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  • Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Nilsson, Hans
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Schillings, Audrey
    Quantification of the total ion transport in the near-Earth plasma sheet2017In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 35, no 4, 869-877 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies strongly suggest that a majority of the observed O+ cusp outflows will eventually escape into the solar wind, rather than be transported to the plasma sheet. Therefore, an investigation of plasma sheet flows will add to these studies and give a more complete picture of magnetospheric ion dynamics. Specifically, it will provide a greater understanding of atmospheric loss. We have used Cluster spacecraft 4 to quantify the H+ and O+ total transports in the near-Earth plasma sheet, using data covering 2001-2005. The results show that both H+ and O+ have earthward net fluxes of the orders of 1026 and 1024 s(-1), respectively. The O+ plasma sheet return flux is 1 order of magnitude smaller than the O+ outflows observed in the cusps, strengthening the view that most ionospheric O+ outflows do escape. The H+ return flux is approximately the same as the ionospheric outflow, suggesting a stable budget of H+ in the magnetosphere. However, low-energy H+, not detectable by the ion spectrometer, is not considered in our study, leaving the complete magnetospheric H+ circulation an open question. Studying tailward flows separately reveals a total tailward O+ flux of about 0 : 5 x w10(25)s(-1), which can be considered as a lower limit of the nightside auroral region O+ outflow. Lower velocity flows (< 100 km s(-1)) contribute most to the total transports, whereas the high-velocity flows contribute very little, suggesting that bursty bulk flows are not dominant in plasma sheet mass transport.

  • Norris, Shane A.
    et al.
    Daar, Abdallah
    Balasubramanian, Dorairajan
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Stellenbosch Univ, Wallenberg Res Ctr, Stellenbosch Inst Adv Study STIAS, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth
    Macnab, Andrew
    Pauw, Christoff
    Singhal, Atul
    Yajnik, Chittaranjan
    Akazili, James
    Levitt, Naomi
    Maatoug, Jihene
    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi
    Moore, Sophie E.
    Nyirenda, Moffat
    Pulliam, Juliet R. C.
    Rochat, Tamsen
    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat
    Seedat, Soraya
    Sobngwi, Eugene
    Tomlinson, Mark
    Toska, Elona
    van Schalkwyk, Cari
    Understanding and acting on the developmental origins of health and disease in Africa would improve health across generations2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, no 1, 1334985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from many high- and low- or middle-income countries have linked exposures during key developmental periods (in particular pregnancy and infancy) to later health and disease. Africa faces substantial challenges with persisting infectious disease and now burgeoning non-communicable disease. This paper opens the debate to the value of strengthening the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) research focus in Africa to tackle critical public health challenges across the life-course. We argue that the application of DOHaD science in Africa to advance life-course prevention programmes can aid the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, and assist in improving health across generations. To increase DOHaD research and its application in Africa, we need to mobilise multisectoral partners, utilise existing data and expertise on the continent, and foster a new generation of young African scientists engrossed in DOHaD.

  • Palmgren, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Hyperkonvergerad lösning med Storage spaces direct, för och nackdelar2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses questions about Storage Spaces Direct in Windows 2016 server. How to install a hyper converged solution and what to be careful about when installing it is a big part of the paper. During the papers time two major’s questions get answer on, “how good is Storage Spaces Direct?” and “is it possible and suitable to implement the function in a company at this stage?”. It was possible to do this project with the help of a company called TeamNorr and with the use of their hardware. Storage Spaces Direct is a function that works well and is in the front at the market today. This is if you have the correct information, have enough expertise about the function and does a thoroughly work before starting. Two different installations of the server will be compared, one with desktop experience and the other with the PowerShell solution. Both these ways can be used to install Storage Spaces Direct and they have different pros and cons. My results and personal opinion is that using PowerShell while installing is the optimized solution and it is the most secure. The result went as excepted and storage spaces direct is the best way to set up an IT environment and use at a company today. It is easy to use and maintain and is also more cost-efficient for companies.

  • Fredriksson, Mio
    et al.
    Eriksson, Max
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Tritter, Jonathan
    Who wants to be involved in health care decisions?: Comparing preferences for individual and collective involvement in England and Sweden2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patient and public involvement (PPI) is framed as positive for individuals, the health system, public health, as well as for communities and society as a whole. We investigated whether preferences for PPI differed between two countries with Beveridge type health systems-Sweden and England. We measured willingness to be involved in individual treatment decisions and in decisions about the organization and provision of local health and social care services. Methods: This was a comparative cross-sectional study of the general population's preferences. Together, the two samples included 3125 respondents; 1625 in England and 1500 in Sweden. Country differences were analysed in a multinomial regression model controlling for gender, age and educational attainment. Results: Overall, 68% of respondents wanted a passive patient role and 44% wanted to be involved in local decisions about organization and provision of services. In comparison with in Sweden, they were in England less likely to want a health professional such as a GP or consultant to make decisions about their treatment and also more likely to want to make their own decisions. They were also less likely to want to be involved in local service development decisions. An increased likelihood of wanting to be involved in organizational decision-making was associated with individuals wanting to make their own treatment decisions. Women were less likely to want health professionals to make decisions and more likely to want to be involved in organizational decisions. Conclusions: An effective health system that ensures public health must integrate an effective approach to PPI both in individual treatment decisions and shaping local health and social care priorities. To be effective, involvement activities must take in to account the variation in the desire for involvement and the implications that this has for equity. More work is needed to understand the relationship between the desire to be involved and actually being involved, but both appear related to judgements of the impact of involvement on health care decisions.

  • Koller-Smith, Louise I. M.
    et al.
    Shahr, Prakesh S.
    Ye, Xiang Y.
    Sjoers, Gunnar
    Wang, Yueping A.
    Chow, Sharon S. W.
    Darlow, Brian A.
    Lee, Shoo K.
    Håkansson, Stellan
    Umeå University.
    Lui, Kei
    Comparing very low birth weight versus very low gestation cohort methods for outcome analysis of high risk preterm infants2017In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 17, 166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Compared to very low gestational age (<32 weeks, VLGA) cohorts, very low birth weight (<1500 g; VLBW) cohorts are more prone to selection bias toward small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants, which may impact upon the validity of data for benchmarking purposes. Method: Data from all VLGA or VLBW infants admitted in the 3 Networks between 2008 and 2011 were used. Two-thirds of each network cohort was randomly selected to develop prediction models for mortality and composite adverse outcome (CAO: mortality or cerebral injuries, chronic lung disease, severe retinopathy or necrotizing enterocolitis) and the remaining for internal validation. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) of themodels were compared. Results: VLBW cohort (24,335 infants) had twice more SGA infants (20.4% vs. 9.3%) than the VLGA cohort (29,180 infants) and had a higher rate of CAO (36.5% vs. 32.6%). The two models had equal prediction power for mortality and CAO (AUC 0.83), and similarly for all other cross-cohort validations (AUC 0.81-0.85). Neither model performed well for the extremes of birth weight for gestation (<1500 g and >= 32 weeks, AUC 0.50-0.65; >= 1500 g and >= 32 weeks, AUC 0.60-0.62). Conclusion: There was no difference in prediction power for adverse outcome between cohorting VLGA or VLBW despite substantial bias in SGA population. Either cohorting practises are suitable for international benchmarking.

  • Wettström, Rune
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kan vi tro på kvalia?: En granskning av Amy Kinds underkännande av transparenstesen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis Amy Kind’s argument for qualia realism is scrutinized. In the paper from 2008, “How to Believe in Qualia”, she claims that the transparency thesis pose a threat to qualia realism. A major part of this thesis therefore deals with investigating her refutation of the transparency thesis. The thesis gives her some, but not fully, conclusive support and consequently gives some support for qualia realism. The thesis also sets out other arguments against the transparency thesis, arguments which however pose a threat to qualia realism.

  • Hjälmarö, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Om det existerar objektiva värden, har objektivismen då löst frågan om livets mening?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I intend to presuppose the existence of objective value and investigate the problems that the objective view faces further ahead, in its effort to answer the question of life’s meaning. Objectivism claims that in order for a life to be meaningful, one must engage in some way with values that are objective, values that exists independent of the subject. The aim here is to show that even with the existence of objective values the objective view hasn’t yet finally answered the question. In order for the objectivistic answer to be relevant for us we need to know what it is that has objective value and thereto, that this is a meaning-giving value. In addition, we either need to find internal reasons to engage in it, otherwise objectivism need to, besides assuming the existence of objective value, also assume the existence of external reasons.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-08 09:00 KB.E3.03 (stora hörsalen), KBC-huset, Umeå
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Design strategies for new drugs targeting multicomponent systems: focusing on class II MHC proteins and acetylcholinesterase2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving. Aided by advances within techniques as well as knowledge of biological systems, increasingly complex targets and drugs can be considered. This thesis includes two projects focusing on the design of drugs targeting multicomponent systems, referring to systems for which multiple components must be considered during the drug design process.

    In the first project, the long-term goal is to develop a vaccine against the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The cause of RA is unknown, but it is genetically linked to expression of class II MHC proteins that present antigens to T-cell receptors (TCRs), responsible for initiating an immune response. A glycopeptide fragment, CII259–273, from type II collagen has shown promising results as a vaccine against arthritis resembling RA in mice. CII259–273 binds to the class II MHC protein followed by presentation to the TCR, forming a multicomponent system.

