the crane. The first part of the project will consist of collecting information about the current situation and analyzing the fixtures that are now used, after that the construction of the fixture will be done in the CAD-program Inventor where a koncept will be be developed. The project results in a fixture that can handle eight arms, the current fixtures that are used can only handle a maximum of two arms. With the new fixture, the adjustmets that are necessary when different arms needs to be mounted will be easy to implement and they won’t need a traverse to adjust the fixture. This will make the workprocess of adjusting the fixture much more time efficient. The result is, in comparison with the old fixtures, a clear improvement. Although the project resulted in a raw model of the flexible fixture it is a clear improvement of the existing ones and it is something to continue working with.

  • Nordström, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olsson, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hur lärare i särskolan arbetar med formativ bedömning och återkoppling: Betydelsen av feedback, kamratbedömning och självvärdering2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The special school is criticized by the National Agency for Education in order to focus on caring and formative assessment is highlighted as a way of making the education more knowledge-oriented. Studies show that there is low focus on assessment questions in special schools, and in the case of formative assessment, no systematic research has taken place. With this in mind, the purpose of this study emerged, to describe and analyze how teachers in the school work with the core of formative assessment, namely response. Because responseconsists of feedback, peer assessment and self-evaluation, they have provided the basis for the research questions. Qualitative methods in the form of eleven semi structured interviews and four participatory observations were used to collect data, which then was linked to previous research in the field presented in the background. The result shows that teachers see many advantages of working formally with response. In addition to focus on learning, social and organizational gains arise when the solidarity increases and teachers are relieved. Oral feedback from teachers is the most widely used form of response. It is harder to work with peer assessment, but when it works it is told by the teachers as the best form of feedback. Self-evaluation is considered to be the goal, but the sentences among the teachers disagree if it is a possible method in the school.

  • Enetjärn, Albin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    How does drainage affect hydrology and hydrochemistry in boreal peatlands?2018Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal peatlands are substantial terrestrial carbon storages. They are also important for the function of several large-scale cycles and systems that humanity benefits from. Drainage affects peatlands by establishing a new, lower equilibrium for the groundwater table. As a consequence of a lowered groundwater table and physical disturbance from the ditch, a chain of events is triggered, causing a number of changes in the hydrology and hydrochemistry of peatlands. The review aimed at gathering the most relevant literature on how boreal peatlands are affected by drainage. This was carried out by searching for scientific articles on online databases and libraries. Besides reviewing hydrology and hydrochemistry, a compilation of boreal peatland characteristics and a background on the history of Swedish peatland drainage are handled in the report. The results show that concentrations and loads for a long range of water quality parameters are affected by drainage. The effects vary a lot depending on different peatland characteristics. Both runoff and chemical changes depends largely on whether ditches reach mineral soil beneath the peat. The most obvious and adverse effect on chemistry is a large increase in suspended solid concentration and export. Other changes include increases of mineralized nitrogen, decreased organic carbon transport, increased annual runoff and increased levels for a number of elements, such as Mg, Ca, K and Mn.

  • Andrén, Kerstin
    et al.
    Wikkelsö, Carsten
    Sundström, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Agerskov, Simon
    Israelsson, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Laurell, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Hellström, Per
    Tullberg, Mats
    Long-term effects of complications and vascular comorbidity in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a quality registry study2018In: Journal of Neurology, ISSN 0340-5354, E-ISSN 1432-1459, Vol. 265, no 1, p. 178-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is little knowledge about the factors influencing the long-term outcome after surgery for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of reoperation due to complications and of vascular comorbidity (hypertension, diabetes, stroke and heart disease) on the outcome in iNPH patients, 2–6 years after shunt surgery.

    Methods: We included 979 patients from the Swedish Hydrocephalus Quality Registry (SHQR), operated on for iNPH during 2004–2011. The patients were followed yearly by mailed questionnaires, including a self-assessed modified Rankin Scale (smRS) and a subjective comparison between their present and their preoperative health condition. The replies were grouped according to the length of follow-up after surgery. Data on clinical evaluations, vascular comorbidity, and reoperations were extracted from the SHQR.

    Results: On the smRS, 40% (38–41) of the patients were improved 2–6 years after surgery and around 60% reported their general health condition to be better than preoperatively. Reoperation did not influence the outcome after 2–6 years. The presence of vascular comorbidity had no negative impact on the outcome after 2–6 years, assessed as improvement on the smRS or subjective improvement of the health condition, except after 6 years when patients with hypertension and a history of stroke showed a less favorable development on the smRS.

    Conclusion: This registry-based study shows no negative impact of complications and only minor effects of vascular comorbidity on the long-term outcome in iNPH.

