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  • Wester, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Framtidens marknadsföring: En kvalitativ studie om hur B2B-företag definierar och tillämpar content marketing i digital marknadsföring2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been conducted with an aim to examine how employees working at B2B companies in Umeå understand, and describe the ever changing strategy of content marketing whilst at the same time analysing how said companies utilise the strategy on their own websites. Another aim of this study is to determine whether content marketing is used differently depending on the companies size and reach. The study was conducted by means of interviews and content analysis, using semiotics as a method. The result showed that despite each company understanding and using the term content marketing they differed slightly when describing its meaning, and implementation.

  • Funda, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, UPSCSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wennström, Ulfstand
    Almqvist, Curt
    Andersson Gull, Bengt
    Wang, Xiao-Ru
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Mating dynamics of Scots pine in isolation tents2016In: Tree Genetics & Genomes, ISSN 1614-2942, E-ISSN 1614-2950, Vol. 12, no 6, 112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seed orchards are forest tree production populations for supplying the forest industry with consistent and abundant seed crops of superior genetic quality. However, genetic quality can be severely affected by non-random mating among parents and the occurrence of background pollination. This study analyzed mating structure and background pollination in six large isolation tents established in a clonal Scots pine seed orchard in northern Sweden. The isolation tents were intended to form a physical barrier against background pollen and induce earlier flowering relative to the surrounding trees. We scored flowering phenology inside and outside the tents and tracked airborne pollen density inside and outside the seed orchard in three consecutive pollination seasons. We genotyped 5683 offspring collected from the tents and open controls using nine microsatellite loci, and assigned paternity using simple exclusion method. We found that tent trees shed pollen and exhibited maximum female receptivity approximately 1 week earlier than trees in open control. The majority of matings in tents (78.3 %) occurred at distances within two trees apart (about 5 m). Self-fertilization was relatively high (average 21.8 %) in tents without supplemental pollination (SP), but it was substantially reduced in tents with SP (average 7.7 %). Pollen contamination was low in open controls (4.8-7.1 %), and all tents remained entirely free of foreign pollen. Our study demonstrates that tent isolation is effective in blocking pollen immigration and in manipulating flowering phenology. When complimented with supplemental pollination, it could become a useful seed orchard management practice to optimize the gain and diversity of seed orchard crops.

  • Sundström, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Cancer i familjen: Kvinnors upplevelser av att genomgå cancerbehandling i relation till närstående2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Background: In Sweden, one third of the population is afflicted with cancer at some point in life. Dominant forms among women are breast cancer, gynaecological cancer and colo-rectal cancer. Many afflicted women live in family settings and are responsible for children and other relatives, which poses special demands during their illness.

    Aim: To illuminate women's experience of undergoing cancer treatment in relation to the family and related parties.

    Method: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken in 2016 with ten women who had gone through cancer treatment while living in a family setting. The applied method was qualitative contents analysis.

    Results: The study resulted in the main theme” Families and related parties are in an inter-personal process with the ill person” and three themes: “To be a burden and alienation”,” The struggle to safeguard the family”, “Family affected by change” and ten sub themes. Women afflicted by cancer had practical and emotional responsibilities for their families. New insights about members were gleaned and feelings of loneliness arose when others could not offer enough support, and a sense of alienation could follow. But children and partners were also sources of consolation and many women found strength in their families. Trust and deeper communications developed.

    Conclusion: When a mother is afflicted by cancer, her whole family is involved, as families function systemically through inter-personal processes. Satisfactory nursing thus requires family involvement during the time of illness.

    Key words: Cancer, family, parent, gender, communications, nursing, nurses, system.

     

  • Public defence: 2017-05-19 13:00 N320, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå
    Nygård Skalman, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Pathogen entry mechanisms and endocytic responses to plasma membrane damage2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Endocytosis is a fundamental cellular process by which cells transport material from the outside to the inside of the cell through the formation of membrane invaginations that bud off from the plasma membrane. This process is important for nutrient uptake, regulating cell surface receptors and the overall plasma membrane composition. Cells have several different types of endocytic pathways where clathrin- mediated endocytosis is the most studied. Importantly, pathogens and secreted virulence factors bind to cell surface receptors and hijack the endocytic pathways in order to enter host cells. Depending on their size and molecular composition, pathogens and virulence factors are thought to make use of distinct endocytic pathways into the cell. This thesis focuses on early host cell interactions with virus, bacterial membrane vesicles and a pore-forming toxin, with a particular emphasis on endocytic mechanisms and plasma membrane repair.

    During entry of pathogens, it is thought that interactions with specific cell surface molecules drive the recruitment of endocytic proteins to the plasma membrane. Viruses possess a very defined molecular composition and architecture, which facilitate specificity to these interactions. We found that Adenovirus 37, a human ocular pathogen, binds to αVβ1 and α3β1 integrins on human corneal epithelial cells and that this interaction is important for infection. In contrast to viruses, membrane vesicles shed from Helicobacter pylori are heterogeneous in size and molecular composition. These vesicles harbour various adhesins and toxins that may facilitate binding to the cell surface and recruitment of different endocytic pathways. We developed a quantitative internalization assay and showed that the H. pylori vesicles were internalized mainly via clathrin-mediated endocytosis but were also capable of exploiting other endocytic pathways.

    Damage to the plasma membrane disrupts cellular homeostasis and can lead to cell death if not repaired immediately. Although endocytic mechanisms have been shown to be important for plasma membrane repair, little is known about their specific role. Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a bacterial toxin that can form pores in the plasma membrane and disrupt cellular homeostasis. We developed a reporter system for real-time imaging of the endocytic response to LLO pore formation. We found that two clathrin-independent endocytic pathways were important for plasma membrane repair. However, they were not directly involved in removing LLO pores from the plasma membrane. Our data suggests that these endocytic systems might rather influence membrane repair by their ability to regulate the plasma membrane composition, shape and tension.

    In conclusion, this thesis describes how pathogens and their virulence factors make use of specific mechanisms to enter host cells as well as revealing new insights on the role of the endocytic pathways in plasma membrane repair. 

  • Public defence: 2017-05-19 13:00 Hörsalen Snäckan, Östersunds sjukhus, Östersund
    Högberg, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Diagnosing colorectal cancer in primary care: the value of symptoms, faecal immunochemical tests, faecal calprotectin and anaemia2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common in women worldwide. Adenomas can be precursors to CRC, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can present with the same symptoms as CRC. The majority of patients with CRC initially consult primary care. Symptoms associated with CRC are also common among primary care patients, but seldom caused by any significant disease. Reliable diagnostic aids would be helpful in deciding which patients to refer. Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are commonly used for this purpose in primary care in Sweden, but there is little evidence to support this use. Faecal calprotectin (FC) has been suggested as an additional test.

    Aim: To explore how doctors in primary care investigate patients with suspected CRC, the value of FITs, symptoms and presence of anaemia in diagnosing CRC and adenomas in primary care, and whether FC tests could contribute to diagnosis.

    Methods: Three studies (1-3) were carried out in Region Jämtland Härjedalen, Sweden. There was no screening programme for CRC. We used a point of care qualitative dip-stick 3-sample FIT with a cut-off of 25-50μg haemoglobin/g faeces, and a calprotectin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test with a cut-off of 100 μg/g faeces. 1: A retrospective, population-based study including all patients diagnosed with CRC or adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) during the period 2005-2009 that initially consulted primary care. Symptoms, FIT results, anaemia and time to diagnosis were retrieved from medical records. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated from FIT results at the region’s health centres 2008- 2009. (Paper I.) 2: A prospective cohort study including consecutive patients where primary care doctors requested FITs and/or FC tests, at four health centres, from 30 Jan 2013 to 31 May 2014. FITs, FC tests, haemoglobin and iron deficiency tests were analysed; patients and doctors answered questionnaires about symptoms. Patients were examined with bowel imaging or followed for two years. Findings of CRC, adenomas with HGD, adenomas with low grade dysplasia (LGD) ≥1 cm and IBD were registered. (Papers II and III.) 3: A qualitative study of interviews with eleven primary care doctors. We explored what made them suspect CRC, and their practices regarding investigation and referral with particular attention to their use of FITs. Qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach was used for the analysis. (Paper IV.)

    Results: 1: Paper I: Of 495 patients 323 (65.3%) started the investigation in primary care. FITs were analysed in 215. In 23 cases with CRC, FITs were negative; 15 (65.2%) had anaemia. In 33 cases with CRC, FITs were performed due to asymptomatic anaemia; 10 (30.3%) had negative FITs. The time from start of investigation, to the diagnosis of CRC or adenomas with HGD, was significantly longer for patients with negative FITs.

