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  • Crowe-McAuliffe, Caillan
    et al.
    Graf, Michael
    Huter, Paul
    Takada, Hiraku
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Abdelshahid, Maha
    Novácek, Jirí
    Murina, Victoriia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Atkinson, Gemma C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
    Wilson, Daniel N.
    Structural basis for antibiotic resistance mediated by the Bacillus subtilis ABCF ATPase VmlR2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 36, p. 8978-8983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria employ ribosomal protection proteins (RPPs) to confer resistance to clinically important antibiotics. In Bacillus subtilis, the RPP VmlR confers resistance to lincomycin (Lnc) and the streptogramin A (SA) antibiotic virginiamycin M (VgM). VmlR is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein of the F type, which, like other antibiotic resistance (ARE) ABCF proteins, is thought to bind to antibiotic-stalled ribosomes and promote dissociation of the drug from its binding site. To investigate the molecular mechanism by which VmlR confers antibiotic resistance, we have determined a cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of an ATPase-deficient B. subtilis VmlR-EQ(2) mutant in complex with a B. subtilis ErmDL-stalled ribosomal complex (SRC). The structure reveals that VmlR binds within the E site of the ribosome, with the antibiotic resistance domain (ARD) reaching into the peptidyltransferase center (PTC) of the ribosome and a C-terminal extension (CTE) making contact with the small subunit (SSU). To access the PTC, VmlR induces a conformational change in the P-site tRNA, shifting the acceptor arm out of the PTC and relocating the CCA end of the P-site tRNA toward the A site. Together with microbiological analyses, our study indicates that VmlR allosterically dissociates the drug from its ribosomal binding site and exhibits specificity to dislodge VgM, Lnc, and the pleuromutilin tiamulin (Tia), but not chloramphenicol (Cam), linezolid (Lnz), nor the macrolide erythromycin (Ery).

  • Pettersson, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Brainball, visualisering av hjärnaktiviteten2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Medical Technology, Research and Development department at University Hospital of Umeå has an existing brainball-table that they want to use at fairs and demonstrations. As a complement to the physical table they want to show a graphical representation of the brainwaves that are used in the game, in order to make it easier for players and any audience to follow along. A program showing the graphical representation of the brainwaves used in the Brainball-game has been developed using the programming language Python with help of the library ”matplot”. The finished program has a simple layout with three graphs, showing the two players brainwaves and their calculated relaxation in comparision with eachother. The brainwaves are sampled and shown in the graphs in real time with a scrolling x-axis with approximately 20 frames per second. Everything is run on a Raspberry Pi 3 computer and because of it’s low performance some functions such as frequency filtration and animation is somewhat limited.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-12 09:00 Sal 260, Umeå
    Myte, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Metabolic Risk Factors and Molecular Subtypes of Colorectal Cancer2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease developing from distinct pathways, resulting in tumor subtypes with large differences in clinical and molecular characteristics. Molecular characteristics are increasingly being used clinically to guide therapy. However, whether molecular subtypes of CRC differ in etiology or risk factors is not clear. Clarifying such potential differences may lead to an improved understanding of CRC etiology, with implications for CRC prevention and screening.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether risk factors related to energy metabolism, such as body fatness, and one-carbon metabolism, such as circulating B-vitamin status, were associated with specific subtypes of CRC defined by molecular characteristics of the tumor. 

    Methods: These prospective studies are based on data and blood samples from cohorts within the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS). Prospective CRC cases with available archived tumor tissue were analyzed for key molecular features (KRAS and BRAF mutation status, Microsatellite instability (MSI) status, and CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) status). Paper I was a cohort study of metabolic factors related to the metabolic syndrome (117 687 participants). Paper II was a nested-case control study on circulating insulin resistance-markers and adipokines (1010 cases and 1010 matched controls). Papers III and IV were nested case-control studies of one-carbon metabolism biomarkers and genetic variants (613 cases and 1190 matched controls).

    Results: In paper I, we observed associations between metabolic factors, such as BMI, blood pressure, and blood lipids, and CRC risk consistent with previous studies. These associations were similar regardless of tumor KRAS and BRAF mutation status. In paper II, circulating biomarkers of insulin resistance and adipokines were not associated with the risk of CRC or specific molecular subtypes of CRC defined by KRAS and BRAF mutation or MSI status. In paper III, higher circulating levels of metabolites involved in the methionine cycle (namely, betaine and methionine) were associated with a lower CRC risk. In paper IV, we found no support for clear subtype-specific roles of any circulating one-carbon metabolism biomarker or genetic variants in CRC development.

    Conclusions: The result of these prospective studies suggests that metabolic factors related to energy metabolism and one-carbon metabolism are generally associated with the risk of CRC, regardless of major subtypes defined by key molecular tumor features. If causal, metabolic risk factors likely influence the risk of colorectal cancer through more than one carcinogenic pathway.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-12 09:00 Sal 260, Röntgenklinik, Umeå
    Al-Amiry, Bariq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Radiological measurements in total hip arthroplasty2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, about 1 million patients worldwide and 20000 patients in Sweden undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA). This type of operation is considered a successful, safe and cost-effective procedure to regain mobility and restore hip joint function in patients suffering from severe hip joint disease or trauma. The main goals of the operation are to relief the pain, improve quality of life (QoL) and to restore the biomechanical forces around the hip with appropriate femoral offset (FO), leg length and proper component position and orientation. The radiographic preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation of these parameters require good validity, interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility. Most patients are satisfied after THA, although this treatment still has its complications. About 10 % of THA patients report persistent pain and suboptimal functional outcome and QoL at long-term follow-up. The absolute number of dissatisfied patients is expected to rise given the increase in the annual number of THA performed. Therefore, every effort should be made to investigate factors that possibly influence THA outcome. The data available about the influence of preoperative radiological severity and symptom duration of OA on the outcome of THA are scarce and contradictory. Further studies even needed to evaluate the effect of obesity on post-operative THA radiological measurements

  • Reckermann, Lukas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Att lära sig ord från textböcker: En studie i hur två läromedel för engelska 5 hanterar ordinlärning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To master English to such a degree that you can read a wide variety of English texts without having to look certain words up in a dictionary requires a huge vocabulary. Estimates are that you will need to understand 8000 – 9000 word families to reach that goal. The aim of this study was to investigate what opportunities for reaching such a goal there are to be found in the explicit vocabulary instructions found in two textbooks written for Swedish upper-secondary school. Another point of study was how these textbook instructions are related to research in fields relevant to L2 vocabulary acquisition. It was found that there is a good variety in textbook instructions concerning issues such as semantic groups, formulaic sequences and word formation. However, there are big differences between the two textbooks that were studied regarding this. Furthermore, it was found that both textbooks, although having different approaches to teaching vocabulary, rest their reasoning upon research.

  • Lövbom, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of short term exposures to Glyphosate on Apis mellifera: investigating flying time and searching abilities in a laboratory environment2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pollination is an important ecosystem service necessary for 80% of global plant reproduction. This service can also improve fruit production and is essential for 84% of all crops grown in the EU. However, some pollinators have been declining for the last decades and the important honey bee is no exception. One of the reasons to this decline is believed to be agricultural use of chemicals (i.e. fungicides, herbicides and insecticides). One of the most commonly used herbicides is RoundUp, which include glyphosate as its active substance. In this study, I test if RoundUp affects honey bee behaviour by exposing them during a short-term period to one of three different concentrations (0 mg/l, 5 mg/l and 50 mg/l). The test was conducted in a wind tunnel and aimed to test the hypothesis that glyphosate affects searching abilities and flight time of honey bees. In contrast to my hypothesis, I was unable to detect effects on searching ability. However, method limitations might have been the reason only three bees, out of 147, found the food. My analysis showed neither any effects from RoundUp on fly time (P>0.05) or activity (P=0.066). However, in my data I could see a negative trend in activity and due to earlier data collected around glyphosate, I argue that exposure to glyphosate might have a negative long-term impact on honey bee survival. 

  • Jonsson, Josefine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The psycho-social work environment of e-sport professionals: Applying the Job demands-resources theory to pro-players2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the area of e-sports has been growing rapidly and has consequentially drawn attention from the general public as well as researchers. However, research in this area still remains sparse, especially concerning the psycho-social work environment of e-sports professionals. This is even more true when referring to research that includes the individual perspective of pro-players. To provide more knowledge in this area, this study aims to explore what psychosocial aspects are mentioned by pro-players in documentary interviews and investigate if the experiences portrayed could be understood using a theoretical perspective by applying the JD-R theory. This study is based on 12 docu-series episodes featuring two League of Legends teams where 10 different pro-players participated. The research sample could both be considered availability sampling, since the data was already available, and purposeful sampling, choosing a sample consisting of pro-players. The episodes were transcribed and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Many psycho-social aspects emerged from the analysis, resulting in two higher themes where the first theme “Working as a pro-player” portrays what the profession entails and the second, “The interdependent work”, depicts the experience of being a pro, a teammate and an individual at the same time. By applying the JD-R theory on the aspects mentioned, it was concluded that these experiences indeed could be understood using a theoretical approach, providing incentives to conduct future research in the area. Possible areas of research interest were also presented in relation to this.

  • Sanchez de La Barquera, Xaviera
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    B. Torretta, Nicholas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Journeys of Displacement Between South and North: Decolonizing a Designer Imaginary2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a globalized world that promotes universal desires, southern epistemologies struggle to flourish against westernized notions of values, beauty and life goals. This manifestation of Coloniality (Grosfoguel, 2006) is strengthened by the mainstream systems of production and consumption of both goods and knowledge, where design is a driving force. Design, has been taught from generations in academy under the same Eurocentric canons that disseminate the values of capitalism and search for economic growth. Designers, have been worldwide trained to think, value and act according to the standards of aesthetics, progress and development set in the North. However, the current global unsustainability crises make more evident the global power dynamics, and the need to maintain diverse and contextualized forms of seeing and acting with the world.

    Our own experience of being trained as designers in the south, and now relocated to the north is making us aware of our life desires imposed by contemporary coloniality. However, this relocation also builds on the advantages of coloniality, for instance, by being in contexts that have a stronger voice in international disciplinary communities. As others in our situation, we don’t want to be colonizers by being the “north in the south”. In this presentation we show journeys of deconstructing design, sustainability and their values and worldviews through transitioning between south and north. These journeys are motivated by the intention of creating mutual learning between south and north. We aim at supporting the transition of our discipline from Eurocentric worldview to more diverse worldviews and systems of values.

