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  • Public defence: 2019-05-17 10:00 KB.E3.03, Umeå
    Skotare, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Multivariate integration and visualization of multiblock data in chemical and biological applications2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thanks to improvements in technology more data than ever before is generated in almost all fields of science and industry.

    The data is analyzed to hopefully provide valuable information and knowledge about a product or process, such as how to improve the quality of a manufactured product.

    Analysis of collected data is often performed on a single dataset or data source at a time. In this thesis, I have focused on multiblock analysis, a concept that includes multiple sources or data blocks.  Analogous to how the human senses combine to let us experience the world around us, multiblock analysis integrates multiple data sources, providing a fuller examination of the product or process under study.

    My thesis introduces Joint and Unique Multiblock Analysis, JUMBA, a complete analysis workflow for data integration. I describe each step of JUMBA, including data pre-treatment, model building and validation as well as model interpretation. Special focus is put on several newly developed visualizations for model validation and interpretation to make it as easy as possible to draw conclusions from the analysis.


    By reading my thesis, the reader will gain a working understanding of the process of performing multiblock analysis, including solutions to common problems that are often encountered.

  • Holmkvist, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lärares förståelse av PTSD bland vuxna elever med flyktingbakgrund: - en kvalitativ intervjuundersökning ur pedagogers perspektiv2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many refugees and asylum-seekers have been exposed to traumatic events prior to resettlement. This study examines Swedish language teachers’ understandings of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult refugee students who need to learn the societal language to restart their lives. Using focus groups, teachers discussed their understandings of PTSD, how it manifests itself in the classroom, and how they have changed their teaching to accommodate refugee students with PTSD. The focus group discussions revealed that many teachers were unsure how PTSD manifests, and that they felt insecure in their teaching approaches. Nevertheless, the teachers worked hard to provide a safe place for all students to learn and applied teaching and learning approaches they felt were appropriate for adult learners. These results suggest that teachers’ self-confidence in their abilities to support adult refugee students could be increased through formal training on PTSD.

  • Drake, Samielle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Determinants of Regional Unemployment Rate Differentials: An Empirical Analysis of Swedish Municipalities 2008-20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker faktorer som skulle kunna förklara de regionala skillnaderna i arbetslösheten mellan Sveriges kommuner under perioden 2008 till 2017. Uppsatsen avser även att undersöka huruvida det finns någon skillnad i relationen mellan arbetslösheten och de förklarande variablerna när individer som deltar i arbetsmarknadsprogram exkluderas ur arbetslöshetsnivån. Inrikes inflyttningsöverskott, andel utrikesfödda, skattenivå och utbildningsnivå är några faktorer vars påverkan på arbetslösheten som kommer undersökas. Uppsatsen behandlar ett datamaterial som omfattar samtliga 290 kommuner under en 10 årsperiod. Genom paneldataanalys tas hänsyn till både tidsspecifika och entitetspecifika egenskaper i datamaterialet.

    Resultaten visar att det finns stora skillnader i både öppen arbetslöshet och total arbetslöshet mellan Sveriges kommuner under den undersökta perioden. Det finns därtill även stora skillnader mellan olika grupper av kommuner, som visar att det är möjligt att en ekonomisk policy skulle kunna ge större effekt i vissa regioner än i andra.

    Resultaten visar vidare att effekten av en förändring i de förklarande variablerna påverkar arbetslösheten i samma riktning för både definitionerna.

  • Söderberg, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Lindström, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    "Med chanser för lite guldregn": En studie om spelbolags gestaltning av spel om pengar med hjälp av celebriteter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this essay was to study the relationship between gambling companies marketing through a celebrity and the ways gambling is portrayed in commercials. We combined a multimodal analysis with semiotic elements and a group interview in order to explain and get an understanding of gambling companies ways to market their services. The theories used were McCracken’s Meaning transfer model which tells us about the importance of a good relationship between celebrities and gambling companies. The theory Brand identity by Lynn B. Uppshaw, which tells us about how companies brands can be seen from different perspectives. Stuart Hall’s communication model Encoding/Decoding were applied to increase the understanding of how recipients decode messages and these all three theories combined with the method helped to answer our focusing questions.


    The empirical material is based on different gambling companies TV commercials where celebrities participate and the interview responses from the participants in the group interviews. The study started with a short overview of nine gambling commercials that together with the depth-analysis of three focus commercials gave us the result that gambling is mostly incoherent. The interviews showed us that recipients of gambling commercials do not see the message as appealing. These two findings led us to the conclusion that the message won’t be appreciated if celebrities do not have a strong connection to the companies products or services. Interestingly enough, the same results where seen when there was a strong connection between the company and the celebrity: the message still appeared false and intrusive. This is because the recipients are aware of what the backdrop is with the advertisements and how it can affect their consumption process and the fact that consumers are becoming increasingly critical of gambling advertising in a media landscape where advertising is constantly exposed.

  • Hörnström, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Ekman, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Vart leder högre studier i medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Umea university Faculty of humanities offers programs, courses, cross-disciplinary educations and post graduate studies. The university mentions on their website that newly graduated students rapidly establish themself in the labour market. Meanwhile a survey made by statistics Sweden (Statistiska centralbyrån) shows that graduates in humanities i general and graduates in journalism and media particularly experiences the longest gap between graduation and permanent employment. The labor market of media and communications branches off in a variety of businesses and the ever so fast development of technologies has created an evenly fast developing anticipation in the employees. The purpose of this study is to use the program of media- och communication in Umea university as case, and study the graduates entrance in the labour market. Furthermore the purpose is to build understandings for how the graduates value the expertise they have acquired and how this is to be understood in relation to the development of the industry. The study is based on an online survey in which 11 years of graduates answers 11 questions. In total 104 respondents answered the survey and the main conclusions interrelates to theories of the implications of competences, and how the information society has restructured the circumstances of the labour market. The main conclusions summarizes that the graduates rapidly establishes themself in the labour market, an that even though 50% of the graduates has chosen to complement their studies they generally experience satisfaction with the choice of subject. Furthermore the results shows that the workers assignments has changed over time, however only in some areas.