    We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect that modifications of CII259–273 have on the multicomponent system. Non-native amino acids and amide bond isosteres have been introduced. This has demonstrated the importance of retaining the backbone conformation of CII259–273, as well as the hydrogen bonds formed to the backbone. The ability to introduce such modifications would be of value to affect the potency towards the MHC protein, and prevent degradation of the glycopeptide. The studies have revealed a multicomponent system that is highly sensitive to even small modifications that can affect the dynamics of the entire complex.

    In the second project, the long-term goal is to develop a broad-spectrum antidote against nerve agents. Nerve agents are extremely toxic compounds that act by covalently inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is essential for termination of nerve signalling. A major limitation of current antidotes is that their efficiency is dependent on the type of nerve agent. A broad-spectrum antidote must be able to bind to the multicomponent system consisting of AChE covalently inhibited by different nerve agents. It will then act by performing a nucleophilic attack on the nerve agent adduct, thus breaking the covalent bond to AChE.

    We have used statistical molecular design (SMD) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling to identify a fragment with a potency for AChE inhibited by different nerve agents. A nucleophilic component able to restore the enzyme to the active form was thereafter introduced. This resulted in a functional reactivator, efficient for multiple nerve agents. Furthermore, the mechanism of reactivation has been investigated through structural studies, enabled by a combination of X-ray crystallography and molecular modelling. A high flexibility of the reactivator, as well as the ability to bind to AChE in multiple conformations, are defined as important properties for a broad-spectrum antidote.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-08 10:00 Föreläsningssal 5, Falun
    Borg, Farhana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Caring for people and the planet: preschool children’s knowledge and practices of sustainability2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Children across the globe today are continuously being exposed to and affected by various kinds of real-world complexities and challenges; however, research on their knowledge and practices in terms of sustainability is limited, in particular with regards to how preschool- and home-related factors are associated with their learning for sustainability. Since 1998, different types of eco-certification have been awarded by the Swedish National Agency for Education and Keep Sweden Tidy Foundation to promote education for sustainability (EfS) in all areas of education and learning. Despite certificates having been granted in Sweden since 1998, no studies have been conducted at the national level to investigate whether eco-certification has any role to play in children’s learning for environmental and sustainability issues. This knowledge is important to develop pedagogical activities to engage young children meaningfully in learning for sustainability at preschool. This study was undertaken so as to address this research gap in a Swedish context.

    The overall aim of this study was to enhance the existing knowledge about preschool children’s learning for sustainability in Sweden. The objectives of this study have been to investigate and compare the knowledge and self-reported practices of sustainability among children attending eco-certified and non-eco-certified preschools, respectively, and to explore the extent to which preschool- and home-related factors are associated with children’s knowledge and practices of sustainability. Further, this study explored children’s perceived sources of such knowledge. The term ‘knowledge’ in this text refers to the descriptions of children’s ideas and thoughts. Similarly, eco-certified preschool refers to a school that work explicitly with EfS.

    The study was designed from a "child’s perspective": this means that it was designed by adults to understand children’s perceptions and actions. Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory and Bruner’s (1961) iconic (image-based) modes of representation were applied in various stages of the study. A conceptual framework was developed within the three-interlocking-circles model of sustainability that illustrates how environmental, social and economic dimensions are interconnected. The concept of sustainability was operationalized in four themes: economic equality, resource sharing, recycling and transport use.

    With the use of illustrations and semi-structured questions, final-year preschool children (n=53), aged five to six years, and the directors (n=7) at six eco-certified and six non-eco-certified preschools were interviewed, while guardians (n=89) and teachers (n=74) filled out questionnaires. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed using content analysis and Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), respectively. The quality and complexity of children’s responses were assessed and classified using the SOLO Taxonomy (Biggs & Collis, 1982).

    The results showed that by the time the children completed preschool, many had acquired some knowledge about how to use money, about the sorting of different recyclable items at home and at preschool, and about the impact of different modes of transport on the environment and people’s lives. They also had ideas about the lives of other children in the world and what it can mean to share resources with other people. There was a positive relationship between children’s declarative (understanding) and functional (practice) knowledge of sustainability issues and the involvement of teachers and guardians in sustainability-related discussions and activities. No statistically significant differences between eco-certified and non-eco-certified preschools in terms of children’s declarative and functional knowledge were found. Parents were reported to be the main sources of children’s knowledge along with the children themselves, teachers and media.

    The findings offer support for integrating environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainability into the daily pedagogical activities of preschools and for giving children opportunities to participate in discussions and practical activities that concern their lives. Further studies are needed to investigate the extent to which different educational activities contribute to developing children’s understanding and behavior when it comes to a sustainable society.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-01 09:00 Sal 135, byggnad 9 A, Allmänmedicin, Umeå
    Muindi, Kanyiva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Air pollution in Nairobi slums: sources, levels and lay perceptions2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Air quality in Africa has remained a relatively under-researched field.Most of the African population is dependent on biomass for cooking and heating,with most of the combustion happening in low efficiency stoves in unventedkitchens. The resulting high emissions are compounded by ingress from pooroutdoor air in a context of poor emissions controls. The situation is dire in slumhouseholds where homes are crowded and space is limited, pushing householdsto cook in the same room that is used for sleeping. This study assessed the levelsof particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 microns (PM2.5) in slumhouseholds and people’s perceptions of and attitudes towards air pollution andhealth risks of exposure in two slum areas, Viwandani and Korogocho, in theNairobi city.

    Methods

    The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods. For thequantitative study, we used structured questionnaires to collect data about thesource of air pollution among adults aged 18 years and above and pregnant womenresiding in the two study communities. We used the DustTrak™ air samplers tomonitor the indoor PM2.5 levels in selected households. We also collected data oncommunity perceptions on air pollution, annoyance and associated health risks.We presented hotspot maps to portray the spatial distribution of perceptions onair pollution in the study areas. For the qualitative study, we conducted focusgroup discussions with adult community members. Groups were disaggregatedby age to account for different languages used to communicate with the youngerand older people. We analysed the qualitative data using thematic analysis.

    Results

    Household levels of PM2.5 varied widely across households and rangedfrom 1 to 12,369μg/m3 (SD=287.11). The household levels of PM2.5 levels werelikely to exceed the WHO guidelines given the high levels observed in less than 24hours of monitoring periods (on average 10.4 hours in Viwandani and 11.8 hoursin Korogocho). Most of the respondents did not use ventilation use in the eveningwhich coincided with the use of cookstove and lamp, mostly burning kerosene.The levels of PM2.5 varied by the type of fuels, with the highest emissions inhouseholds using kerosene for cooking and lighting. The PM2.5 levels spiked in theevenings and during periods of cooking using charcoal/wood. Despite these highlevels, residents perceived indoor air to be less polluted compared with theoutdoor air, possibly due to the presence of large sources of emissions near thecommunities such as dumpsites and industries. The community had mixedperceptions on the health impacts of air pollution, with respiratory illnessesperceived as the main consequence while vector or sanitation related diseases suchas diarrhoea was also perceived to be related to air pollution.

    Conclusions

    With poor housing and reliance on dirty fuels, households in slumsface potentially high levels of exposure to PM2.5 with dire implications on health.To address the poor perception on air pollution and knowledge gaps on the healtheffects of air pollution, education programs need to be developed and tailored.These programs should aim to provide residents with information on air qualityand its impact on the health; what they can do as communities as well as empowerthem to reach out to government/stakeholders for action on outdoor sources ofpollution such as emissions from dumpsites or industries. The government has alarger role in addressing some of the key pollution sources through policyformulation and strong implementation/enforcement.

  • Kristoffer, Johansson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utveckling av insticksprogram för DigiSign2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    DigiSign is a web application which is developed by a company called Omegapoint. The application is used to control so called “Digital Signage” monitors and to administrate the content they show. The application is lacking a function which lets the user create own templates. The goal with this project is to create a plugin that integrates with DigiSign where the user can create their own templates and that facilitates the usage of DigiSign by the customers.

    This project describes the development of the plugin and the integration with DigiSign. The plugin which is being developed is created with Microsoft ASP.NET Web forms and JavaScript.

    The work during the project has been divided into to three phases, pre-study, development of the user interface and integration with the plugin in DigiSign. In the pre-study the technical options was explored, how competing products worked and a plan for the project was created. After deciding which technique to use and studying those techniques where knowledge was missing a meeting with the company was held. During the meeting, it was decided which requirements and features the plugin should have. Then the development for the plugin started. The result of the work is a plugin which the customers can use to create own templates to use with their slideshows.

  • Wikström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Knowledge Transfer between User Interfaces: Exploring mental model influence in learning new UI - A case study at Skatteverket.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of mental models has long been studied in both cognitive science and HCI, yet their impact in knowledge transfer between user interfaces are not as commonly studied. Rarely are practical examples of this phenomenon studied from an academic perspective. Using a real world example, Skatteverket’s (Swedish tax authorities) information system Basregister, this case study seeks to explore the role of mental models in knowledge transfer between user interfaces.

