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  • Kvist, Emanuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Styvhet och bärförmåga i KL-träförband: Jämförelse mellan teori och praktik2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aimed at calculating characteristic load-bearing capacity as well as characteristic stiffnessfor a screwed wood joint made out of CLT using theoretical calculations and practical experiments.Furthermore, the work aimed at determining how consistent practice and theory were. Calculationsaccording to theory were based on Dimensionering av träkonstruktioner del 1-2 as well as KLTrähandbokenand the practical experiments were carried out using a test machine. Seven specimensunderwent testing and the material parameters were determined. The characteristic load-bearingcapacity according to theory was 14.48 kN and 13.86 kN according to practical experiments. Thedesign load-bearing capacity according to theory was 10.16 kN and 9.60 kN according to practicalexperiments. The characteristic stiffness according to theory amounted to 10000000 kN/m/ m and6380 kN/m/ m according to practical experiments. The conclusion is that the characteristic loadbearingcapacities correspond well. However, the theory should be expanded with more formulas forjoints that do not meet the requirements which the current theory requires. The characteristic stiffnessbased on theory is much higher than the stiffness according to practical experiments and this issomething that should be considered when designing. This is because the theoretical value gives anon-realistic picture of how the load distribution appears in a construction when calculating resultingloads because the joints in reality have a much lower stiffness-value.

  • Pedersen, Anne-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Omprövning av markavvattningsverksamet för klimatanpassning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Westgard, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Många bäckar små: Om kommunens möjlighet att reglera dagvattenhantering i detaljplan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hansson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Rättsanalys av svenskt flyttfågelskydd: Med betoning på områdesskydd i termikflaskhalsar samt artskydd för hotade termikflyttare2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Public defence: 2019-09-13 10:15 S 205 h, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå
    Enqvist, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    En myndighet i samverkan: Försäkringskassans rättsliga förutsättningar att samverka med Arbetsförmedlingen samt hälso- och sjukvården2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis investigates and analyzes the legal conditions under which the Swedish Social Insurance Agency may engage in cooperation with the Swedish Public Employment Service and Swedish Health Care Providers (both public and private), regarding rehabilitation, information exchange and investigation measures in individual sick leave insurance cases. It also presents an analysis of whether these legal conditions contribute to safeguarding legality and legal certainty when the Social Insurance Agency is involved in cooperation.

    Overall the thesis concludes that the legal conditions for such cooperation are good in terms of assistance regarding rehabilitation, information exchange and investigation measures. The designated assignment of the Social Insurance Agency relating to the distribution of sickness benefits is also such that any cooperation that helps the individual's rehabilitation or the investigation and assessment of entitlement to such benefits is encouraged. The legality and legal certainty in such cooperation is also found to be fundamentally safeguarded, since it follows from the principle of legality in Swedish administrative law that any measures taken by the Social Insurance Agency in cooperation with other bodies must be founded in the constitutional legal order. However, since the Social Insurance Agency's assignment pertains to the distribution of positive rights and benefits, the requirements governing how clearly stated and distinct such legal support must be are generally less stringent. This is reflected in the rules and principles identified as supporting or limiting the legal conditions for cooperation, as in many cases they lack detailed prerequisites for when they may be used or what should be done. Many of the legal rules or legal principles that limit the authority and power to freely design the possible content, aims and process practice of cooperation are also not specifically aimed at regulating such situations. Moreover, in many cases they are found in constitutional or general administrative law principles that are essentially abstract, and not usually applied by administrators in the handling of individual cases. This, in turn, affects the overall impact that the supporting factors of legality and legal certainty can have in the Social Insurance Agency's multi-party cooperation. These supporting factors include the Agency's duties to ensure independent decision-making (ideally) based on a clearly designated assignment, to comply with the legal principles of objectivity, equality before the law and foreseeability, and to respect the individual's personal integrity in multi-party cooperation.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-13 10:00 N 420, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå
    Ekman, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Quantum Kinetic Theory for Plasmas: spin, exchange, and particle dispersive effects2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about developing and studying quantum mechanical models of plasmas. Quantum effects can be important at high densities, at low temperatures, and in strong electromagnetic fields, in various laboratory and astrophysical systems. The focus is on the electron spin, the intrinsic magnetic moment; exchange interactions, a purely quantum mechanical effect arising from particles being indistinguishable; and particle dispersive effects, essentially the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The focus is on using phase-space formulations of quantum mechanics, namely Wigner and -functions. These methods allow carrying over techniques from classical plasma physics and identifying quantum as opposed to classical behavior.

    Two new kinetic models including the spin are presented, one fully relativistic and to first order in ħ, and one semi-relativistic but to all orders in ħ. Among other example calculations, for the former, conservation laws for energy, momentum, and angular momentum are derived and related to “hidden momentum” and the Abraham-Minkowski dilemma. Both models are discussed in the context of the existing literature.

    A kinetic model of exchange interactions, formally similar to a collision operator, is compared to a widely used fluid description based on density functional theory, for the case of electrostatic waves. The models are found to disagree significantly.

    A new, non-linear, wave damping mechanism is shown to arise from particle dispersive effects. It can be interpreted as the simultaneous absorption or emission of multiple wave quanta. This multi-plasmon damping is of particular interest for highly degenerate electrons, where it can occur on time scales comparable to or shorter than that of linear Landau damping.

  • Widhianto, Agung
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Why people run for elective office?: Study of political motives among local elites in Kebumen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Why do people run for elective office? Indeed, it is a central topic in political science that arguably is controversial to reveal, but always appealing since public authority remains in office. This study provides an explorative analysis to investigate local elites’ motives running for local parliament and village offices respectively in Kebumen, Indonesia. In examining individual’s motives, experiences and meanings of candidates are analysed using thematic analysis methods to capture emerging ideas of initial motives, enabling and constraining factors that affect the motives, and how both motives alter. The empirical findings of this study show that “people demand” and “community service” are both socially driven motives which act as a catalyst for the initial motives in candidacy process. In contrast, “monetary incentives” and “personal satisfaction” are both individually driven motives, which in turn replace the initial motives in response to high-cost political competition, that is so-called money politics. This study also captures the emergence of religious motive in the shifting process of the socially driven to the individually driven motives. Eventually, the study affirms that both motives, in combination, constitute a political motive as a desire of power to hold an elective office. 

  • Theander, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kommuners strävan efter att växa: En jämförande studie av kommuners befolkningsmål2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Befolkningspolitik är av stor vikt för svenska kommuner, hur många och vilka som bor i en kommun spelar stor roll för hur kommunens framtid ska se ut. En stor del av de svenska kommunerna har satt upp befolkningsmål där de siktar på att öka sitt invånarantal. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vad som ligger till grund för kommuners befolkningspolitik. Umeå kommun och Sundsvalls kommun, två kommuner med ambitionen att vara regionala tillväxtmotorer, har undersökts och jämförts. Studien bygger på analys av policydokument och intervjuer med tjänstepersoner. Analysen har baserats på tidigare forskning om kommunal tillväxt och befolkningspolitik där konkurrens och attraktivitet lyfts som två nyckelbegrepp. Studiens resultat visar att konkurrens med andra kommuner och regioner är en central grund för hur de undersökta kommunerna bedriver sin befolkningspolitik. Kommunerna konkurrerar om befolkningstillväxt eftersom en ökad befolkning anses eftersträvansvärt. Befolkningen ses också som konkurrensverktyg, en stor och ökande befolkning antas stärka en kommuns attraktivitet. I Umeå kommun används även befolkningsmålet som ett hållbarhetsverktyg för att kunna kontrollera en annars ohållbar tillväxt genom planering. De lokala förutsättningarna, och då framför allt den nuvarande befolkningsutvecklingen, har stor betydelse för hur befolkningspolitiken utformas men det lämnas också stort utrymme för politiska val.   