  • Sjöberg, Kristopher
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Furberg, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Kvinnorna som streamar: En jämförelse av genusrepresentationen på Twitch2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine female Twitch streamers and compare the gaming- discourse in Swedish and English language environments from a gender perspective. Twitch as a platform for gamers and streamers has grown to be one of the largest online gaming communities in the world. Earlier studies focused on gender and sexual harassment have shown that sexism is a regular phenomenon in the world of gaming, although little research has been done comparing gaming discourses based on the language. The empirics are based on three Swedish-speaking female streamers and three English-speaking, who all stream full time, meaning that they get their income from their streaming activities. Methods used in the study were a multimodal analysis combined with a critical discourse analysis. The results of the study show that women tend to be dominated by men in the gaming discourse’s power relations. Sexism also occurred frequently both in the Swedish-speaking gaming discourse as well as in the English-speaking, although the sexism in the Swedish-speaking discourse was milder than in the English-speaking one.

  • Brännström, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Larsson Westin, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Är SJ på rätt spår?: En kvalitativ studie om SJs normkritiska reklamkampanj och hur den tas emot av två generationer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For companies and organizations there's an ongoing battle to maintain reputation, by actively

    taking a stance in the public debate companies and organizations maintain their position on

    the market. SJ, Statens Järnvägar, is a Swedish train operating company owned by the

    Swedish state. In 2017 SJ released the first commercial from their advertising campaign

    ‘Vem du än är, vart du än ska’ that portray norm-breaking people on their rail travel. The

    purpose of this essay is to analyze, on the basis of three commercials that are part of SJ's

    advertising campaign ‘Vem du än är, vart du än ska’ how norms are maintained and

    challenged through the campaign. The study also aims to investigate how the commercials

    are being received among younger (22-25 years) and older (58-72 years) age groups, with

    particular focus on the group's perception of the campaign in relation to norms and corporate

    responsibility in society.

    Using tools based in the multimodal analysis we analyzed the commercials and through focus

    group interviews we gathered thoughts about the commercials from the older and the younger

    age groups. The theoretical framework based on representation, stereotypes, myths, norms

    and Corporate Social Responsibility has helped us analyze the commercials and distinguish

    the respondents thoughts about norms and corporate responsibility.

    The analysis showed that the respondents understood the message that everyone is welcome

    to travel with SJ, but they thought the shape of the commercials were weak. Although SJ

    wants to break norms and stereotypes, we could see that they consolidate certain stereotypes.

    The respondents stated that they saw a ‘designation’ and meant that by allowing a person to

    represent a whole group, others within the group may feel designated. The two age groups

    had similar opinions and we could not determine any major difference based on age. The two

    age groups did however differ in which subject they discussed most. All respondents

    expressed how important it was that everyone got a place in the media and that companies

    have a great responsibility over our social development.

  • Blomqvist, Lovisa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nyström, Maia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Äventyr och vänner: En undersökning av Facebookgruppen On Edge - En mötesplats för tjejer som söker äventyr2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to investigate how a functional and committed online community was established. We have analyzed a Facebook group named "On Edge - a community for girls who seeks adventures" to explore how On Edge is communicating to create dedication and identification amongst its members in their online community. The study has combined theories such as social identity theory, prosumption, participatory culture and mediatization theory. We have used a multimodal analysis to analyze the administrators and the members posts on Facebook, an online survey for On Edge’s members to answer and an interview with the founder of the community, Ebba Cronqvist. The result of the multimodal analysis showed that On Edge uses text and images to create a united language within the group that leads to dedication and identification to the community. The survey showed that most of the members felt a need of a place where adventurous women could meet other women who are alike. They help each other because of the friendly atmosphere and by the meaningful exchange of thoughts and minds. We also found that there are some fundamental forces that shapes On Edge to such a well working community: the group is driven by a strong “why”, and by using a language appropriate for the target group together with images, it creates a friendly atmosphere amongst the members in the group.

  • Sofie, Keijser
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Linnea, Koistinen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Hur unga söker medicinsk information online: En kvantitativ studie om studenters förhållningssätt till medicinsk informationssökning på internet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the amount of online medical information sources in Swedish is steadily increasing. The information is convenient and always at hand. People who turn to Google and other search engines are, however, not always knowledgeable about how to identify trustworthy information, or how search algorithms work. The main purpose of this study is to :ind out how Swedish students in the ages of 18-35 search for medical information online. One aspect of this is to gain a better understanding of how they navigate the internet, and how they prioritize and value different information sources. We also look at what sources they turn to for medical information and whether source credibility is crucial in their choices.

    Our study is based on an online survey at Umeå University. The survey was conducted among eight different study programs with students in the ages of 18-35. In total, we received 305 responses, of which 163 (53,4%) were women, 139 (45,6%) were men, and 1% de:ined as others.

    The main conclusion of this study is that the target group is most likely to turn to information sites provided by authorities. These sites are considered to be the most trustworthy. The study also showed that the target group was well aware of Sweden’s biggest online doctors, Kry in particular, and rated them as trustworthy as well. The target group would, however, not turn to these sites for medical information. We can also notice that the target group consider themselves to be critical of information online and good at evaluating source credibility. 

  • Olofsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Westring, Elias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    "Vi ska fucking regera" - En multimodal kritisk diskursanalys av Paradise Hotel säsongerna 2010 & 20182019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine if we can identify any differences how the reality show Paradise hotel highlights gender in the seasons 2010 and 2018. This is achieved through the participant’s interactions and the producer’s role in this representation.

    To make our arguments valid in the results and analysis, we will support our claims to theories related to gender, sexuality and communication. In the theory and previous research section we describe how these theories work and how these elements play an essential role for our study. The material for this study is a strategic selection of two episodes from the season 2018 and four episodes from the season 2018. The method of this research is a qualitative study. In this section we describe its advantages and disadvantages related to our study and why it has been chosen. In the analysis and result section we categorize characteristic scenes to illustrate what we have seen and how we interpret these themes linked to essential theories and former research. Further on, we illustrate the differences between the seasons and highlights the most significant results in the discussion section.

    The result of this study expose that Paradise Hotel have significant differences of how the female participants are represented in the introductions of the seasons 2010 and 2018. We can identify a typical representation of a female in 2010 and a more powerful and confident woman in 2018. Further on, the production in the latest season are consciously giving the power of the game in the female’s hands. The men in this season are represented as stereotypes (romantics, badboys and sports-beasts). The male competitors, in both seasons, have a tendency to be represented as sexual and powerful in the introduction. On the other hand, we cannot perceive that the men in the 2010 season appear this way later on in the program. The woman in the same season, didn’t particularly need to appear in line with their introduction either. The latest season depicted a more vulgar approach to sex. Furthermore, we couldn’t see a difference how the sexes talked about sex. The sexuality in this season could also be recognized as more floating and norm-breaking.