    2: 377 patients (9 diagnosed with CRC, 10 with IBD) were included. Paper II: Concordance of positive answers about symptoms from patients and doctors was generally low. Rectal bleeding (recorded by 43.5% of patients and 25.6% of doctors) was the only symptom related to CRC and IBD. The FIT showed a better PPV than rectal bleeding for CRC and IBD. When patients recorded rectal bleeding, the FIT had a PPV of 22.6% and a NPV of 98.9% for CRC and IBD. Paper III: The best test for detecting CRC and IBD was the combination of a positive FIT and/or anaemia with a sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 100%, 61.7%, 11.7% and 100% respectively. The FC test had no additional value to the FIT alone. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the FIT for CRC in study 1 was estimated at 88.4%, 73.3%, 6.2% and 99.7% respectively. In study 2, corresponding figures were 88.9%, 67.4%, 6.3% and 99.6% respectively.

    3: Paper IV: We identified four categories: “Careful listening – with awareness of the pit-falls”, “tests can help – the FIT can also complicate the diagnosis”, “to refer or not to refer – safety margins are necessary”, and “growing more confident – but also more humble”. All doctors had found their own way to handle FIT results in the absence of guidelines.

    Conclusion: The diagnostic process when suspecting CRC can be described as navigating uncertain waters with safety margins. FITs were often used by primary care doctors but with considerable variations in interpretation and handling of results. Rectal bleeding was the only symptom related to CRC and IBD, but the FIT showed a better PPV than rectal bleeding. The combination of a negative FIT and no anaemia may be useful as a rule-out test when CRC is suspected in primary care, and this potentially also applies when patients present with rectal bleeding. Further studies are needed to confirm this and to determine the optimal FIT cut-off value for this use. 

  • Public defence: 2017-05-22 10:15 KB.E3.01, Lilla Hörsalen, KBC-huset, Umeå
    Decker, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    UDP-sugar metabolizing pyrophosphorylases in plants: formation of precursors for essential glycosylation-reactions2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    UDP-sugar metabolizing pyrophosphorylases provide the primary mechanism for de novo synthesis of UDP-sugars, which can then be used for myriads of glycosyltranferase reactions, producing cell wall carbohydrates, sucrose, glycoproteins and glycolipids, as well as many other glycosylated compounds. The pyrophosphorylases can be divided into three families: UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (UGPase), UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USPase) and UDP-N-acety lglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAGPase), which can be discriminated both by differences in accepted substrate range and amino acid sequences.

    This thesis focuses both on experimental examination (and re-examination) of some enzymatic/ biochemical properties of selected members of the UGPases and USPases and UAGPase families and on the design and implementation of a strategy to study in vivo roles of these pyrophosphorylases using specific inhibitors. In the first part, substrate specificities of members of the Arabidopsis UGPase, USPase and UAGPase families were comprehensively surveyed and kinetically analyzed, with barley UGPase also further studied with regard to itspH dependency, regulation by oligomerization, etc. Whereas all the enzymes preferentially used UTP as nucleotide donor, they differed in their specificity for sugar-1-P. UGPases had high activity with D-Glc-1-P, but could also react with Frc-1-P, whereas USPase reacted with arange of sugar-1-phosphates, including D-Glc-1-P, D-Gal-1-P, D-GalA-1-P, β-L-Ara-1-P and α-D-Fuc-1-P. In contrast, UAGPase2 reacted only with D-GlcNAc-1-P, D-GalNAc-1-P and, to some extent, with D-Glc-1-P. A structure activity relationship was established to connect enzyme activity, the examined sugar-1-phosphates and the three pyrophosphorylases. The UGPase/USPase/UAGPase active sites were subsequently compared in an attempt to identify amino acids which may contribute to the experimentally determined differences in substrate specificities.

    The second part of the thesis deals with identification and characterization of inhibitors of the pyrophosphorylases and with studies on in vivo effects of those inhibitors in Arabidopsis-based systems. A novel luminescence-based high-throughput assay system was designed, which allowed for quantitative measurement of UGPase and USPase activities, down to a pmol per min level. The assay was then used to screen a chemical library (which contained 17,500 potential inhibitors) to identify several compounds affecting UGPase and USPase. Hit-optimization on one of the compounds revealed even stronger inhibitors of UGPase and USPase which also strongly inhibited Arabidopsis pollen germination, by disturbing UDP-sugar metabolism. The inhibitors may represent useful tools to study in vivo roles of the pyrophosphorylases, as a complement to previous genetics-based studies.

    The thesis also includes two review papers on mechanisms of synthesis of NDP-sugars. The first review covered the characterization of USPase from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, whereas the second review was a comprehensive survey of NDP-sugar producing enzymes (not only UDP-sugar producing and not only pyrophosphorylases). All these enzymes were discussed with respect to their substrate specificities and structural features (if known) and their proposed in vivo functions.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-19 09:00 Sal B, Unod T, 9tr, Umeå
    Hannuksela, Matias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections: studies on genotype and phenotype2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) have a genetic component with an estimated 20-25% of the patients having a positive family history. An aneurysm often precedes a dissection. Acute aortic dissections are associated with high mortality and morbidity, even when operated on. Complications due to prophylactic surgery are considerably fewer. Therefore, patients at risk for dissection should be identified, followed-up and evaluated for prophylactic intervention.

    Aims: 1. To establish reference values for ascending (AoA) and descending aortic (AoD) diameters measured by computed tomography. 2. To study the effectiveness of phenotypic cascade screening in families with an inherited form of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (FTAAD) and to address questions that arise when screening for a genetic disorder is applied. 3. To study the agreement of aortic diameters obtained by TTE and MRI and to study aortic stiffness in individuals from families with FTAAD. 4. To perform exome sequencing in order to identify pathogenic sequence variants causing FTAAD, to characterize the phenotype, and to compare thoracic aortic diameter and stiffness in mutation carriers and non-carriers.

    Results: Paper I: The diameter of the thoracic aorta increased by 0.17 mm (0.12 – 0.20 mm) per year. The mean sex-related difference in diameter was 1.99 mm (1.28 – 2.60 mm) with men having larger aortas than women. The mean difference in aortic diameter per unit BMI was 0.27 mm (0.14 – 0.44 mm). Upper normal limits for the AoA can be calculated by the formula D (mm)=31+0.16*age and for the AoD by D (mm)=21+0.16*age.

    Paper II: Of 106 individuals from families with FTAAD but without known thoracic aortic disease, 19 individuals (18%) were identified to have a dilated AoA. The expected number of individuals in this group with an autosomal dominant disease would have been 40 (p<0.0001). In first-degree relatives younger than 40, we found only one individual with a dilated aorta although the expected number of individuals with disease causing mutation would have been 10.

    Paper III: Of 116 individuals investigated, 21 were identified with thoracic aortic dilatation and 95 individuals with normal thoracic aortic diameter. Aortic stiffness increased with age and diameter. The individuals with aortic dilatation were older than those without (49 vs. 37 years, p=0.001) and showed lower aortic elastic properties. The diameters measured by TTE and MRI correlated strongly (r2=0.93). The mean difference in diameters between the two methods was 0.72 mm (95% CI 0.41-1.02) with TTE giving larger diameters than MRI.

    Paper IV: From exome sequencing and segregation analysis, a 2-bp deletion in the MYLK gene (c.3272_3273del) was identified to cause FTAAD. The age and the aortic diameter at dissection or rupture varied in the family members. We did not find any differences in aortic diameter, aortic stiffness, or pulse wave velocity between carriers and non-carriers.

    Conclusions: Thoracic aortic diameter increases with age, and sex and body size are also associated with the diameter. In FTAAD, screening identifies family members with a previously unknown aortic dilatation. However, a normal aortic diameter does not exclude an individual from being a carrier of FTAAD. TTE can be used in follow-up for the ascending aorta. Individuals identified to have a dilated thoracic aorta have increased aortic stiffness compared to individuals with normal thoracic aortic diameter. The MYLK mutation (c.3272_3273del) causes thoracic aortic dissections with variable clinical expression. No differences in aortic stiffness were identified between MYLK mutation carriers and non-carriers.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-19 09:00 E04, Biomedicinehuset, Umeå
    Huch, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Spatial control of mRNA stability in yeast2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The degradation of mRNA is an important modulator of gene expression and the ultimate fate of messenger mRNA. Important steps in the degradation of mRNA include initial shortening of its poly(A) tail followed by the subsequent removal of the m7G cap. These two processes are linked temporally as well as spatially. In addition to physical interactions between proteins involved in these two processes, deadenylation and decapping enzymes and accessory factors are found in P bodies. P bodies are aggregates of protein and mRNA that are induced upon stress in all eukaryotes examined. In this thesis, I examine the spatial localization of decapping factors and explore the role of P bodies in mRNA turnover in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

    This thesis is based on three underlying principles. First, mRNA decapping factors are membrane associated. More so, we show that decapping factors can be co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Second, although P bodies were proposed as sites of mRNA decay, we found that they stabilize mRNA. We examined the role of P bodies in mRNA turnover using a mutant defective in their assembly, edc3∆ lsm4∆C.  This strain is mutated in two decapping activators.  It combines a deletion of the gene encoding the Edc3 protein and lacks the prion-like domain of Lsm4. Using the edc3∆ lsm4∆C mutant, we demonstrate that mRNA stability is significantly reduced in the absence of P bodies for longer-lived mRNA. The effect of mRNA destabilization was due to increased deadenylation and decapping dependence. Finally, the decapping factor usually found in the cytoplasm, but accumulates in the nucleus in the P body deficient strain (edc3∆ lsm4∆C). This implies a possible role in modulating transcription.