  • Savina, Paula
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Varför sjönk stödet för feministiskt initiativ i riksdagsvalet 2018?: En studie av feministiskt initiativs väljare 2014–20182019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningen om nya partier har främst fokuserat på partier som lyckats ta sig in i riksdagen. Denna uppsats kommer därför att fokusera på Feministiskt Initiativ (FI), ett parti som varit nära att komma in i riksdagen. I riksdagsvalet 2014 fick partiet 3,12 % av rösterna. I nästkommande riksdagsval fick de endast 0,46 %. Genom fyra intervjuer med väljare som röstade på FI i riksdagsvalet 2014, och som röstade annorlunda i riksdagsvalet 2018 ger uppsatsen inblickar i väljares resonemang kring deras val av parti, samt svarat på frågan om vad som förändrades hos dessa väljare mellan riksdagsvalen. Resultaten har analyserats utifrån en egen analysmodell som utgått från tidigare forskning gällande hur personliga värderingar, den politiska kontexten, partiutvecklingen och partikonkurrensens har påverkat väljare i olika riktningar.  

     

    Varför väljarna röstade på FI i riksdagsvalet 2014 berodde på det upplevda hotet från Sverigedemokraterna, de feministiska värderingarna hos väljarna och Feministiskt Initiativ som det enda legitima alternativet för feministisk politik. Varför väljarna röstade annorlunda i riksdagsvalet 2018 berodde på att väljarna upplevde att övriga partier hade tagit in ett bredare feministiskt perspektiv, att FI försvann från den samhällspolitiska debatten samt att väljarna hade bytt ideologi. Förändringen hos väljarna kan således förstås genom den förändrade politiska konkurrensen, personliga värderingar och partiutvecklingen för FI.

  • Nieminen, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Transnational lists: An opportunity for the future?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the tumultuous political climate following Brexit, a new energy has been given to the idea of establishing transnational lists for the European elections. With the ever-increasing need for democratic legitimacy on the EU stage, the system of transnational lists is viewed by many as a salvation to the problem with democratic deficit within the European Union. The idea of transnational lists was voted in the European Parliament during the plenary session in Strasbourg on February 2018 but rejected after a debate on a clearly divided issue. By analysing the debate from 2018, this study aims to investigate what are the conditions, found in the debate, that could make transnational lists in the European Parliament possible.  When analysing the debate from 2018, five significant conditions for transnational lists were identified. These conditions were democracy, question of federal states, the aspect of spitzenkandidaten, solidarity and the size of Member States. Interestingly, the conditions were observed to be both obstacles and possibilities for transnational lists. Taken together, these results suggest that there is an association between the above-named conditions and the failure of the proposition for transnational lists, alternatively, to a future breakthrough. 

  • Mohammed Ezzadin, Kamand
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Terrordåden och migrationskrisens påverkan på höger/konservativa individers attityder mot invandrare i Frankrike: En jämförelse med logistisk regressionsanalys2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studied if the year 2015 in France, which was characterized by a strongly politicized immigration debate as a result of the terrorist attacks and migration crises, had any consequences on attitudes towards immigrants. With this in mind this paper examined whether people on the right/conservatives, who traditionally have been less tolerant towards immigrants, have had an increase in negative attitudes towards immigrants. To examine this a logistic regression analysis was used with a focus on the main study variable being the left-right scale in addition with control variables to analyze the effect they had on attitudes towards immigrants. The results showed no statistically significant difference between people on the right/conservatives who were negative towards immigrants before the terrorist attacks/migration crises and afterwards. This also meant that symbolic politics theory that was used to test the hypothesis this paper was arguing for didn’t show evidence for people on the right/conservatives feeling that immigrants are a bigger threat towards their culture, traditions and values. To conclude, the results showed no empirical evidence that people on the right/conservatives had showed an increase in negative attitudes towards immigrants in 2016.

  • Lovering, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Två globala mål - prioriteras ekonomi framför klimat?: En diskursanalys av Agenda 20302019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Two global targets – is economy given priority over climate?: A discourse analysis of Agenda 2030 I den här uppsatsen ifrågasätts ekonomisk tillväxt som lösning på klimatfrågan. Vidare undersöks vilken roll diskursen har i klimatfrågan och hur det kan förändras. Genom uppsatsen och analysen kan vi dra slutsatsen att diskurser spelar stor roll, särskilt i sammanhang som klimatfrågan. Det är otydligt om ekonomisk tillväxt prioriteras framför klimatet kontinuerligt, men desto tydligare att det läggs stor vikt vid ekonomins företrädesrätt, oavsett om det gäller klimatfrågan eller inte. För att förstå och urskilja värderingar i politiska ramverk som Agenda 2030 är det viktigt att ha en uppfattning om vilka perspektiv som anser vad i klimatfrågan och vad det kan få för konsekvenser. Genom teorin med klimatsynsätt, kombinerat med diskursiv makt och Bacchis WPR kan vi uppfatta diskursen vid Agenda 2030 och dess tolkande startpunkt för att dra vår egen slutsats över huruvida åtgärderna som den framför är lämpliga. 

  • Lindregn, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Globalized development: The effect of economic globalization on human development in developing countries2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between economic globalization and human development in low to medium developed countries and to see if different aspects of economic globalization have different effects on human development. The theoretical starting point of this study assumes that an increased level of economic globalization will lead to increased human development as governments will create new regimes aimed to maximize economic growth and to increase the welfare of the citizens. This study uses a quantitative method where statistical testing is preferred in order to be able to examine how economic globalization affects human development. The results of this study indicate that economic globalization has a positive effect on human development and that it is mainly trade globalization that makes up that effect, while financial globalization has no significant effect. It also suggests that the effects of economic globalization are weaker for the countries with the lowest levels of human development compared to countries with higher development. 

  • Eriksson, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Skiljelinjer i svensk partipolitik: En kvalitativ analys av debatten om föräldraförsäkringen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine two cleavages in a Swedish political context and how the political debate of parentel leave among the parliamental parties relates to the cleavages. The cleavages examined are the right-left-scale and the new cleavage GAL-TAN. To do so, the study examines party platforms and debate articles to see if the proposals and arguments used are mainly related to the right-left-scale or to GAL-TAN. The result shows that the debate mostly relates to GAL-TAN due to the fact that most parties use proposals and arguments that are connected to social and cultural values, such as equality and freedom of choice, rather than economic values. Even though the proposals and arguments for the most part relate more to GAL-TAN, the economic arguments are not insignificant. Almost all parties discuss economic values in some way but not in the same amount as social and cultural values. This is the case for all parties except for two who focuses on both sides equally much. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that GAL-TAN is a cleavage that is able to organize Swedish party politics in some political areas and can therefore be seen as a complement to the rightleft-scale. 