  • Karlsson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kompetensbaserad rekrytering: Formella och informella kompetensers betydelse2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att bidra med kunskap om hur rekryterare på bemanningsföretag rekryterar butikssäljare, en bransch med relativ hög personalomsättning. Mer specifikt har vad som kännetecknar dessa rekryteringsprocesser och vilka värden som tillskrivits formella och informella kompetenser studerats. Studien har genomförts genom en kvalitativ metod med kvalitativa intervjuer för att kunna skapa ett djup i svaren. Studien har avgränsats till två bemanningsföretag som rekryterar butikssäljare till dagligvaru- och detaljhandeln i mellersta Sverige. I studien har tre rekryteringsansvariga från respektive bemanningsföretag intervjuats. Insamlingen av data har skett genom kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med sex rekryterare från två rekryterings- och bemanningsföretag som verkar inom samma branscher och rekryterar butikssäljare. Valet av semistrukturerade intervjuer valdes för att ge respondenterna mer frihet i deras svar, detta genom att ställa öppna frågor som ger möjlighet till följdfrågor under intervjuernas gång. Metodvalen baserades på studiens syfte och frågeställningarnas karaktär med förhoppningen att få fram djupgående information som skapar förståelse för rekryteringsprocesserna. Studiens resultat visar att rekryteringsprocesserna som bemanningsföretagen använder sig av i rekrytering av butikssäljare kännetecknas av en kompetensbaserad rekrytering med utgångspunkt i en befattningsbeskrivning och en kravspecifikation. I kravspecifikationen listas de kompetenskrav som behövs för att utföra arbete på ett bra sätt och används som ett avgörande arbetsverktyg i urvalsprocessen.

  • Lindroth, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ledare för första gången: Socialisering av förstagångsledare, identitetsskiftet och processen att bli en ledare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att leda i en organisation handlar primärt om att leda en grupp människor mot gemensamma mål och resultat genom samarbete och kommunikation. För en arbetsgivare är det nödvändigt och viktigt att nya ledare blir effektiva och etablerar sig i sina roller så fort som möjligt. Det kan vara en krävande process att tillträda som ny ledare då normer, förväntningar och värderingar påverkar hur ledaren kan forma sin nya roll. Förstagångsledare ska forma en ledarkaraktär, utveckla en identitet som ledare och lära sig vad det innebär att vara ledare. Den nya ledaren ska arbeta med en ledande identitet i en komplex, förändringsbenägen och multibestämd organisation. Den professionella rollen förändras – från att bidra och ansvara för ett mer avgränsat och preciserat uppdrag. De egna prestationerna och resultaten i relation till att sätta och implementera agendan för en hel grupp. Förstagångsledaren ska axla en roll som kräver kompetenser och färdigheter som kanske ännu inte finns. Att vara ledare är en praktisk kompetens som utvecklas genom att vara ledare, genom att skaffa sig erfarenheter och reflektera över dem.Syftet med denna studie är att utforska vad det innebär att bli ledare för första gången. Den avser att studera det identitetsskiftet och den process den nya rollen innebär för individen. Vidare vill studien identifiera områden där organisationen kan stötta de ledare som är nya i sin roll.Kvalitativ data har tolkats och analyserats enligt fenomenologisk metodansats och satts i relation till tidigare forskning. Data har delats upp i fyra olika kategorier: 1) Ny ledare, 2) Identitetsskifte, 3) Organisatorisk socialisering och 4) Förkunskaper och Organisatoriskt stöd. Resultatet av studien visar på att kategorierna påverkas av och påverkar varandra. Stöttning i processen som ny ledare ger förutsättningar och möjligheter att utvecklas som ledare och att kunna påverka med sitt ledarskap. Studien visar på att adekvat stöd, enligt tidigare forskning, inte tillämpas i realiteten enligt informanternas upplevelser.

  • Björklund, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Optimering av plocksignal2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet skrivs på Scania CV AB i Södertälje hos gruppen MSLT som arbetar inom logistikutveckling hos alla monteringsavdelningar hos chassimonteringen. Examensarbetet fokuserar på en av dessa monteringsavdelningar med benämningen FFU – Fit For Use och dess logistikgrupp MSLFL.


    Chassimonteringen är uppdelad i 14 antal områden längs med monteringslinan där varje område utför olika typer av monteringar och arbeten. I det stora hela fungerar det så att sidobalkar levereras i ena änden av fabriken och i den andra änden kommer en färdig lastbil ut. Under denna resa levereras och monteras det som en standardlastbil behöver.

    FFUs del i denna montering kommer in när en kund har speciella önskemål till sin lastbil, som då alltså frångår det som ingår i en standardlastbil. De olika monteringsarbetena som krävs vid de olika specifika önskemålen kan ej utföras på den ordinarie monteringslinan och utförs därför hos FFU. På FFU finns logistikavdelningen MSLFL vars uppgift är att plocka ihop och leverera materialet till monteringen hos FFU.


    Det problem som uppstår idag är att planeringen och tidpunkten för plocksignalen till logistikavdelningen MSLFL på FFU ej är optimal. Detta leder till att artiklar plockas från lager för tidigt och blir sen stående i väntan på montering. Detta ger i sin tur platsbrist hos MSLFL vid leveransytan till monteringen hos FFU. Materialet som behövs för monteringen på FFU plockas i ett för tidigt skede i förhållande till själva monteringen. Det är denna problematik som examensarbetet behandlat och undersökt.


    Examensarbetet är uppdelat i tre delar. Från start utförs en två veckor lång praktik hos logistikavdelningar på chassimonteringen. Sedan påbörja en empirisk undersökning som består av intervjuer med anställda på de påverkade avdelningarna, där syftet att hitta någon eventuell lösning. Den empiriska undersökningen utförs under fem veckor. Resterande tid läggs på att skriva rapport och planera redovisning som sker både hos Scania och vid Umeå universitet.


    Den empiriska undersökningen har lett fram till tre plausibla lösningar där förslag tre, att sätta ett eget Topp-CU till FFU anses som det bästa och mest relevanta då det skulle ändra förutsättningarna för planeringen hos FFU och MSLFL. Alla lösningsförslagen i denna rapport kräver dock vidare undersökningar i framtida projekt för optimering och eventuellt genomförande.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-11 09:00 Hörsal 933 Unod B9, Umeå
    Islam, Koushikul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Identification and evaluation of antiviral compounds targeting Rift Valley fever virus2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a negative-stranded RNA virus, is the etiological agent of the vector-borne zoonotic disease Rift Valley fever (RVF). RVFV causes significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. RVFV is an emerging virus and is capable of infecting a broad range of mosquito species distributed around the world, so it poses a potential threat globally. A wide range of livestock animals (e.g. sheep, goats, cows, and camels) and some wild animals become highly affected by RVFV. In humans, RVFV infection presents as an acute self-limiting febrile illness that may lead to more severe hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis. The severity of the disease is mostly dependent on age and the species of mammal, but other factors are also important.

    There are no licensed RVFV vaccines for humans, and there is a lack of effective antiviral drugs. Moreover, due to the severe pathogenicity, higher-level facilities are needed―biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) or more―to work with RVFV, which makes antiviral drug development more challenging. Because RVFV causes severe disease in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and has the potential to spread globally, it is essential that safe, efficient antiviral drugs against this virus are developed.

    The previously reported antiviral compound benzavir-2 inhibits the replication of several DNA viruses, i.e. human adenoviruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, and HSV type 2, indicating a broadranging activity. We wanted to evaluate whether benzavir-2 had an effect against the RNA virus RVFV. For these and subsequent studies, we used a recombinant, modified RVFV strain with a deleted NSs gene, which was replaced by a reporter gene (rRVFVΔNSs::Katushka), enabling the studies to be conducted under BSL-2 conditions. The NSs gene is the main virulence factor for RVFV and without it, RVFV become less pathogenic. The reporter gene made it possible for us to quantify infection with the help of the red fluorescent protein. We found that benzavir-2 effectively inhibited RVFV infection in cell culture at an effective concentration showing 50% inhibition (EC50) of 0.6 μM. Benzavir-2 also inhibited the production of progeny virus. When we studied the pharmacokinetic properties, we found that benzavir-2 had good in vitro solubility, permeability, and metabolic stability. When we investigated the oral bioavailability in mice by administering benzavir-2 in peanut butter pellets, high systemic distribution was observed without any adverse toxic effects. Benzavir-2 thus inhibited RVFV infection in cell culture and showed excellent pharmacokinetic properties, suggesting the possibility of evaluating its effectiveness in an animal model. Since benzavir-2 has a broad effect against both RNA and DNA viruses, we speculated that the antiviral mechanism affects cellular targets.

    We also wanted to explore a large number of small chemical compounds with unknown properties and identify any anti-RVFV activities. Thus, we developed a whole-cell-based high-throughput reporter-based assay, and screened 28,437 small chemical compounds. The assay was established after optimization of several parameters. After primary and secondary screening, we identified 63 compounds that inhibited RVFV infection by 60% at a concentration of 3.12 μM and showed ≥ 50% cell viability at 25 μM. After a dose-dependent screening of these 63 compounds, several compounds were identified with highly efficient anti-RVFV properties. Finally, N1-(2-(biphenyl-4-yloxy)ethyl)propane-1,3-diamine (compound 1) was selected as the lead compound. We performed a structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of compound 1 by replacing and changing component after component of the chemical compound to see how this affected the antiviral activity. After the SAR analysis, the antiviral activity did not change, but we could improve the cytotoxicity profile. Our studies suggested that the improved compound, 13a, might be targeting the early phase of the RVFV lifecycle.

    In conclusion, we developed an efficient and reliable screening method that creates possibilities for discovering and developing antivirals against RVFV under BSL-2 conditions. We also identified several chemical compounds with anti-RVFV activities, which might lead to development of therapies for RVFV infection.

  • Sundström, Olle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Edlund, Lars-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    A great inspiration to us all: Special issue in honour of professor Håkan Rydving's 65th birthday2018In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 7-10Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • Babri, Maira
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Corvellec, Hervé
    Lund University.
    Stål, Herman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Power in the development of Circular Business Models: An Actor Network Theory approach2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Ekström, Ella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Sjuksköterskors löneutveckling 1977-2017: Lönebildning och institutionella förändringar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 1940-talet påbörjades en omfattande utbyggnad av en offentlig tjänstesektor som ett led i att

    göra Sverige till en universell välfärdsstat. I samband med den offentliga tjänstesektorns utbyggnad

    ökade andelen kvinnor på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. En omfattande utbyggnad av sjukvården

    gjordes vilket resulterade i en kraftigt ökad efterfrågan på vårdpersonal, och då inte minst


    Sjuksköterskors löner har varit omdiskuterade ända sedan 1900-talets början. Yrket har historiskt

    varit lågavlönat, vilket kan förklaras på en mängd olika sätt. I uppsatsen studeras om och hur

    institutionella förändringar på området har påverkat sjuksköterskeyrkets löneutveckling under

    perioden 1977 till 2017. De institutionella förändringar som har undersökts är främst politiska

    reformer och lagstiftning på hälso- och sjukvårdens område. Även reformer av

    sjuksköterskeutbildningen har undersökts, eftersom att professionalisera sjuksköterskeyrket sågs

    vara ett steg mot en förbättrad löneutveckling. Trots att sjukvården har genomgått stora reformer

    under perioden 1977 till 2017 har det haft en till synes liten påverkan på löneutvecklingen. Inte

    heller professionaliseringen tycks ha påverkat utvecklingen.