    Method of investigation entailed utilizing two design iterations, three interview phases, and five participants employed at Skatteverket. This study investigated if, and how much design elements from well-known external- and the original- system impact the acquisition of new mental models for the newly produced user interface designs. Main results conclude that both external and internal design elements may be to tremendous benefit when the goal is to design with maximum knowledge transfer, as to reduce cognitive load on the user. However, that such implementations should be carefully instigated when designing new UI, and always from a user-centric approach.

  • Tärnholm, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wallén, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mellanchefers intention att stanna kvar på sin tjänst inom privat omsorg: betydelsen av psykosocial arbetsmiljö2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research shows that the psychosocial work environment is important for employee health and that different factors in the work environment has impact on employees intention to stay. The work environment for managers differs from other employees and the knowledge in the area is still limited. The purpose of the study was to examine the psychosocial work environment of managers in a private health care company and possible relations between work environment factors and intentions to stay in current managerial position. A websurvey was distributed to 146 managers in a private health care company, of which 87 replied. The survey contained background questions, questions about the psychosocial work environment from QPS-Nordic and a question concerning intention to quit. The collected data regarding managers psychosocial work environment was compared with nordic reference data from the QPS-Nordic manual (Dallner et al., 2000). Independent t-tests showed that participants reported higher estimate with regard to decision demands, role conflict, supervisor support, decision latitude and commitment to the organization than comparable reference data. Supervisor support and role conflict was, according to hierarchical regression analysis, the environmental factors that had significance for managers intention to quit, with control for number of employees. Lower supervisor support and higher role conflict predicted intention to quit. According to the results it is important for an organization to minimize the risk of role conflicts and promote social support, especially supervisor support.

  • Jansson, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    SharePoint Online: Arbeta bland molnen2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud services has come to be a major part for both small and big companies because it can be a more profitable solution in comparison to similar traditional “on premise” IT-infrastructure. SharePoint Online (SPO) together with Microsoft Office 365 is a tool for such a solution. This report covers the creation of one of those web platform solutions for the fictive company K800. SPO was chosen because SPO is a collaborative platform with many different applications and functions that will help companies to work together online. SPO has an easy way of administrate accounts and users, you get lots of storage space that can be expanded. Updates are incorporated automatically without the help of an administrator. Employees have access from wherever they may be independent of what equipment they use, and you only pay for the licenses that you use. Within SPO a website was built for the company’s internal needs, where users can use different sites and functions depending on what limitations and authorization-level they have been given. SPO can be complicated for beginners, but thanks to all the material available online it’s possible to learn by yourself. However, there were some complications and difficulties along the way but thanks to Microsoft’s many different support teams and others mentioned the issues could be solved and a complete website collaboration platform to K800 was delivered.

  • Söderlund, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Objectivity and realms of explanation in academic journal articles concerning sex/gender: a comparison of Gender studies and the other social sciences2017In: The Scientist (Philadelphia, Pa.), ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 112, no 2, 1093-1109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender studies (GS) has been challenged on epistemological grounds. Here, we compare samples of peer-reviewed academic journal publications written by GS authors and authors from closely related disciplines in the social sciences. The material consisted of 2805 statements from 36 peer-reviewed journal articles, sampled from the Swedish Gender Studies List, which covers > 12,000 publications. Each statement was coded as expressing a lack of any of three aspects of objectivity: Bias, Normativity, or Political activism, or as considering any of four realms of explanation for the behaviours or phenomena under study: Biology/genetics, Individual/group differences, Environment/culture, or Societal institutions. Statements in GS publications did to a greater extent express bias and normativity, but not political activism. They did also to a greater extent consider cultural, environmental, social, and societal realms of explanation, and to a lesser extent biological and individual differences explanations.

  • Fortner, Renee T.
    et al.
    Tolockiene, Egle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Schock, Helena
    Oda, Husam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Lakso, Hans-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Toniolo, Paolo
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Early pregnancy sex steroids during primiparous pregnancies and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study in the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort2017In: Breast Cancer Research, ISSN 1465-5411, E-ISSN 1465-542X, Vol. 19, 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pregnancy and parity are associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest a role for pregnancy sex steroid hormones.

    Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study in the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (1975–2007). Eligible women had provided a blood sample in the first 20 weeks of gestation during a primiparous pregnancy leading to a term delivery. The current study includes 223 cases and 417 matched controls (matching factors: age at and date of blood collection). Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status was available for all cases; androgen receptor (AR) data were available for 41% of cases (n = 92). Sex steroids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression.

    Results: Higher concentrations of circulating progesterone in early pregnancy were inversely associated with ER+/PR+ breast cancer risk (ORlog2: 0.64 (0.41–1.00)). Higher testosterone was positively associated with ER+/PR+ disease risk (ORlog2: 1.57 (1.13–2.18)). Early pregnancy estrogens were not associated with risk, except for relatively high estradiol in the context of low progesterone (split at median, relative to low concentrations of both; OR: 1.87 (1.11–3.16)). None of the investigated hormones were associated with ER–/PR– disease, or with AR+ or AR+/ER+/PR+ disease.

    Conclusions: Consistent with experimental models, high progesterone in early pregnancy was associated with lower risk of ER+/PR+ breast cancer in the mother. High circulating testosterone in early pregnancy, which likely reflects nonpregnant premenopausal exposure, was associated with higher risk of ER+/PR+ disease.

  • Nilsson, Tohr
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hand-arm vibration and the risk of vascular and neurological diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 7, e0180795Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Increased occurrence of Raynaud's phenomenon, neurosensory injury and carpal tunnel syndrome has been reported for more than 100 years in association with work with vibrating machines. The current risk prediction modelling (ISO-5349) for "Raynaud's phenomenon" is based on a few studies published 70 to 40 years ago. There are no corresponding risk prediction models for neurosensory injury or carpal tunnel syndrome, nor any systematic reviews comprising a statistical synthesis (meta-analysis) of the evidence. Objectives Our aim was to provide a systematic review of the literature on the association between Raynaud's phenomenon, neurosensory injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure. Moreover the aim was to estimate the magnitude of such an association using meta-analysis. Methods This systematic review covers the scientific literature up to January 2016. The databases used for the literature search were PubMed and Science Direct. We found a total of 4,335 abstracts, which were read and whose validity was assessed according to pre-established criteria. 294 articles were examined in their entirety to determine whether each article met the inclusion criteria. The possible risk of bias was assessed for each article. 52 articles finally met the pre-established criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. Results The results show that workers who are exposed to HAV have an increased risk of vascular and neurological diseases compared to non-vibration exposed groups. The crude estimate of the risk increase is approximately 4-5 fold. The estimated effect size (odds ratio) is 6.9 for the studies of Raynaud's phenomenon when including only the studies judged to have a low risk of bias. The corresponding risk of neurosensory injury is 7.4 and the equivalent of carpal tunnel syndrome is 2.9. Conclusion At equal exposures, neurosensory injury occurs with a 3-time factor shorter latency than Raynaud's phenomenon. Which is why preventive measures should address this vibration health hazard with greater attention.

  • Eriksson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Saliva and tooth biofilm bacterial microbiota in adolescents in a low caries community2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 5861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oral cavity harbours a complex microbiome that is linked to dental diseases and serves as a route to other parts of the body. Here, the aims were to characterize the oral microbiota by deep sequencing in a low-caries population with regular dental care since childhood and search for association with caries prevalence and incidence. Saliva and tooth biofilm from 17-year-olds and mock bacteria communities were analysed using 16S rDNA Illumina MiSeq (v3-v4) and PacBio SMRT (v1-v8) sequencing including validity and reliability estimates. Caries was scored at 17 and 19 years of age. Both sequencing platforms revealed that Firmicutes dominated in the saliva, whereas Firmicutes and Actinobacteria abundances were similar in tooth biofilm. Saliva microbiota discriminated caries-affected from caries-free adolescents, with enumeration of Scardovia wiggsiae, Streptococcus mutans, Bifidobacterium longum, Leptotrichia sp. HOT498, and Selenomonas spp. in caries-affected participants. Adolescents with B. longum in saliva had significantly higher 2-year caries increment. PacBio SMRT revealed Corynebacterium matruchotii as the most prevalent species in tooth biofilm. In conclusion, both sequencing methods were reliable and valid for oral samples, and saliva microbiota was associated with cross-sectional caries prevalence, especially S. wiggsiae, S. mutans, and B. longum; the latter also with the 2-year caries incidence.

  • Winbo, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics. Department of Physiology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Stattin, Eva-Lena
    Westin, Ida Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics.
    Norberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics.
    Persson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Jensen, Steen M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Rydberg, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Sex is a moderator of the association between NOS1AP sequence variants and QTc in two long QT syndrome founder populations: a pedigree-based measured genotype association analysis2017In: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 18, 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sequence variants in the NOS1AP gene have repeatedly been reported to influence QTc, albeit with moderate effect sizes. In the long QT syndrome (LQTS), this may contribute to the substantial QTc variance seen among carriers of identical pathogenic sequence variants. Here we assess three non-coding NOS1APsequence variants, chosen for their previously reported strong association with QTc in normal and LQTS populations, for association with QTc in two Swedish LQT1 founder populations.