  • Almqvist, Ebba
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Effektiv etablering på lika villkor?: En policyanalys av Etableringsuppdraget som jämställdhetsreform2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den svenska politiken är arbete av avgörande betydelse för människans liv då det ska förhindra utanförskap och inverka positivt på människans fysiska och psykiska hälsa. I och med detta har arbete fått en stor roll även i integrationspolitiken. Den 1 december 2010 reformerades mottagandet av nyanlända invandrare och Arbetsförmedlingen fick överta huvudansvaret för etableringsarbetet. Syftet med denna reform var bland annat att främja jämställdhet och öka kvinnors sysselsättning. Trots detta är nyanlända invandrade kvinnor bland de som står längst ifrån arbetsmarknaden. Nu efterfrågas mer jämställdhetsintegrering. En metod som väckt skilda åsikter vad gäller dess omvandlande potential kontra dess förmåga att i själva verket befästa normer. För att undersöka jämställdhetens närvaro i etableringsuppdraget, och vilka effekter den får för kvinnorna har en kritisk policyanalys, med diskurser i fokus genomförts. Hur formar politiken jämställdhet och individer genom policy då kön inte är den enda diskrimineringsgrunden? Genom att studera jämställdhetsdiskurser som cirkulerar i etableringsuppdragets policydokument, samt i intervjuer med myndighetsanställda på arbetsförmedlingen. Visade resultaten i studien att istället för att jämställdhet hade den omvandlande effekt som den ofta förknippas med, var det begreppet jämställdhet som omvandlades från ambition till projekt då det skulle gå från policy till handling. Risken finns då att strukturer fortgår och kvinnornas förutsättningar förblir samma.

  • Åslund, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Organizational resilience and the humanitarioan sector: Exploring Organizational Resilience in Policy and Practice within the United Nations2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of ‘organizational resilience’ has risen exponentially in recent years; it is the ability of an organization to ‘bounce back’ and continue key functions during disruptive events. The rise follows the will to better face the unforeseen and complex adversity that modern times throws at organizations. This study, following a single-case exploratory research design, aims to establish knowledge regarding organizational resilience in the humanitarian sector; by exploring the policy and practice of the United Nations. The author builds an Analytical Framework based on the leading research in the field of organizational resilience, in order to grasp an understanding of the organization's different beliefs, capabilities, and proficiencies necessary to establish and maintain a resilient organization. Concluding with the statement that while there are areas of challenges, the humanitarian sector provides a case not only to scrutinize, but also to learn from.

  • Rebucas Olsson, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Radikalisering: De svenska kommunernas arbete mot våldsbejakande extremism2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Radikalisering och våldsbejakande extremism har på senare tid blivit ett allt större problem i samhället1 och den lokala nivåns betydelse understryks allt tydligare av såväl svenska forskare som internationella nätverk. Forskningen visar att kommunerna bär det största ansvaret avseende det förebyggande arbetet.2 I Sverige tillsattes den nationella samordnaren 2014 som satte allt större press på kommunerna att införa åtgärder mot den våldsbejakande extremismen. Denna uppgift hamnade på aktörer med varierande kunskap i ämnet och resulterade i handlingsplaner som skiljde sig åt i stor utsträckning. Syftet med denna uppsats är att förklara variationer i kommunernas arbete och varför implementeringen kom att se så olika ut. För att göra detta analyseras intervjuer och handlingsplaner från fyra olika kommuner i Sverige. Analysen tar en ansats utifrån tesen om att den enskilde individens vilja, kunskap och förståelse påverkar implementeringens utfall. Resultatet visar att förekomsten av dessa tre erbjuder högre måluppfyllnad i implementeringsprocessen. Detta resultat betonar individens påverkan på implementeringen och att dess förutsättningar bör tas i beaktning såväl inom forskningen som inom det faktiska arbetet hos kommunerna.

  • Nordhag, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    War, Peace and Ideologies: Approaching peace in war through Democratic Confederalism and the war in Rojava2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, war and peace have been approached as incompatible entities; where war and violence are present, peace has been assumed to be absent. Recent studies of peace in conflict have started to undermine this assumption, since expressions of peace and attempts at building peace have been found among individuals and communities entangled in violent conflicts.   This thesis explores peace in war via democratic confederalism, an ideology that is being implemented in northern Syria. An ideational analysis is used to approach the ideology, which is later compared with an analytical framework developed from liberal and critical peacebuilding to explore democratic confederalism’s similarities and deviations in regard to the two theories. Afterwards, the findings are analysed in the context of northern Syria.  The study shows that there are several intersections between aspects of critical peacebuilding and democratic confederalism. Discussed through the war in northern Syria and it is argued that the self-defence part of democratic confederalism has taken a prominent and necessary role, but one that might obscure the aspects of democratic confederalism that are peace-conducive. The research paper concludes that while this might make democratic confederalism as a whole appear less peaceful, it should be understood through the context of war and aspects that contribute to peace should be interpreted as expressions of peace in violent conflict. 

  • Livingstone, Alma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Identifying Varieties of Peace: A Cluster Analysis of Peacefulness in the 21st Centur2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis identifies a discrepancy in the understanding of peace as a need for further efforts to be made in both the conceptualization and operationalization of what peace is. Working from the pluralistic multidimensional view of what peace could be defined as, dictated by the works of Dietrich (2014), Kovacs-Söderberg and Höglund (2010) and Davenport et al. (2018), this thesis set out to explore structures present in the descriptive variables of peacefulness found in the Global Peace Index data set. Through a multivariate cluster analysis, six clusters emerged. These inhibited differing magnitudes of the set of variables, that served as the basis for profiling and labelling of the clusters. Five of the clusters were defined as varying levels of internal and external qualities, behaviors and attitudes. The sixth cluster served as a more peaceful category, containing most countries traditionally understood as peaceful. The thesis concluded in a result that encourages the use of the clustering as a tool for peace categorization but lacked in the power of explaining variations of the most peaceful category. Concluding that the included variables proved to be inadequate when attempting to uncover variations of observations that are considered more peaceful, suggesting that additional variables are needed to capture the variety between these observations.

  • Johansson, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    How to study the Occurrence of Cascading Effects in Critical Infrastructure: Evaluating and Developing a Method for gathering data on critical infrastructure dependencies2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis evaluates and develops a method for studying the occurrence of cascading effects between critical infrastructures. The thesis also analyzes how the results of previous research using the method may have been affected by certain aspects of the method. Applying different inclusion thresholds and exploring how material could be gathered differently, the thesis provides some tentative answers to the value of using newspaper articles when studying cascading effects. In addition, the thesis offers recommendations for future research and policy on the protection of critical infrastructures.

  • Jobin, Stella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Mikrolåns påverkan på kvinnors självbestämmandemakt i rurala Bangladesh och Indien: En systematisk översikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor thesis is a systematic review of studies from India and Bangladesh regarding the effect microcredit has on women’s empowerment. The review is based on Naila Kabeer’s definition of empowerment and the effect institutions have on women’s behaviour.  The results from the review showed that microcredit institutions mostly had a positive effect in poverty reduction but could seldom aid the women in gaining more independence.  The microcredit loans often went through the hands of the women into their husband’s hands instead.  The most positive result for women’s empowerment was that the women via microcredit organizations received a platform where they could discuss women’s issues and form relationships outside the home.  The women participating in microcredit activities experienced a positive feeling of empowerment, but seldom real empowerment in Kabeer’s definition.  Microcredit organizations do not in a significant way change the norms and cultural practices that limit women from being empowered. These practices are common in rural Bangladesh and India and include not letting women leave the house, men being the superior authority in the family and forcing women to do the house labour. 

  • Grönlund Müller, Molly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Price of Protecting Forests: Assessing REDD+ Performance in Collaborative Governance in Vietnam2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The UNFCCC initiated mechanism Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) is an important policy instrument for combating climate change, using payments to create economic incentives for developing countries to preserve their forests. However, there is a need for closer scrutiny of whether the mechanism is able to generate its intended outputs and outcomes. The study assessed REDD+ productivity performance in collaborative governance using an instrumental case study of a Collaborative Governance Regime (CGR), the CarBi project in Vietnam. The assessment was based on Emerson and Nabatchi’s productivity performance matrix encompassing three units of analysis - the Participant Organisations, the CGR and the Target Goals. The study was conducted as a Minor Field Study (MFS) using in-depth interviews, complemented with official documents. The findings showed that progress was made in achieving target goals such as forest restoration and enhanced biodiversity, but that REDD+ was not adapted to suit the CGR’s need for stable payments and was not financially feasible to implement in a conservation focused project. Instead, outputs and outcomes were sustained as a result of the transition to the national Payment for Forest Ecosystem Services (PFES). However, the REDD+ safeguards, supporting the inclusion of local communities and indigenous peoples, were lost in the transition and PFES reliance on funding from hydropower dams posed both environmental and social challenges to CGR sustainability.  