    Keywords: Paradise Hotel, femininity, masculinity, gender, stereotypes, power, media category and framing 

  • Hägglund, Melina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Come Get Your Honey: Hur spelet Red Bull Secret Gig användes i praktiken.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyze how the mobile augmented reality game Red Bull Secret Gig was made in practise by its users. Red Bull Secret Gig was a game that was a part of the release of Swedish pop star Robyns new album. The prize of the game was two tickets to a secret show with the pop star. Interviews, group interviews walkthroughs of the game written by its creators and posts published in the official Facebook group for the game has been used as a material base for analyzing Red Bull Secret Gig. The theoretical framework for this study consists of communication theories such as Stuart Hall’s Encoding/Decoding, Henry Jenkins theories about convergence culture, participatory culture, astroturfing, engaging as labor and collective intelligence and also theories about gamification and motivation. Findings include elements of the game being designed to be motivational for its users, how users came together to figure out how to gain points in the game, users bad experiences of the game, Red Bulls presence in the game,  how users different economic and social situations could affect their progress in the game and the price of the prize. Conclusions of this study includes the official Facebook group being dependent on users engagement, users feelings and opinions about Red Bulls presence being split and users perception of the ticket being for free.

  • Kohler, Timothy A.
    et al.
    Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, USA.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kintigh, K. W.
    School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.
    Bocinsky, R. K.
    Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, Cortez, USA; Montana Climate Office, University of Montana, Missoula, USA; Division of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, USA.
    Brin, A.
    Center for Digital Antiquity, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.
    Gillreath-Brown, A.
    Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, USA.
    Ludäscher, B.
    School of Information Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA; National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.
    McPhillips, T. M.
    School of Information Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.
    Opitz, R.
    School of Humanities, University of Glasgow, UK.
    Terstriep, J.
    National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.
    Paleodata for and from archaeology2018In: PAGES Magazine, ISSN 2411-9180, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 68-69Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Archaeology depends on, and generates, proxy paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental data. We review various initiatives, most quite recent, by which archaeologists seek to make these data more readily discoverable and useful, to facilitate the cumulation of research.

  • Francis, Matthew S
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Auerbuch, Victoria
    Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, United States.
    Editorial: The Pathogenic Yersiniae–Advances in the Understanding of Physiology and Virulence, Second Edition2019In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 9, p. 1-5, article id 119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Of the 18 known Yersinia species, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica are pathogenic to humans and animals and are widely characterized. The zoonotic obligate pathogen Y. pestis is the causal agent of plague, a systemic disease that is usually fatal if left untreated (Zietz and Dunkelberg, 2004; Zhou et al., 2006). Free-living Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are the agents of yersiniosis, a rarely systemic gastrointestinal disease (Galindo et al., 2011). The remaining species are mostly harmless to humans, although Y. ruckeri is an enteric fish pathogen affecting mainly salmonids, while a few others display toxicity toward insects (Sulakvelidze, 2000; Tobback et al., 2007; Fuchs et al., 2008; Chen et al., 2010). At the forefront of Yersinia research are studies of classical microbiology, pathogenesis, protein secretion, niche adaptation, and regulation of gene expression. In pursuit of these endeavors, new frontiers are being forged on waves of methodological and technological innovation. In this second edition of the special research topic on the pathogenic Yersiniae is a compilation of reviews and research articles that summarize current knowledge and future research directions in the Yersinia pathophysiology field.

  • Isaksson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Rätten till utbildning för unionsmedborgare i Sverige.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Jelinek Boman, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Sexuellt självskade beteende inom svensk straffrätt - En analys av betydelsen av målsägandens sexuella självskade beteende vid rättstillämpningen.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Höglund, William
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Exporting data protection law. The extraterritorial reach of the GDPR.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hagman, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Bostrom, D.
    Lundberg, Mats
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Alloy degradation in a co-firing biomass CFB vortex finder application at 880 degrees C2019In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 150, p. 136-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanisms of alloy degradation in a fireside N-S-O-C-H-Cl-Na-K atmosphere at 880 degrees C were elucidated using SEM-EDS, chemical equilibrium calculations, and XRD. Alloys 310S, 800H/HT, and 600 were studied after 0, 8000, and 16,000 h exposure in a boiler co-firing biomass waste. For 310S and 800H/HT it was shown that nitrogen formed internal Cr nitrides lowering the Cr activity and inhibiting internal alloy Cr permeation, and that NaCl and Na2SO4 reacted with Cr oxide to form chromate and to accelerate the S and the Cl pickup. Alloy 600 showed no nitride or major chromate formation.

  • Nilsson, Per A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Life satisfaction among inbound university students in northern Sweden2019In: Fennia, E-ISSN 1798-5617, Vol. 197, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Will life satisfaction among international students change after having an experience of studying abroad? Some previous studies indicate inequalities and issues of social mobility embedded in international student mobility. International student mobility implies physical movement and new experiences gained while studying abroad. The ubiquity of international students and their generally successful adaptation makes it necessary to understand how they manage to turn a seemingly difficult situation into satisfying adaptation. One area of such concern that this study sought to explore was the students’ level of satisfaction with life. This study investigated the self-reported life satisfaction of inbound university students upon arrival to a university in northern Sweden and at follow-up six months later. After the study period abroad, the students’ levels of perceived satisfaction with their somatic health and activities of daily living had significantly increased. Higher levels, while non-significant, were found for the domains life as a whole, study situation and economy. These findings may indicate that studying abroad could have an impact on students’ reported life satisfaction, which highlights the value of a period of studying abroad. However, when exploring life satisfaction outcomes among internationally mobile students, it seems pertinent to study student mobility within a context. This study mostly targets international student mobility in a Western/European contex

  • Hetta, Max
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Upplysningspliktens ekonomi.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Harris, Sansha J.
    et al.
    Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D. E.
    Gee, Melanie
    Hampshaw, Susan M.
    Lindgren, Lenita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Haywood, Annette
    Interpersonal touch interventions for patients in intensive care: A design-oriented realist review2019In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 216-235Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To develop a theoretical framework to inform the design of interpersonal touch interventions intended to reduce stress in adult intensive care unit patients.

    Design: Realist review with an intervention design-oriented approach.