    Sjuksköterskeyrket var under 1900-talets början ett renodlat kvinnoyrke. Än idag består yrket till

    90 procent kvinnor. Att sjuksköterskors löner är låga, liksom många andra kvinnodominerade

    yrkens löner, kan förklaras genom att det föreligger en värdediskriminering av vad som betraktas

    som kvinnligt arbete. Vid undersökning av sjuksköterskeyrket är det därmed viktigt att beakta

    yrkets genusarbetsdelning, vilket har påverkat, och än idag påverkar, yrket och dess löneutveckling.

    Yrkets genusarbetsdelning kan förklaras som ett informellt spårberoende. Ju närmare vår tid vi

    kommer ju mer har genusarbetsdelningen uppmärksammats både politiskt och inom forskningen.

    En följd av det är jämställdhetslagen som infördes 1979. Trots att värdediskrimineringen av det

    kvinnodominerade sjuksköterskeyrket uppmärksammats har det inte haft en synbar påverkan på


  • Westberg, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Impact of contamination by mining rest products (Zn and Pb) on lake insect abundance, composition, and metamorphosis2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metals are of great concern when released into the environment, especially at high concentrations. Because of their persistence and toxicity, they have the ability to impact organisms both directly and indirectly via bioaccumulation in the food chain. In this report the effects on aquatic insect composition and abundance as well as possible effects on metamorphosis from larvae to adults were examined in six lakes – three with elevated Zn and Pb concentrations and three reference lakes - situated in Arjeplog municipality. Aquatic larvae and adult aquatic insects were sampled one year apart, and the number of individuals and community composition of both life stages were compared. Contrary to my hypothesis, the results showed no significant differences in abundance, taxa richness or number of individuals in pollution sensitive taxa (EPT) due to contamination. However, the result showed that the effect of contamination on the number of insects is different at different life stages (larval or adult), with fewer adults than expected emerging from contaminated lakes. This is likely explained by detrimental effects, caused by high metal concentrations, obstructing metamorphosis and decreasing emergence success. In this study, the negative effects on emergence could foremost be observed in chironomids (Chironomidae), which was the most abundant insect taxon in both reference and contaminated sites. This leads to the conclusion that including effects on metamorphosis can provide useful insights when assessing effects of a contaminant on the health of freshwater ecosystems.

  • Lindahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Umeå University, Umeå University Library. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Danell, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    In search of future excellence: The information value of bibliometric indicators in predicting doctoral students' future research performance2018In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators / [ed] Rodrigo Costas, Thomas Franssen, Alfredo Yegros-Yegros, Leiden, 2018, p. 448-459Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive value of using bibliometric indicators of scientific performance during doctoral studies to predict who will attain future excellence in a local organizational context. The data consisted of 479 Swedish doctoral students employed at a single Swedish university that completed their studies between 2003 and 2009. We used a probit regression model to estimate the probability for future excellence, operationalized with a citation based indicator. The model included five predictors: publication volume, excellence during doctoral studies, collaboration, age at thesis completion, and gender. Our main results were: (1) an interaction between publication volume and attaining excellence during doctoral studies, indicating that the effect of publication volume on the probability of attaining future excellence is much stronger for the group of excellent doctoral students than for the group of non-excellent students; (2) collaboration and age are significant predictors of future excellence; (3) examining potential gender bias the results were somewhat inconclusive. Male doctoral students had a higher probability of attaining future excellence. However, the effect was not significant (p>0.05). Our main conclusion is that bibliometric indicators has some predictive validity for post-doctoral performance in a local organizational context and that a combination of quantity and quality in doctoral students’ performance generated the highest probabilities of future excellence.

  • Namoobe, Choolwe Chisuta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    An analysis of accessibility to grocery stores by walking and cycling.: A comparative study of Ålidhem, Tomtebo, Carlshem and Sofiehem neighbourhoods in Umeå using ArcGIS Network Dataset2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accessibility is a gateway to accessing opportunities or service sites, i.e., grocery shopping, healthcare and jobs and it has been used as a proxy to measure inequalities. The equity, in travel time or distance, to accessing of these services is vital to ensure high accessibility hence providing equality. Population increase leading to urban sprawl affects accessibility in the absence of prudent residential spatial planning and transport systems and infrastructure. Urban sprawl creates a distance between populations and centres of services such as grocery stores. This promotes the growth of car-dependency to accessing these services that are not easily reachable by non-motorised transport of walking and biking.This thesis measures accessibility to grocery stores by comparing the travel time of populations in the four neighbourhoods, of Ålidhem, Tomtebo, Carlshem and Sofiehem, by walking and biking. The measuring is done by using the ArcGIS Network Analyst to create and build a single-modal network dataset of pedestrian and bike lanes in the study area. Accessibility to grocery stores is measured using the service areas created based on the grocery store location and it highlights all the accessible streets from the centre within a time impedance. Afterwards, the populations are aggregated in each service area of each neighbourhood to compare the time difference of accessibility to a grocery store.With distance decay effects, the walking time distance restricts accessibility to grocery stores to a limited population in the neighbourhoods. The bike time distance, however, increased the residents in the study area who can access the grocery stores. The new location for a Coop grocery store provides the highest accessibility to grocery stores compared to the Ålidhem Centre grocery store.From the results of the analysis, the bike travel is the most equitable hence equal mode of active transport for all the four neighbourhoods.

  • Jonsson, Karin
    et al.
    Andersson, Roger
    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Hanhineva, Kati
    Katina, Kati
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Langton, Maud
    Nordlund, Emilia
    Lærke, Helle Nygaard
    Olsen, Anja
    Poutanen, Kajsa
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Landberg, Rikard
    Rye and health - Where do we stand and where do we go?2018In: Trends in Food Science & Technology, ISSN 0924-2244, E-ISSN 1879-3053, Vol. 79, p. 78-87Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High whole grain intake has consistently been associated with lowered risk of developing a number of chronic diseases. Among cereals, rye has highest content of dietary fiber, together with a wide variety of bioactive compounds. There is accumulating evidence from intervention studies of physiological effects of rye foods with potential health benefits.

    Scope and approach: This review summarizes the state of the art of rye and health and identifies future directions for research and innovation, based partly on findings presented at the international conference "The Power of Rye", angstrom land, Finland, 7-8 June 2017.

    Key findings and conclusions: Rye foods have well-established beneficial effects on insulin metabolism compared with wheat bread under isocaloric conditions and at standardized amounts of available carbohydrates, which may have positive implications for diabetes prevention. Recent findings suggest that alterations in blood glucose flux partly explain these effects. Moreover, several studies have shown beneficial effects of rye-based foods on satiety, which is one plausible mechanism behind recently demonstrated beneficial effects on weight management. Emerging results indicate beneficial effects of rye intake on inflammation and blood lipids. More research is needed to uncover underlying mechanisms for other demonstrated effects and the long-term implications for health. A challenge with rye-based foods is making them palatable and widely acceptable to consumers. Development of innovative and tasty rye products and targeted communication strategies is crucial in increasing awareness and consumption of rye foods. Novel results in this regard are presented in this review.

  • Yadav, Akhilesh K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Espaillat, Akbar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Bacterial Strategies to Preserve Cell Wall Integrity Against Environmental Threats2018In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 2064Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial cells are surrounded by an exoskeleton-like structure, the cell wall, composed primarily of the peptidoglycan (PG) sacculus. This structure is made up of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptides generating a covalent mesh that shapes bacteria and prevents their lysis due to their high internal osmotic pressure. Even though the PG is virtually universal in bacteria, there is a notable degree of diversity in its chemical structure. Modifications in both the sugars and peptides are known to be instrumental for bacteria to cope with diverse environmental challenges. In this review, we summarize and discuss the cell wall strategies to withstand biotic and abiotic environmental insults such as the effect of antibiotics targeting cell wall enzymes, predatory PG hydrolytic proteins, and PG signaling systems. Finally we will discuss the opportunities that species-specific PG variability might open to develop antimicrobial therapies.

  • John, Thomas Wiswa
    et al.
    Mkoka, Dickson Ally
    Frumence, Gasto
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    An account for barriers and strategies in fulfilling women's right to quality maternal health care: a qualitative study from rural Tanzania2018In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 18, article id 352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tanzania has ratified and abides to legal treaties indicating the obligation of the state to provide essential maternal health care as a basic human right. Nevertheless, the quality of maternal health care is disproportionately low. The current study sets to understand maternal health services' delivery from the perspective of rural health workers', and to understand barriers for and better strategies for realization of the right to quality maternal health care. Methods: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted, involving 11 health workers mainly; medical attendants, enrolled nurses and Assistant Medical Officers from primary health facilities in rural Tanzania. Structured observation complemented data from interviews. Interview data were analyzed using thematic analysis guided by the conceptual framework of the right to health. Results: Three themes emerged that reflected health workers' opinion towards the quality of health care services; "It's hard to respect women's preferences", "Striving to fulfill women's needs with limited resources", and "Trying to facilitate women's access to services at the face of transport and cost barriers". Conclusion: Health system has left health workers as frustrated right holders, as well as dis-empowered duty bearers. This was due to the unavailability of adequate material and human resources, lack of motivation and lack of supervision, which are essential for provision of quality maternal health care services. Pregnant women, users of health services, appeared to be also left as frustrated right holders, who incurred out-of-pocket costs to pay for services, which were meant to be provided free.