  • Hartikainen, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ledning och organisation vid allvarlig händelse: En intervjustudie om svårigheter och implementering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen söker utveckla vilka svårigheter som kan uppstå vid ledning av en allvarlig händelse och utforskar dessa djupare för att se varför de uppstår. För att göra detta nyttjas en välanvänd implementeringsteori av Lundquist där tillämparen står i fokus. Teorin utgår från att implementering endast kan ske om tillämparen förstår, kan och vill utföra uppgiften på rätt sätt. För att med ett breddat perspektiv få svar på vilket eller vilka av det tre villkoren som förklarar bristerna vid ledning av en allvarlig händelse har det gjorts intervjuer med ambulanspersonal på ambulansstationen i Umeå och dessa har kompletterats med en genomgång av KAMEDOrapporter. De har sedan kategoriserats och tematiskt analyserats för att nå svar på frågeställningarna. Rapporterna genererade fem kategorier: dokumentering, samverkan mellan olika organisationer, kommunikation, fördelning till sjukhus och tydlig ledning. Intervjuerna lyfter utöver detta framförallt svårigheten att få kontroll över situationen och ha förmågan och möjligheten att ta ett steg tillbaka från det medicinska arbetet och tänka ett steg framåt. Vidare bekräftar intervjupersonerna de fyra kvalitetsindikatorerna som identifierats som bristande i tidigare studie. Anledningarna framstår främst som resursbrist i form av utrustning och personal samt möjlighet till repetition kombinerat med en ovilja att följa konceptet fullt ut i alla situationer. Detta trots att det i tal uttrycks en positiv inställning och en vilja att följa konceptet.

  • Franzino, Felix
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sveriges ordförandeskap i Förenta Nationernas säkerhetsråd2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Möjligheterna för en liten stat att vara inflytelserik på den internationella arenan kan tyckas vara en svår uppgift. Den största och äldsta institutionen är Förenta Nationerna och säkerhetsrådet är den delen av FN med mest makt. De fem permanenta medlemmarna i säkerhetsrådet åtnjuter flertalet fördelar jämfört med mindre stater och icke-permanenta medlemmar i form av veto-rätten, deras tradition av att ha en plats i rådet och deras ekonomiska övertag över mindre stater. Mindre stater måste specialisera sig på ett fåtal områden för att bli inflytelserika. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka om Sverige var inflytelserikt som ordförande i säkerhetsrådet utifrån teorin om små stater och deras verktyg för inflytande. Samt att göra en jämförelse med Australiens ordförandeskap. Uppsatsens slutsats blev att Sverige har varit inflytelserikt i FN:s säkerhetsråd som ordförande. Dessutom höll Sverige jämna steg med Australien utifrån operationaliseringen av teorin. Där variablerna Kunskap och prioritering, Diplomatiska förmågor och självbild/uppfattning, Initiativ och ledarskap och Koalitionsbyggande testas på de båda staternas ordförandeskap. Sveriges historia och tradition av stöd till FN har varit och är fortfarande större än Australiens, vilket gör Sverige mer inflytelserikt utifrån variabeln Självbild/uppfattning.

  • Carlzon, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kvinnliga soldater för fred: Soldaters upplevelser av kvinnliga soldater i Fredsbevarande insats2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen undersöker hur svenska soldater upplever att kvinnliga soldater i en fredsbevarande insats påverkar den fredsbevarande insatsen. Syftet med uppsatsen är att ta reda på hur både kvinnliga och manliga svenska soldater som har tjänstgjort vid en fredsbevarande insats upplever att de kvinnliga soldaterna påverkade just den fredsbevarande insatsen. För att undersöka hur dessa soldater upplever att kvinnliga soldater påverkar har en kvalitativ studie gjorts. Det empiriska materialet består delvis av dokument angående hur svenska Försvarsmakten arbetar med jämställdhet och jämlikhet, majoriteten av den data som har insamlats består av intervjuer med soldater som har medverkat i en fredsbevarande insats åt Försvarsmaktens vägnar.  Resultaten av den studien har visat på att de svenska soldaterna upplever att kvinnliga soldater medför många positiva möjligheter och bör vara en naturlig del av en fredsbevarande insats. De svenska soldaterna upplever också att kvinnliga soldater medför många positiva möjligheter och inga märkbara nackdelar och bör därför vara en naturlig del av en fredsbevarande insats.

  • Bäckman Kartal, Helin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    How to empower a country using informal financial systems: Stokvels, the South African economical saviour2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a Minor Field Study (MFS), which is a Sida funded scholarship who made this field study possible. With an institutionalist approach, this field study aims to outline the foundational reasons behind peoples’ participation in the South African informal financial stokvel system. In order to do that, interviews have been made trying to identify what roles normative, cultural and economic factors play in peoples’ decisions, why individuals’ find that the stokvel system is a better choice than other systems, and also to explore what individuals experience distinguish the informal and formal economic systems. The study has been conducted in South Africa, in the province KwaZuluNatal, and twenty-five persons has been interviewed in order to get the people perspective. Results show that both normative, cultural and economic factors appear as important, but that the economic factors play the overall biggest role for joining a stokvel. Both the main differences between the formal and informal system, and the reasons why individuals find that the stokvel system is the best system of choice, can be traced back to trust and trust issues.

  • Bröste, Denise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Åstrand, Elias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Rural, Urban and Metropole Areas: A study on differences in wellbeing depending on where you live2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Nykvist, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Corazones y ludificaciones o metas y visualizaciones: La motivación en el aprendizaje móvil de lenguas extranjeras2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with mobile applications for language learning. Seven frequently used applications have been studied. The objective is to shed light and generate reflections on the use of motivational techniques in mobile applications for language learning. The research questions are: What techniques to create and maintain motivation are used in language learning applications? How do these techniques relate to the theories of motivation?

    The results show that motivational techniques in applications are based mainly on behaviourist theories and that cognitive theories are used to a very limited extent. Likewise, most applications use similar techniques, many of these techniques come from the video game industry, e.g. hearts or lives are lost if mistakes are made and stars or points are won if you are successful. Another common technique is that you “maintain a streak” if you practice in a continuous sequence of days.

    But, on the other hand, there are also large differences between the applications, e.g. there is a big variation in the amount of freedom that the students have in their learning process. In some applications the student's autonomy to choose what they want to study is unlimited, while in other applications the results achieved almost completely control what material the student has access to. It is obvious that the developers are studying and partially copying ideas from other applications, but it also looks as if  each company has its own "hobbyhorse": an idea about how languages are learned most effectively. It is also notable that most applications focus on vocabulary training, while studies have shown that mobile applications that focus on reading, listening and speaking obtain the best learning results.

    The conclusion is that the applications studied use only a limited set of techniques to increase motivation and that techniques based on cognitive theories could be used much more. Developers should consider "killing their darlings" and work more with an open mind, both in terms of on how to build and sustain user motivation as well as of the content of the applications.