    A model for the functioning of P bodies that is consistent with our work is that P bodies serve a role as a cytoplasmic sink for degradation factors. By regulating the access of the cytosol to proteins involved in mRNA turnover, P bodies can modulate mRNA stability. This suggests a role for P bodies under stress and their potential importance in stress adaptation.

  • Gidlöf, Zandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Coating of bioceramic microneedles2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ingerhage, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Honing in: A user interface concept for managing dynamicinformation flows2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As more intermittent, decentralized production and consumption sources are connected to power grids, new demands are put on operators in control rooms managing the grids. Managing the grids from a tele-operation perspective, operators are dependent on communication channels connecting them with the grids. As the information flows from communication channels are reflected by changes in the grid, they are getting more challenging to manage and be situation aware of. In this thesis, a user interface concept for communicating dynamic information flows in a situation awareness supportive way is developed and evaluated in terms of providing convenient pathways to information and supporting understanding of a situation. The concept was developed through an outsetting field study and a design process guided by design rationale. Findings indicate that the concept supports situation awareness in providing convenient pathways to information, and for supporting understanding of a situation both slight improvement and slight decline in situation awareness is seen. In conclusion, the concept provides a promising alternative in giving short cuts to information and in aggregation, but much less decisively, it also integrates information in a way that supports understanding of a situation.

  • Jalilvand, Nick
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Modersmål & studiehandledning2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har valt att skriva om ämnet modersmålsundervisning och dess betydelse för inlärning i övriga ämnen. Min tes är att modersmålsundervisningen är mycket betydelsefull för elevens inlärning även i övriga ämnen. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur elever och lärare upplever undervisningen och hur modersmåludervisning också kan hjälpa elever att utvecklas i andra skolämnen. Metoden som jag har valt är kvalitativa metoder med frågor till lärare och elever.

    Lärarnas åsikter när det gäller modersmålsundervisningen är nästan lika. Det är brist på adekvata arbetsplatser som är ett stort problem för modersmålslärarna, samt bristande kommunikation fr ån retorer eller klasslärare. Modersmålslärarnas roll och kompetens tas inte på allvar. Det finns en del klagomål hos modersmålslärarna. Eleverna åsikt om modersmåls undervisning är olika på grunds av deras bakgrund. 

  • Public defence: 2017-05-18 13:00 KB3A9, Umeå
    Sundell, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Novel resources enableing comparative regulomics in forest tree species2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic plants are the most abundant source of terrestrial biomass and are one of the potential sources of renewable energy that can replace the use of fossil fuels. For a country such as Sweden, where the forest industry accounts for 10% of the total export, there would be large economical benefits associated with increased biomass yield. The availability of research on wood development conducted in conifer tree species, which represent the majority of the forestry in Sweden, is limited and the majority of research has been conducted in model angiosperm species such as Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the large evolutionary distance between angiosperms and gymnosperms limits the possibility to identify orthologous genes and regulatory pathways by comparing sequence similarity alone. At such large evolutionary distances, the identification of gene similarity is, in most cases, not sufficient and additional information is required for functional annotation. In this thesis, two high-spatial resolution datasets profiling wood development were processed; one from the angiosperm tree Populus tremula and the other from the conifer species Picea abies. These datasets were each published together with a web resource including tools for the exploration of gene expression, co-expression and functional enrichment of gene sets. One developed resource allows interactive, comparative co-expression analysis between species to identify conserved and diverged co-expression modules. These tools make it possible to identifying conserved regulatory modules that can focus downstream research and provide biologists with a resource to identify regulatory genes for targeted trait improvement.

  • Johansson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Möller, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Effekter på talförståelighet som en följd av djup hjärnstimulering i caudala zona incerta vid Parkinsons sjukdom2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund. Parkinsons sjukdom (PS) behandlas bland annat med djup hjärnstimulering (DBS). Ett relativt outforskat område för stimulering är caudala zona incerta (cZi). Man har med denna metod sett förbättringar när det gäller rörelsehindrande symtom men viss försämring av talet har påvisats.

    Syfte. Denna studie syftade till att undersöka om cZi-DBS vid PS påverkar talförståeligheten samt om förståeligheten av talet påverkas vid tillagt bakgrundsljud.

    Metod. Talmaterial med lästa ord från 10 patienter med PS, pre- och postoperativt samlades in. Dessa ord spelades upp för 32 lyssnare från allmänheten som ortografiskt transkriberade dessa. På en del av talmaterialet lades ett bakgrundsljud till som kan liknas vid ett bibliotek. Lyssnarnas transkriptioner poängsattes och statistiska beräkningar genomfördes.

    Resultat. Totalpoängen var signifikant lägre med påslagen stimulering jämfört med avslagen stimulering, oavsett bakgrundsljud. I blocket utan bakgrundsljud fanns även signifikanta skillnader som visade lägre totalpoäng när stimuleringen var påslagen jämfört med innan operation. Resultaten var genomgående signifikant lägre vid tillagt bakgrundsljud jämfört med utan.

    Slutsatser. Det har skett en försämring av talförståelighet vid stimulering av cZi. Dessa fynd är värdefulla för all vårdpersonal som jobbar med personer som har PS och de som ska genomgå/har genomgått cZi-DBS. Det är viktigt att hitta en balans mellan förbättrad motorisk förmåga och försämrad talförståelighet för att varje individ ska uppnå en så bra livskvalitet som möjligt.

  • Kluczek, Michal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Transmitting large amount of data over high-latency satellite networks2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Satellite link is a type of an unreliable network that is vulnerable to interferences such as disruptive foreign signals on the same frequencies, weather conditions, area coverage but mainly the distance from a satellite dish to the satellite itself. Some infrastructures, such as cruise ships, strongly rely on satellite internet and in the same time their applications require reliable data exchange with the shore-side serves. The unstable connection between two end points result in data loss due to high latency which causes dropped packets drops. This paper proposes solutions on software level to these problems.

  • Lundberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Niemi, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Miljömedvetenhet och livsmedelsval: En kvantitativ studie om konsumenters miljömedvetenhet i förhållande till deras livsmedelsval2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background With the increasing amount of greenhouse gases in the world, consumers food choices becomes more important for the environmental sustainability.

    Objective The aim of this study is to examine how environmentally aware consumers consider themselves being in their food choices and then compare that with how they indicate that they eat. The aim is also to examine if there are any differences in food choices between different demographic groups.

    Method A web based survey was performed with 439 respondents who were recruited through a convenience sample. The data was analyzed and processed in IBM SPSS Statistics 24. Chi-square test was used to see if there were any differences between the variables. The significance level was set to p≤0,05.

    Results Most of the respondents did not make food choices that corresponded to their own perceived environmental awareness. Men ate more red meat than women, which also was the primary reason why men had less environmentally friendly food choices than women. The respondents considered it more important that food was organic and in the right season in the stores than in restaurants. There was no correlation between level of education and food choice.

    Conclusion Since the perceived environmental awareness of the participants are inconsistent with their food choices, it appears that a certain inconsistency exists. Red meat is consumed at higher levels by men which also has been demonstrated in other previous studies.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-17 09:00 N420, Umeå
    Skrypnychuk, Vasyl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Vertical charge transport in conjugated polymers2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers are novel organic electronic materials highly important for organic photovoltaic applications. Charge transport is one of the key properties which defines the performance of conjugated polymers in electronic devices.

    This work aims to explore the charge transport anisotropy in thin films of P3HT, one of the most common conjugated polymers. Using X-ray diffraction techniques and charge transport measurements, the relation between vertical charge transport through thin P3HT films and structure of the films was established.

    It was shown that particular orientations of crystalline domains of P3HT, namely face-on and chain-on, are beneficial for vertical charge transport. These orientations provide the efficient pathways for the charges to be transported vertically, either via π-π stacking interaction between the adjacent conjugated chains, or via the conjugated chain backbones. It was also demonstrated that particular orientations of crystallites are favourable for the formation of interconnected percolated pathways providing enhanced vertical charge transport across the film.

    Deposition of P3HT on most commonly used silicon substrates typically results in the formation of mostly edge-on orientation of crystallites which is unfavourable for vertical charge transport. Nanoimprint lithography was demonstrated as a powerful processing method for reorienting the edge-on crystalline domains of P3HT into chain-on (vertical) orientation. It is also shown that thin P3HT films with preferentially face-on orientations of crystallites can be deposited on graphene surface by spin coating.