  • Granath, Gustaf
    et al.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Baltzer, Jennifer L.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    Boncek, Nicholas
    Bragazza, Luca
    Bu, Zhao-Jun
    Caporn, Simon J. M.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Galanina, Olga
    Galka, Mariusz
    Ganeva, Anna
    Gillikin, David P.
    Goia, Irina
    Goncharova, Nadezhda
    Hájek, Michal
    Haraguchi, Akira
    Harris, Lorna I.
    Humphreys, Elyn
    Jiroušek, Martin
    Kajukalo, Katarzyna
    Karofeld, Edgar
    Koronatova, Natalia G.
    Kosykh, Natalia P.
    Lamentowicz, Mariusz
    Lapshina, Elena
    Limpens, Juul
    Linkosalmi, Maiju
    Ma, Jin-Ze
    Mauritz, Marguerite
    Munir, Tariq M.
    Natali, Susan M.
    Natcheva, Rayna
    Noskova, Maria
    Payne, Richard J.
    Pilkington, Kyle
    Robinson, Sean
    Robroek, Bjorn J. M.
    Rochefort, Line
    Singer, David
    Stenøien, Hans K.
    Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina
    Vellak, Kai
    Verheyden, Anouk
    MichaelWaddington, James
    Rice, Steven K.
    Environmental and taxonomic controls of carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition in Sphagnum across broad climatic and geographic ranges2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 16, p. 5189-5202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rain-fed peatlands are dominated by peat mosses (Sphagnum sp.), which for their growth depend on nutrients, water and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. As the isotopic composition of carbon (C-12(,)13) and oxygen (O-16(,)18) of these Sphagnum mosses are affected by environmental conditions, Sphagnum tissue accumulated in peat constitutes a potential long-term archive that can be used for climate reconstruction. However, there is inadequate understanding of how isotope values are influenced by environmental conditions, which restricts their current use as environmental and palaeoenvironmental indicators. Here we tested (i) to what extent C and O isotopic variation in living tissue of Sphagnum is speciesspecific and associated with local hydrological gradients, climatic gradients (evapotranspiration, temperature, precipitation) and elevation; (ii) whether the C isotopic signature can be a proxy for net primary productivity (NPP) of Sphagnum; and (iii) to what extent Sphagnum tissue delta O-18 tracks the delta O-18 isotope signature of precipitation. In total, we analysed 337 samples from 93 sites across North America and Eurasia us ing two important peat-forming Sphagnum species (S. magellanicum, S. fuscum) common to the Holarctic realm. There were differences in delta C-13 values between species. For S. magellanicum delta C-13 decreased with increasing height above the water table (HWT, R-2 = 17 %) and was positively correlated to productivity (R-2 = 7 %). Together these two variables explained 46 % of the between-site variation in delta C-13 values. For S. fuscum, productivity was the only significant predictor of delta C-13 but had low explanatory power (total R-2 = 6 %). For delta O-18 values, approximately 90 % of the variation was found between sites. Globally modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation explained 69 % of the between-site variation in tissue delta O-18. S. magellanicum showed lower delta O-18 enrichment than S. fuscum (-0.83 %0 lower). Elevation and climatic variables were weak predictors of tissue delta O-18 values after controlling for delta O-18 values of the precipitation. To summarize, our study provides evidence for (a) good predictability of tissue delta O-18 values from modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation, and (b) the possibility of relating tissue delta C-13 values to HWT and NPP, but this appears to be species-dependent. These results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.

  • Zulu, Joseph M.
    et al.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard
    Blystad, Astrid
    Mulubwa, Chama
    Makasa, Mpundu C.
    Michelo, Charles
    Musonda, Patrick
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Community based interventions for strengthening adolescent sexual reproductive health and rights: how can they be integrated and sustained? A realist evaluation protocol from Zambia2018In: Reproductive Health, ISSN 1742-4755, E-ISSN 1742-4755, Vol. 15, article id 145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research that explores how community-based interventions for strengthening adolescent sexual reproductive health and rights (SRHR) can be integrated and sustained in community health systems, is, to the best of our knowledge, very scarce, if not absent. It is important to document mechanisms that shape integration process in order to improve health systems' responsiveness towards adolescents' SRHR. This realist evaluation protocol will contribute to this knowledge in Zambia where there is increased attention towards promoting maternal, neonatal and child health as a means of addressing the current high early pregnancy and marriage rates. The protocol will ascertain: why, how, and under what conditions the integration of SRHR interventions into Zambian community health systems will optimise (or not) acceptability and adoption of SRHR services. This study is embedded within a randomized controlled trial - "Research Initiative to Support the Empowerment of Girls (RISE) "-which aims to reduce adolescent girl pregnancies and marriages through a package of interventions including economic support to families, payment of school fees to keep girls in school, pocket money for girls, as well as youth club and community meetings on reproductive health.

    Methods: This is a multiple-case study design. Data will be collected from schools, health facilities and communities through individual and group interviews, photovoice, documentary review, and observations. The study process will involve 1) developing an initial causal theory that proposes an explanation of how the integration of a community-based intervention that aimed to integrate adolescent SRHR into the community health system may lead to adolescent-friendly services; 2) refining the causal theory through case studies; 3) identifying contextual conditions and mechanisms that shape the integration process; and 4) finally proposing a refined causal theory and set of recommendations to guide policy makers, steer further research, and inform teaching programmes.

    Discussion: The study will document relevant values as well as less formal and horizontal mechanisms which shape the integration process of SRHR interventions at community level. Knowledge on mechanisms is essential for guiding development of strategies for effectively facilitating the integration process, scaling up processes and sustainability of interventions aimed at reducing SRH problems and health inequalities among adolescents.

  • Bandyopadhyay, Sulalit
    et al.
    McDonagh, Birgitte H.
    Singh, Gurvinder
    Raghunathan, Karthik
    Sandvig, Axel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience. 3 Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Sandvig, Ioanna
    Andreassen, Jens-Petter
    Glomm, Wilhelm R.
    Growing gold nanostructures for shape-selective cellular uptake2018In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 13, article id 254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With development in the synthesis of shape- and size-dependent gold (Au) nanostructures (NSs) and their applications in nanomedicine, one of the biggest challenges is to understand the interaction of these shapes with cancer cells. Herein, we study the interaction of Au NSs of five different shapes with glioblastoma-astrocytoma cells. Three different shapes (nanorods, tetrahexahedra, and bipyramids), possessing tunable optical properties, have been synthesized by a single-step seed-mediated growth approach employing binary surfactant mixtures of CTAB and a secondary surfactant By the use of two-step seed-mediated approach, we obtained new NSs, named nanomakura (Makura is a Japanese word used for pillow) which is reported for the first time here. Spherical Au nanoparticles were prepared by the Turkevich method. To study NS-cell interactions, we functionalized the NSs using thiolated PEG followed by 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid. The influence of shape and concentration of NSs on the cytotoxicity were assessed with a LIVE/DEAD assay in glioblastoma-astrocytoma cells. Furthermore, the time-dependent uptake of nanomakura was studied with TEM. Our results indicate that unlike the other shapes studied here, the nanomakura were taken up both via receptor-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Thus, from our library of different NSs with similar surface functionality, the shape is found to be an important parameter for cellular uptake.

  • Wang, Chao
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Iashchishyn, Igor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Department of General Chemistry, Sumy State University, Sumy, 40000, Ukraine.
    Pansieri, Jonathan
    Nyström, Sofie
    Klementieva, Oxana
    Kara, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Horvath, Istvan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Moskalenko, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Department of Pathology, Sumy State University, Sumy, 40000, Ukraine.
    Rofougaran, Reza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gouras, Gunnar
    Kovacs, Gabor G.
    Shankar, S. K.
    Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    S100A9-Driven Amyloid-Neuroinflammatory Cascade in Traumatic Brain Injury as a Precursor State for Alzheimer's Disease2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 12836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pro-inflammatory and amyloidogenic S100A9 protein is an important contributor to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is viewed as a precursor state for AD. Here we have shown that S100A9-driven amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade was initiated in TBI and may serve as a mechanistic link between TBI and AD. By analyzing the TBI and AD human brain tissues, we demonstrated that in post-TBI tissues S100A9, produced by neurons and microglia, becomes drastically abundant compared to A beta and contributes to both precursor-plaque formation and intracellular amyloid oligomerization. Conditions implicated in TBI, such as elevated S100A9 concentration, acidification and fever, provide strong positive feedback for S100A9 nucleation-dependent amyloid formation and delay in its proteinase clearance. Consequently, both intracellular and extracellular S100A9 oligomerization correlated with TBI secondary neuronal loss. Common morphology of TBI and AD plaques indicated their similar initiation around multiple aggregation centers. Importantly, in AD and TBI we found S100A9 plaques without A beta. S100A9 and A beta plaque pathology was significantly advanced in AD cases with TBI history at earlier age, signifying TBI as a risk factor. These new findings highlight the detrimental consequences of prolonged post-TBI neuroinflammation, which can sustain S100A9-driven amyloid-neurodegenerative cascade as a specific mechanism leading to AD development.

  • Andersson, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Orädd, Greger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Comparative Biology (UCCB).
    Sultan, Fahad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Novikov, Lev N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    In vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging, and Tractography of a Sciatic Nerve Injury Model in Rat at 9.4T2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 12911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral nerve injuries result in severe loss of sensory and motor functions in the afflicted limb. There is a lack of standardised models to non-invasively study degeneration, regeneration, and normalisation of neuronal microstructure in peripheral nerves. This study aimed to develop a non-invasive evaluation of peripheral nerve injuries, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), and tractography on a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. 10 female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to sciatic nerve neurotmesis and studied using a 9.4 T magnet, by performing DTI and DKI of the sciatic nerve before and 4 weeks after injury. The distal nerve stump showed a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean kurtosis (MK), axonal water fraction (AWF), and radial and axonal kurtosis (RK, AK) after injury. The proximal stump showed a significant decrease in axial diffusivity (AD) and increase of MK and AK as compared with the uninjured nerve. Both mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) increased in the distal stump after injury. Tractography visualised the sciatic nerve and the site of injury, as well as local variations of the diffusion parameters following injury. In summary, the described method detects changes both proximal and distal to the nerve injury.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-05 09:00 KB.E3.01, Umeå
    Wessels, Bernard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    The significance of ethylene and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORS in wood formation of hybrid aspen2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The woody tissues serve to stabilise plants, store nutrients and translocate water and minerals. The formation of wood, or ’secondary xylem’, follows a well-defined developmental gradient which is initiated by cell division activity in the vascular cambium. The ’xylem cambial derivatives’ then expand before deposition of the secondary cell wall (SCW), which is where most of the biomass of wood originates. After this, some cells of the xylem typically undergo programmed cell death (PCD). Cellulose and lignin are chemical components of the SCW that provide structural support and water impermeability, respectively. The chemical composition of the SCWs is also important economically since it affects the efficiency of wood processing during pulping and enzymatic hydrolysis. Two dominant xylem cell types of angiosperm tree species like Populus are the fibers and the vessel elements. Fibers are important for the mechanical strength of the wood and provide the majority of the wood biomass. Vessel elements join endwise to form hollow tubes, or vessels, for the purposes of water and solute transport in the stem.