  • Nakamura, Moritaka
    et al.
    Claes, Andrea R.
    Grebe, Tobias
    Hermkes, Rebecca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Viotti, Corrado
    Ikeda, Yoshihisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Grebe, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Auxin and ROP GTPase Signaling of Polar Nuclear Migration in Root Epidermal Hair Cells2018In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 176, no 1, p. 378-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polar nuclear migration is crucial during the development of diverse eukaryotes. In plants, root hair growth requires polar nuclear migration into the outgrowing hair. However, knowledge about the dynamics and the regulatory mechanisms underlying nuclear movements in root epidermal cells remains limited. Here, we show that both auxin and Rho-of-Plant (ROP) signaling modulate polar nuclear position at the inner epidermal plasma membrane domain oriented to the cortical cells during cell elongation as well as subsequent polar nuclear movement to the outer domain into the emerging hair bulge in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Auxin signaling via the nuclear AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7 (ARF7)/ARF19 and INDOLE ACETIC ACID7 pathway ensures correct nuclear placement toward the inner membrane domain. Moreover, precise inner nuclear placement relies on SPIKE1 Rho-GEF, SUPERCENTIPEDE1 Rho-GDI, and ACTIN7 (ACT7) function and to a lesser extent on VTI11 vacuolar SNARE activity. Strikingly, the directionality and/or velocity of outer polar nuclear migration into the hair outgrowth along actin strands also are ACT7 dependent, auxin sensitive, and regulated by ROP signaling. Thus, our findings provide a founding framework revealing auxin and ROP signaling of inner polar nuclear position with some contribution by vacuolar morphology and of actin-dependent outer polar nuclear migration in root epidermal hair cells.

  • Paina, Ligia
    et al.
    Wilkinson, Annie
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Health Policy, Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, New Mulago Hospital Complex, Kampala, Uganda.
    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    Barman, Debjani
    Ahmed, Tanvir
    Mahmood, Shehrin Shaila
    Bloom, Gerry
    Knezovich, Jeff
    George, Asha
    Bennett, Sara
    Using Theories of Change to inform implementation of health systems research and innovation: experiences of Future Health Systems consortium partners in Bangladesh, India and Uganda2017In: Health Research Policy and Systems, ISSN 1478-4505, E-ISSN 1478-4505, Vol. 15, article id 109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Theory of Change (ToC) is a management and evaluation too ! supporting critical thinking in the design, implementation and evaluation of development programmes. We document the experience of Future Health Systems (FHS) Consortium research teams in Bangladesh, India and Uganda with using ToC. We seek to understand how and why ToCs were applied and to clarify how they facilitate the implementation of iterative intervention designs and stakeholder engagement in health systems research and strengthening.

    Methods: This paper combines literature on ToC, with a summary of reflections by FHS research members on the motivation, development, revision and use of the ToC, as well as on the benefits and challenges of the process. We describe three FHS teams' experiences along four potential uses of ToCs, namely planning, communication, learning and. accountability.

    Results: The three teams developed ToCs for planning and. evaluation purposes as required for their initial plans for FHS in 2011 and. revised, them half-way through the project, based on assumptions informed, by and adjusted, through the teams' experiences during the previous 2 years of implementation. All teams found that the revised ToCs and their accompanying narratives recognised greater feedback among intervention components and among key stakeholders. The ToC development and. revision fostered, channels for both internal and external communication, among research team members and. with key stakeholders, respectively. The process of revising the ToCs challenged the teams' initial assumptions based on new evidence and experience. In contrast, the ToCs were only minimally used for accountability purposes.

    Conclusions: The ToC development and revision process helped FHS research teams, and occasionally key local stakeholders, to reflect on and make their assumptions and mental models about their respective interventions explicit. Other projects using the ToC should allow time for revising and reflecting upon the ToCs, to recognise and document the adaptive nature of health systems, and to foster the time, space and flexibility that health systems strengthening programmes must have to learn from implementation and stakeholder engagement.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-02 13:15 N430, Umeå
    Klechikov, Alexey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Graphite oxides for preparation of graphene related materials: structure, chemical modification and hydrogen storage properties2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon materials have been studied for hydrogen storage for decades, but they showed too low capacity at ambient temperature compared to target values for practical applications. This thesis includes two parts. First one is fundamental study of graphite oxides (GO) structure and properties. Second part is focused on hydrogen storage properties of graphene related materials prepared using GO as a precursor.