    Using patterning of thin P3HT films by nanoimprint lithography, unprecedentedly high average vertical mobilities in the range of 3.1-10.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 were achieved in undoped P3HT.

    These results demonstrate that charge transport in thin films of a relatively simple and well-known conjugated polymer P3HT can be significantly improved using optimization of crystallinity,orientation of crystallites, polymer chain orientation and alignment in the films.

  • Dahlgren, K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Holzmann, M. J.
    Carlsson, A. C.
    Wandelld, P.
    Hasselstrom, J.
    Ruge, Toralph
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    The use of a Swedish telephone medical advice service by the elderly: a population-based study2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, no 1, 98-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present study aimed to describe contact made by the elderly to Sweden's nationwide medical helpline, Healthcare Guide 1177 by Phone (HGP). Other objectives were to study potential gender differences and the association between different HGP referral levels and acute visits to hospital-based emergency departments and acute visits to primary care centres. Design: De-identified data from recorded calls to HGP was extracted for analysis (n=7477 for the oldest age group). Information about acute visits to emergency departments and to primary care reception was extracted from the patient administration system.Setting: Vasterbotten County, Sweden.Subjects: Patients over 80 years.Main outcome measures: Calling and visiting frequencies for different age groups as well as reasons for contact and individual recommendations. Results: The utilisation rate of the telephone advice service for the oldest age group was high, with an incidence rate of 533 per 1000 person-years. Women had a 1.17 times higher incidence rate compared with men. The most common reason for contact was drug-related questions (17% of all contacts). Calls that were recommended to care by a medical specialist correlated with total emergency department visits (r=0.30, p<0.05) and calls that were given advice correlated with acute primary healthcare visits (r=0.38, p=0.005). Conclusion: The high utilisation of the telephone advice service by the elderly gives the telephone advice service a unique ability to function as a gatekeeper to further healthcare. Our data suggest that with the telephone advice service's present guidelines, a significant proportion of all calls are being directed to further medical help. The high frequency of drug-related questions raises concerns about the elderly's medication regimens.

  • Nylander, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology.
    Tunback, Petra
    Commentary on "Phimosis with Preputial Fissures as a Predictor of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Adults"2017In: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, ISSN 0001-5555, E-ISSN 1651-2057, Vol. 97, no 1, 145-145 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Wendt, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Att ställa ut folk: Rasbiologi på Stockholmsutställningen 19302017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lagerström, Marica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    En utställningssynopsis till Huggarepoken på Skogsmuseet i Lycksele2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sörlin Tegenfeldt, Angelica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Att inkludera de exkluderade: Den judiska representationens funktion på svenska museer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Goldberg, Emily L.
    et al.
    Asher, Jennifer L.
    Molony, Ryan D.
    Shaw, Albert C.
    Zeiss, Caroline J.
    Wang, Chao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Herzog, Raimund I.
    Iwasaki, Akiko
    Dixit, Vishwa Deep
    beta-Hydroxybutyrate deactivates Neutrophil NLRP3 inflammasome to relieve gout flares2017In: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 18, no 9, 2077-2087 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging and lipotoxicity are two major risk factors for gout that are linked by the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Neutrophil-mediated production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) drives gouty flares that cause joint destruction, intense pain, and fever. However, metabolites that impact neutrophil inflammasome remain unknown. Here, we identified that ketogenic diet (KD) increases beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and alleviates urate crystal-induced gout without impairing immune defense against bacterial infection. BHB inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome in S100A9 fibril-primed and urate crystal-activated macrophages, which serve to recruit inflammatory neutrophils in joints. Consistent with reduced gouty flares in rats fed a ketogenic diet, BHB blocked IL-1 beta in neutrophils in a NLRP3-dependent manner in mice and humans irrespective of age. Mechanistically, BHB inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome in neutrophils by reducing priming and assembly steps. Collectively, our studies show that BHB, a known alternate metabolic fuel, is also an anti-inflammatory molecule that may serve as a treatment for gout.

  • Dantoft, Thomas M.
    et al.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Engkilde, Kaare
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Lars I.
    Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, e013879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants. The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom=-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n=-butanol exposure.

    Design: Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure.

    Settings: Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper.

    Participants: 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls.

    Outcome measures: 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels.

    Results: MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls.

    Conclusions: MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the exposure.

  • Rurangirwa, Akashi Andrew
    et al.
    Mogren, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Ntaganira, Joseph
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda, its associated risk factors and relationship to ANC services attendance: a population-based study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 2, e013155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of four forms of intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Rwandan women, associated sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and relationship to antenatal care service usage.

    Design: This was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in the Northern province of Rwanda and in Kigali city. Participants and settings: A total of 921 women who gave birth within the past 13 months were included. Villages in the study area were selected using a multistage random sampling technique and community health workers helped in identifying eligible participants. Clinical psychologists, nurses or midwives carried out face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations.

    Results: The prevalence rates of physical, sexual, psychological violence and controlling behaviour during pregnancy were 10.2% (95% CI 8.3 to 12.2), 9.7% (95% CI 7.8 to 11.6), 17.0% (95% CI 14.6 to 19.4) and 20.0% (95% CI 17.4 to 22.6), respectively. Usage of antenatal care services was less common among women who reported controlling behaviour (OR) 1.93 (95% CI 1.34 to 2.79). No statistically significant associations between physical, psychological and sexual violence and antenatal care usage were found. Low socioeconomic status was associated with physical violence exposure (OR) 2.27 (95% CI 1.29 to 3.98). Also, young age, living in urban areas and poor social support were statistically significant in their associations with violence exposure during pregnancy.

    Conclusions: Intimate partner violence inquiry should be included in the standard antenatal care services package and professionals should be trained in giving support, advice and care to those exposed. Genderbased violence is criminalised behaviour in Rwanda; existing policies and laws must be followed and awareness raised in society for preventive purposes.

  • Karjala, Jaana
    et al.
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Inter-rater reliability between nurses for a new paediatric triage system based primarily on vital parameters: the Paediatric Triage Instrument (PETI)2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, e012748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The major paediatric triage systems are primarily based on flow charts involving signs and symptoms for orientation and subjective estimates of the patient's condition. In contrast, the 4-level Paediatric Triage Instrument (PETI) is primarily based on vital parameters and was developed exclusively for paediatric triage in patients with medical symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of this triage system in children when used by nurses.

    Methods: A design was employed in which triage was performed simultaneously and independently by a research nurse and an emergency department (ED) nurse using the PETI. All patients aged <= 12 years who presented at the ED with a medical symptom were considered eligible for participation.

    Results: The 89 participants exhibited a median age of 2 years and were triaged by 28 different nurses. The inter-rater reliability between nurses calculated with the quadratic-weighted kappa was 0.78 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.89); the linear-weighted kappa was 0.67 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.80) and the unweighted kappa was 0.59 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.73). For the patients aged <1, 1-3 and >3 years, the quadratic-weighted kappa values were 0.67 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.94), 0.86 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.97) and 0.73 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.97), respectively. The median triage duration was 6 min.

    Conclusions: The PETI exhibited substantial reliability when used in children aged <= 12 years and almost perfect reliability among children aged 1-3 years. Moreover, rapid application of the PETI was demonstrated. This study has some limitations, including sample size and generalisability, but the PETI exhibited promise regarding reliability, and the next step could be either a larger reliability study or a validation study.

  • Bergström, Magdalena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "I could've had a better life'': reflective life reviews told by late-middle-aged and older women and men with ongoing long-term alcohol problems2017In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 1, 6-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study accounts for how people aged 55-69 with ongoing long-term alcohol problems conceptualize past, present and future.

    Methods: A total of 19 interviews were performed, from which reflective life reviews were obtained and analyzed as narrative life accounts. Three structuring thematic traits were identified: resentment of life, acceptance of life and gratitude towards life.

    Results: The study shows how past, present and future intertwine into meaningful entities incorporating certain governing master narratives about recovery, familiar for example from expert discourse and the AA movement. When it comes to the theme of resentment, the participants articulated disappointment over what life had become and emphasized especially the missed work-related opportunities that the drinking had caused. In the theme of acceptance letting go of the past was viewed as important for creating a sober future. Within the dimension of gratitude the past was seen as a resource for self-development and future recovery.

    Conclusions: How long-term alcohol problems are conceptualized in the long view of a life narrative may have great implications for outlooks of a sober future. A closer look at the social and cultural material incorporated in the stories of this age group is an important task for future research.