  • Yusuf, Sulman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Income Inequality and Economic Growth: The Effect of Gini Coefficient on GNI2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using panel data from 1960-2000 for 28 countries, this paper explores the relationship between inequality and economic growth.To mitigate the problem of endogeneity, dynamic panel data estimation technique such as difference GMM was used. Estimated results showed positive significant relationship in short to medium term between income inequality and economic growth. The results are robust to sensitivity analysis when the estimation was carried out by running the regression on sub samples to check if the sample selection influnces the results. The results obtained in this study oppose the common belief that growthwill increase by bringing down inequality.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-09 23:40
    Vu, Xuan-Son
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Privacy-awareness in the era of Big Data and machine learning2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social Network Sites (SNS) such as Facebook and Twitter, have been playing a great role in our lives. On the one hand, they help connect people who would not otherwise be connected before. Many recent breakthroughs in AI such as facial recognition [49] were achieved thanks to the amount of available data on the Internet via SNS (hereafter Big Data). On the other hand, due to privacy concerns, many people have tried to avoid SNS to protect their privacy. Similar to the security issue of the Internet protocol, Machine Learning (ML), as the core of AI, was not designed with privacy in mind. For instance, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) try to solve a quadratic optimization problem by deciding which instances of training dataset are support vectors. This means that the data of people involved in the training process will also be published within the SVM models. Thus, privacy guarantees must be applied to the worst-case outliers, and meanwhile data utilities have to be guaranteed.

    For the above reasons, this thesis studies on: (1) how to construct data federation infrastructure with privacy guarantee in the big data era; (2) how to protect privacy while learning ML models with a good trade-off between data utilities and privacy. To the first point, we proposed different frameworks em- powered by privacy-aware algorithms that satisfied the definition of differential privacy, which is the state-of-the-art privacy-guarantee algorithm by definition. Regarding (2), we proposed different neural network architectures to capture the sensitivities of user data, from which, the algorithm itself decides how much it should learn from user data to protect their privacy while achieves good performance for a downstream task. The current outcomes of the thesis are: (1) privacy-guarantee data federation infrastructure for data analysis on sensitive data; (2) privacy-guarantee algorithms for data sharing; (3) privacy-concern data analysis on social network data. The research methods used in this thesis include experiments on real-life social network dataset to evaluate aspects of proposed approaches.

    Insights and outcomes from this thesis can be used by both academic and industry to guarantee privacy for data analysis and data sharing in personal data. They also have the potential to facilitate relevant research in privacy-aware representation learning and related evaluation methods.

  • Fågelqvist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Säsong: Grönsaker i dagligvaruhandeln2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Urdaneta, Veronica
    et al.
    Hernandez, Sara B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.
    Casadesus, Josep
    Mutational and non mutational adaptation of Salmonella enterica to the gall bladder2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 5203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During systemic infection of susceptible hosts, Salmonella enterica colonizes the gall bladder, which contains lethal concentrations of bile salts. Recovery of Salmonella cells from the gall bladder of infected mice yields two types of isolates: (i) bile-resistant mutants; (ii) isolates that survive lethal selection without mutation. Bile-resistant mutants are recovered at frequencies high enough to suggest that increased mutation rates may occur in the gall bladder, thus providing a tentative example of stress-induced mutation in a natural environment. However, most bile-resistant mutants characterized in this study show defects in traits that are relevant for Salmonella colonization of the animal host. Mutation may thus permit short-term adaptation to the gall bladder at the expense of losing fitness for transmission to new hosts. In contrast, non mutational adaptation may have evolved as a fitness-preserving strategy. Failure of RpoS(-) mutants to colonize the gall bladder supports the involvement of the general stress response in non mutational adaptation.

  • Alvarez, Laura
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid- Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.
    Sanchez-Hevia, Dione
    Sanchez, Mercedes
    Berenguer, Jose
    A new family of nitrate/nitrite transporters involved in denitrification2019In: International Microbiology, ISSN 1139-6709, E-ISSN 1618-1905, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Denitrifying bacteria carry out nitrate and nitrite respiration inside and outside the cell, respectively. In Thermus thermophilus, nitrate and nitrite transport processes are carried out by major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters. The sequence of the nar operon of nitrate-only respiring strains of T. thermophilus includes two tandemly organized MFS transporter genes (narK and narT) of the NarK1 and NarK2 families. Both can function as nitrate/nitrite antiporters, but NarK has been proposed as more specific for nitrate whereas NarT more specific for nitrite. In some nitrate- and nitrite-respiring strains of the same species, a single MFS transporter (NarO) belonging to a different MFS subfamily appears. To analyze the role of this single MFS in the same genetic context, we transferred the two types of nar operon to the aerobic strain HB27, and further included in both of them the ability to respire nitrite. The new denitrifying strains HB27dn, with two MFS, and HB27dp, with a single one, were used to isolate mutants devoid of transporters. Through in trans complementation experiments, we demonstrate that the NarO single MFS works efficiently in the transport of both nitrate and nitrite.

  • Tabar, Laszlo
    et al.
    Dean, Peter B.
    Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi
    Yen, Amy Ming-Fang
    Chen, Sam Li-Sheng
    Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan
    Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia
    Ku, May Mei-Sheng
    Wu, Wendy Yi-Ying
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Hsu, Chen-Yang
    Chen, Yu-Ching
    Beckmann, Kerri
    Smith, Robert A.
    Duffy, Stephen W.
    The incidence of fatal breast cancer measures the increased effectiveness of therapy in women participating in mammography screening2019In: Cancer, ISSN 0008-543X, E-ISSN 1097-0142, Vol. 125, no 4, p. 515-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women and their health care providers need a reliable answer to this important question: If a woman chooses to participate in regular mammography screening, then how much will this choice improve her chances of avoiding a death from breast cancer compared with women who choose not to participate? Methods: To answer this question, we used comprehensive registries for population, screening history, breast cancer incidence, and disease-specific death data in a defined population in Dalarna County, Sweden. The annual incidence of breast cancer was calculated along with the annual incidence of breast cancers that were fatal within 10 and within 11 to 20 years of diagnosis among women aged 40 to 69 years who either did or did not participate in mammography screening during a 39-year period (1977-2015). For an additional comparison, corresponding data are presented from 19 years of the prescreening period (1958-1976). All patients received stage-specific therapy according to the latest national guidelines, irrespective of the mode of detection. Results: The benefit for women who chose to participate in an organized breast cancer screening program was a 60% lower risk of dying from breast cancer within 10 years after diagnosis (relative risk, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.48) and a 47% lower risk of dying from breast cancer within 20 years after diagnosis (relative risk, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.63) compared with the corresponding risks for nonparticipants. Conclusions: Although all patients with breast cancer stand to benefit from advances in breast cancer therapy, the current results demonstrate that women who have participated in mammography screening obtain a significantly greater benefit from the therapy available at the time of diagnosis than do those who have not participated.

  • Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Constipation and laxative use among people living in nursing homes in 2007 and 20132019In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 19, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Constipation is a common condition among older people, particularly among people living in nursing homes, and the use of drugs such as opioids is one of many factors that contribute to its high prevalence. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of constipation and the use of laxatives between 2007 and 2013, to analyze constipation and laxative use among people who are prescribed opioids, and to identify factors associated with constipation. Methods: In 2007 and 2013, two surveys were performed in the county of Vasterbotten in Northern Sweden, comprising all those living in nursing homes. The Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale was used to collect data regarding laxative, opioid and anticholinergic drug use, functioning in activities of daily living (ADL), cognition and symptoms of constipation. A comparison was made between 2820 people from 2007 and 1902 people from 2013. Results: The prevalence of symptoms of constipation among people living in nursing homes increased from 36% in 2007 to 40% in 2013. After controlling for age, sex, ADL, cognitive impairment and use of opioid and anticholinergic drugs, this difference was found to be statistically significant. When controlled for demographic changes, there was a statistically significant difference in the regular use of laxatives between the respective years, from 46% in 2007 to 59% in 2013. People prescribed opioids and anticholinergic drugs were at increased risk of constipation, while people with a higher ADL score were at decreased risk. Further, among people prescribed opioids and rated as constipated, 35% in 2007 and 20% in 2013 were not prescribed laxatives for regular use, a difference that was found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms of constipation increased between 2007 and 2013. Although there was a decrease between the years, there were still a number of people being prescribed with opioids and rated as constipated who were not treated with laxatives. This study therefore indicates that constipation remains a significant problem among people in nursing homes and also indicates that those prescribed opioids could benefit from an increased awareness of the risk of constipation and treatment, if required.