    We studied the effects of synthesis methods and oxidation degree on solvation/intercalation properties of GOs. New effect of temperature induced reversible delamination was observed for Hummers GO (HGO) immersed in liquid acetonitrile. Experiments with swelling of Brodie GO (BGO) in 1-octanol revealed parallel orientation of the intercalated solvent molecules relative to graphene oxide (GnO) layers. Chemical functionalization of GO in swelled state allowed us to synthesize the materials with subnanometer slit pores supported by molecular pillars. Structure and properties of pillared GO were characterized by variety of methods. Swelling properties of multilayered GnO membranes were compared to properties of precursor GO. GnO membranes were found to swell similarly to GO powders in some solvents and rather differently in other. Our experiments revealed important limitations in application of GO membranes for nanofiltration. Several parameters were found to affect the size of permeation “channels” provided by interlayers of GnO membrane structure: e.g. nature of solvent, pH of solutions and concentration of solutes.

    Hydrogen storage parameters were studied for a set of graphene related materials with broad range of surface areas (SSA) (200 - 3300 m2/g). Hydrogen sorption weight percent (wt%) is found to correlate with SSA for all studied graphene materials following the trend standard for other nanostructured carbon materials. The highest hydrogen uptakes of ~1.2 wt% at 296 K and ~7.5 wt% at 77 K were measured for graphene material with SSA of over 3000 m2/g. Addition of Pd and Pt nanoparticles to graphene materials did not resulted in improvement of hydrogen storage compared to nanoparticles-free samples. No deviation from the standard wt% vs. SSA trends was also observed for pillared GO materials. Therefore, hydrogen storage properties of graphene related materials at room temperatures are not confirmed to be exceptional. However, high surface area graphene materials are found to be among the best materials for physisorption of hydrogen at liquid nitrogen temperature. Moreover, hydrogen storage capacity of 4 wt%, comparable to target values, was observed at temperature of solid CO2 (193 K) which can be maintained using common refrigeration methods.

  • Raza, Wasif
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Johansson, Christer
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Air pollution as a risk factor in health impact assessments of a travel mode shift towards cycling2018In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1429081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Promotion of active commuting provides substantial health and environmental benefits by influencing air pollution, physical activity, accidents, and noise. However, studies evaluating intervention and policies on a mode shift from motorized transport to cycling have estimated health impacts with varying validity and precision.

    OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss the estimation of air pollution exposure and its impacts in health impact assessment studies of a shift in transport from cars to bicycles in order to guide future assessments.

    METHODS: A systematic database search of PubMed was done primarily for articles published from January 2000 to May 2016 according to PRISMA guidelines.

    RESULTS: We identified 18 studies of health impact assessment of change in transport mode. Most studies investigated future hypothetical scenarios of increased cycling. The impact on the general population was estimated using a comparative risk assessment approach in the majority of these studies, whereas some used previously published cost estimates. Air pollution exposure during cycling was estimated based on the ventilation rate, the pollutant concentration, and the trip duration. Most studies employed exposure-response functions from studies comparing background levels of fine particles between cities to estimate the health impacts of local traffic emissions. The effect of air pollution associated with increased cycling contributed small health benefits for the general population, and also only slightly increased risks associated with fine particle exposure among those who shifted to cycling. However, studies calculating health impacts based on exposure-response functions for ozone, black carbon or nitrogen oxides found larger effects attributed to changes in air pollution exposure.

    CONCLUSION: A large discrepancy between studies was observed due to different health impact assessment approaches, different assumptions for calculation of inhaled dose and different selection of dose-response functions. This kind of assessments would improve from more holistic approaches using more specific exposure-response functions.

  • Wännström, Miia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Vardagliga känslor: Analys av IKEA:s reklam "Där livet händer" och kommentarer på Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The feelings I receive when I see these commercials makes me curious of how emotions work and if there where others who had similar reactions on the content. This lead me to check out the comments on Facebook, related to the advertising campaign. This was the beginning of choosing this topic for my study. I wanted to find out which emotions IKEA used in their advertising campaign to market their products. I also wanted to know how the consumers responded to these films on Facebook and how IKEA responded to questions and criticism. The theoretical framework consist of Stuart Hall´s model of encoding/decoding and signs. I used a semiotic analysis method where I analysed the films with analytical tools like: rhetoric, frame, codes, non-verbal codes such as facial expressions and body language. The comments where primary analysed with rhetorical tools. I watched all of the 13 episodes in the campaign before choosing three of them for this study. The criteria was that the comments needed to be of diffrent character, both positive and negative. The result of the study show that IKEA clearly used emotions through frame such as filters and music to connect with the consumers. The analysis of the comments also show that consumers interact with IKEA more frequently when the story consists of strong emotions. Interaction is one important key to establish a successful brand and the conclusion is that IKEA knows that they need to be present in social media where their costumers are. The consequens might be that IKEA is present in social media but devotes too little time to a qualitative dialogue, if that is why the costumers choose to communicate in that plattform.