    Formation of wood is a complex process, subject to multiple levels of regulation. Plant hormones are important for wood formation, and ethylene signalling has been shown to stimulate cambial activity, affect the ratio between fibers and vessel elements, as well as the expansion of the cambial derivatives. Ethylene is also involved in the ‘tension wood’ response of stems that are displaced from their original vertical position. Formation of ’tension wood’ generates a force that lifts the stem back to the upright growing position. What remains unknown is the molecular link between ethylene signalling and wood formation. The work in this thesis focuses on providing this link using the model tree species hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides).


    Using a state-of-the-art transcriptomic database that spans all phases of xylem differentiation in hybrid aspen wood, from cell division through xylem cell expansion to xylem maturation (SCW deposition and PCD), the expression of the ethylene pathway related genes was investigated during normal wood formation. The analyses reveal ethylene perception and transcriptional reprogramming is possible across all zones of wood formation. Previously uncharacterised components were identified that may be important contributors to wood formation. Furthermore, although ethylene is known to affect the ratio between the abundance of the vessel elements and the fibers, genetic evidence is lacking. Using the tension wood response and transgenic trees modified in ethylene signalling, it was shown that ethylene is a negative regulator of vessel formation and important for a functional tension wood response. Furthermore, characterisation of two transcription factors (TFs), belonging to the ethylene response factor (ERF) gene family, suggests that aspects of xylem cell division, expansion and subsequent SCW formation, including lignification, can be affected by ERF85 and ERF139 in an ethylene-dependent manner. Phase transitions during wood formation need to be controlled spatiotemporally, and transcriptional regulation by these ERFs seems to be part of such control to establish correct transitions between cell expansion, secondary cell wall formation and lignification. The work presented here also identifies promising additions to the toolkit available for forest tree biotechnology and molecular breeding programmes.

  • Zhao, Qiong
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Maja K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. The Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, The Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen,Universitetsparken 15, 2100 Copenhagen Ø Denmark.
    Newman, Gregory S.
    Classen, Aimée T.
    Soils beneath different arctic shrubs have contrasting responses to a natural gradient in temperature2018In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 9, no 6, article id e02290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shrubs commonly form islands of fertility and are expanding their distribution and dominance in the arctic due to climate change, yet how soil properties may be influenced when different species of shrubs expand under warmer climates remains less explored. Important plant traits, such as their associated root community, are linked to functionally different and dominant shrub species in the arctic and these traits likely shape biogeochemical cycling in areas of shrub expansion. Using an elevational gradient as a proxy for warming, we explored how biochemical processes beneath two important arctic shrubs varied under warmer (low elevation) and cooler (high elevation) climates. Interestingly, the influence of elevation on biogeochemistry varied between the two shrubs. At the low elevation, Betula nana L., an ectomycorrhizal shrub, had high carbon (C) degrading enzyme activities, and relatively low potential net nitrogen (N) mineralization rates. Conversely, Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum Hagerup, an cricoid mycorrhizal dwarf-shrub, had higher enzyme activities and net N immobilization rates at the higher elevation. Further, E. nigrum ssp. hermpahroditum appeared to have a more closed C and nutrient cycle than B. nana-enzymes degrading C, N, and phosphorus were tightly correlated with each other and with total C and ammonium concentrations in the humus beneath E. nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum, but not beneath B. nana. Our results suggest differences in the warming responses of C and N cycling beneath shrub species across an arctic tundra landscape.

  • Grieve, Adrian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lau, Danny C. P.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Do autochthonous resources enhance trophic transfer of allochthonous organic matter to aquatic consumers, or vice versa?2018In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 9, no 6, article id e02307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autochthonous and allochthonous resources are known to differ in nutritional quality and trophic support for aquatic food webs, but it is less clear how these high- and low-quality resources interact to affect trophic transfer and consumer production. We conducted 30-d feeding trials to investigate the resource assimilation, somatic growth, and fatty-acid (FA) composition of the widespread benthic generalist isopod Asellus aquatints, in response to different ratios of low-quality allochthonous (leaf litter) to high-quality autochthonous diets (algae). Wet mass growth of Asellus was lowest when fed 100% leaf litter or algae (0.53 +/- 0.46 and 0.55 +/- 0.57 mg center dot g(-1)center dot d(-1), respectively; mean +/- SE) and highest (4.95 +/- 0.51 mg center dot g(-1)center dot d(-1)) with a diet of 90:10 leaf litter:algae ratio. Asellus tended to grow slower with increasing dietary algal proportions (10-100%), yet stable isotopes and Bayesian mixing models revealed consistently high algal assimilation (>= 94%) by Asellus. Therefore, among the mixed-diet treatments, Asellus biomass production using algal resources was optimized when terrestrial organic matter (OM) dominated over algae. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):total FA, EPA:omega-3 FA, and arachidonic acid:total FA declined, but docosahexaenoic acid (DHA):omega-3 FA increased, with increasing growth of Asellus. Tissue EPA concentrations of Asellus were similar among treatments, so reductions in EPA:omega-3 and EPA:total FA were due to increases in DHA concentration. Overall, our results suggest synergistic effects between autochthonous and allochthonous resources on Asellus growth and that allochthonous OM particularly facilitates the trophic transfer of autochthonous resources. Asellus preferentially retains DHA at low algal availability. This may improve its neural tissue development and so its success in accessing algae. The growth and FA responses of the widespread Asellus can enhance resource and DHA transfer to visual predators that have greater DHA demands, particularly when brownification of boreal freshwaters likely intensifies upon global climate change.

  • Tunster, Larry
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Monetary Policy and Uncertainty: A GVAR Approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how both changes in monetary policy and monetary policy uncertainty from the United States Central bank affects 33 countries through various channels - GDP, Inflation, Equity Prices, Exchange rates and long and short interest rates from 1985 to 2016. This study follows a similar approach to Lei and Liu (2015) and Bi and Anwar (2017) who conduct similar research with a focus on the actions of the US Federal Reserve.

    The background and Literature review finds overwhelming evidence empirically and theoretically in support of all channels including uncertainty.

    Using the GVAR model and Generalized impulse response functions we find that a positive standard error shock in Money Supply, Discount Rate and Monetary Policy uncertainty provide some significant results across most channels.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-05 09:00 Sal Betula, 901 87 Umeå
    Linder, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Proteolytic imbalance in COPD: epidemiological and clinical aspects2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The complete pathologic mechanism behind the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear, but several risk factors have been identified, of which smoking is the most common. Proteolytic imbalance contributes to lung tissue degradation and is related to both smoking and COPD symptoms. Spirometry and symptomatic assessments are the standard diagnostics, but COPD has varying clinical features, that hamper clinical management and research assessment. Evaluating proteolytic markers' relationship to COPD and its clinical presentation could reveal proteolytic imbalance as an important disease mechanism.

    Aims: 1) To evaluate proteolytic markers in COPD and non-COPD. 2) To study the relationship between proteolytic markers and both lung function decline and prognosis. 3) To recruit subjects from a longitudinal study to a clinical study of disease mechanisms. 4) To study proteolytic markers in airways and serum and their relation to rate of decline in lung function.

    Methods: Spirometry, serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were evaluated in a population-based study comprising 993 COPD subjects and 993 age- and sex-matched non-COPD referents. In addition, data from 2005 to 2010 were surveyed comprising longitudinal spirometry data and mortality records. For a clinical study, we described the recruitment process of COPD subjects with a FEV1 decline of ≥60 or ≤30 mL/year, along with ever- and never-smoking controls with normal lung function. MMP-9, MMP-12, and TIMP-1 data from bronchial wash (BW), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum (collected from 2012 to 2014) were assessed in the clinical study.

    Results: COPD subjects presented higher serum concentrations of MMP- 9 compared to non-COPD subjects (p = 0.017). MMP-9 and MMP- 9/TIMP-1 ratio had a negative linear association with the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) percentage predicted in COPD. Associating the 2005 levels of MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio to decline in FEV1 and FEV1% predicted, revealed a similar negative association pattern in both non-COPD and COPD, however, this was only significant for non-COPD. A non-response analysis comparing proteolytic marker values from 2005 between participating and non-participating subjects at follow-up in 2010 (excluding deceased individuals) demonstrated significantly higher MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios in both non-COPD and COPD, and significantly lower TIMP-1 concentration in non-participants compared to participants. Among the deceased, MMP-9 levels and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios were higher in COPD compared to non-COPD. In the longitudinal study, all-cause mortality was higher in the COPD group (16%), than in the non-COPD (10%) (p = 0.008).

    For the clinical study, 15 subjects were recruited to the two normal lung function groups, while this goal was unachieved for the two COPD groups. The most prevalent reasons for exclusion in the COPD groups were comorbidities. BW- and BAL-MMP-12 concentrations were higher in the COPD group comprising current- and ex-smokers, compared to both ever-smokers (BW: p = 0.001, BAL: p = 0.001) and non-smokers with normal lung function (BW: p = 0.001, BAL: p = 0.001). To evaluate the impact of smoking, COPD ex-smokers were compared to COPD current smokers, with no significant difference in BW- and BAL-MMP- 12. In contrast COPD-ex smokers had higher BW- and BAL-MMP-12 compared to ex-smokers with normal lung function, thus suggesting increased BW- and BAL-MMP-12 as markers of COPD rather than of smoking. MMP-12 concentrations in serum were higher for COPD current smokers compared to COPD ex-smokers (p = 0.028), but there was no significant difference between COPD ex-smokers and ex-smokers with normal lung function. BAL-MMP-12 in COPD was associated with annual decline in FEV1 (r = 0.61, p = 0.005).

    Conclusion: Extrapolating the data on MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio suggests increased proteolytic activity is related to airflow limitation and consequently to COPD severity. Considering the population-based nature of the study, the association of both MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1-ratio in COPD to mortality risk could be translated to the general population. Identifying COPD subjects with specific phenotypes proved difficult despite the large number of available individuals. Increased airway levels of MMP-12 indicated a state of increased proteolytic activity and were associated with rapid lung function decline in COPD. These findings imply that proteolytic imbalance is related to symptoms, lung function decline and prognosis, suggesting it represents a relevant disease mechanism in COPD.

  • Atterhem, Veronica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Myrberg, Tomi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    The incidence of hemodynamic and respiratory adverse events in morbidly obese presenting for Bariatric surgery2018In: International Journal of Clinical Anesthesia and Research, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 009-017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Perioperative management of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery is challenging. Lacking standardized perioperative protocols, complication rates may be high. This retrospective study aims to quantify the incidence of significant blood pressure decreases on induction of anesthesia and intraoperative hypoxemia, before implementation of a standardized protocol designed for bariatric surgery.