    Methods: We searched CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science and grey literature sources without date restrictions. Subject experts suggested additional articles. Evidence synthesis drew on diverse sources of literature and was conducted iteratively with theory testing. We consulted stakeholders to focus the review. We performed systematic searches to corroborate our developing theoretical framework.

    Results: We present a theoretical framework based around six intervention construction principles. Theory testing provided some evidence in favour of treatment repetition, dynamic over static touch and lightening sedation. A lack of empirical evidence was identified for construction principles relating to intensity and positive/negative evaluation of emotional experience, moderate pressure touch for sedated patients and intervention delivery by relatives versus healthcare practitioners.

  • Holmgren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Sexualbrottslagstiftningen byggd på frivillighet. Ett studium över samtyckesdebatten och hur den korresponderar med den dömande verksamheten.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lovvik, Tone S.
    et al.
    Carlsen, Sven M.
    Salvesen, Oyvind
    Steffensen, Berglind
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Gomez-Real, Francisco
    Lennebotn, Marianne
    Hestvold, Kristin, V
    Zabielska, Renata
    Hirschberg, Angelica L.
    Trouva, Anastasia
    Thorarinsdottir, Solveig
    Hjelle, Sissel
    Berg, Ann Hilde
    Andrae, Frida
    Poromaa, Inger S.
    Molin, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Underdal, Maria
    Vanky, Eszter
    Use of metformin to treat pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PregMet2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial2019In: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, ISSN 2213-8587, E-ISSN 2213-8595, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 256-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of pregnancy complications. Epi-analysis of two previous randomised controlled trials that compared metformin with placebo during pregnancy in women with PCOS showed a significant reduction in late miscarriages and preterm births in the metformin group. The aim of this third randomised trial (PregMet2) was to test the hypothesis that metformin prevents late miscarriage and preterm birth in women with PCOS.

    Methods: PregMet2 was a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre trial done at 14 hospitals in Norway, Sweden, and Iceland. Singleton pregnant women with PCOS aged 18-45 years were eligible for inclusion. After receiving information about the study at their first antenatal visit or from the internet, women signed up individually to participate in the study. Participants were randomly assigned (1: 1) to receive metformin or placebo by computer-generated random numbers. Randomisation was in blocks of ten for each country and centre; the first block had a random size between one and ten to assure masking. Participants were assigned to receive oral metformin 500 mg twice daily or placebo during the first week of treatment, which increased to 1000 mg twice daily or placebo from week 2 until delivery. Placebo tablets and metformin tablets were identical and participants and study personnel were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was the composite incidence of late miscarriage (between week 13 and week 22 and 6 days) and preterm birth (between week 23 and week 36 and 6 days), analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary endpoints included the incidence of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and admission of the neonate to the neonatal intensive care unit. We also did a post-hoc individual participant data analysis of pregnancy outcomes, pooling data from the two previous trials with the present study. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials. gov, number NCT01587378, and EudraCT, number 2011-002203-15.

    Findings: The study took place between Oct 19, 2012, and Sept 1, 2017. We randomly assigned 487 women to metformin (n=244) or placebo (n=243). In the intention-to-treat analysis, our composite primary outcome of late miscarriage and preterm birth occurred in 12 (5%) of 238 women in the metformin group and 23 (10%) of 240 women in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR] 0.50, 95% CI 0.22- 1.08; p = 0.08). We found no significant differences for our secondary endpoints, including incidence of gestational diabetes (60 [25%] of 238 women in the metformin group vs 57 [24%] of 240 women in the placebo group; OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.69-1.66; p=0.75). We noted no substantial between-group differences in serious adverse events in either mothers or offspring, and no serious adverse events were considered drug-related by principal investigators. In the post-hoc pooled analysis of individual participant data from the present trial and two previous trials, 18 (5%) of 397 women had late miscarriage or preterm delivery in the metformin group ]compared with 40 (10%) of 399 women in the placebo group (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23-0.79; p=0.004).

    Interpretation: In pregnant women with PCOS, metformin treatment from the late first trimester until delivery might reduce the risk of late miscarriage and preterm birth, but does not prevent gestational diabetes.

  • Gustafsson, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Selektiva distributionssystem som begränsar internethandel - EU-domstolens senaste bedömningar att godkänna begränsningar av internethandel i ljuset av målet att utveckla en digital inre marknad.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Forsgren, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Free, prior and informed consent. En rättslig analys av förslaget till en ny ordning för konsultation med det samiska folket genom Ds 2017:43.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sarneel, Judith M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Ecology & Biodiversity, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Plant Ecophysiology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Hefting, Mariet M.
    Kowalchuk, George A.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Van der Velden, Merit
    Visser, Eric J. W.
    Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Alternative transient states and slow plant community responses after changed flooding regimes2019In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1358-1367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change will have large consequences for flooding frequencies in freshwater systems. In interaction with anthropogenic activities (flow regulation, channel restoration and catchment land-use) this will both increase flooding and drought across the world. Like in many other ecosystems facing changed environmental conditions, it remains difficult to predict the rate and trajectory of vegetation responses to changed conditions. Given that critical ecosystem services (e.g. bank stabilization, carbon subsidies to aquatic communities or water purification) depend on riparian vegetation composition, it is important to understand how and how fast riparian vegetation responds to changing flooding regimes. We studied vegetation changes over 19 growing seasons in turfs that were transplanted in a full-factorial design between three riparian elevations with different flooding frequencies. We found that (a) some transplanted communities may have developed into an alternative stable state and were still different from the target community, and (b) pathways of vegetation change were highly directional but alternative trajectories did occur, (c) changes were rather linear but faster when flooding frequencies increased than when they decreased, and (d) we observed fastest changes in turfs when proxies for mortality and colonization were highest. These results provide rare examples of alternative transient trajectories and stable states under field conditions, which is an important step towards understanding their drivers and their frequency in a changing world.