    Methods: This study included 312 individuals (58% females) from two LQT1 founder populations, whereof 227 genotype positive segregating either Y111C (n = 148) or R518* (n = 79) pathogenic sequence variants in the KCNQ1 gene, and 85 genotype negatives. All were genotyped for NOS1AP sequence variants rs12143842, rs16847548 and rs4657139, and tested for association with QTc length (effect size presented as mean difference between derived and wildtype, in ms), using a pedigree-based measured genotype association analysis. Mean QTc was obtained by repeated manual measurement (preferably in lead II) by one observer using coded 50 mm/s standard 12-lead ECGs.

    Results: A substantial variance in mean QTc was seen in genotype positives 476 ± 36 ms (Y111C 483 ± 34 ms; R518* 462 ± 34 ms) and genotype negatives 433 ± 24 ms. Female sex was significantly associated with QTc prolongation in all genotype groups (p < 0.001). In a multivariable analysis including the entire study population and adjusted for KCNQ1 genotype, sex and age, NOS1AP sequence variants rs12143842 and rs16847548 (but not rs4657139) were significantly associated with QT prolongation, +18 ms (p = 0.0007) and +17 ms (p = 0.006), respectively. Significant sex-interactions were detected for both sequent variants (interaction term r = 0.892, p < 0.001 and r = 0.944, p < 0.001, respectively). Notably, across the genotype groups, when stratified by sex neither rs12143842 nor rs16847548 were significantly associated with QTc in females (both p = 0.16) while in males, a prolongation of +19 ms and +8 ms (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02) was seen in multivariable analysis, explaining up to 23% of QTc variance in all males.

    Conclusions: Sex was identified as a moderator of the association between NOS1AP sequence variants and QTc in two LQT1 founder populations. This finding may contribute to QTc sex differences and affect the usefulness of NOS1AP as a marker for clinical risk stratification in LQTS.

  • Strandberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Portfolio Optimization with NonLinear Instruments2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Rohr, Julia K.
    et al.
    Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier
    Rosenberg, Molly
    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer
    Geldsetzer, Pascal
    Wagner, Ryan G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Houle, Brian
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Berkman, Lisa
    Baernighausen, Till
    Performance of self-reported HIV status in determining true HIV status among older adults in rural South Africa: a validation study2017In: Journal of the International AIDS Society, ISSN 1758-2652, E-ISSN 1758-2652, Vol. 20, 691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In South Africa, older adults make up a growing proportion of people living with HIV. HIV programmes are likely to reach older South Africans in home-based interventions where testing is not always feasible. We evaluate the accuracy of self-reported HIV status, which may provide useful information for targeting interventions or offer an alternative to biomarker testing.

    Methods: Data were taken from the Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI) baseline survey, which was conducted in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A total of 5059 participants aged ≥40 years were interviewed from 2014 to 2015. Self-reported HIV status and dried bloodspots for HIV biomarker testing were obtained during at-home interviews. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for self-reported status compared to “gold standard” biomarker results. Log-binomial regression explored associations between demographic characteristics, antiretroviral therapy (ART) status and sensitivity of self-report.

    Results: Most participants (93%) consented to biomarker testing. Of those with biomarker results, 50.9% reported knowing their HIV status and accurately reported it. PPV of self-report was 94.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 92.0–96.0), NPV was 87.2% (95% CI: 86.2–88.2), sensitivity was 51.2% (95% CI: 48.2–54.3) and specificity was 99.0% (95% CI: 98.7–99.4). Participants on ART were more likely to report their HIV-positive status, and participants reporting false-negatives were more likely to have older HIV tests.

    Conclusions: The majority of participants were willing to share their HIV status. False-negative reports were largely explained by lack of testing, suggesting HIV stigma is retreating in this setting, and that expansion of HIV testing and retesting is still needed in this population. In HIV interventions where testing is not possible, self-reported status should be considered as a routine first step to establish HIV status.

  • Olsson, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Graphene Growth through Chemical Vapor Deposition - Optimization of Growth and Transfer Parameters2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis work is to investigate the possibility to grow graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on copper foil with acetylene as a precursor and varigon (5\% H$_2$ in Ar) as a carrier gas. The possibility of nitrogen doping by ammonia treatment during the growth process is also investigated. The possibility of graphene transfer, with the use of Poly(Methyl Metacrylate) (PMMA), from the copper onto another target substrate, Flourine doped Tin Oxide (FTO), is also explored. The main technique of characterization of the grown and transfered graphene is Raman spectroscopy, a great tool for investigating the number of graphene layers and amount of defects. Other characterization methods used are Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate morphology and elemental composition, respectively.

    The result of this thesis study is that graphene growth is entirely possible with acetylene as a precursor, as shown by the Raman spectroscopy, XPS and SEM. The grown graphene has a high quality with few layers and a low number of defects. The ammonia treatment, however, doesn't seem to have an immediate effect on the graphene growth. The XPS data indicates that there are no nitrogen doping in the graphene, though there might be a correlation between the ammonia and the number of layers, but further investigations has to be made. Transfer is also proven possible with the method developed. However, improvements to the transfer method can be done since there are both larger tares, caused by the transfer onto the FTO, as well as microscopic tares, possibly caused by thermal expansion of the PMMA.

  • Forsberg, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Shopping for emotion - Evaluating the usefulness of emotion recognition data from a retail perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study researches the usefulness of emotion recognition technology and respective data within the retail space. Emotion recognition is a relatively novel technology that promises to pinpoint a subjects emotional state. While the use cases could be many for a retailer there is still little available research on how to implement these tools and how to interpret their data. This study aims to provide an answer to those questions by reviewing current studies in emotion recognition and by setting up a rudimentary field test to compare data gathered by the Microsoft Emotion Recognition service with standard user satisfaction measurements. The responses are examined to determine if a subjects’ identified emotion has any connection to their perceived satisfaction with an experience. No such connection is found within the gathered data however, but several other points of interest are discovered. The study concludes that current emotion recognition tools may not live up to their hype and offer little in terms of useful data. They tend to require exaggerated emotional expressions and perform subpar to humans in many cases. The reasons for this, and possible improvements to these tools are also discussed.

  • Lundström, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Rosberg, Rasmus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Socially Responsible Investments?: -An empirical study on why investors do not invest in SRI2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society sustainability has become a highly discussed topic due to the increase in global average temperatures and changing ecosystems. Despite differentiating views regarding the origins of these changes, a proportion of the society have begun to adjust themselves into having more green profiles. This has led to an uprising among the number of investors who focus on making socially and responsible investments. However, on the contrary, there is still a substantial proportion of investors who do not invest in environmentally, animal and human friendly products. Which in turn may negate the pace of the ethical and sustainable development of our society. This issue leads to this study’s research question:

    What are the reasons or hindrances as to why students at Umeå School of Business and Economics do not invest in SRI financial products?  

    The main purpose of this paper is to explore why individuals at Umeå School of Business and Economics do not invest in SRI financial products. Furthermore, the paper aim to have an extra emphasis on information. In addition to the main purpose, the thesis will investigate if any links exist between investing ethically/sustainable and one’s daily behaviour. In order to explore these purposes, the authors uses past research within this area together with theoretical concepts regarding “Investment Decisions”, “Markowitz Portfolio Optimisation Model” and “Pro-Social Behaviour”. To conduct this study, the paper uses a quantitative approach with both primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected through a survey sent out to 917 students at Umeå School of Business and Economics. In order to achieve the purposes of this study, the data from non-SRI investors was used to analyse their investment behaviours.  

    The results of this study indicate that the majority of non-SRI investors are men. Furthermore, the findings illustrate that the expected financial return of SRI and risk when investing is significantly related to the probability of not investing in SRI. Additionally, the results point at that the demeanour of not investing in SRI products are significantly due to a lower level of knowledge concerning financial return of SRI. In conclusion, the authors argue that the attraction of capital ethical and sustainable investments can be greatly increased by educating investors in SRI products. Consequently, the increase in awareness and attraction of capital can aid solving the ethical and sustainable issues that exists today.

  • Gidlund, Alexander
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Lund, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The Norwegian Gender Quota Law and its Effects on Corporate Boards2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has examined which medium-term effects the Norwegian gender quota law has had on corporate boards listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange from 2009 to 2015. Wehave studied the gender quota law’s impact on different corporate board factors, such as board composition, the number of directorships held, basic remuneration, board size, andthe age of directors. Further, we also compared the gender quota law’s effects on these factors with similar studies made in earlier periods. The reason for that is to recognise whether there is a tendency of convergence over time.

    The study have been conducted using a quantitative approach by gathering information from mostly annual reports. Since, this is a comparative study, we will be using the same methods as previous researchers. These methods are arithmetic averages and standard deviations. We have also included some other methods to strengthen the results, such as geometric average, median, correlations, and significance test.

    The results of our research show that the number of directorships held by female directors decreased in both absolute numbers as well as in averages and dispersion. Remuneration for female directors increased. However, it diverged with male directors. The average board size did not remain significantly constant over time. We also found that the average age of board directors both increase and converges between the genders. We also believed that the proportion of female directors was depended on the firm’s board size, which the results showed was an incorrect assumption.