  • Jolérus, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Flow and Air Quality Modelling of a Car Cabin2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adverse health effects attributable to both short- and long-term exposure to air pollution have turned the focus on different microenvironments. The interior of vehicles is of relevance as road traffic emissions and re-suspension of road dust are major sources of pollutants associated with adverse health effects. Hence, the air quality inside vehicles deserves attention regarding human health. This thesis presents a new virtual methodology, using CFD, to study the distribution of fine particulate matter, PM2.5, inside a car cabin. In the CFD model, unsteady RANS and Lagrangian particle tracking were used to simulate particles entering from the exterior. In this study, a practical measurement of interior particle concentrations was also carried out as a first attempt to validate the CFD model. The objective was to find positions inside the cabin where elevated concentrations of PM2.5 are present. The results from the CFD simulations showed that significantly higher concentrations are present at head height in the front row. Due to a discrepancy in the investigated positions in the CFD model and the practical measurement, the simulation results could not be validated. Nevertheless, the simulation results in this study have provided guidelines for future measurements of interior particle concentrations.

  • Cavanagh, Jorunn Pauline
    et al.
    Askarian, Fatemeh
    Pain, Maria
    Bruun, Jack-Ansgar
    Urbarova, Ilona
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Schmidt, Frank
    Johannessen, Mona
    Proteome profiling of secreted and membrane vesicle associated proteins of an invasive and a commensal Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolate2019In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 22, p. 914-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs) mediate bacterial virulence by enabling secretion and long distance delivery of bacterial effector molecules. Staphylococcus haemolyticus has now been demonstrated to produce membrane vesicles (MVs). The protein content of S. haemolyticus MVs was identified by Mass spectrometry and compared to proteins identified in the total secretome. This information is presented in this data article. Further background and interpretation of the data can be found in the article: Comparative exoproteome profiling of an invasive and a commensal S. haemolyticus isolate (Cavanagh et al., in press). Data are available via Proteome Xchange with identifier PXD010389.

  • Lindahl, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Förlängt nyttjande av elbussbatterier2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the consequences for the environment of using internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly apparent, the need for alternatives for the transport of people and goods increases. Electric vehicles are sold to a greater extent than ever before. But the batteries in electric vehicles are also a burden on the environment when they are produced. If the batteries were to be used further after they could no longer be used in cars, the relative environmental impact of the production would be reduced and it would be easier to compensate for the impact already made by each battery.

    To achieve this, the characteristics of the batteries need to be investigated. The degradation needs to be determined to calculate how much energy they can cycle during their life. How this energy can be used efficiently and in a meaningful way in a modern grid is also important. What then happens at the end of battery life? Recycling is an important step in the process to minimize climate change instead of leaving the batteries in landfill.

    The results show that the amount of cycles a battery can handle down to a certain capacity level depends heavily on operating temperature, discharge depth, C-ratio and battery type. Hybricons batteries of LTO-type is estimated to sustain for 11 459 cycles at 10 % depth of discharge och 2 490 cycles at 50 % depth of discharge. Applications in this report, where battery storage is expected to be used efficiently, is short-circuit amplification and limitation of voltage hikes at customers with high impedance in rural networks as well as UPSs to telecommunications. Costs for these applications is estimated to cost between circa 170 USD/kWh och 760 USD/kWh depending on construction type and second hand price of the batteries. The value of a battery is estimated in this report is the amount of energy it can store during its life, which varies depending on the factors mentioned earlier and necessitates analysis of each case.

    The conclusion is that there are conditions that make it possible to efficiently and with economical gain use batteries in the grid, especially as the trend shows that the equipment is constantly getting cheaper and the technology is getting better. Although more analysis is required, foremost on the aging of the batteries second life.

  • Näslund, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Driftoptimering av reaktiv effekt2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Övik Energi Nät has an agreement with Vattenfall where Övik Energi Nät is entitled to a certain amount of generation of reactive power and a certain amount of consumption of reactive power. This agreement applies to two distribution stations located on each side of the city.This report will propose ways of how and where it is suitably to install phase compensation equipment in Övik Energis Nät, to correct the occasions when it overleaps the maximum peak allowed of reactive power.The report will also point out problems that can appear with connecting a capacitor battery and how to avoid these problems.There is a generator that generates an effect of 5 MVAr (capacitive) and at the times when the generator is not operating the reactive power overleaps the maximum peak allowed. With this knowledge there is a belief that a capacitor battery with 5 MVAr would be suitable to install to compensate when the reactive power overleaps the maximum peak allowed.

  • Tagaro Andersson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Jag uppfinner en plats i dikten där vi kan vara tillsammans: En litterär studie i förlusten av ett modersmål2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to examine how the bereavement of a mother tongue in various ways affects a person and how literature discusses this experience. How does literature reflect it and is it possible to identify any specific and recurring themes? Are there any similarities between the experience of migration and the experience of colonialism? What purpose does writing serve in this and how to describe the impact of language? Hopefully this thesis will contribute to a better understanding of the situation for newly arrived people and for persons living in Sweden with Swedish as a second language.

    The thesis has a postcolonial perspective as the focus is fiction dealing with a relocation from east to west. Earlier research and writings that has inspired is in particular the works by the two postcolonial theorists Franz Fanon and Sara Ahmed. The main source material for the study is literary works, e.g. the works of Jila Mossaed, Theodor Kallifatides, Athena Farrokhzad, Burcu Sahin and Yoko Tawada. The thesis is intentionally written in the form of an essay, suggesting the power of language and storytelling. The main objective of the thesis is to describe, rather than to arrive at a conclusion. One main focus is the author’s personal relation to the subject and to the Philippines and its colonial past.

    The literary works addressed in this study suggests that literature dealing with migration and language bereavement mainly focuses on a discussion about the relation between the native tongue and the new language, the relation between the metaphysical body and the new geographical location, about feelings of speechlessness and alienation that becomes physical. All these concurrent themes can be used as tools to define an experience that in many aspects is inconceivable. The thesis also identifies similarities between colonialism and migration, as both raise the question of inherit right to a place and a lifelong search for a place to call home. In this effort, writing is important and may function as an emancipatory lever to create new places.

  • Carlsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Egertsdotter, Ulrika
    Ganeteg, Ulrika
    Svennerstam, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Nitrogen utilization during germination of somatic embryos of Norway spruce: revealing the importance of supplied glutamine for nitrogen metabolism2019In: Trees, ISSN 0931-1890, E-ISSN 1432-2285, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 383-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key messageThis paper shows that germinating Norway spruce somatic embryos are dependent on the carbon and nitrogen supplied in the medium, and that supplied glutamine accounts for 50 % of assimilated nitrogen during germination.AbstractThe female megagametophyte, which provides the zygotic embryo with nitrogen (N), carbon (C) and energy during germination, is not present in Norway spruce (Picea abies) mature somatic embryos. Therefore, somatic embryos presumably rely on nutrients supplied in the germination medium in addition to their storage compounds accumulated during maturation. However, to what extent stored versus supplied compounds contribute to a somatic embryo germination is unclear. In this 24-day study, we addressed the above question by monitoring the biomass changes and the N and C budget during somatic embryo germination, under low-intensity red light. We found that the C and N storage reserves, accumulated during the maturation phase, were not sufficient to support the growth of the germinating somatic embryos, rather they were dependent on the medium components. In addition, in a previous study it has been found that glutamine (Gln) supplied in the medium was crucial for maintaining the primary amino acid (AA) metabolism and growth of the proliferating embryogenic cultures of Norway spruce (Carlsson et al., PLoS One 12(8):e0181785, 2017). Therefore, we hypothesised that Gln would be required as a significant source of N also during somatic embryo germination. By tracing the uptake of isotopically labelled N-sources from the medium and further into primary N assimilation, we found that Gln was the preferred source of N for the germinating somatic embryos, accounting for 50% of assimilated N. As the amounts of both arginine (Arg) and Gln were increased in the germinating somatic embryos, it also suggested that germination in low-intensity red light promoted N storage, similar to what has been observed in the zygotic embryo maturation in conifers (King, Gifford, Plant Physiol 113:1125-1135, 1997).

  • Ketola, Rebecca
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Norrman, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    DO CONSUMERS BELIEVE EACH OTHER ONLINE?: A study of how consumers assess credibility of brand-related UGC2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the gradual rise of Web-2.0 based platforms, Internet users were given the possibility to interact with each other in virtual communities. Originating from this development was the concept of user-generated content (UGC), which implies that people were able to enrich each other’s user-experiences by sharing creative efforts and communicating openly (O’Reilly, 2007).

     

    As Web 2.0 features continued to grow, marketers became aware of the opportunities this new development online created and how they could use it to their advantage (De Chernatony & Christodoulides, 2004). The development online however also faces companies with challenges, as consumers now are able to create and share opinions and thoughts about brands, which to an extent is uncontrollable by companies (Christodoulides et al., 2012). Just as marketer-controlled communication can create new brand associations in the minds of consumers, for better or worse - so can also externally-generated communication, such as brand-related UGC, do.

     

    Knowing that consumers generally trust what other consumers say about products more than marketing communication (Cheong & Morrison, 2008; Song & Yoo, 2016), and that there does not exist much research on how consumers perceive brand-related UGC, this is a considerably important topic to study. A classic way of studying communication effectiveness is through credibility, which is argued to be a major determinant of whether consumers accept and adopt what is communicated (e.g. Hovland et al., 1953). Thus, the purpose of this thesis is to gain an understanding of how consumers assess credibility of brand-related UGC and furthermore, what their consequent responses are.

     

    A qualitative approach was taken as the purpose is to gain insight rather than proving a point. The interviews were semi-structured and formed around three Instagram posts relating to a specific brand, which were deliberately chosen based on the content of the theoretical framework developed. Through using these example cases, interviewees’ first reactions could be captured and their reasoning around credibility could be followed and discussed.

     

    The results from this study indicate that there exists a certain level of irritation as well as a scepticism towards brand-related UGC. This seem to stem from a suspicion that most content that promotes products and brands is part of sponsored collaborations, into which consumers put noticeably much distrust. Beyond questioning sponsorship, it was also found that the source played a particularly important role when assessing credibility. When a source is familiar, it is easier to determine credibility of brand-related UGC, and credibility furthermore increases with perceived expertise, attractiveness and trustworthiness. The channel through which a message is communicated also matters, as it is more difficult to be ingenuine through a video than an image or a text, which implicated that consumers may find videos more credible than other media formats. The message itself was also deemed to influence the credibility assessment, as the message was questioned both based upon common sense but also on knowledge and previous experience.

     

    As for practical implications, this study indicates that encouraging or generating positive brand-related UGC through paid collaborations, is a balancing act, into which much consideration needs to be put. With the evident irritation that consumers feel when it comes to brand-related UGC, marketers should be careful to push too much positive brand communication onto the consumer, or it will turn negative. To come across as genuine, the “who”, ”what” and ”how” of communication should be carefully considered.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-11 10:00 Samhällsvetarhuset Hörsal D, Umeå
    Vaassen, Bram
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Causal after all: a model of mental causation for dualists2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, I develop and defend a model of causation that allows for dualist mental causation in worlds where the physical domain is physically complete.

    In Part I, I present the dualist ontology that will be assumed throughout the thesis and identify two challenges for models of mental causation within such an ontology: the exclusion worry and the common cause worry. I also argue that a proper response to these challenges requires a thoroughly lightweight account of causation, i.e. an account that allows for causes to be metaphysically distinct from the phenomena that produce or physically necessitate their effects.

    In Part II, I critically evaluate contemporary responses to these challenges from the philosophical literature. In particular, I discuss (i) List and Stoljar’s criticism of exclusion worries, (ii) Kroedel’s alternative dualist ontology, (iii) concerns about the notion of causal sufficiency, and (iv) Lowe’s models of dualist mental causation. I argue that none of these proposals provide independent motivation for a thoroughly lightweight account of causation and therefore leave room for improvement.

    In the first four chapters of Part III, I develop a thoroughly lightweight model of causation, which builds on interventionist approaches to causation. First, I explain how so-called ‘holding fixed’-requirements in standard interventionist accounts stand in the way of dualist mental causation. I then argue that interventionist accounts should impose a robustness condition on causal correlations and that, with this condition in place, the ‘holding fixed’-requirements can be weakened such that they do allow for dualist mental causation. I dub the interventionist model with such weakened ‘holding fixed’-requirements ‘insensitive interventionism’, argue that it can counter the exclusion worry as well as the common cause worry, and explain under which circumstances it would predict there to be dualist mental causation. Importantly, these circumstances might, for all we know, hold in the actual world.

    In the final three chapters of Part III, I defend insensitive interventionism against some objections. I consider the objection that causation must be productive, the objection that causes must (in some sense) physically necessitate their effects, and the objection that insensitive interventionism is too permissive. I respond by drawing from the literature on causation by absences and on the relation between causation and fundamental physics. Overall, insensitive interventionism performs as well as standard interventionist accounts. I conclude that insensitive interventionism is a credible model of causation.

  • Bui, Anh Quang
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Muñoz Martinez, Víctor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The impact of product promotion on customer loyalty: A quantitative study on Zara2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We are living in a competitive business world, on which every company strives to have a better and more significant share of the market. Long term customer relationship is essential in order to reach that success. At the same time, an essential aspect of generating and creating that customer-company engagement, customer loyalty, is product promotion. This research aims to address one of the most important key elements for companies, particularly in the case of Zara: The impact of product promotion on customer loyalty.

    This particular research aims to illustrate which are the key variables that have the most impact on customer loyalty. There is a hard work/high implication behind customer loyalty for a company; for this reason, it is necessary to know on what to focus, invest, and concentrate. In order to be able to answer the presented question an in-depth research together with a study and analysis has been made.

    To accurately explore the purpose of this study, we conducted a quantitative research in the Spanish market, aiming to best answer this study. To do so, we administered a survey (created in English and then translated in Spanish) between 157 respondents analyzing different variables on the Spanish market; Promotional Pricing, Point of Purchase Display, Perceived Quality, Perceived Value, Attributes, Customer Relationship, Trustworthiness and Loyalty where the variables analyzed. The theoretical framework that we used to base our survey construction comes from different researchers on the analyzed variables. We made use of different theories from the marketing field as well as promotion-based ones in order to be able to empirically analyze and give an answer to the proposed question of this research. Finally, we concluded by answering the research question, and the research gap found. The main conclusion of this research includes an algorithm that leads to customer loyalty:

    Customer loyalty = Perceived Value + Customer Relationships + Trustworthiness

    As presented above, we came to the conclusion that the three main divisors that affect to our customer loyalty formula are: perceived value, customers relationships, and trustworthiness. These fundamental elements that conform to our customer loyalty formula, mostly rely on POP Display as a main promotional tool to impact them.