  • Ferelius, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Folket, riksdagen och Europeiska unionen - En analys av förarbetena inför Sveriges medlemskap i EU ur ett demokratiperspektiv.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ekström, Terese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Omedelbar verkställighet av förvaltningsbeslut - konsekvenser för enskilda ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Eriksson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Utökade möjligheter att säkra digital bevisning - Hur väl upprätthålls integritetsskyddet för enskilda i strävan efter en effektivare brottsbekämpning?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lundberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    "Det känns som matte är roligt!": Hur elevers tankar och motivation påverkar matematiklärandet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims of examining how pupils in first year of school thinks of mathematics, what motivation they have for learning about it and how that affect their learning in mathematics. It also includes describing how special teachers can strengthen student’s mathematical development based on research as well as students’ thoughts and motivation. Qualitative methods were used in this study. Semi structured interviews were done with ten children in year one of school and the analysis of the pupil’s mathematics learning were made by using National Agency for Education's (2018) National Assessment Support in number perception. The study shows that most of the pupils likes mathematics in year one of school and that the pupils in this study overall have more positive thoughts then negative thoughts about mathematics. This study also shows that the pupil’s thoughts and motivations seem to affect the learning in mathematics. It turns out that the more positive thoughts and the higher inner motivation seems to lead to higher mathematic learning. The more negative thoughts and the higher external motivation seems to lead to lower mathematic learning.

  • Ellefors, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Samvetsfrihet - en rätt till samvetsvägran? En analyserande uppsats om samvetsfrihet, rätten att utöva den och möjligheten att begränsa den med hänvisning till aborträtten.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Englund, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Att vara en god förälder - En rättspolitisk utvärdering av föräldrars principalansvar för sina barns brottslighet.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Danielsson Nykänen, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Multipla teorier och skillnader. En uppsats om konstitutionell pluralism i EU - I stormens öga.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Bayisa, Fekadu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Yu, Jun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Model-based computed tomography image estimation: partitioning approach2019In: Journal of Applied Statistics, ISSN 0266-4763, E-ISSN 1360-0532Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest to get a fully MR based radiotherapy. The most important development needed is to obtain improved bone tissue estimation. The existing model-based methods perform poorly on bone tissues. This paper was aimed at obtaining improved bone tissue estimation. Skew-Gaussian mixture model and Gaussian mixture model were proposed to investigate CT image estimation from MR images by partitioning the data into two major tissue types. The performance of the proposed models was evaluated using the leaveone-out cross-validation method on real data. In comparison with the existing model-based approaches, the model-based partitioning approach outperformed in bone tissue estimation, especially in dense bone tissue estimation.

  • Danelid, Clara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Ränta på koncerninterna lån. Den svenska korrigeringsregelns tillämpning på lånetransaktioner.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Huijben, Jilske A.
    et al.
    Wiegers, Eveline J. A.
    de Keizer, Nicolette F.
    Maas, Andrew I. R.
    Menon, David
    Ercole, Ari
    Citerio, Giuseppe
    Lecky, Fiona
    Wilson, Lindsay
    Cnossen, Maryse C.
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Steyerberg, Ewout W.
    van der Jagt, Mathieu
    Lingsma, Hester F.
    Aries, Marcel
    Badenes, Rafael
    Beishuizen, Albertus
    Bilotta, Federico
    Chieregato, Arturo
    Cingolani, Emiliano
    Cnossen, Maryse
    Coburn, Mark
    Coles, Jonathan P.
    Delargy, Mark
    Depreitere, Bart
    Flaatten, Hans
    Golyk, Volodymyr
    Grauwmeijer, Erik
    Haitsma, Iain
    Helbok, Raimund
    Hoedemaekers, Cornelia
    Jacobs, Bram
    Jellema, Korne
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Maegele, Marc
    Martin Delgado, Maria Cruz
    Moller, Kirsten
    Moreno, Rui
    Nelson, David
    Oldenbeuving, Annemarie W.
    Payen, Jean-Francois
    Pejakovic, Jasmina
    Ribbbers, Gerard M.
    Rossaint, Rolf
    Schoonman, Guus Geurt
    Steiner, Luzius A.
    Stocchetti, Nino
    Silvio, Fabio
    Takala, Riikka
    Tenovuo, Olli
    Valeinis, Eglis
    van den Bergh, Walter M.
    van Essen, Thomas
    van Leeuwen, Nikki
    Verhofstad, Michael H. J.
    Vos, Pieter E.
    Development of a quality indicator set to measure and improve quality of ICU care for patients with traumatic brain injury2019In: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 23, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We aimed to develop a set of quality indicators for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in intensive care units (ICUs) across Europe and to explore barriers and facilitators for implementation of these quality indicators.

    Methods: A preliminary list of 66 quality indicators was developed, based on current guidelines, existing practice variation, and clinical expertise in TBI management at the ICU. Eight TBI experts of the Advisory Committee preselected the quality indicators during a first Delphi round. A larger Europe-wide expert panel was recruited for the next two Delphi rounds. Quality indicator definitions were evaluated on four criteria: validity (better performance on the indicator reflects better processes of care and leads to better patient outcome), feasibility (data are available or easy to obtain), discriminability (variability in clinical practice), and actionability (professionals can act based on the indicator). Experts scored indicators on a 5-point Likert scale delivered by an electronic survey tool.

    Results. The expert panel consisted of 50 experts from 18 countries across Europe, mostly intensivists (N=24, 48%) and neurosurgeons (N=7, 14%). Experts agreed on a final set of 42 indicators to assess quality of ICU care: 17 structure indicators, 16 process indicators, and 9 outcome indicators. Experts are motivated to implement this finally proposed set (N=49, 98%) and indicated routine measurement in registries (N=41, 82%), benchmarking (N=42, 84%), and quality improvement programs (N=41, 82%) as future steps. Administrative burden was indicated as the most important barrier for implementation of the indicator set (N=48, 98%).

    Conclusions: This Delphi consensus study gives insight in which quality indicators have the potential to improve quality of TBI care at European ICUs. The proposed quality indicator set is recommended to be used across Europe for registry purposes to gain insight in current ICU practices and outcomes of patients with TBI. This indicator set may become an important tool to support benchmarking and quality improvement programs for patients with TBI in the future.

  • Möller, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Development of Fingerprint Traceability in a Modern Sawmill2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Stålnacke, Oscar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Individual investors’ information use, subjective expectations, and portfolio risk and return2019In: European Journal of Finance, ISSN 1351-847X, E-ISSN 1466-4364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What information do individual investors use when making their financial decisions and how is it related to their stock market expectations, their confidence in these expectations, and the risk and return of their stock portfolios? I study these questions by combining survey data on the information usage among individual investors in Sweden with detailed registry data on their stock portfolios. I find that investors use filtered financial information (e.g. information packaged by a professional intermediary) more frequently than they use unfiltered financial information (e.g. information from annual reports and financial statements). Investors who frequently use filtered financial information are, however, more confident in their stock market expectations and take larger risks in their stock portfolios. Investors that instead use unfiltered financial information take lower portfolio risks and obtain higher portfolio returns. The findings in this paper thus suggest that investors can improve their financial decisions by using more unfiltered financial information rather than filtered financial information when they make their financial decisions.