    This paper has applied an overarching theory called contingency theory. Further, other complementary theories within the area of corporate governance have also been used such as stakeholder theory, agency theory, and resource dependency theory. When analysing the results from this paper, there were too many plausible and contrasting theoretical explanations for why the various outcomes occurred. Therefore, we do not believe that the existing theoretical frameworks available are appropriate to explain how the gender quota law will impact corporate boards.

    The main contribution of this study is the results that show how both female and maledirectors’ average age and directorships held are converging over the observed period. Also, that the gender quota law has enabled female directors to gain more experience, which has led to a higher proportion of female directors.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-22 09:00 KBE303-Stora hörsalen, KBC-huset
    Zhou, Yang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Regulation of pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Messenger RNAs are transcribed and co-transcriptionally processed in the nucleus, and transported to the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, mRNAs serve as the template for protein synthesis and are eventually degraded. The removal of intron sequences from a precursor mRNA is termed splicing and is carried out by the dynamic spliceosome. In this thesis, I describe the regulated splicing of two transcripts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I also describe a study where the mechanisms that control the expression of magnesium transporters are elucidated.

    The pre-mRNA retention and splicing (RES) complex is a spliceosome-associated protein complex that promotes the splicing and nuclear retention of a subset of pre-mRNAs. The RES complex consists of three subunits, Bud13p, Snu17p and Pml1p. We show that the lack of RES factors causes a decrease in the formation of N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) in tRNAs. This phenotype is caused by inefficient splicing of the pre-mRNA of the TAN1 gene, which is required for the formation of ac4C in tRNAs. The RES mutants also show growth defects that are exacerbated at elevated temperatures. We show that the temperature sensitive phenotype of the bud13Δ and snu17Δ cells is caused by the inefficient splicing of the MED20 pre-mRNA. The MED20 gene encodes a subunit of the Mediator complex. Unspliced pre-mRNAs that enter the cytoplasm are usually degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway, which targets transcripts that contain premature translation termination codons. Consistent with the nuclear retention function of the RES complex, we find that NMD inactivation in the RES mutants leads to the accumulation of both TAN1 and MED20 pre-mRNAs. We also show that the cis-acting elements that promote RES-dependent splicing are different between the TAN1 and MED20 pre-mRNAs.

    The NMD pathway also targets transcripts with upstream ORFs (uORFs) for degradation. The ALR1 gene encodes the major magnesium importer in yeast, and its expression is controlled by the NMD pathway via a uORF in the 5’ untranslated region. We show that the ribosome reaches the downstream main ORF by a translation reinitiation mechanism. The NMD pathway was shown to control cellular Mg2+ levels by regulating the expression of the ALR1 gene. We further show that the NMD pathway targets the transcripts of the vacuolar Mg2+ exporter Mnr2p and the mitochondrial Mg2+ exporter Mme1p for degradation.

    In summary, we conclude that the RES complex has a role in the splicing regulation of a subset of transcripts. We also suggest a regulatory role for the NMD pathway in maintaining the cellular Mg2+ concentration by controlling the expression of Mg2+ transporters.

  • Sebastian, Pettersson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    IPMA- certifierade projektledares upplevelser av att vara certifierad2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the experience of the Swedish certification process at the Swedish Project Management Association, and whether the certification contributed to an increased competence and an additional value of the individuals who have certified themselves. The research was designed to bring a broader insight into the value of individuals through certification, as well as to provide the Swedish Project Management Association with tools for improving the Swedish certification process. A qualitative content analysis with a summative approach was used and conducted through 11 semi-structured interviews conducted with IPMA-certified (International Project Management Association) project managers, selected from the Swedish Project Management Association databases. Based on the topic concerned, the following questions emerged from the analysis: How do IPMA-certified project managers describe their potential skills enhancement with the certification? And what value do they assign to an IPMA-certification? The results demonstrated that participants experienced competence enhancement and an additional value through IPMA-certification. Additionally, findings identified a gap in previous research pertaining to reflection and assessment.

  • Linder, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykologers subjektiva upplevelser av den egna psykosociala arbetsmiljön inom företagshälsovården2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psychologists belongs to the occupational group in which long-term sick leave due to stress-related causes is most common. At the same time, there seems to be a lack of knowledge about the psychologist’s work environment. Furthermore, the work environment in occupational health services appears to be an unexplored area. The aim of this study was to look into how psychologists active in the occupational health services experience their own psychosocial work environment. The study involved six psychologists active in the occupational health services. Semi-structured telephone interviews were used to collect data and an inductive thematic analysis was conducted. The analysis resulted in eight overall themes and 29 sub-themes. The results showed, for example, that there are clear economic goals that the psychologists have to comply with. At the same time as the demands in some cases were perceived as high, there was a need for more resources. Furthermore, cooperation was rarely taken place, opportunities for collegial support were sometimes absent and a lack of management support existed in some cases. The conclusion that can be made is that it appears to be shortcomings in both the organizational and social conditions.  

  • Langefeld, Carl D.
    et al.
    Ainsworth, Hannah C.
    Graham, Deborah S. Cunninghame
    Kelly, Jennifer A.
    Comeau, Mary E.
    Marion, Miranda C.
    Howard, Timothy D.
    Ramos, Paula S.
    Croker, Jennifer A.
    Morris, David L.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Almlof, Jonas Carlsson
    Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo M.
    Alarcon, Graciela S.
    Babini, Alejandra M.
    Baca, Vicente
    Bengtsson, Anders A.
    Berbotto, Guillermo A.
    Bijl, Marc
    Brown, Elizabeth E.
    Brunner, Hermine I.
    Cardiel, Mario H.
    Catoggio, Luis
    Cervera, Ricard
    Cucho-Venegas, Jorge M.
    Rantapää Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    D'Alfonso, Sandra
    Da Silva, Berta Martins
    de la Rua Figueroa, Inigo
    Doria, Andrea
    Edberg, Jeffrey C.
    Endreffy, Emoke
    Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge A.
    Fortin, Paul R.
    Freedman, Barry I.
    Frostegard, Johan
    Garcia, Mercedes A.
    Garcia de la Torre, Ignacio
    Gilkeson, Gary S.
    Gladman, Dafna D.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Guthridge, Joel M.
    Huggins, Jennifer L.
    James, Judith A.
    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.
    Kamen, Diane L.
    Karp, David R.
    Kaufman, Kenneth M.
    Kottyan, Leah C.
    Kovacs, Laszlo
    Laustrup, Helle
    Lauwerys, Bernard R.
    Li, Quan-Zhen
    Maradiaga-Cecena, Marco A.
    Martin, Javier
    McCune, Joseph M.
    McWilliams, David R.
    Merrill, Joan T.
    Miranda, Pedro
    Moctezuma, Jose F.
    Nath, Swapan K.
    Niewold, Timothy B.
    Orozco, Lorena
    Ortego-Centeno, Norberto
    Petri, Michelle
    Pineau, Christian A.
    Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.
    Pope, Janet
    Raj, Prithvi
    Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind
    Reveille, John D.
    Russell, Laurie P.
    Sabio, Jose M.
    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.
    Scherbarth, Hugo R.
    Scorza, Raffaella
    Seldin, Michael F.
    Sjowall, Christopher
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Thompson, Susan D.
    Toloza, Sergio M. A.
    Truedsson, Lennart
    Tusie-Luna, Teresa
    Vasconcelos, Carlos
    Vila, Luis M.
    Wallace, Daniel J.
    Weisman, Michael H.
    Wither, Joan E.
    Bhangale, Tushar
    Oksenberg, Jorge R.
    Rioux, John D.
    Gregersen, Peter K.
    Syvanen, Ann-Christine
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Criswell, Lindsey A.
    Jacob, Chaim O.
    Sivils, Kathy L.
    Tsao, Betty P.
    Schanberg, Laura E.
    Behrens, Timothy W.
    Silverman, Earl D.
    Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.
    Kimberly, Robert P.
    Harley, John B.
    Wakeland, Edward K.
    Graham, Robert R.
    Gaffney, Patrick M.
    Vyse, Timothy J.
    Transancestral mapping and genetic load in systemic lupus erythematosus2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 16021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with marked gender and ethnic disparities. We report a large transancestral association study of SLE using Immunochip genotype data from 27,574 individuals of European (EA), African (AA) and Hispanic Amerindian (HA) ancestry. We identify 58 distinct non-HLA regions in EA, 9 in AA and 16 in HA (similar to 50% of these regions have multiple independent associations); these include 24 novel SLE regions (P < 5 x 10(-8)), refined association signals in established regions, extended associations to additional ancestries, and a disentangled complex HLA multigenic effect. The risk allele count (genetic load) exhibits an accelerating pattern of SLE risk, leading us to posit a cumulative hit hypothesis for autoimmune disease. Comparing results across the three ancestries identifies both ancestry-dependent and ancestry-independent contributions to SLE risk. Our results are consistent with the unique and complex histories of the populations sampled, and collectively help clarify the genetic architecture and ethnic disparities in SLE.