  • Chatrin, Friman Brantvik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bullernivåer i förskola och skola i Nordmaling kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Noise levels in preschools and school in Nordmaling Municipality

     

    Abstract

    Noise is a problem that many people are affected by. This report analyses noise exposure levels at preschools and analyses if sound reducing measures made in a school has made any difference. The A-weighting equivalent sound level was measured using a Norsonic 102 digital sound level meter and the A-weighting min and max sound levels was measured using a Kimo GSH 8922 digital sound level meter. The noise level measurements were performed in Nordmaling, in the north of Sweden, inside four preschools in the activity room and in two different classrooms in the school. Measurements were made when the room was empty and then during playtime or class. Health risk issues associated with the exposure to high noise levels were investigated using a questionnaire. This report will answer to the following questions: What noise levels are the staff and children exposed to? What sound reducing measures are recommended for the preschools? Do the staff in the school experiencing any difference before and after sound reducing measures? The results showed that measured noise levels of the preschools were below the limit ​​for noise at a workplace. But if you ask the staff, no one experience their work environment as good or very good and 10 of 12 preschool departments experiencing health effects due to noise. Measures can be made in the form of noise reducing installations, but also changes in the organization. In the school, it was difficult to compare the before and after measurements when they were performed differently, but the staff are experiencing a positive difference.

  • Ekstrand, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Byström, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    “Man ska inte behöva skämmas när någon frågar var man jobbar”: En kvalitativ analys av populära IT-företagskommunikation på sociala medier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractAuthors​: Johan Byström and Jonathan Ekstrand.

    Advisor​: Jesper Enbom.

    Examinator​: Eric Carlsson.

    The purpose of this thesis is to increase our understanding about how some of the most popular tech business’ use the phenomenon employer branding to make their own company look more attractive towards future workers through their social media channels. But also, expand our knowledge when it comes down to what makes a company attractive among students who study information technology and data programs. This thesis consisted of two methods which were a semiotic image analysis and two qualitative interviews. The data from the semiotic analysis consists of nine different images from the selected companies and the qualitative interviews consists of two separate group interviews which concluded a total of nine students from Umeå university.

    The results showed us new insights on how successful companies operate on their social media channels Instagram and Facebook. We could also identify that each company had their own idea of strategic communication on their channels. But something mutual between all channels were that they published content which purpose was to please a wider audience rather than a small selected group of people.

    Through this study we landed in the conclusion that the three companies do not aim their communication directly towards the group of students we interviewed. However, you can see patterns of the phenomenon employer branding in the published content, which contributes to make the companies look attractive. The interviewed students meant that the work environment had to be inviting. They also explained that some of the most important things that they look for in a future workplace are; fellowship, common interests and personal development. If companies use social media their chance of attractiveness and good reputation increases, rather than being lost in the crowd if they are never seen.

    Keywords: ​Employer branding, identity, social identity, social media, consumption, attractiveness, IT, personal development, corporate culture, students, communication, semiotics

  • Sörstam, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Åkebo, Markus
    Kødder du med meg din drittsekk?: En diskursanalys av den svenska pressens texter om tv-serien Skam vintern 2016-20172017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine how the image of the TV series Skam was constructed in the Swedish press during the winter of 2016-2017, with a focus on how Skam’s importance for individuals and society was expressed in the texts. To analyze how the discourse of Skam was constructed in the Swedish press, a discourse theoretical perspective based on Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s discourse theory was used, along with various theories of the media, the audience's production of meaning and pleasure, realism and psychology of religion. Different discursive tools from Laclau and Mouffe’s conceptual world are put into practice during the analysis part. Metaphors are also used as a method to understand and analyze the material. 

    In the analysis of the media discourse of Skam, four main themes emerged in the analyzed texts; Realism, identification, moralism and Norway and the Norwegian language. The discourse of realism raised the question whether Skam is realistic or not, and whether it is possible to understand teenagers by watching the series. The discourse of identification included questions like; whether participants could identify with the characters and situations in Skam or not, often from a nostalgic point of view. The discourse of moralism focused much on the different characters in the series and how they acted, or were portrayed. Topics such as feminism and homosexuality were discussed, along with other things. The discourse of Norway and the Norwegian language was a lot about the Swedish relations with Norway and the Norwegian language spoken in Skam. The discourse was very homogenous and notably it concerned the phenomena that Swedes have begun to speak Norwegian, and Swedish people creates a closeness and understanding of Norway and the Norwegians through the tv-series. 

    Skam was also constructed as something sacred that brings people together, in discussions as well as in cultural identity. A great majority of the texts discussed however adults should watch the tv-series or not. 

  • Edler, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 461, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Guedes, Thais
    Zizka, Alexander
    Rosvall, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Antonelli, Alexandre
    Infomap Bioregions: Interactive Mapping of Biogeographical Regions from Species Distributions2017In: Systematic Biology, ISSN 1063-5157, E-ISSN 1076-836X, Vol. 66, no 2, 197-204 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogeographical regions (bioregions) reveal how different sets of species are spatially grouped and therefore are important units for conservation, historical biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Several methods have been developed to identify bioregions based on species distribution data rather than expert opinion. One approach successfully applies network theory to simplify and highlight the underlying structure in species distributions. However, this method lacks tools for simple and efficient analysis. Here, we present Infomap Bioregions, an interactive web application that inputs species distribution data and generates bioregion maps. Species distributions may be provided as georeferenced point occurrences or range maps, and can be of local, regional, or global scale. The application uses a novel adaptive resolution method to make best use of often incomplete species distribution data. The results can be downloaded as vector graphics, shapefiles, or in table format. We validate the tool by processing large data sets of publicly available species distribution data of the world's amphibians using species ranges, and mammals using point occurrences. We then calculate the fit between the inferred bioregions and WWF ecoregions. As examples of applications, researchers can reconstruct ancestral ranges in historical biogeography or identify indicator species for targeted conservation.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-15 09:00 MA121, Mit-huset, Umeå
    Piltti, Juha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Responses of fibroblasts and chondrosarcoma cells to mechanical and chemical stimuli2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Osteoarthritis is an inflammation-related disease that progressively destroys joint cartilage. This disease causes pain and stiffness of the joints, and at advanced stages, limitations to the movement or bending of injured joints. Therefore, it often restricts daily activities and the ability to work. Currently, there is no cure to prevent its progression, although certain damaged joints, such as fingers, knees and hips, can be treated with joint replacement surgeries. However, joint replacement surgeries of larger joints are very invasive operations and the joint replacements have a limited lifetime.

    Cell-based therapies could offer a way to treat cartilage injuries before the ultimate damage of osteoarthritis on articular cartilage. The development of novel treatments needs both a good knowledge of articular cartilage biology and tissue engineering methods. This thesis primarily investigates the effects of mechanical cyclic stretching, a 5% low oxygen atmosphere and the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, on protein responses in chondrocytic human chondrosarcoma (HCS-2/8) cells. Special focus is placed on Rho-kinase inhibition, relating to its potential to promote and support extracellular matrix production in cultured chondrocytes and its role in fibroblast cells as a part of direct chemical cellular differentiation. The means to enhance the production of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix is needed for cell-based tissue engineering applications, since cultured chondrocytes quickly lose their cartilage-specific phenotype.

    A mechanical 8% cyclic cell stretching at a 1 Hz frequency was used to model a stretching rhythm similar to walking. The cellular stretching relates to stresses, which are directed to chondrocytes during the mechanical load. The stretch induced changes in proteins related, e.g., to certain cytoskeletal proteins, but also in enzymes associated with protein synthesis, such as eukaryotic elongation factors 1-beta and 1-delta. Hypoxic conditions were used to model the oxygen tension present in healthy cartilage tissue. Long-term hypoxia changed relative amounts in a total of 44 proteins and induced gene expressions of aggrecan and type II collagen, in addition to chondrocyte differentiation markers S100A1 and S100B. A short-term inhibition of Rho-kinase failed to induce extracellular matrix production in fibroblasts or in HCS-2/8 cells, while its long-term exposure increased the expressions of chondrocyte-specific genes and differentiation markers, and also promoted the synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans by chondrocytic cells. Interestingly, Rho kinase inhibition under hypoxic conditions produced a more effective increase in chondrocyte-specific gene expression and synthesis of extracellular matrix components by HCS-2/8 cells. The treatment induced changes in the synthesis of 101 proteins and ELISA analysis revealed a sixfold higher secretion of type II collagen compared to control cells. The secretion of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was simultaneously increased by 65.8%. Thus, Rho-kinase inhibition at low oxygen tension can be regarded as a potential way to enhance extracellular matrix production and maintain a chondrocyte phenotype in cell-based tissue engineering applications.

  • Escamez, Sacha
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Tuominen, Hannele
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Contribution of cellular autolysis to tissular functions during plant development2017In: Current opinion in plant biology, ISSN 1369-5266, E-ISSN 1879-0356, Vol. 35, 124-130 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant development requires specific cells to be eliminated in a predictable and genetically regulated manner referred to as programmed cell death (PCD). However, the target cells do not merely die but they also undergo autolysis to degrade their cellular corpses. Recent progress in understanding developmental cell elimination suggests that distinct proteins execute PCD sensu stricto and autolysis. In addition, cell death alone and cell dismantlement can fulfill different functions. Hence, it appears biologically meaningful to distinguish between the modules of PCD and autolysis during plant development.