  • Jahn, Olga
    et al.
    Leshchenko, Vyacheslav E.
    Tzallas, Paraskevas
    Kassel, Alexander
    Krueger, Mathias
    Muenzer, Andreas
    Trushin, Sergei A.
    Tsakiris, George D.
    Kahaly, Subhendu
    Kormin, Dmitrii
    Veisz, Laszlo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany.
    Pervak, Vladimir
    Krausz, Ferenc
    Major, Zsuzsanna
    Karsch, Stefan
    Towards intense isolated attosecond pulses from relativistic surface high harmonics2019In: Optica, ISSN 2334-2536, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 280-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relativistic surface high harmonics have been considered a unique source for the generation of intense isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultra-violet and x-ray spectral ranges. Their practical realization, however, is still a challenging task and requires identification of optimum experimental conditions and parameters. Here, we present measurements and particle-in-cell simulations to determine the optimum values for the most important parameters. In particular, we investigate the dependence of harmonics efficiency, divergence, and beam quality on the pre-plasma scale length as well as identify the optimum conditions for generation of isolated attosecond pulses by measuring the dependence of the harmonics spectrum on the carrier - envelope phase of the driving infrared field. (C) 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

  • Alaridah, Nader
    et al.
    Hallbäck, Erika Tång
    Tångrot, Jeanette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). National Bioinformatics Infrastructure Sweden (NBIS), SciLifeLab, Computational Life Science Cluster, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Winqvistz, Niclas
    Sturegard, Erik
    Floren-Johanssons, Kerstin
    Jonsson, Bodil
    Tenland, Erik
    Welinder-Olssons, Christina
    Medstrand, Patrik
    Kaijser, Bertil
    Godaly, Gabriela
    Transmission dynamics study of tuberculosis isolates with whole genome sequencing in southern Sweden2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 4931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological contact tracing complemented with genotyping of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is important for understanding disease transmission. In Sweden, tuberculosis (TB) is mostly reported in migrant and homeless where epidemiologic contact tracing could pose a problem. This study compared epidemiologic linking with genotyping in a low burden country. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates (n = 93) collected at Scania University Hospital in Southern Sweden were analysed with the standard genotyping method mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and the results were compared with whole genome sequencing (WGS). Using a maximum of twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as the upper threshold of genomic relatedness noted among hosts, we identified 18 clusters with WGS comprising 52 patients with overall pairwise genetic maximum distances ranging from zero to nine SNPs. MIRU-VNTR and WGS clustered the same isolates, although the distribution differed depending on MIRU-VNTR limitations. Both genotyping techniques identified clusters where epidemiologic linking was insufficient, although WGS had higher correlation with epidemiologic data. To summarize, WGS provided better resolution of transmission than MIRU-VNTR in a setting with low TB incidence. WGS predicted epidemiologic links better which could consolidate and correct the epidemiologically linked cases, avoiding thus false clustering.

  • Zhou, Yueting
    et al.
    Liu, Jianxin
    Guo, Songjie
    Zhao, Gang
    Ma, Weiguang
    Cao, Zhensong
    Dong, Lei
    Zhang, Lei
    Yin, Wangbao
    Wu, Yongqian
    Xiao, Lianxuan
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Jia, Suotang
    Laser frequency stabilization based on a universal sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS instrumentation for the potential application in atmospheric lidar2019In: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1807-1814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lidar is an effective tool for high-altitude atmospheric measurement in which a weak absorption line for the target gas is selected to ensure a large optical depth. The laser frequency stabilization to the line center is required, and a sub-Doppler (sD) spectroscopy of the target line is preferred as a frequency reference. In this paper, a novel universal sD noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) instrumentation based on a fiber-coupled optical single-sideband electro-optic modulator (f-SSM) for the potential application in atmospheric lidar for different target gases with different types of lasers is reported. The f-SSM can replace all frequency actuators in the system, so as to eliminate the individual design of feedback servos that often are tailored for each laser. The universality of the instrumentation was demonstrated by the alternative use of either an Er-doped fiber laser or a whispering-gallery mode laser. Then the instruments based on both lasers were used to produce the sD signals of acetylene, which worked as a frequency reference to stabilize the laser. By performing the lockings, relative frequency stabilizations of 8.3 x 10(-13) and 7.5 x 10(-13) at an integration time of 240 s were demonstrated.

  • Harvey, E. Therese
    et al.
    Walve, Jakob
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlson, Bengt
    Kratzer, Susanne
    The Effect of Optical Properties on Secchi Depth and Implications for Eutrophication Management2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, p. 1-19, article id 496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful management of coastal environments requires reliable monitoring methods and indicators. Besides Chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), water transparency measured as Secchi Depth (ZSD) is widely used in Baltic Sea management for water quality assessment as eutrophication indicator. However, in many coastal waters not only phytoplankton but also coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) influence the under-water light field, and therefore the ZSD. In this study all three main optical variables(CDOM, Chl-a and SPM [organic and inorganic]) as well as ZSD were measured in three Swedish regions: the Bothnian Sea, the Baltic Proper and the Skagerrak in 2010-2014. Regional multiple regressions with Chl-a, CDOM and inorganic SPM as predictors explained the variations in ZSD well (R2adj = 0.53-0.84). Commonality analyses of the regressions indicated considerable differences between regions regarding the contribution of each factor to the variance, R2adj, in ZSD. CDOM explained most of the variance in the Bothnian Sea and the Skagerrak; in general, Chl-a contributed only modestly to the ZSD. In the Baltic Proper the largest contribution was from the interaction of all three variables. As expected, the link between Chl-a and ZSD was much weaker in the Bothnian Sea with high CDOM absorption and SPM concentration. When applying the Swedish EU Water Framework Directive threshold for Good/Moderate Chl-a status in the models it was shown that ZSD is neither a sufficient indicator for eutrophication, nor for changes in Chl-a. Natural coastal gradients in CDOM and SPM influence the reference conditions for ZSD and other eutrophication indicators, such as the depth distribution of macro-algae. Hence, setting targets for these indicators based on reference Chl-a concentrations and simple Chl-a to ZSD relationships might in some cases be inappropriate and misleading due to overestimation of water transparency under natural conditions.