  • Carlsson, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Profiting from serial correlation: Constructing a trading strategy on the DAX2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how technical analysis has been used throughout historyand constructs a technical trading strategy to be used in a computer algorithm.The strategy is based on a linear regression indicator and aims to prot fromthe assumption that markets, in this case the DAX, has some degree of serialcorrelation in daily price-movements. The strategy developed in this paper doesbeat a buy and hold with a substantial margin. Further, I test the validity of theseresults by simulating two different sets of random stock-paths using monte-carlosimulations; one following a geometric Brownian motion and the other a wienerprocess with serial correlation. I nd that the strategy based on a linear regressionhas signicantly higher returns than a buy and hold strategy over the same timeperiod and that the results generated by the strategy on the DAX give some degreeof evidence for serial correlation in daily prices on the DAX.

  • Hörnblad, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Laborationer för integration och naturvetenskapligt lärande?: Aspekter på ett laborativt möte2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien har en naturvetenskaplig laboration genomförts som en gemensam aktivitet för en gymnasieklass som läser Biologi 1 och en språkintroduktionsklass som läser NO. Aktiviteten har sedan utvärderats med avseende på elevernas tillägnande av det naturvetenskapliga innehållet, deras användande av naturvetenskapligt språk, vilka kommunikationsvägar som uppstod, elevernas försök till samarbete, samt elevernas och lärarnas subjektiva upplevelser. Studien visade att den här typen av aktiviteter är genomförbara på ett mycket heterogent elevunderlag avseende både etniska-, sociala och förkunskapsmässiga faktorer. De naturvetenskapliga laborationerna har därmed en potential i att fungera som verktyg både i ämnesinlärning och som arena för integration. Vidare visade studien på behovet av kommunikationsverktyg utöver listor med ämnesspecifika ord och begrepp både för elever med svenska som andraspråk och med svenska som modersmål. För utveckling av det naturvetenskapliga språket föreslås en utförligare uppföljning av laborationsaktiviteten än den som gjordes inom ramen för den här studien.

  • George, Karl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coping with Anxiety Sensitivity during Adolescence2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between Anxiety Sensitivity (AS) and certain anxiety disorders such as Panic Disorder and the panic response itself are well established by theory and research. Adolescence is understood to be a risk period for the development of Anxiety disorders. Certain styles of coping such as avoidance has beensuggested to be risk factors as well. In this study, the relation between AS and coping is explored using self-report measures (CASI-R and A-COPE), aiming to see if adolescents with high or low AS have an association with certain coping styles, understood by theory also to be potential risk factors. No reliable association were found between groups with high or low AS and any coping style. AS and total extent of coping did not correlate. A small and negative, significant correlation was found between age and AS.

  • Zimmerman, Malin
    et al.
    Enes, Sara Rolandsson
    Skarstrand, Hanna
    Pourhamidi, Kaveh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Gottsater, Anders
    Wollmer, Per
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla
    Dahlin, Lars B.
    Temporal trend of autonomic nerve function and HSP27, MIF and PAI-1 in type 1 diabetes2017In: Journal of clinical and translational endocrinology, ISSN 2214-6237, Vol. 8, 15-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1D) has numerous complications including autonomic neuropathy, i.e. dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system. This study focuses on Heat Shock Protein 27 (HSP27), Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF), Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and HbA1c and their possible roles in effects of diabetes on the autonomic nervous system.

    Methods: Patients with T1D (n = 32, 41% women) were recruited in 1985 and followed up on four occasions (1989, 1993, 1998, and 2005). Autonomic function was tested using expiration/inspiration (E/I-ratio). Blood samples, i.e. HSP27 (last three occasions), MIF, PAI-1 (last two occasions) and HbA1c (five occasions), were analyzed.

    Results: Autonomic nerve function deteriorated over time during the 20-year-period, but levels of HSP27, MIF, and PAI-1 were not associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. MIF and PAI-1 were lower in T1D than in healthy controls in 2005. Increased HbA1c correlated with a decrease in E/I-ratio.

    Conclusions: Neither the neuroprotective substance HSP27 nor the inflammatory substances, MIF and PAI-1 were associated with measures of cardiovascular autonomic nerve function, but a deterioration of such function was observed in relation to increasing HbA1c in T1D during a 20-year follow-up period. Improved glucose control might be associated with protection against autonomic neuropathy in T1D.

  • Gaziano, Thomas A.
    et al.
    Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika
    Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier
    Wade, Alisha
    Crowther, Nigel J.
    Alam, Sartaj
    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer
    Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.
    Wagner, Ryan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa ; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana ; Africa Wits-INDEPTH Genomic Studies of Cardiovascular Disease, University of the Witwatersrand.
    Rohr, Julia
    Montana, Livia
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa ; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana ; Africa Wits-INDEPTH Genomic Studies of Cardiovascular Disease, University of the Witwatersrand.
    Baernighausen, Till W.
    Berkman, Lisa F.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Cardiometabolic risk in a population of older adults with multiple co-morbidities in rural south africa: the HAALSI (Health and Aging in Africa: longitudinal studies of INDEPTH communities) study2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A consequence of the widespread uptake of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is that the older South African population will experience an increase in life expectancy, increasing their risk for cardiometabolic diseases (CMD), and its risk factors. The long-term interactions between HIV infection, treatment, and CMD remain to be elucidated in the African population. The HAALSI cohort was established to investigate the impact of these interactions on CMD morbidity and mortality among middle-aged and older adults. Methods: We recruited randomly selected adults aged 40 or older residing in the rural Agincourt sub-district in Mpumalanga Province. In-person interviews were conducted to collect baseline household and socioeconomic data, self-reported health, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), HbA1c, HIV-status, and point-of-care glucose and lipid levels. Results: Five thousand fifty nine persons (46.4% male) were enrolled with a mean age of 61.7 +/- 13.06 years. Waist-to- hip ratio was high for men and women (0.92 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.89 +/- 0.08), with 70% of women and 44% of men being overweight or obese. Blood pressure was similar for men and women with a combined hypertension prevalence of 58.4% and statistically significant increases were observed with increasing age. High total cholesterol prevalence in women was twice that observed for men (8.5 vs. 4.1%). The prevalence of self-reported CMD conditions was higher among women, except for myocardial infarction, and women had a statistically significantly higher prevalence of angina (10.82 vs. 6.97%) using Rose Criteria. The HIV- persons were significantly more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, or be overweight or obese than HIV+ persons. Approximately 56% of the cohort had at least 2 measured or self-reported clinical co-morbidities, with HIV+ persons having a consistently lower prevalence of co-morbidities compared to those without HIV. Absolute 10-year risk cardiovascular risk scores ranged from 7.7-9.7% for women and from 12.5-15.3% for men, depending on the risk score equations used. Conclusions: This cohort has high CMD risk based on both traditional risk factors and novel markers like hsCRP. Longitudinal follow-up of the cohort will allow us to determine the long-term impact of increased lifespan in a population with both high HIV infection and CMD risk.

  • Kunz, Sabine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Quality assessment and epistemic beliefs: If you tell me what you believe in, can I tell you what you’ll get?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bedömning av kvaliteten är en av de viktigaste processerna som en lärare utför varje arbetsdag för att kunna relatera elevernas prestationer mot ett kulturellt och individuellt anpassat betygssystem. Med ambitionen att främja jämställdhet och reliabilitet av bedömningar tillhandahåller Skolverket bedömningskrav och kriterier för att skilja olika grader av kvalitet (Selghed 2011). Dessa kriterier förefaller emellertid ibland otydliga och inte lämpliga för att särskilja mellan kvalitativa nivåer, särskilt på högre nivåer, vilka därför kan uppfattas som delvis överlappande. Som följd finns det mycket utrymme för tolkning av den enskilda läraren när det slutliga bedömningssystemet konstrueras (Schreiber et al., 2012, Selghed 2011). En alternativ bedömningsmetod som är rekommenderad av t.ex. Hattie (2012), är den mindre komplexa SOLO-taxonomin vilken idag används i de högre utbildnings miljöer.För att uppskatta överlappningen mellan resultat som härrör från olika bedömningsmetoder analyserar denna studie kvalitetsnivåer av en skrivuppgift av andraårs-gymnasieelever med hjälp av det läroplanbaserade betygssystemet och SOLO-taxonomin. Med hjälp av principiell komponentanalys (PCA) och korrelationsanalys kunde man dra slutsatsen att de olika bedömningsmetoderna är lämpliga för att skilja högre från lägre komplexitet eller kvalitetsnivåer. Men SOLO-taxonomin kunde inte tydligt skilja de mer sofistikerade skillnaderna mellan högre betygsnivå A och B.Dessutom undersökte denna studie om en noggrant genomförd konstruktivistisk undervisningsdesign oundvikligen resulterar i högkvalitativa skriftliga arbeten. Detta analyserades med hjälp av PCA och korrelationsanalys av relationen mellan deltagarnas kunskapssyn och bedömningsresultatet. Inom detta sammanhang kunde det dras slutsatsen att (I) en mer sofistikerad syn på naturen av kunskap och kunskap och (II) heterogeniteten hos en studentgrupp med avseende på kunskapssynen verkar vara kopplad till högre kvalitativa prestationer. Bevis för en korrelation mellan elevernas individuella kunskapssyn och de valda inlärningsmetoderna diskuteras inom ramen för en generell lämplighet av konstruktivistiska undervisningsmetoder.