    Design: Retrospective, observational study.

    Setting: A 250-bed county hospital in northern Sweden.

    Subjects: 219 morbidly obese patients (body mass index > 35 kg/m2) who underwent bariatric surgery between 2003 and 2008.

    Main outcome measures: Incidence of systolic blood pressure (SAP) falls to less than 70% of the preoperative baseline during induction of anesthesia and incidence of perioperative hypoxemia.

    Results: The incidence of confirmed SAP falls to below 70% of baseline at induction of anesthesia was 56.2% (n = 123/219). This incidence rose with increasing age (p < 0.001) but not with body mass index (BMI). 3.7% (n = 8/219) of cases were marked as difficult intubations. A transient period of hypoxemia was observed in 6.8% (n = 15/219) and was more common with increasing BMI (p = 0.005). Fourteen different drug combinations were used in the study population. Of those administered an induction anesthetic drug, 72.6% (n = 159/193) were given an overdose when calculated by lean body weight, but this did not correlate significantly to SAP falls (p = 0.468).

    Conclusions: The incidence of a significant blood pressure fall upon induction of anesthesia was common. The incidence of airway and ventilation problems were low. Overdosing of anesthetics and excessive variation in applied anesthesia methods were found.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-05 13:00 Hörsal D, Unod T9, Umeå
    Sirili, Nathanael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Health workforce development post-1990s health sector reforms: the case of medical doctors in Tanzania2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health systems in many low- and middle-income countries suffer from critical shortages and inequitable geographical distribution of the health workforce. Since the 1940s, many low- and middle-income countries have passed through different regimes of health sector reforms; the most recent one was in the 1990s. Tanzania is a good example of these countries. From the 1990s, Tanzania has been implementing the third generation of health sector reforms. This thesis analysed the health workforce development following the 1990s health sector reforms in Tanzania.

    Methods: An exploratory case study employing both quantitative and qualitative research approaches was used to analyse the training, deployment, and retention of medical doctors about two decades following the 1990s healthsector reforms. The quantitative approach involved analysis of graduation books and records from the Medical Council of Tanganyika to document the number of doctors who graduated locally and abroad, a countrywide survey of available doctors as of July 2011, and analysis of staffing levels to document the number of doctors recommended for the health sector as of 2012. The gap between the number of available and required doctors was computed by subtracting available from required in that period. The qualitative approach involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and a documents review. Key informants were recruited from districts, regions, government ministries, national hospitals, medical training institutions in both the public and private sectors, Christian Social Services Commission and the Association of Private Health Facilities in Tanzania. Focused group discussion participants were members of Council Health Management Teams in three selected districts. Documents reviewed included country human resources for health profiles, health sector strategic plans, human resources for health strategic plans and published and grey literature on health sector reforms, health workforce training, and deployment and retention documentation. For the training, analysis of data was done thematically with the guide of policy analysis framework. For deployment and retention, qualitative content analysis was adopted.

    Results: Re-introduction of the private sector in the form of public-private partnerships has boosted the number of doctors graduating annually sevenfold in 2010 compared to that in 1992. Despite the increase in the number of doctors graduating annually, their training faces some challenges, including the erosion of university autonomies prescribed by the law; coercive admission of many medical students greater than the capacity of the medical schools, thus threatening the quality of the graduates; and lack of coordination between trainers and employers. Tanzania requires a minimum of 3,326 doctors to attain the minimum threshold of 0.1 doctor per 1,000 population, as recommended by the World Health Organization. However, a countrywide survey has revealed the existence of around 1,300 doctors working in the health sector—almost the same as the number before the reforms. Failure to offer employment to all graduating doctors, uncertainties around the first appointment, failure to respect doctors’ preferences for first appointment workplaces, and the feelings of insecurity in going to districts are among the major challenges haunting the deployment of doctors in Tanzania. For those who went to the districts, the issues of unfavourable working conditions, unsupportive environment in the community, and resource scarcity have all challenged their retention.

    Conclusions: The development of human resources for health after the 1990s health sector reforms have to some extent been contradictory. On the one hand, Tanzania has succeeded in training more doctors than the minimum it requires, despite some challenges facing the training institutions. On the other hand, failure to deploy and retain an adequate number of doctors in its health system has left the country to continue suffering from a shortage and inequitable distribution of doctors in favour of urban areas. For health sector reforms to bring successes with minimal challenges in health workforce development, a holistic approach that targets doctors’ training, deployment, and retention is recommended.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-05 13:15 L 212, Lärarhuset, Umeå
    Ewa, Axelsson Lantz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Naturresurser, sågverksbolag och bönder: konflikter i Västernorrland 1863-19062018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the nineteenth century, competition over forestland and waterways grew in Northern Sweden. This increased the pressure on existing institutions of natural resource governance. It culminated with a ban on private acquisition of woodland from smallholders in 1906. This thesis deals with how the local communities handled the institutional challenges of this process. I study two geographical areas connected to different stages in the chain of production, from the inland of standing timber to the downstream sawmills. Previous research states that the sawmill industry in this region used its position in local governments to gain economic advantages. The number of votes were related to the value of one’s property and income, which put forest and factory owners in a favorable political position. Another claim from previous works is that the local courts, in general, constituted a place for settling local natural resource conflicts in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The two research questions extracted from this are: What role did formal political and legal institutions play in managing conflicts about natural resource use? What disagreements occurred in the different parts of the sawmill industry's production chain? The aim is to better understand natural resource conflicts between the local community and the sawmill industry, across the production chain, in the county of Västernorrland, 1863-1906. To capture the regional differences, I study one industrial municipality – Gudmundrå, and one raw material municipality – Junsele. An iterative methodological approach is used. I find that the local government was not a significant arena for natural resource matters, in contrast to what could be intuitively expected from the literature. Sawmill companies did use their politically dominant position to influence the local community, however not in matters of resource management in this case. The local court was more important. These conflicts were often about property rights regarding contracts and the use of waterways and forestland, and damages imposed by this. Local farmers often initiated cases. This is in line with what the literature suggested on the role of local courts as the arena for settling private economic matters among locals. However, the nature of the conflicts changed over time and differed vastly between the two geographical areas. The results show that the conflict types were different in Gudmundrå and Junsele due to their geographical location, which provided a ground for different links of the sawmill value chain. The results also reveals that key institutional changes were characterized of both top-down and bottom-up processes. One example is local farmers who were involved in the processes of setting the terms for log driving routes. They served as an important link of the value chain that connected the raw materials to the saw mill industry’s production.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-05 13:00 Sundsvalls sjukhus Aulan, plan 1, hiss 8, Sundsvall
    Wadsten, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    DCIS of the breast: aspects on treatment and prognosis2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer form and a leading cause of death in women worldwide. Ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is characterized by a proliferation of malignant cells confined within the mammary ducts and is a potential precursor of invasive breast cancer. The risk estimations of a DCIS to develop into invasive cancer over a 10 year period range from 30-50%. In the past 25 years, concomitant with the implementation of screening mammography, the incidence of DCIS has increased dramatically and presently almost 1 000 women are diagnosed with DCIS each year in Sweden. The increased incidence poses concerns of overtreatment and current research aim at identifying clinical or pathological markers that can reliably distinguish hazardous from harmless DCIS.                                        The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the prognostic significance of clinical and tumourbiological characteristics of DCIS and to assess the benefits and harms of adjuvant treatment.

    In a population-based cohort of 2 952 women with primary DCIS, we analysed trends in incidence, treatment and outcome over a 20-year period (paper I). Information was obtained from the regional breast cancer register in Uppsala-Örebro healthcare region between 1992 and 2012. A validation of 300 randomly selected women revealed high overall completeness and reliability of most key variables, whereas follow-up data were of moderate quality with only 65% of the recurrences reported to the register.

    The major finding of the study was a trend towards more intensified treatment over time. The frequency of mastectomy increased from 23.0% to 39.0% and the proportion of patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery increased from 30.1% to 67.6%. This did not, however, translate into any noteable improvements in outcome. Relative survival was >97% after 10 years with no significant variation over time. In conclusion, these results may reflect adequate treatment selection, but may also indicate a significant overtreatment.

    In paper II and III, a nested case-control study was conducted from a cohort of 6 964 women with primary DCIS to identify clinical characteristics in DCIS associated with subsequent breast cancer death. Ninety-six women who later died from breast cancer were compared to 318 controls selected by incidence density sampling. Information was obtained from medial records and histopathology reports.

    Tumour size over 25 mm or multifocal DCIS (OR 2⋅55; 95%CI 1⋅53 to 4⋅25), a positive or uncertain margin status (OR 3⋅91; 95%CI 1⋅59 to 9⋅61) and detection outside the screening programme (OR 2⋅12; 95%CI 1⋅16 to 3⋅86) increased the risk of death from breast cancer. In the multivariable analysis, tumour size (OR 1⋅95; 95%CI 1⋅06 to 3⋅67) and margin status (OR 2⋅69; 95%CI 1⋅15 to 7⋅11) remained significant. More extensive treatment was not associated with lower risk, which may be due to confounding by indication, or indicate that some DCIS have an inherent potential for metastatic spread.                                    

    In paper III, to further explore the association of tumour biology and risk of breast cancer death, archival tumour blocks were collected. Freshly cut hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections of the primary DCIS were histopathologically evaluated for nuclear grade, presence of comedonecrosis and lymphocytic infiltration (LI). Tissue microarrays were constructed for immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and Ki67. Using the results of the IHC analyses, tumours were classified into surrogate molecular subtypes.

    Presence of intense periductal LI was associated with an increased risk of subsequent breast cancer death (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.02 to 4.99). None of the other biomarkers were individually related to breast cancer death, nor were there any statistically significant differences in risk between the molecular subtypes. In multivariable analysis, stepwise adjusting for age, tumour size and treatment, PR negativity in combination with LI; PR negativity, LI and presence of comedonecrosis and the combination of PR negativity, LI, comedonecrosis and HER2 positivity were all independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer death. The significance of features in the peritumoral stroma need further investigation and may have implications for targeted treatments.

    In paper IV, we studied the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) after treatment for DCIS. Postoperative radiotherapy (RT) in DCIS reduces recurrence rates by half but confers no benefits in terms of survival. It is thus of major importance to consider long-term adverse effects. Left-sided breast irradiation may involve exposure of the heart to ionising radiation with an associated risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. The cumulative incidence of IHD was analysed in a population-based cohort of 6270 women with DCIS compared 31 257 women without a history of breast cancer. Of the women with DCIS, 38.9% had received adjuvant RT.