  • Clendenen, Tess V.
    et al.
    Ge, Wenzhen
    Koenig, Karen L.
    Afanasyeva, Yelena
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Brinton, Louise A.
    Darvishian, Farbod
    Dorgan, Joanne F.
    Eliassen, A. Heather
    Falk, Roni T.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hankinson, Susan E.
    Hoffman-Bolton, Judith
    Key, Timothy J.
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Nichols, Hazel B.
    Sandler, Dale P.
    Schoemaker, Minouk J.
    Sluss, Patrick M.
    Sund, Malin
    Swerdlow, Anthony J.
    Visvanathan, Kala
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    Liu, Mengling
    Breast cancer risk prediction in women aged 35-50 years: impact of including sex hormone concentrations in the Gail model2019In: Breast Cancer Research, ISSN 1465-5411, E-ISSN 1465-542X, Vol. 21, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Models that accurately predict risk of breast cancer are needed to help younger women make decisions about when to begin screening. Premenopausal concentrations of circulating anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), a biomarker of ovarian reserve, and testosterone have been positively associated with breast cancer risk in prospective studies. We assessed whether adding AMH and/or testosterone to the Gail model improves its prediction performance for women aged 35-50.

    Methods: In a nested case-control study including ten prospective cohorts (1762 invasive cases/1890 matched controls) with pre-diagnostic serum/plasma samples, we estimated relative risks (RR) for the biomarkers and Gail risk factors using conditional logistic regression and random-effects meta-analysis. Absolute risk models were developed using these RR estimates, attributable risk fractions calculated using the distributions of the risk factors in the cases from the consortium, and population-based incidence and mortality rates. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminatory accuracy of the models with and without biomarkers.

    Results: The AUC for invasive breast cancer including only the Gail risk factor variables was 55.3 (95% CI 53.4, 57.1). The AUC increased moderately with the addition of AMH (AUC 57.6, 95% CI 55.7, 59.5), testosterone (AUC 56.2, 95% CI 54.4, 58.1), or both (AUC 58.1, 95% CI 56.2, 59.9). The largest AUC improvement (4.0) was among women without a family history of breast cancer.

    Conclusions: AMH and testosterone moderately increase the discriminatory accuracy of the Gail model among women aged 35-50. We observed the largest AUC increase for women without a family history of breast cancer, the group that would benefit most from improved risk prediction because early screening is already recommended for women with a family history.

  • Wode, Kathrin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Regional Cancer Center Stockholm Gotland, Stockholm, Sweden; Department for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer, K42, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Regional Cancer Center Stockholm Gotland, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sharp, Lena
    Stoltenberg, Anna
    Nordberg, Johanna Hök
    Cancer patients' use of complementary and alternative medicine in Sweden: a cross-sectional study2019In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1472-6882, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 19, article id 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Access to and advice on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) are uncommon within Swedish conventional cancer care and little is known about cancer patients' own use of CAM. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore Swedish cancer patients patterns of CAM use, their experiences and preferences.

    Methods. Questionnaires were distributed consecutively to 1297 cancer patients at a university hospital's out-patient oncology units. The response rate was 58% (n=755). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the survey data. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between CAM use and gender, age and level of education. Open-ended responses were analyzed, using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Lifetime CAM use was reported by 34% (n=256), and 26% (n=198) used CAM after cancer diagnosis. Being female, younger and having higher education predicted CAM use. Most commonly used methods were natural products including vitamins and mineralsand relaxation. Main reasons for CAM use were improvement of physical, general and emotional wellbeing and increasing the body's ability to fight cancer. Satisfaction with CAM usage was generally high. Reported adverse effects were few and mild; 54% of users spent <50 Euro a month on CAM. One third had discussed their CAM use with cancer care providers. More than half of all participants thought that cancer care providers should be able to discuss (58%) and to consider (54%) use of CAM modalities in cancer care.

    Conclusions: Despite limited access and advice within conventional cancer care, one fourth of Swedish cancer patients use CAM. The insufficient patient-provider dialogue diverges with most patients' wish for professional guidance in their decisions and integration of CAM modalities in conventional cancer care. Concurrent and multimodal CAM use implies challenges and possibilities for cancer care that need to be considered.

  • Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Qwillbard, Tony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Investigating algorithmic and creative reasoning strategies by eye tracking2019In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imitative teaching and learning approaches have been dominating in mathematics education. Although more creative approaches (e.g. problem-based learning) have been proposed and implemented, a main challenge of mathematics education research is to document robust links between teaching, tasks, student activities and learning. This study investigates one aspect of such links, by contrasting tasks providing algorithmic solution templates with tasks requiring students’ constructions of solutions and relating this to students’ learning processes and outcomes. Information about students’ task solving strategies are gathered by corneal eye-tracking, which is related to subsequent post-test performances and individual variation in cognitive proficiency. Results show that students practicing by creative tasks outperform students practicing by imitative algorithmic tasks in the post-test, but also that students that perform less well on creative tasks tend to try ineffective imitative strategies.

  • Public defence: 2019-05-10 09:00 Sal 933, Umeå
    Wahlin, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis: aspects of pathogenesis and risk2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased prevalence and severity of atherosclerosis, and a corresponding increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms causing this are not well elucidated, but both traditional cardiovascular risk factors and RA-associated factors have been associated with atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with RA. Cardiovascular risk estimation based on traditional cardiovascular risk factors, often underestimates the risk in patients with RA. The aims of this thesis were to examine factors and biomarkers associated with atherosclerosis in patients with RA, and to evaluate an algorithm for cardiovascular risk estimation in patients with RA.

    Methods Patients with early RA in the four northernmost counties of Sweden have since 1995 been included in a prospective study of both the progress of RA and comorbidities. Besides clinical data, radiographs, genetic markers and autoantibodies are registered. Paper I includes 665 patients aged 40-80 years from that cohort, in whom the 10-year risk of a first cardiovascular event was estimated with both Expanded Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Score in Rheumatoid Arthritis (ERS-RA), and the general population based ACC/AHA algorithm. The estimations were then compared to the actual outcomes. Paper II examines factors associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 22 patients with long-standing RA. Papers III and IV use data from a cohort of patients <60 years of age at diagnosis of RA (n=79), in whom development of atherosclerosis has been prospectively followed since diagnosis of RA. This is a subset of patients from the larger cohort in paper I. Controls matched for age and sex (n=44) are examined as well. In paper III, phenotypes of T-cells and IgG-antibodies against cytomegalovirus (CMV) are analysed in relation to carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). In paper IV, bone mineral density and markers and regulators of bone metabolism are analysed in relation to IMT.