  • Ekbom, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    "Alla kan ju berätta": - en kvalitativ studie om bibliotekariers arbete med barns muntliga berättande2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka bibliotekariers upplevelser av att arbeta med barns muntliga berättande. Metoden som används är kvalitativa intervjuer, där sammanlagt sex bibliotekarier intervjuas. I analysen presenteras resultatet från informanterna i tre olika delar, upplevelser och erfarenheter av barns muntliga berättande, arbetssätt som fungerat särskilt bra och särskilda utmaningar för att arbeta med barns muntliga berättande. Utöver detta går analysen även in på specifika områden som pedagogiska svårigheter, svåra ämnen, samarbeten och skillnader mellan äldre och yngre barn. Uppsatsen förankras kontinuerligt i tidigare forskning och i slutsatsen konstateras att bibliotekarierna är positiva till att arbeta med barns muntliga berättande, men att det inte görs i särskilt hög grad. De anser att det är något som är värdefullt för barnen av flera skäl, men upplever också att det finns svårigheter att genomföra detta arbete, trots att det är en uttalad uppgift för folkbiblioteken. Förhoppningsvis kan uppsatsen vara ett bidrag till att öka kunskapen i arbetet med barns muntliga berättande på biblioteken.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 09:00 E04_R1, Umeå
    Sandén, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Efficacy and safety of warfarin treatment in venous thromboembolic disease2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    As a major cause of morbidity and mortality treatment of venous thromboembolism is important, with the correct use of anticoagulants it is possible to greatly reduce both mortality and morbidity. Warfarin is among the most widely used anticoagulants being effective in treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism with few negative side effects other than bleeding complications. With a narrow therapeutic window warfarin treatment requires constant monitoring and adjustments to stay effective without an increased bleeding risk.

    The aim of this thesis was to study the efficacy and safety of warfarin treatment in venous thromboembolic disease.

    Methods

    Using AuriculA, the Swedish national quality register for atrial fibrillation and anticoagulation, a cohort was created of patients registered with warfarin treatment during the study time January 1st 2006 to December 31th 2011, including all different indications for anticoagulation. In all four studies the study design was retrospective with information added to the cohort from the Swedish national patient register about background data and endpoints in form of bleeding complications in all studies and thromboembolic events in study 1 and 2. In study 3 and 4 information was added from the cause of death register about occurrence of death and in study 3 cause of death. In study 3, information from the prescribed drugs register about retrieved prescriptions of acetylsalicylic acid was added.

    Results

    In study 1 the mean TTR was found to be high both among patients managed at primary healthcare centres and specialised anticoagulation clinics at 79.6% and 75.7%. There was no significant difference in rate of bleeding between the two types of managing centres being 2.22 and 2.26 per 100 treatment years. In study 2 no reduction in complication rate with increasing centre TTR was seen for patients with atrial fibrillation with few centres having centre TTR below 70% (2.9%), in contrast to previous findings by Wan et al(1). For those with warfarin due to VTE where a larger proportion of the centres had centre TTR below 70% (9.1%) there was a reduction in complication rate with increasing centre TTR. Among the 13859 patients with treatment for VTE in study 3 age (HR 1.02, CI 95% 1.01-1.03), hypertension (HR 1.29, CI 95%1.02-1.64), Cardiac failure (HR 1.55, CI 95% 1.13-2.11), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 1.43, CI 95% 1.04- 1.96), alcohol abuse (HR 3.35, CI 95% 1.97-5.71), anaemia (HR 1.77, CI 95% 1.29-2.44) and a history of major bleeding (HR 1.75, CI 95% 1.27-2.42) increased the risk of bleeding during warfarin treatment. In study 4 both those with high iTTR and those with low INR variability had a low rate of bleedings at 1.27 (1.14-1.41) or 1.20 (0.94-1.21) per 100 treatment years compared to those with low iTTR and high INR variability having a rate of bleeding at 2.91 (2.61-3.21) or 2.61 (2.36-2.86) respectively. Those with the combination of both low iTTR and high INR variability had an increased risk of bleeding, hazard ratio HR 3.47 (CI 95 % 2.89-4.17). The quartile with both the lowest iTTR and the highest INR variability had an increased risk of bleeding with a hazard ratio 4.03 (3.20-5.08) and 3.80 (CI 95%, 3.01-4.79) compared to the quartile with the highest iTTR and lowest INR variability.

    Conclusion

    It is possible to achieve a safe warfarin treatment both in specialised anticoagulation centres and in primary health care. At initiation of treatment some of the patients at high risk of bleeding can be identified using knowledge about their background. With the use of quality indicators as TTR and INR variability during treatment those at high risk of complications can be identified and analysing treatment quality on centre level gives an opportunity to identify improvement areas among managing centres. With the addition of new treatment options warfarin can still be the most suitable option for some patients, being safe and effective when well managed.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 13:15 Hörsal C, Lindellhallen, Umeå
    Walther, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Till death do us part: a comparative study of government instability in 28 European democracies2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is rooted in the research tradition known as coalition politics, where governments, political parties and political institutions are the central focus. The main emphasis here is on government instability and the question of why governments in modern parliamentary democracies often come to an end before the next regular election. In five distinct but interrelated papers, the thesis explores the issue of early government termination and how it is affected by public support, economic developments and the functioning of the state apparatus. The studies included in this thesis generally take a quantitative approach and make use of a dataset that contains 640 governments in 29 European democracies. Their joint goal is to improve our understanding of when early termination happens by introducing and testing new explanatory factors as well as by improving how previously identified factors are modelled.

    The first paper focuses on Central and Eastern Europe. It shows that the stability of governments in that region is affected by slightly different factors than those that impact on governments in Western Europe. In particular, ideological factors and political institutions are found to be less important in Central and Eastern Europe while the formal power basis of the government and the country’s economic performance matter more. In the second paper, co-authored with Professor Torbjörn Bergman, the state is brought into government stability research. The paper shows that countries with a lower quality of governance and a less efficient public sector have less stable governments. This is mainly because government parties struggle to achieve their policy goals when the state apparatus is inefficient and corrupt.

    Paper 3, co-written with Associate Professor Johan Hellström, looks at how different types of governments respond to economic challenges. In particular, this paper demonstrates that the same changes in economic circumstances (e.g. increases in unemployment or inflation) have different effects on cabinet stability depending on which type of government is in charge. Single party governments are better equipped to deal with economic changes, because they are better positioned to devise new policy responses without having to compromise with other parties. Coalition governments, in contrast, become significantly more likely to terminate early when the economy takes a turn for the worse.

    Finally, over the course of two papers I first explore new techniques for analysing polling data and then use them to empirically test whether governments sometimes choose termination as a way to cope with bad poll numbers. Most of the existing techniques for pooling polls and forecasting elections were explicitly designed with two party systems in mind. In Paper 4, I test some of these techniques to determine their usefulness in complex, multiparty systems, and I develop some improvements that enable us to take advantage of more of the information in the data. In the final paper, I combine the two themes of polling and government stability by looking at how changes in government popularity affect the likelihood of premature dissolution. I find that governments, particularly single party governments, do, in fact, use terminations as a strategic response to changes in their popularity among the public. When support is high, governments tend to opportunistically call an early election, whereas they tend to abandon or reshuffle the government when support is low.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 09:00 KB.E3.01 Lilla Hörsalen, Umeå
    Jonna, Venkateswara Rao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Class I Ribonucleotide Reductases: overall activity regulation, oligomerization, and drug targeting2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is a key enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis and homeostatic maintenance of all four DNA building blocks by being able to make deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides. It is important for the cell to control the production of a balanced supply of the dNTPs to minimize misincorporations in DNA. Because RNR is the rate-limiting enzyme in DNA synthesis, it is an important target for antimicrobial and antiproliferative molecules. The enzyme RNR has one of the most sophisticated allosteric regulations known in Nature with four allosteric effectors (ATP, dATP, dGTP, and dTTP) and two allosteric sites. One of the sites (s-site) controls the substrate specificity of the enzyme, whereas the other one (a-site) regulates the overall activity.  The a-site binds either dATP, which inhibits the enzyme or ATP that activates the enzyme. In eukaryotes, ATP activation is directly through the a-site and in E. coli it is a cross-talk effect between the a and s-sites. It is important to study and get more knowledge about the overall activity regulation of RNR, both because it has an important physiological function, but also because it may provide important clues to the design of antibacterial and antiproliferative drugs, which can target RNR.