    After a median follow-up of 8 years, there was no increased risk of IHD for women with DCIS versus the comparison cohort. The risk was lower for women with DCIS allocated to RT compared to non-irradiated women and to the comparison cohort, probably due to patient selection. Comparison of RT by laterality did not show any over-risk for irradiation of the left breast. These results are reassuring, but longer follow-up may be warranted considering the continuously increasing use of RT in DCIS management.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-05 09:00 Major Groove, Umeå
    Lopes, José Pedro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Candida albicans adaption to host microenvironments drives immune evasion2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunosuppressed patients are frequently afflicted with severe mycoses caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens. Besides being a commensal colonizing predominantly skin and mucosal surfaces, Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen. Mast cells are present in tissues prone to fungal colonization being expectedly among the first immune cells to get into contact with C. albicans. Here we describe how mast cells acted as tissue sentinels and modulated initial antifungal immune responses. Mast cells response was able to reduce fungal viability and signaled for neutrophil infiltration to the tissue. Upon chemokine sensing circulating neutrophils are rapid infiltrating to the mucosal to help fight infection. A high number of infiltrating cells coupled with the formation of multicellular structures such as biofilm comes with induction of hypoxic and anoxic micro niches. We found that a persistence anoxia hampered neutrophil responses by affecting fungi sensing and consequent antifungal due to cell wall masking. Adaption to low oxygen seems is important for a successful host infection. Hypoxic and anoxic environments do not allow neutrophils to efficiently produce ROS. Neutrophil oxidative burst is essential for antifungal activity and many fungal pathogens evolved antioxidative factors to mediate survival during infection. We reasoned that targeting of fungal redox balances could be a new therapy approach. We have tested tempol, a redox-cycling nitroxide Tempol as a new antifungal drug. Tempol proved an efficient compound in our testing. We found that Tempol affected fundamental pathways for fungal homeostases such as glycolysis and steroid biosynthesis. Additionally, Tempol helped curve fungal infectivity in a mouse model and leads for an enhanced immune system cytokine profile in human blood. The results obtained proposed tempol as a valid new antifungal compound and open new opportunities for the future development of therapies. Efficient antifungal therapies are still urgent since only 6 classes of antimycotics exist and all with few restricted fungal targets. Since primarily fungal infections affect patients with other immunosuppressive conditions, which are undergoing treatment, we reasoned that repurposing drugs could offer clinical benefits. We performed a screening of two US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved compound libraries for compounds with anti-Candida activity. From 844 drugs, 26 agents showed activity against C. albicans. We identified 7 new off-target drugs all with potent anti- C. albicans activity. The use of these new drugs could be prophylactic or to treat both conditions simultaneously offering, therefore the intended benefit.

    Overall, in this thesis work, we have focused on the sensing clearing and management of fungal pathogens. These findings open new doors for understanding better fungal pathogenicity and purpose valid new antifungal compounds that pave the way for future development of therapies.

  • Byström, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Effekten av offshoring på löner i utvecklingsländer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Av den ökade globala handeln under de senaste åren kan slutsatsen dras, att vi är mer öppnaoch att den globala marknaden växer sig allt större. År 1960 låg handeln av BNP i världen pårunt 24%, och 2016 uppgick andelen till 56%. Utifrån detta har människor möjlighet att handla,arbeta och bo i andra länder, men påverkas lönen av denna öppenhet?

    Enligt teorin så kommer faktorpriserna, priserna på till exempel arbetskraft, kapital och jord attutjämnas vid en ökad handel mellan länder. Vid full frihandel, skulle arbetskraften av sammaslag få samma lön över hela handelsområdet.

    Denna studie har undersökts hur offshoring påverkar lönen för låg- medel- och högutbildade iåtta utvecklingsländer under perioden 1995-2009. Offshoring är ett begrepp som betyder attman flyttar verksamheten utomlands. Ett exempel är när ett företag väljer att flytta sinproduktion utomlands, där arbetskraften är lägre.

    Resultatet visade att offshoring hade en positiv effekt på lönen för alla tre utbildningsgrupperoch att skillnaden av effekten av offshoring mellan utbildningsgrupperna var väldigt liten.

  • Tyden, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Anestesiläkaravdelningen, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Larsson, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Lehtipalo, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Herwald, H
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Walldén, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Behndig, Annelie F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Johansson, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Heparin-binding protein in ventilator-induced lung injury.2018In: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental, ISSN 1646-2335, E-ISSN 2197-425X, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although mechanical ventilation is often lifesaving, it can also cause injury to the lungs. The lung injury is caused by not only high pressure and mechanical forces but also by inflammatory processes that are not fully understood. Heparin-binding protein (HBP), released by activated granulocytes, has been indicated as a possible mediator of increased vascular permeability in the lung injury associated with trauma and sepsis. We investigated if HBP levels were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or plasma in a pig model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). We also investigated if HBP was present in BALF from healthy volunteers and in intubated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).

    METHODS: Anaesthetized pigs were randomized to receive ventilation with either tidal volumes of 8 ml/kg (controls, n = 6) or 20 ml/kg (VILI group, n = 6). Plasma and BALF samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. In humans, HBP levels in BALF were sampled from 16 healthy volunteers and from 10 intubated patients being cared for in the ICU.

    RESULTS: Plasma levels of HBP did not differ between pigs in the control and VILI groups. The median HBP levels in BALF were higher in the VILI group after 6 h of ventilation compared to those in the controls (1144 ng/ml (IQR 359-1636 ng/ml) versus 89 ng/ml (IQR 33-191 ng/ml) ng/ml, respectively, p = 0.02). The median HBP level in BALF from healthy volunteers was 0.90 ng/ml (IQR 0.79-1.01 ng/ml) as compared to 1959 ng/ml (IQR 612-3306 ng/ml) from intubated ICU patients (p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: In a model of VILI in pigs, levels of HBP in BALF increased over time compared to controls, while plasma levels did not differ between the two groups. HBP in BALF was high in intubated ICU patients in spite of the seemingly non-harmful ventilation, suggesting that inflammation from other causes might increase HBP levels.

  • Nordström, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    Jag vill kunna välja hur jag vill låta: En studie om utveckling och tillämpning av ett undervisningsmaterial för sång på gymnasiet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie grundar sig i ett intresse för sång och sångteknik som berör begrepp som genrer, sound och effekter. I enlighet med mitt yrkesval som sångpedagog har även ett intresse för läromedel i sång varit till grund för detta arbete. Syftet med denna studie är att utveckla kunskap om hur ett eget sångundervisningsmaterial konstruerat för en specifik kurs på gymnasiet uppfyller sitt syfte. De frågeställningar som har styrt arbetets gång har behandlat hur en konstruktion av ett sångundervisningsmaterial kan gå till samt hur ett sångundervisningsmaterial kan användas av elever. Detta är delvis ett gestaltande arbete och en kvalitativ studie. Studiens metoder utgörs av aktionsforskning och intervjuer samt prövande av sångövningar och läsning av relevant sånglitteratur. Resultatet presenteras i två delar som besvarar de två frågeställningarna. Första delen av resultatet är ett sångundervisningsmaterial som belyser valda sångtekniska aspekter genom egna konstruerade genrepaletter. Andra delen av resultatet belyser elevernas tankar om sångundervisningsmaterialet.

  • Weiss, Jana M.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Swetox, Karolinska Institute, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Forskargatan 20, 151 36, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Gerde, Per
    Bergman, Åke
    Lindh, Christian H.
    Krais, Annette M.
    Daily intake of phthalates, MEHP, and DINCH by ingestion and inhalation2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 208, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters, suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals, are used in a wide range of applications. Because phthalate esters are not covalently bound, they can easily leach into the indoor environment and associate to dust particles. Thus, exposure may occur through inhalation, ingestion, or contact with the skin. However, it is unclear to what degree indoor dust contributes to the daily intake of phthalate esters.

    This study investigates household dust as an exposure pathway for seven phthalate esters, the monoester MEHP, and the plasticizer DINCH. Household dust collected from children's sleeping rooms and from living rooms were analysed using gas and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. To compare two exposure pathways, different dust particle sizes were generated: a respirable fraction (<5 mu m) and an ingested particle fraction in the anticipated size range of skin adherence (<75 mu m). Modelling of dust inhalation and ingestion showed that the daily intake of dust-bound phthalate esters was likely to be 2 times (inhalation) to 12 times (ingestion) higher for 21-month-old children than for adults. These children's daily uptake of phthalate esters was 40-140 times higher through ingestion than inhalation. Furthermore, dust may be an exposure pathway for phthalate esters as well as for MEHP. Therefore, phthalate monoesters could be environmental contaminants of their own and need to be considered in health risk assessments. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Van den Brink, Paul J.
    et al.
    Boxall, Alistair B. A.
    Maltby, Lorraine
    Brooks, Bryan W.
    Rudd, Murray A.
    Backhaus, Thomas
    Spurgeon, David
    Verougstraete, Violaine
    Ajao, Charmaine
    Ankley, Gerald T.
    Apitz, Sabine E.
    Arnold, Kathryn
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel
    Chapman, Jennifer
    Corrales, Jone
    Coutellec, Marie-Agnès
    Fernandes, Teresa F.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ford, Alex T.
    Giménez Papiol, Gemma
    Groh, Ksenia J.
    Hutchinson, Thomas H.
    Kruger, Hank
    Kukkonen, Jussi V. K.
    Loutseti, Stefania
    Marshall, Stuart
    Muir, Derek
    Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E.
    Paul, Kai B.
    Rico, Andreu
    Rodea-Palomares, Ismael
    Römbke, Jörg
    Rydberg, Tomas
    Segner, Helmut
    Smit, Mathijs
    van Gestel, Cornelis A. M.
    Vighi, Marco
    Werner, Inge
    Zimmer, Elke I.
    van Wensem, Joke
    Toward sustainable environmental quality: Priority research questions for Europe2018In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 2281-2295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals have been established to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all. Delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals will require a healthy and productive environment. An understanding of the impacts of chemicals which can negatively impact environmental health is therefore essential to the delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, current research on and regulation of chemicals in the environment tend to take a simplistic view and do not account for the complexity of the real world, which inhibits the way we manage chemicals. There is therefore an urgent need for a step change in the way we study and communicate the impacts and control of chemicals in the natural environment. To do this requires the major research questions to be identified so that resources are focused on questions that really matter. We present the findings of a horizon-scanning exercise to identify research priorities of the European environmental science community around chemicals in the environment. Using the key questions approach, we identified 22 questions of priority. These questions covered overarching questions about which chemicals we should be most concerned about and where, impacts of global megatrends, protection goals, and sustainability of chemicals; the development and parameterization of assessment and management frameworks; and mechanisms to maximize the impact of the research. The research questions identified provide a first-step in the path forward for the research, regulatory, and business communities to better assess and manage chemicals in the natural environment. 