  • Elvin, Lottie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Pettersson, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Equity Crowdfunding i Sverige: Finansieringskälla eller marknadsföringsverktyg?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs have a hard time raising enough capital to be able to reach their targeted growth. The access to external capital is limited because of factors like a lack of cash flow, information and other assets. There is a gap between supply and demand that the traditional financing methods do not fill. Crowdfunding is a financing method where a collective pool their assets together to contribute to certain businesses’ continued growth. Crowdfunding has seen a significant growth over the past years, where the latest category is equity crowdfunding.

     

    This qualitative study sets out to examine why Swedish entrepreneurs use equity crowdfunding to raise capital and what factors are behind a successful campaign in Sweden. The purpose of the study is to add to the relatively unexplored field that is equity crowdfunding in Sweden by using existing theories regarding entrepreneurship and crowdfunding. The goal is that the result will be of help to entrepreneurs that are planning to raise capital. To achieve this, seven semi-structured interviews have been conducted, summarized and analyzed to finally lead to a conclusion. To gain different perspectives of the subject, all three parties involved in equity crowdfunding have been heard. Five of the respondents are entrepreneurs whom have gone through a successful round of equity crowdfunding, one respondent is from a crowdfunding platform and one is an investor. 

     

    The study showed that there are a number of reasons why entrepreneurs choose equity crowdfunding as their method to raise capital. The method is available to companies in earlier stages than other, traditional, methods are. Other than gaining the capital that comes from a successful campaign the company will gain plenty of attention, mainly from its investors whom have a tendency to act as ambassadors for the company. These ambassadors generate a large marketing effect through their social networks. The main factors behind a successful campaign have proven to be active communication, the ability to present the business in a pedagogic matter, a substantial social network and the support of friends and family in the early stages. 

  • Agdahl, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    THE INTEGRATION PROCESS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION FOR FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING: DRAWING EXAMPLES FROM ÄLVSTADEN-GOTHENBURGBETWEEN 1999-20152017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to climate change and natural variations in the hydrological cycle, global mean sea levels are increasing, causing the mean sea levels in different regions of the world to increase. In Sweden, coastal cities are facing rising water levels which is increasing flooding. The coastal community of Gothenburg, Sweden was identified the 18th most vulnerable city in the country both to flooding induced by water level rise and other climate change related impacts. Its location, in proximity of Lake Vänern, and in the mouth of the Göta River and its tributaries: Säveån, Mölndalsån and Lärjeån is heightening flood risk and vulnerability in the area. This thesis aims to contribute in comprehending the integration process of natural hazard and climate change adaptation for flood management in Älvstaden- central Gothenburg between 1999 and 2015. With the main objectives being” how the municipality of Gothenburg has applied the urban land use planning theory for the integration of natural hazard and climate change adaptation, with regards to adaptation for flood management in Älvstaden between 1999 and 2015? “What climate change adaptation policies for flood management have been implemented in Gothenburg within this time frame, and how the policies have been revised to match the reality of flood issues?” And “What improvements would be made in the integration process to better address adaptation for flood management?” A desk-based research and one case study approach was adopted for this study. The findings indicate that although the city has systematically used the steps involved in the integration process of natural hazard and climate change adaptation for flood management, it does not link the policies and the measures applied to adaptation for flood management. Which is an issue as it has led to the exclusion of vital functions of the integration process. Suggestions on how the integration process could be improved are provided.

  • Abdollahian, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Kanwar, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Optimering av kortaste vägen vid hantering och avledning av skadligt dagvatten: Lösning med A-stjärna algoritm samt en guide med ekonomiska styrmedel för beslutsfattande aktörer2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The earth's population is growing and increasingly more people move into urban areas. This means that as cities grow, new buildings are being built and infrastructures are expanding. This rapid growth is directly related to increased floods as a result of man-made changes in nature.

    The already overloaded storm water systems for rain-, melt-, rinsing and other surplus water cannot often handle the existing demand. Therefore, floods arise at greater rain intensity and pose significant costs to society. Due to an unclear division of responsibility within the municipality's organizations there is a failure to handle the existing storm water problem. In order to be able to plan for sustainable cities in the future, it is important to find a viable solution regarding the responsibility issue and how to best handle the storm water to achieve cost advantage.

    This study presents a guide for municipalities on how to allocate the responsibility between the municipality and the exploiter. The guide is based on simulations and theories in optimization to propose effective solutions for harmful surplus storm water. Through simulations of the storm water system, the amount of surplus water that does not fit the storm water system capacity has been quantified. In addition, to find a reasonable alternative run-off path for the surplus water, different methods of the shortest path problem have been investigated.

    The results show that a classical shortest path algorithm with a heuristic function is not the most appropriate alternative. This because the heuristic function in the algorithm prevents the selection of a more natural pathway upstream even though it could be a more optimal solution.

  • Lundquist, Josefin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    O'Hara, Linnéa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    An optimization model using the Assignment Problem to manage the location of parts: Master Thesis at the engine assembly at Scania CV AB2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A key challenge for manufacturing companies is to store parts in an efficient way atthe lowest cost possible. As the demand of differentiated products increases, togetherwith the fact that old products are not phased out at the same pace, the need of usingstorage space as dynamically as possible becomes vital.Scania’s engine assembly manufactures engines for various automotive vehicles andmarine & industry applications. The variation in engine range in Scania’s offeringleads to the need of holding a vast, and increasing, assortment of parts in the produc-tion. As a consequence, this puts more pressure on the logistics and furnishing withinthe engine assembly.This master thesis aims to facilitate the process of assigning parts’ storage locationsin the most profitable manner through an optimization model, the Location Model, inExcel VBA. Together with the model, suggestions of work methods are presented.By implementing the Location Model at Scania’s engine assembly, 4,98 % of all keptparts are recommended location changes, while resulting in cost savings, for the chosen30-day period. These location changes result in a cost saving of 6,73 % of the totallogistic costs for the same time period.

  • Kero, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Optimering av GC-FID-metod för rutinanalys av alkoholer i plasma: Utvärdering av olika separationskolonner och provappliceringstekniker2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Müller, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Characterization of dangerous pollutants in bio and waste ashes: Analysing content and leaching behaviour of several ashes for persistent organic pollutants and toxic heavy metals2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Jonsson, Ronja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Kvantitativ analys av Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: Betydelse av JP2 och icke-JP2 genotyp för utveckling av fästeförlust2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Larsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    On fees and performance in the premium pension system: A study of the determinants of mutual fund fee and risk-adjusted return within the Swedish premium pension system2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pension is a subject that soon or later affects all individuals in society. Within the premium pension system mutual fund fees are an important factor to consider since it can erode savings. This study investigates fees and performance of all mutual funds that existed in the premium pension system (PPS) between 2004 and 2016. Risk-adjusted performance and fees are adjusted to reflect the discount that is given for fees within the premium pension system to reflect actual investor experiences. The data needed to make these adjustments were obtained from the Swedish Pension Agency. The main purpose of this study is to investigate if there is a relationship between fee and risk-adjusted return within the Swedish premium pension system. Further on this study aims to explain what mutual fund characteristics can be used to predict performance and fees within the premium pension system.Theories used in this study are efficient market hypothesis, agency theory, behavioral finance, economies of scale and portfolio theory. The factors from the Carhart 4-factor model is used to construct the factor model utilized in this study to estimate risk-adjusted returns. This study adapts a quantitative research method and panel data regressions were conducted to determine how fee and risk-adjusted performance is related to various mutual fund characteristics. Hausman tests were conducted to evaluate if the fixed effects model or random effects model was the most appropriate to use. The result of the Hausman test proved that fixed effect model was the most appropriate model to use.This study will draw conclusions about whether the fee that the mutual fund companies charge can be justified given their risk-adjusted performance. The results for the sample of all mutual funds and the sample of equity funds imply that there exists a positive relationship between fee after discount and performance. Therefore, mutual funds in the premium pension system compensate for increasing fees with a higher risk-adjusted return. The sample of balanced funds differs since there is a negative relationship between risk-adjusted returns and fees. This study finds that size is a determinant of risk-adjusted performance, with larger mutual fund performing better than smaller funds. Because of this finding, it can be concluded that economies of scale do exist among the mutual funds in the premium pension system. Actively managed mutual funds charge higher mutual fund fees on average than passively managed funds. Further on, there is significant evidence that actively managed equity funds perform worse than passively managed equity funds. This suggests that investors are better off investing into cheaper equity index funds rather than expensive actively managed equity funds.