    Previous studies of class I RNRs, the class found in nearly all eukaryotes and many prokaryotes have revealed that the overall activity regulation is dependent on the formation of oligomeric complexes. The class I RNR consists of two subunits, a large α subunit, and a small β subunit. The oligomeric complexes vary between different species with the mammalian and yeast enzymes cycle between structurally different active and inactive α6β2 complexes, and the E. coli enzyme cycles between active α2β2 and inactive α4β4 complexes. Because RNR equilibrates between many different oligomeric forms that are not resolved by most conventional methods, we have used a technique termed gas-phase electrophoretic macromolecule analysis (GEMMA). In the present studies, our focus is on characterizing both prokaryotic and mammalian class I RNRs. In one of our projects, we have studied the class I RNR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and found that it represents a novel mechanism of overall activity allosteric regulation, which is different from the two known overall activity allosteric regulation found in E. coli and eukaryotic RNRs, respectively.  The structural differences between the bacterial and the eukaryote class I RNRs are interesting from a drug developmental viewpoint because they open up the possibility of finding inhibitors that selectively target the pathogens. The biochemical data that we have published in the above project was later supported by crystal structure and solution X-ray scattering data that we published together with Derek T. Logan`s research group.

    We have also studied the effect of a novel antiproliferative molecule, NSC73735, on the oligomerization of the human RNR large subunit. This collaborative research results showed that the molecule NSC73735 is the first reported non-nucleoside molecule which alters the oligomerization to inhibit human RNR and the molecule disrupts the cell cycle distribution in human leukemia cells.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 10:15 Hörsal B, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Skogsbruk och renskötsel på samma mark: En rättsvetenskaplig studie av äganderätten och renskötselrätten2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the northern parts of Sweden forestry and Sami reindeer herding are exercised on the same land and there is an ongoing land use dispute between the land users. Land ownership and reindeer herding rights, based on immemorial prescription and customary law, are parallel property rights to the same land. Studies have concluded that the legal framework does not sufficiently reflect the property rights perspective of the land use conflict. This study examines the legal framework that regulates the relationship between forestry and reindeer herding from a property rights perspective. Starting points of the study are basic aspects of property rights, such as the right to use, decide on and benefit economically from property and the legal protection required in relation to others. Comparisons are made with the legal frameworks that regulate other relationships within real estate law, including e.g. neighbors, easements, joint facilities and utility easement.

    The study concludes that the relationship between land ownership and reindeer herding rights can be understood only against the background of historical events such as colonization and demarcation. The rights are more independent of each other than other legal relations and can be compared to a double ownership. It is further concluded that the Forestry Act is based on the assumption that reindeer herding is primarily a public interest that needs protection. Land owners have a far-reaching right to use forests that causes damages to reindeer pasture lands that is not in accordance with the legal nature of the reindeer herding right. Further, central elements usually used to regulate property rights relations are missing, e.g. mutual consideration, damages and judicial review.

    The study also examines if the legal framework is in accordance with the constitutional protection of property in Chapter 2 Section 15 of the constitutional Instrument of Government and Article 1 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights. It is concluded that the legal framework has several deficiencies in this respect. Elements are discussed that can be implemented in law to appropriately reflect the property rights studied.

  • Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Constitution-building  bodies and the sequencing of public participation: a comparison of seven empirical cases2017In: Journal of Politics and Law, ISSN 1913-9047, E-ISSN 1913-9055, Vol. 10, no 3, 13-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constitution-building is one of the most salient aspects of transitional processes, from war to peace or from authoritarian rule, in terms of establishing and strengthening democracy. This paper is part of a research project that aims to identify the circumstances under which constitution-building can strengthen democracy after violent conflict and during transitions from authoritarian rule. Previous research has indicated that the actions and relations of political elites from opposing political parties when making the constitution has bearing on the state of democracy post promulgation, but that the careful sequencing of public participation in the process can be of relevance as well. This paper conducts a systematic analysis of seven empirical cases and focuses the investigation to the type of constitution-building body that has been employed and to during what stage of the process the general public have been invited to participate. It concludes that popularly elected constitution-building bodies tend to include a broad range of political parties and that they, additionally, tend to have rules of procedure that encourage compromise and negotiation, whereas appointed bodies are dominated by one single party or one single person and do not have rules of procedure that necessitate compromise. The paper also discusses the potential need for political elites to have negotiated a number of baseline constitutional principles prior to inviting the general public to get involved in the constitution-building process, and concludes that this is an area of research in need of further in-depth empirical case-studies.

  • Pettersson, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Microchip implants and you: A study of the public perceptions of microchip implants2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As technology advances with time, new devices are invented and old ones used in innovative ways. Microchips have been increasingly minimized to the point where they can now fit on a fingernail. When encased in a bio-friendly coating and equipped with the appropriate in- or output technology, new modes of natural digital interaction can be explored. This thesis studies how the general public perceives microchip implants as a digital interaction tool, as well as which features of microchip implants are important to them. Three different scenarios of implanted microchip use were created and used in eight semi-structured interviews. The results showed skepticism towards the technology due to worries about security and privacy, and a lack of knowledge of this technology. Benefits included keeping better track of health and making everyday actions easier, as well as excitement about this new technology. 

  • Ku, Dennis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Take a Paws: Using cute media to alleviate computer frustration2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Computers have become an indispensable resource in assisting us in our daily life. While they do a good job most of the time, sometimes they can create a seemingly endless nightmare. Horrible user interfaces, bugs, errors, hardware issues and other factors are various causes of user frustration. The current approach is to either prevent it from happening or to fix the issue after it has appeared. In this study, an alternative approach is explored which makes use of distraction through mood induction. By using cute images of infantile animals it was argued that this could alleviate computer frustration. For this study, 60 participants were used to test this theory by first doing a frustrating task and a consequent treatment or control exposure. Mood and frustration levels were collected throughout the test and later analyzed. Additionally, opinions and reactions were collected using a follow-up interview and observations. Findings suggest that looking at cute images helps alleviate frustration caused by computers.

  • Nygren, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kampen för religionsfrihet: Förbundet för religionsfrihet 1952-19682016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Tanentzap, Andrew J.
    et al.
    Kielstra, Brian W.
    Wilkinson, Grace M.
    Berggren, Martin
    Craig, Nicola
    del Giorgio, Paul A.
    Grey, Jonathan
    Gunn, John M.
    Jones, Stuart E.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Solomon, Christopher T.
    Pace, Michael L.
    Terrestrial support of lake food webs: Synthesis reveals controls over cross-ecosystem resource use2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 3, e1601765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread evidence that organic matter exported from terrestrial into aquatic ecosystems supports recipient food webs remains controversial. A pressing question is not only whether high terrestrial support is possible but also what the general conditions are under which it arises. We assemble the largest data set, to date, of the isotopic composition (delta H-2, delta C-13, and delta N-15) of lake zooplankton and the resources at the base of their associated food webs. In total, our data set spans 559 observations across 147 lakes from the boreal to subtropics. By predicting terrestrial resource support from within-lake and catchment-level characteristics, we found that half of all consumer observations that is, the median were composed of at least 42% terrestrially derived material. In general, terrestrial support of zooplankton was greatest in lakes with large physical and hydrological connections to catchments that were rich in aboveground and belowground organic matter. However, some consumers responded less strongly to terrestrial resources where within-lake production was elevated. Our study shows that multiple mechanisms drive widespread cross-ecosystem support of aquatic consumers across Northern Hemisphere lakes and suggests that changes in terrestrial landscapes will influence ecosystem processes well beyond their boundaries.

  • Lindh, Markus V.
    et al.
    Sjostedt, Johanna
    Ekstam, Borje
    Casini, Michele
    Lundin, Daniel
    Hugerth, Luisa W.
    Hu, Yue O. O.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Metapopulation theory identifies biogeographical patterns among core and satellite marine bacteria scaling from tens to thousands of kilometers2017In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 19, no 3, 1222-1236 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metapopulation theory developed in terrestrial ecology provides applicable frameworks for interpreting the role of local and regional processes in shaping species distribution patterns. Yet, empirical testing of metapopulation models on microbial communities is essentially lacking. We determined regional bacterioplankton dynamics from monthly transect sampling in the Baltic Sea Proper using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A strong positive trend was found between local relative abundance and occupancy of populations. Notably, the occupancy-frequency distributions were significantly bimodal with a satellite mode of rare endemic populations and a core mode of abundant cosmopolitan populations (e.g. Synechococcus, SAR11 and SAR86 clade members). Temporal changes in population distributions supported several theoretical frameworks. Still, bimodality was found among bacterioplankton communities across the entire Baltic Sea, and was also frequent in globally distributed datasets. Datasets spanning waters with widely different physicochemical characteristics or environmental gradients typically lacked significant bimodal patterns. When such datasets were divided into subsets with coherent environmental conditions, bimodal patterns emerged, highlighting the importance of positive feedbacks between local abundance and occupancy within specific biomes. Thus, metapopulation theory applied to microbial biogeography can provide novel insights into the mechanisms governing shifts in biodiversity resulting from natural or anthropogenically induced changes in the environment.