  • Bedro, Edward
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Användningen av β-blockerare vid långt QT-syndrom: - Litteraturstudie med fokus på skillnader i effekt av olika β-blockerare2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Karimi, Payam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    BESLUTSSTÖD VIDLÄKEMEDELSGENOMGÅNGAR: Enkätstudie om kliniskafarmaceuters värdering ochanvändning av samt tillgångtill beslutsstöd2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Kurhade, Chaitanya
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Schreier, Sarah
    Lee, Yi-Ping
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan..
    Zegenhagen, Loreen
    Hjertqvist, Marika
    Dobler, Gerhard
    Kroeger, Andrea
    Överby, Anna K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Correlation of Severity of Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Disease and Pathogenicity in Mice2018In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 1709-1712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared 2 tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from 2 different foci that cause different symptoms in tick-borne encephalitis patients, from neurologic to mild gastrointestinal symptoms. We compared neuroinvasiveness, neurovirulence, and proinflammatory cytokine response in mice and found unique differences that contribute to our understanding of pathogenesis.

  • Eriksson, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Anslutning av hybridfordon somreservkraft till elnätet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är en konceptstudie som har genomförts tillsammans med BAE System. Huvudmålet är att ta fram gällande lagkrav samt ett förslag på en teknisk lösning.Den tekniska lösningen ska utvecklas för att kunna använda ett hybridfordon för att kunna verka som reservkraftanläggning. Det som framkommer i rapporten är att lagkraven är möjligt att efterleva och därför finns en utvecklingspotential i den tekniska lösningen.Tekniskt sett är det möjligt att ansluta hybridfordonet till elnätet. Detta kan genomföras genom att likrikta spänningen från generatorn i hybridfordonet för att sen ansluta till en omriktare som kan skapa en önskvärd amplitud på sinusspänningen. Efter omriktaren kommer det behövas ett LCL-filter för att på så sätt få en renare AC-spänning. Spänningen kommer sen att behöva kopplas in på en transformator för att kunna skapa ett TN-S system.För att kunna skapa ett TN-S system kommer transformatorn behöva vara av typen D/Yo så man på Y0 kan ansluta en jordpunkt för att kunna uppnå ett direktjordat system vilket underlättar för att kunna bygga upp ett nät med selektivitet. För att få dom olika delarna att samverka behövs kommunikation mellan hybridfordonet och omriktaren om vilket effektbehov som finns.

  • Mathews, Lauren
    et al.
    Faithfull, Carolyn L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education, Department of Oceanography and Sea Grant College Program, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, USA; Gävleborg County Administrative Board, Gävle, Sweden.
    Lenz, Petra H.
    Nelson, Craig E.
    The effects of food stoichiometry and temperature on copepods are mediated by ontogeny2018In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 188, no 1, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is warming the oceans, increasing carbon dioxide partial pressure and reducing nutrient recycling from deep layers. This will affect carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) availability in the oceans, thus, altering the balance between the nutrient content of consumers and their food resource. The combined effects of food quality and temperature have been investigated for adult copepods; however, nauplii, the early developmental stages of copepods, often far outnumber adults, grow more rapidly and have a higher phosphorus body content and demand than later life stages. Consequently, ontogeny may affect how copepods respond to the combined stressors of increasing temperature and altered food stoichiometry. We conducted temperature-controlled experiments (24, 28 and 32 A degrees C) where Parvocalanus crassirostris was fed either a P-replete or a P-limited phytoplankton food source. Reduced survival of nauplii and copepodites at the highest temperature was ameliorated when fed P-replete food. At higher temperatures, copepodite growth remained stable, but internal C:P stoichiometry diverged in the direction of phytoplankton C:P, suggesting that increased temperature affected copepodite stoichiometric homeostasis. In contrast, naupliar P content increased with temperature and naupliar growth was P limited, suggesting nauplii required additional phosphorus at higher temperatures. We conclude that resource stoichiometry plays a key role in how copepod survival and growth are impacted by temperature, and that ontogeny mediates these responses. Our results suggest that as the extent of warming oceans and phytoplankton nutrient limitation increase, copepod survival and the growth of early life stages may decline.

  • Varenhorst, Christoph
    et al.
    Lindholm, Martin
    Sarno, Giovanna
    Olivecrona, Göran
    Jensens, Ulf
    Nilsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    James, Stefan
    Lagergvist, Bo
    Stent thrombosis rates the first year and beyond with new- and old-generation drug-eluting stents compared to bare metal stents2018In: Clinical Research in Cardiology, ISSN 1861-0684, E-ISSN 1861-0692, Vol. 107, no 9, p. 816-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Old-generation drug-eluting coronary stents (o-DES) have despite being safe and effective been associated with an increased propensity of late stent thrombosis (ST). We evaluated ST rates in o-DES, new-generation DES (n-DES) and bare metal stents (BMS) the first year (< 1 year) and beyond 1 year (> 1 year).

    Methods: We evaluated all implantations with BMS, o-DES (Cordis Cypher, Boston Scientific Taxus Libert, and Medtronic Endeavor) and n-DES in the Swedish coronary angiography and angioplasty registry (SCAAR) between 1 January 2007 and 8 January 2014 (n = 207 291). All cases of ST (n = 2 268) until 31 December 2014 were analyzed.

    Results: The overall risk of ST was lower in both n-DES and o-DES compared with BMS up to 1 year (n-DES versus BMS: adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0.48 (0.41-0.58) and o-DES versus BMS: 0.56 (0.46-0.67), both p < 0.001). From 1 year after stent implantation and onward, the risk for ST was higher in o-DES compared with BMS [adjusted RR, 1.82 (1.47-2.25], p < 0.001). N-DES were associated with similar low ST rates as BMS from 1 year and onward [adjusted RR 1.21 (0.94-1.56), p = 0.135].

    Conclusion: New-generation DES were associated with lower ST rates in comparison to BMS during the first-year post-stenting. After 1 year, n-DES and BMS were associated with similar ST rates.

    Trial Registration: This study was a retrospective observational study and as such did not require clinical trial database registration.

  • Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time Perspective Biases Are Associated With Poor Sleep Quality, Daytime Sleepiness, and Lower Levels of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Adults2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the extent to which individual differences in time perspective, i.e., habitual way of relating to the personal past, present, and future, are associated with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in a sample of older adults. The participants (N = 437, 60-90 years) completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ), a the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), and two ratings of subjective well-being (SWB) (life satisfaction, happiness). Based on established relationships between dimension of time perspective and other variables (e.g., depression) and relations between negative retrospection (rumination) and negative prospection (worry) in prior studies, we expected higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative to be linked to poor sleep quality and (indirectly) increased daytime sleepiness. Moreover, we examined the possibility that variations in perceived sleep and sleepiness during the day mediates the expected association between an aggregate measure of deviations from a so called balanced time perspective (DBTP) and SWB. In regression analyses controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, and work status), higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative predicted poorer sleep quality and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Additionally, most of the association between time perspective and daytime sleepiness was accounted for by individual differences in sleep quality. Finally, structural equation modeling yielded results consistent with the hypothesis that variations in sleep mediate part of the negative relationship between DBTP and SWB. Given that good sleep is essential to multiple aspects of health, future studies evaluating relationships between time perspective and adverse health outcomes should consider sleep quality as a potentially contributing factor.

  • Mogren, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology. Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia,.
    Lindqvist, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Petersson, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Nilses, Carin
    Small, Rhonda
    Granåsen, Gabriel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Edvardsson, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology. Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Maternal height and risk of caesarean section in singleton births in Sweden D-A population-based study using data from the Swedish Pregnancy Register 2011 to 20162018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 5, article id e0198124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Caesarean section (CS) has short and long term adverse health consequences, and should therefore only be undertaken when necessary. Risk factors such as maternal age, maternal body mass index (BMI) and fetal weight have been extensively investigated in relation to CS, but the significance of maternal height has been less explored in Sweden. The aim was to investigate the significance of maternal height on risk of CS in a representative, population-based sample from Sweden, also taking into account confounders. Data on singleton births in the Swedish Pregnancy Register 2011 to 2016 were collected, including women with heights of 140 cm and above, constituting a sample of 581,844 women. Data were analysed with epidemiological and biostatistical methods. Mean height was 166.1 cm. Women born outside Sweden were significantly shorter than women born in Sweden (162.8 cm vs. 167.1 cm, p < 0.001). There was a decreasing risk of CS with increasing maternal height. This effect remained after adjustment for other risk factors for CS such as maternal age, BMI, gestational age, parity, high birth weight and country of birth. Frequency of CS was higher among women born outside Sweden compared with Swedish-born women (17.3% vs. 16.0%), however, in a multiple regression model country of birth outside Sweden diminished as a risk factor for CS. Maternal height of 178-179 cm was associated with the lowest risk of CS (OR = 0.76, CI95% 0.71-0.81), whereas height below 160 cm explained 7% of CS cases. BMI and maternal age are established factors involved in clinical assessments related to birth, and maternal height should increasingly enjoy a similar status in these considerations. Moreover, when healthcare professionals are counselling pregnant women, taller stature should be more emphasized as a positive indicator for successful vaginal birth to increase pregnant women's confidence in giving birth vaginally, with possible positive impacts for lowering CS rates.

  • Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Holmberg, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Digitalise and capitalise?: Teachers’ self-understanding in 21st-century teaching contexts2018In: Oxford Review of Education, ISSN 0305-4985, E-ISSN 1465-3915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The digitalisation of educational contexts has changed the practice of teaching and learning. In this, teachers have a key role in enacting digital technologies for this purpose and have different opportunities to do so. This article explores how digitalisation can affect teachers by focusing on: (a) how teachers manage to capitalise on digitalisation; and (b) how digitalisation can affect and reconstruct their self-understanding. Two teacher colleagues of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the same teaching team are interviewed and observed. Drawing on the interplay between self-image, self-esteem, job motivation, and task perception, it is shown how the teachers’ self-understanding is played out and changes due to the call for digitalisation. Whereas one of the teachers has been able to capitalise on digitalisation in a way that has been beneficial both professionally and personally, the other has felt pressurised by it. A conclusion is that a limited or extended use of digital technologies should not be taken as an indicator of teaching quality.