  • Syren, E.
    et al.
    Eriksson, S.
    Enochsson, L.
    Eklund, A.
    Sandblom, G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Risk factors for pancreatitis following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography2019In: BJS OPEN, ISSN 2474-9842, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 485-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The risk of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) could be related to technical or patient-related factors. The aim of this study was to assess whether clinical variables and co-morbidities influence the risk of developing PEP. Methods: Data were retrieved from the Swedish GallRiks registry, including all ERCP procedures performed in 2006-2014 for common bile duct stones. A total of 15 800 procedures were identified and cross-checked. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted with the endpoint of PEP using the following co-variables: age, sex, ASA grade, previous history of acute pancreatitis, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, hypercalcaemia, kidney disease and liver cirrhosis. Results: Women (odds ratio (OR) 1.33, 95 per cent c. i. 1.14 to 1. 55), patients aged less than 65 years (OR 1. 68, 1. 45 to 1. 94), patients with hyperlipidaemia (OR 1. 32, 1. 02 to 1. 70) and those with a previous history of acute pancreatitis (OR 5. 44, 4. 68 to 6. 31) had a significantly increased risk of PEP. In a subgroup analysis of patients with a previous history of acute pancreatitis, the mean time from previous pancreatitis to ERCP 4423 days in patients who developed PEP vs 6990 days in patients who did not (P = 0. 037). However, when the previous episode of pancreatitis had occurred more than 30 days before ERCP, this association was no longer significant (P = 0. 858). Patients with diabetes had a decreased risk of PEP (OR 0. 64, 0. 48 to 0. 85). Conclusion: Age, sex, hyperlipidaemia and previous history of recent acute pancreatitis increase the risk of PEP. The reduced risk of PEP in patients with diabetes should be explored in future studies.

  • Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Halvarsson, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundstrom, Wictor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Alpine Ski Coaches' and Athletes' Perceptions of Factors Influencing Adaptation to Stress in the Classroom and on the Slopes2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research examining the student-athlete experience proposes a number of factors that can be both sources of stress and/or support. The dual career pathway offers a number of potential positive outcomes including psychological, social, and financial benefits; however, challenges including time management, fatigue, and restricted social activities are well documented. In consideration of the multidimensional student-athlete experience and the numerous factors that influence the complexity of potential stress, a mixed methods research study design was used in the study. First, data collected from surveys completed by 173 elite junior alpine skiers were analyzed to identify the degree to which athletes report experiencing stress associated with specific aspects pertaining to training, life, and organizational factors. These factors were then explored through semi-structured interviews with six coaches at the associated national elite sport schools. Taken collectively, athletes' reports of psychophysiological training stress on the Multidimensional Training Distress Scale were low. Scores on the college studentathletes' life stress scale revealed very low levels of general life stress; although the subscales associated with "performance demand" and "academic requirements" scored marginally higher. Scores on the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers indicated low levels of organizational stress. The interviews with coaches elucidated the underlying factors potentially influencing athletes' positive adaptations to stress as they reported programming a number of strategies to reduce negative outcomes. Coaches aimed to teach athletes self-awareness and regulation strategies through the use of the training diaries and ongoing communication to promote positive adaptation to stress. A number of coaches also worked with sport psychology consultants to optimize athletes' training and study situations. Traditionally, research has noted high levels of stress in student-athletes due to co-occurring demands (school & sport); however, the data in the present study suggests that optimizing support mechanisms across domains can promote positive adaptations to potential sources of stress.

  • Vogiazides, Louisa
    et al.
    Chihaya Da Silva, Guilherme Kenjy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Migrants' long-term residential trajectories in Sweden: persistent neighbourhood deprivation or spatial assimilation?2019In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite time being a key element in the theories on international migrants' socio-spatial mobility, it has not been sufficiently addressed in empirical research. Most studies focus on discrete transitions between different types of neighbourhoods, potentially missing theoretically important temporal aspects. This article uses sequence analysis to study the residential trajectories of international migrants in Sweden emphasising the timing, order, and duration of residence in neighbourhoods with different poverty levels. It follows individuals of the 2003 arrival cohort during their first 9 years in the country. Results show that 81% of migrants consistently reside in the same type of neighbourhood; 60% consistently live in a deprived area and mere 12% follow a trajectories starting at deprived and ending at middle-income or affluent neighbourhoods. Thus, spatial assimilation is neither the only nor the most frequent trajectory followed by migrants in Sweden. Lastly, there are persistent differences in neighbourhood attainment between immigrant groups, suggesting either place stratification or ethnic preference.

  • Burstrom, Asa
    et al.
    Mora, Mariela Acuna
    Ojmyr-Joelsson, Maria
    Sparud-Lundin, Carina
    Rydberg, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hanseus, Katarina
    Frenckner, Bjorn
    Nisell, Margret
    Moons, Philip
    Bratt, Ewa-Lena
    Ready for Transfer to Adult Care?: A Triadic Evaluation of Transition Readiness in Adolescents With Congenital Heart Disease and Their Parents2019In: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, article id UNSP 1074840719864255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transfer to adult care for adolescents with chronic conditions ought to be determined by transition readiness. The aims of this study were (a) to describe the level of readiness for transition in adolescents with congenital heart disease, (b) to compare adolescents' assessment of transition readiness with their parents' assessments, and (c) to study potential correlates of transition readiness. A total of 157 triads of adolescents aged 14 to 18 years and their parents completed the Readiness for Transition Questionnaire. Adolescents scored higher on overall readiness than their parents. Multivariable analyses revealed that higher levels of adolescents' overall readiness were associated with a less threatening view of the illness, a higher level of empowerment, and with higher mothers' and fathers' overall readiness scores. Adolescents' responsibility scores were positively associated with age and parental adolescent responsibility scores. Parental involvement scores were negatively associated with adolescents' age and positively with the mothers' parental involvement scores. By using a triadic evaluation, the results of the present study significantly extend what is currently known about this population.

  • Baxter, Rebecca
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Björk, Sabine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Commentary on: Sullivan and Willis (2018). Towards Changing the Long-Term Care (LTC) Paradigm: Explicating the Concept of Thriving in Older Adults Living in LTC2019In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 639-640Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Baison, John
    et al.
    Vidalis, Amaryllis
    Zhou, Linghua
    Chen, Zhi-Qiang
    Li, Zitong
    Sillanpaeae, Mikko J.
    Bernhardsson, Carolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Scofield, Douglas
    Forsberg, Nils
    Grahn, Thomas
    Olsson, Lars
    Karlsson, Bo
    Wu, Harry
    Ingvarsson, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    Niittylae, Totte
    Garcia-Gil, M. Rosario
    Genome-wide association study identified novel candidate loci affecting wood formation in Norway spruce2019In: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norway spruce is a boreal forest tree species of significant ecological and economic importance. Hence there is a strong imperative to dissect the genetics underlying important wood quality traits in the species. We performed a functional genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 17 wood traits in Norway spruce using 178 101 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generated from exome genotyping of 517 mother trees. The wood traits were defined using functional modelling of wood properties across annual growth rings. We applied a Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO-based) association mapping method using a functional multilocus mapping approach that utilizes latent traits, with a stability selection probability method as the hypothesis testing approach to determine a significant quantitative trait locus. The analysis provided 52 significant SNPs from 39 candidate genes, including genes previously implicated in wood formation and tree growth in spruce and other species. Our study represents a multilocus GWAS for complex wood traits in Norway spruce. The results advance our understanding of the genetics influencing wood traits and identifies candidate genes for future functional studies.