  • Fulton, Joel
    et al.
    Mazumder, Bismoy
    Whitchurch, Jonathan B.
    Monteiro, Cintia J.
    Collins, Hilary M.
    Chan, Chun M.
    Clemente, Maria P.
    Hernandez-Quiles, Miguel
    Stewart, Elizabeth A.
    Amoaku, Winfried M.
    Moran, Paula M.
    Mongan, Nigel P.
    Persson, Jenny L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Division of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ali, Simak
    Heery, David M.
    Heterodimers of photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor (PNR/NR2E3) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma) are disrupted by retinal disease-associated mutations2017In: Cell Death and Disease, ISSN 2041-4889, E-ISSN 2041-4889, Vol. 8, e2677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor (PNR/NR2E3) and Tailless homolog (TLX/NR2E1) are human orthologs of the NR2E group, a subgroup of phylogenetically related members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of transcription factors. We assessed the ability of these NRs to form heterodimers with other members of the human NRs representing all major subgroups. The TLX ligand-binding domain (LBD) did not appear to form homodimers or interact directly with any other NR tested. The PNR LBD was able to form homodimers, but also exhibited robust interactions with the LBDs of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma)/NR1C3 and thyroid hormone receptor b (TRb) TR beta/NR1A2. The binding of PNR to PPAR. was specific for this paralog, as no interaction was observed with the LBDs of PPAR alpha/NR1C1 or PPAR delta/NR1C2. In support of these findings, PPAR. and PNR were found to be co-expressed in human retinal tissue extracts and could be co-immunoprecipitated as a native complex. Selected sequence variants in the PNR LBD associated with human retinopathies, or a mutation in the dimerization region of PPAR. LBD associated with familial partial lipodystrophy type 3, were found to disrupt PNR/PPAR gamma complex formation. Wild-type PNR, but not a PNR309G mutant, was able to repress PPAR gamma-mediated transcription in reporter assays. In summary, our results reveal novel heterodimer interactions in the NR superfamily, suggesting previously unknown functional interactions of PNR with PPAR. and TR beta that have potential importance in retinal development and disease.

  • Hellström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Extra anpassningar: Har det påverkat pedagogernas sätt att arbeta?2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva och analysera ett antal pedagogers uppfattningar av begreppet extra anpassningar, hur de arbetar med extra anpassningar, samt hur det har påverkat deras arbete med att stödja elever i svårigheter på ett antal grundskolor i en mindre kommun i södra Norrland. Forskningsfrågorna lyder: Hur identifieras elevernas behov av stödinsatser? Hur tolkas begreppet extra anpassningar av pedagogerna? Hur arbetar pedagogerna kring extra anpassningar och hur följs insatserna upp? Den metod som använts i studien är kvalitativa intervjuer som genomfördes med nio klasslärare och tre specialpedagoger på fyra olika grundskolor i den valda kommunen. Resultatet visade att alla intervjuade pedagoger var medvetna om begreppet extra anpassningar, men uttrycker en osäkerhet i skillnaden mellan de olika begreppen extra anpassningar och särskilt stöd som förekommer i de allmänna råden. Dock framkommer att klasslärarna ger uttryck för att det är något de alltid har gjort, men inte uppmärksammat på det sätt som Skolverket (2014a) belyser i de allmänna råden. Studien visar att om lärare ska kunna inkludera alla elever med hjälp av stödinsatser såsom extra anpassningar, är det viktigt, att de får stöd i det arbetet, både från ledning och med stöd av resultat från forskning i det specialpedagogiska fältet i form av ökade kunskaper och verktyg som kan användas i undervisningen, samt att rutiner fastställs för hur detta arbete ska genomföras.

  • Rehnman, Bernice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kämpa eller ge upp?: En studie om attityder till lärande hos gymnasieelever som får stödinsatser2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Myhr, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    "Hvis du undrer så har jeg endret språket på telefonen!": En netnografisk studie om Skams fandom på Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine how Swedish fans of the TV-series Skam use the Facebook group Kosegruppa Sverige in order to construct and maintain a fandom, and how fan practices can contribute in creating identity among the members of the group. Theories related to fan research, discourse psychology and intersectionality were applied, as well as a brief overview of earlier research results related to these areas. By using a netnographic approach combined with a discourse analyses, posts made by fans on Kosegruppa Sverige during December 2016 were examined and analyzed.

    Three main fan practices were found to be used in constructing fandom in the group; fans made their own material such as edits, videos and attire that had a connection to the narrative, they acted out on their fandom both by adapting their language and looks, and finally by buying and selling merchandise and thus collecting things related to the series. Identity was created through intersectional perspectives of gender, sexuality and age. Finally, the study concluded that fandom could be seen as an integral tool within media production, which blurs the line between producers and consumers. 

  • Farrokhi, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Barn i kris: Specialpedagogers tankar om bemötande av och arbete med barn i kris2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att utvinna kunskap ur åtta specialpedagogers berättelser om deras arbete med barn i kris. Studien bygger på en kvalitativ metod genom semistrukturerade intervjuer och en tematisk innehållsanalys. Bakgrunden presenterar en genomgång av lagar och styrdokument som påverkar arbetet med barn i kris, tidigare forskning om arbete med barn i kris samt en genomgång av specialpedagogiska perspektiven som utgör studiens teoretiska grund. Resultatet uppvisar att arbete med barn i kris i skolan är krävande och bygger på en organisation som sluter upp kring barnet. Det stöd som behövs ska ges genom anpassning av lärmiljön, till personen som jobbar närmast barnet och från de professionella i elevhälsan för att kunna skapa en gynnsam miljö för en optimal återhämtningsprocess. Resultatet visar även på brister inom de organisatoriska förutsättningarna för att kunna arbeta optimalt med barn i kris. Resursbristerna pekas ut som de största orsakerna till svårigheterna. I resultatanalysen åskådliggörs att specialpedagogernas tankar kring arbetet med barn i kris följer tidigare forskning, lagar och styrdokumentens skrivelser. Det tydliggörs även att specialpedagogerna över lag har svårigheter att genomföra de optimala åtgärderna trots de kunskaper de besitter. Avslutningsvis diskuteras slutsatserna av studien, där det framgår att barn i kris och barn i dolda kriser löper en stor risk att få ökad psykisk ohälsa. Slutsatser som dras är att proaktivt arbete behöver aktualiseras i skolans grundläggande arbete, där framförallt barns mående, relationer och grupprocesser måste vara i fokus.

  • Brännvall, Maria-Sofia Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Morin Johansson, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Är specialpedagogen på väg att reformeras bort?: Skolpolitiska reformers potentiella inverkan på specialpedagogprofessionen.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande uppsats ville vi fokusera på den styrning vi i dag ser och hur den i olika grad påverkar specialpedagogens yrkesroll. Diskussionen om lärarna som professionella har betonats i takt med att styrningen av skolan har förändradrats och decentraliserats till att bli den mål- och resultatstyrda skola vi har i dag med ett kommunalt huvudmannaskap. Syftet formulerades som så att beskriva och analysera ett antal skolpolitiska reformer och deras potentiella inverkan på specialpedagogprofessionen. Vi utgick ifrån professionsteori som ett teoretiskt ramverk som hjälpte oss att expandera förståelsen för studiens resultat. Med hjälp av styrdokument, forskning inom området samt intervjuer med specialpedagoger skulle studien besvara följande frågeställningar. Vad har specialpedagoger för tankar, erfarenheter och idéer gällande sin profession? Vad har specialpedagoger för tankar, erfarenheter och idéer om professionen i förhållande till de senaste reformerna på området? Vilka faktorer påverkar specialpedagogens profession? Specialpedagogerna i studien har alla ett specialpedagogiskt perspektiv där de ser på skolan utifrån tre olika nivåer; organisation-, grupp- och individ. Vi fann att ändringarna i lagen gällande extra anpassningar och särskilt stöd samt förstelärarreformen har inverkat på professionen och i och med delvis detta kom vi fram till fem faktorer som påverkar specialpedagogprofessionen. Forskning om och utvärdering av implementering av reformer och utfallet av dem kan vara ett sätt att förhoppningsvis stärka professionerna i vårt ovanifrån styrda utbildningsväsende.

  • Spruyt, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Gamified Individual Brainstorming: Reaching for the stars2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ideation is a critical step in the creation of new solutions to problems. Brainstorming, being the most commonly known ideation method, is mostly done in groups. However, research points out that brainstorming individually is more effective than brainstorming in groups. This paper investigates if negative aspects (reduced enjoyment, motivation and self-rated performance) associated with brainstorming alone can be overcome by using a gamified approach to brainstorming. Gamified and non-gamified prototypes have been made and used in combination with a questionnaire to measure differences in these negative aspects. From the within-subject study including 20 participants, it appears that the implemented gamification approach was not different from the non-gamified approach for most of the negative aspects. Self-rated performance was however significantly higher in the non-gamified version. Using the gamified or non-gamified approach seems to largely come down to the preference of the user.