    Results Cardiovascular risk estimation with the RA-specific algorithm ERS-RA is not superior to estimation with the ACC/AHA algorithm. Both algorithms underestimate the risk in patients with a high grade of inflammation and in patients with an estimated moderate risk. In patients with long-standing RA, presence of CAC is associated with inflammatory activity, both at time of examination and in earlier stages of RA. Presence of anti-CMV IgG antibodies and altered T-cells (both CD4+ and CD8+) lacking the co-stimulatory molecule CD28 (CD28null) are associated with a higher IMT, and patients IgG-positive for CMV have a rapid increase in IMT after onset of RA. Regulators of bone metabolism (sclerostin, osteoprotegerin and osteocalcin) are associated with a higher IMT in patients with RA.

    Conclusion Cardiovascular risk estimation in patients with RA still needs to be improved. The fact that CMV-positivity, altered populations of T-cells and IMT all are associated, and that also regulators of bone metabolism reflect IMT, suggests that the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in patients with RA is multifactorial.  This thesis provides knowledge of the accelerated development of atherosclerosis in RA and could possibly be relevant also in other chronic inflammatory diseases, where markers of accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk are lacking.

  • Lönngren, Johanna
    et al.
    Lund University, Faculty of Engineering (LTH).
    Ahrens, Andreas
    Lund University, Faculty of Engineering (LTH).
    Deppert, Knut
    Lund University, Faculty of Engineering (LTH).
    Hammarin, Greger
    Lund University, Faculty of Engineering (LTH).
    Nilsson, Elisabeth
    Lund University, Faculty of Engineering (LTH).
    Sustainable Development in Nano-Perspectives: An Innovative Student Initiative2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and discusses a novel class for sustainable development at the faculty of engineering at Lund University, Sweden. Based on personal experience and student questionnaires, the study discusses applied pedagogical approaches (case study, role play, matrix approach) and suggests improvements to the structure of the class. The project is a student initiative, making student involvement and its effects on learning for sustainable development central topics of this paper, thereby challenging the notion of engineering students as passive receivers of education for sustainable development.

  • Lönngren, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Applied IT, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Systems thinking for dealing with wicked sustainability problems: beyond functionalist approaches2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Many of the most pressing sustainability issues are not purely technical problems. To work for

    sustainable development (SD) requires addressing wicked sustainability problems (WSPs), such as

    climate change, poverty, and resource scarcity. Previous research has shown that addressing WSPs is

    challenging for engineering students. In particular, students may feel overwhelmed by a WSP if they lack

    appropriate tools for dealing with the complexity, uncertainty, and value conflicts that are present in the

    situation. In this paper, we aim to investigate whether systems thinking competence (ST) can provide

    such a tool in engineering education for sustainable development (EESD). For this purpose, we elaborate

    on previous descriptions of WSPs, and draw on (E)ESD literature about ST to discuss different

    approaches to ST and their usefulness for addressing WSPs. We conclude that ST indeed can be

    valuable for addressing WSPs, but that it is necessary to be clear about how ST is defined. We suggest

    that mainstream approaches to ST in engineering education (EngE) are not sufficient for addressing WSPs.

  • Lönngren, Johanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Assessing "Wicked Sustainability Problem" - Literacy in Engineering Education2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and sustainability problems are not purely technical problems. Many of the most pressing issues, such as climate change, resource scarcity, and pollution, require holistic approaches that go beyond technical systems analysis and optimization. Such problems have been called wicked sustainability problems (WSPs) because they are highly complex, contested, and lack definite solutions1,2.

    Engineering education has the potential to play an important role in preparing students to contribute to deal with problems such as WSP3,4. To be able to contribute in this way, students need to develop an ability to holistically and integratively understand and address WSPs while considering the normative context of sustainable development (here called WSP literacy). However, common practice in engineering education more commonly prepares students to address well-structured and tame rather than wicked problems5,6 . One reason may be that working together to develop complex competencies such as WSP literacy is challenging for students as well as educators. Wiek, Withycombe, and Redman suggest that formulating and operationalizing intended learning outcomes (ILOs) for complex competencies can facilitate this difficult process and thus improve engineering education practice4.

    In this paper, we provide a preliminary matrix of 22 concrete ILOs for WSP literacy, as well as two different approaches to assessing (some of) them in engineering education. We expect that engineering educators will find these ILOs and assessment strategies valuable for adopting a constructive alignment approach for WSP literacy in their teaching.

  • Nyirenda, Moffat J
    et al.
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Pregnancy, programming, and predisposition2019In: The Lancet Global Health, E-ISSN 2214-109X, Vol. 7, no 4, p. e404-e405Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Odelberg, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Cengiz, Yucel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Jänes, Arthur
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Hennings, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    The Impact of a Surgical Unit's Structure and Operative Technique on Quality in Two Swedish Rural Hospitals2019In: Journal of investigative surgery, ISSN 0894-1939, E-ISSN 1521-0553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a commonly performed surgical procedure with a low complication rate. It is performed either as an acute or as an elective procedure. Most elective LCs are performed on nonlethal diseases and this is why good quality is important. Our study compared the quality of LC in two surgical units in northern Sweden (Sundsvall and ostersund) which use different clinical structures (subspecialised vs. general surgery) and surgical techniques (ultrasound fundus first vs. conventional diathermy). The study aimed to investigate whether these differences affected the quality of outcomes after LC.

    Materials and methods: This is a registry-based study which included 607 elective LCs from January 2014 to May 2016. There were 286 from Sundsvall and 321 from ostersund. Primary outcomes were operative time and the percentage of day surgeries. The secondary outcome was the presence of postoperative complications within the first 30 days in terms of bile duct injury, bleeding that necessitated reoperation, bile leakage and abscesses treated with drainage and mortality.

    Results: The time length of surgery was shorter in Sundsvall (mean 48.3 min) compared to ostersund (mean 108.6 min, p < 0.001. The percentage of day care surgeries was 94% in Sundsvall and 23% in ostersund, p < 0.001. Six patients (2.1%) had a complication in Sundsvall compared to seven patients (2.2%) in ostersund, p = 1.00.

    Conclusion: There is a significant difference between the two hospitals regarding operative time and the percentage of day surgeries. Complication rates in both units were equal and low.