  • Rönnlund, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Rönnlund, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Hur ska matkassen levereras?: En kvalitativ studie om attityder till leveranser av livsmedel vid e-handelskonsumtion2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    E-handel av livsmedel växer med en tilltagande hastighet där allt fler aktörer tar plats på marknaden och vill erbjuda effektiva och attraktiva leveranser till sina kunder. Den växande livsmedelsförsäljningen över internet innebär krav på nya distributionslösningar som skiljer sig från distributionen till butik. Konsumenterna erbjuds nu leveranser med direkt koppling till bostäderna som i dagsläget är väldigt kostsamt och svåra att effektivisera. Samtidigt efterfrågar allt fler kunder leveranser till sin dörr där kraven på snabba felfria leveranser blir allt högre allt eftersom fler aktörer etablerar sig. Att se över olika leveranslösningar och undersöka vilka attityder konsumenter och aktörer har till de olika alternativen kan ge en bild över hur aktörer kan arbeta med sin distribution och positionering av leveranser till kund framöver. Denna studie behandlar attityder till tre olika leveransalternativ vid e-handel av livsmedel. De tre leveransalternativen är hemleverans med tillsyn, hemleverans utan tillsyn, som innefattar icke genomförbar hemleverans med tillsyn och mottagningsboxar, och slutligen upphämtningscentraler. Studien syftar till att ge en förståelse för vilka attribut som har stor betydelse för vilka attityder respondenterna har till de olika leveransalternativen. För att fullgöra studien syfte har vi genomfört studien kvalitativt där vi intervjuat tre aktörer inom ehandel av livsmedel och sex konsumenter. Vi har genom semistrukturerade intervjuer samlat in data om respondenternas syn på de olika leveransalternativen och utav dessa urskilt vilka attityder respondenterna har. Datat har sedan analyserats utefter en tematisk analys som kopplats till en teoretisk referensram. Studien visar att det huvudsakligen finns fyra attribut som påverkar konsumenternas attityder till leveransalternativen; bekvämlighet, service, tid och pris. De attribut som visar sig vara mest betydelsefulla hos aktörerna är konkurrenskraft, servicegrad, kostnad och planering. Samtliga respondenter från båda grupper anser att hemleverans med tillsyn är det mest attraktiva leveransalternativet. De andra leveransalternativen; icke genomförbar hemleverans med tillsyn/ mottagningsboxar och upphämtningscentraler möts av generellt negativa attityder av majoriteten av respondenterna. Konsumenternas argument till största del baserat på attributen tid och bekvämlighet och aktörerna baserat på konkurrenskraft och servicegrad. Genom att följa upp konsumenternas viktigaste attribut kan aktörerna vara konkurrenskraftiga och erbjuda en hög servicegrad vilket gör att aktörerna, genom att fokusera på konsumenternas attribut, samtidigt påverkar de egna attributen och förstärker attityderna.

  • Mantére, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Hellstrand, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Lojalitetsprogram inom dagligvaruhandeln: Kundens upplevelse av dagligvaruhandelns lojalitetsprogram i förhållande till kundnöjdhet och kundlojalitet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lojalitetsprogram är idag både välkänt och välanvänt bland dagligvaruhandelns konsumenter. Ett tydligt mönster inom dagligvaruhandelns lojalitetsprogram är att de är skapade för att uppmuntra kunden till att göra upprepade köp. Forskning som tidigare gjorts kring lojalitetsprogram undersöker huruvida dessa bidrar till fler lojala kunder. Något som ofta diskuterats i samband med lojalitetsprogram är begreppet kundlojalitet. Befintlig forskning analyserar kundernas köpbeteenden för att avgöra förhållandet mellan lojalitetsprogram och kundlojalitet. Det som saknas inom forskning är om det kan finnas andra underliggande aspekter som kan påverka kundens köpbeteende. Studier som undersöker förhållandet mellan kundnöjdhet och lojalitetsprogram är idag begränsat, och har lett till att denna studie har för avsikt att besvara följande frågeformulering: Hur upplevs lojalitetsprogrammen av kunder i dagligvaruhandeln?

    Studiens teoretiska referensram består av teorier inom området för kundlojalitet, kundnöjdhet och lojalitetsprogram. För att besvara studiens problemformulering har vi använt oss av en kvalitativ metod. Data har samlats in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer och ett kompletterande experiment. Totalt har åtta intervjuer genomförts där urvalet för studien baserar sig på ett snöbollsurval och urvalskriterier. Urvalet består av personer mellan 22 och 29 år uppdelat inom segmenten: singelhushåll och familjehushåll. Vardera segment består av fyra respondenter från respektive segment.

    Efter att dessa genomförts utfördes en tematisk analys av studiens insamlade material där vi kunnat identifierat nya områden inom ramen för kundnöjdhet, kundlojalitet och lojalitetsprogram samt skillnader mellan två olika kundgrupper. Viktiga komponenter för att kunderna ska känna sig nöjda med sina lojalitetsprogram är: typer av förmåner som erbjuds, hur information nås ut samt hur det går att använda erbjudandena hos lojalitetsprogrammen. Vidare ser vi att kundlojalitet kan påverkas om kunden är nöjd med sitt lojalitetsprogram och dess utformning. Lojalitetsprogram har en påverkan på kundlojalitet, både den beteendemässiga och attitydmässiga lojaliteten. Det studien lyfter fram är att den attitydmässiga lojaliteten kan spela en större roll för att få återkommande kunder. Kunder vill ta del av mer personifierade erbjudanden mot produkter inom butikens sortiment och lockas av erbjudanden som innebär en ekonomisk besparing. Skillnader vi identifierat mellan kundgrupperna singelhushåll och familjehushåll är vilka förväntningar de har, engagemang och upplevelse av hur informationen nås ut. 

  • Petursson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Fenstad, Anne Marie
    Gøthesen, Øystein
    Haugan, Kristin
    Dyrhovden, Gro Sævik
    Hallan, Geir
    Röhrl, Stephan M
    Aamodt, Arild
    Nilsson, Kjell G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Furnes, Ove
    Similar migration in computer-assisted and conventional total knee arthroplasty.2017In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 88, no 2, 166-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose - Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been used in recent years in the hope of improving the alignment and positioning of the implant, thereby achieving a better functional outcome and durability. However, the role of computer navigation in TKA is still under debate. We used radiostereometric analysis (RSA) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to determine whether there are any differences in migration of the tibial component between CAS- and conventionally (CONV-) operated TKA. Patients and methods - 54 patients (CAS, n = 26; CONV, n = 28) with a mean age of 67 (56-78) years and with osteoarthritis or arthritic disease of the knee were recruited from 4 hospitals during the period 2009-2011. To estimate the mechanical stability of the tibial component, the patients were examined with RSA up to 24 months after operation. The following parameters representing tibial component micromotion were measured: 3-D vector of the prosthetic marker that moved the most, representing the magnitude of migration (maximum total point motion, MTPM); the largest negative value for y-translation (subsidence); the largest positive y-translation (lift-off); and prosthetic rotations. The precision of the RSA measurements was evaluated and migration in the 2 groups was compared. Results - Both groups had most migration within the first 3 months, but there was no statistically significant difference in the magnitude of the migration between the CAS group and the CONV group. From 3 to 24 months, the MTPM (in mm) was 0.058 and 0.103 (p = 0.1) for the CAS and CON groups, respectively, and the subsidence (in mm) was 0.005 and 0.011 (p = 0.3). Interpretation - Mean MTPM, subsidence, lift-off, and rotational movement of tibial trays were similar in CAS- and CONV-operated knees.

  • Myrberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Optimering av kolorimetrisk mätmetod i ordinarie verksamhet för analys av litium.: En jämförelse mellan Cobas 6000 och AVL 9180.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Aspelin, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Anrikning med Illumina Nextera XT sekvenseringsbibliotek2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Johansson, Rebecca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Tur, hopp och kärlek: En kvalitativ undersökning om ungdomars vändpunktsprocesser2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges ungdomsvård är både omfattande, kostsam och har i vissa hänseenden heller inte uppnått optimal effekt för att ungdomarna ska nå ett självständigt, fungerande liv. Placeringskostnaderna för ungdomar på HVB i Sverige har mellan 2014 till 2015 ökat med 451 miljoner kronor och det kan tänkas att det vore angeläget att fokusera på det som fungerar snarare än det som inte fungerar för att vända utvecklingen. Denna kvalitativa uppsats syftar till att undersöka bakomliggande orsaker till ungdomars vändpunkter som bott på HVB eller institutioner. Fem personer som bott på HVB-hem eller institution som idag lever självständiga liv utgör urvalet. Intervjuerna från dessa fem utgör materialet som har analyserats med hjälp av konventionell kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visar på att viljan till att få hjälp och bakomliggande orsaker till vändpunkten är beroende av varandras existens. När dessa ligger i samklang till varandra tycks det leda till att vändpunkten leder till en förändrad livssituation. Resultatet bekräftar till viss del befintlig forskning på området men indikerar också på behov av ytterligare forskning.

  • Blomdahl, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utmattningsprovning av kamringar: Framtagning av testutrustning för utmattningsprovning av kamringar2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bosch Rexroth in Mellansel develops and fabricates Hägglunds hydraulic motors among other things. One important component of the motor is the cam ring, which commonly affects the life span of the motor. The aim is to create the basis of a testing equipment where a loose cam ring can be tested. Previously, a complete motor has been used in order to test the fatigue resistance of the cam ring. In order to load the cam ring similar to the real case. FEM-analysis was performed to investigate how the cam ring is affected during loading and how the rig should be built for the strains to be similar to the real case. The result of this simulation was compiled in a Haighdiagram in order to get an indication of the magnitude of the stresses. The solution is a testing equipment which consist of a cylinder block which usually is in the motor. The cylinder block is bolted onto a bottom plate where the cam ring has a given position. The cam ring is fixated using a sloted spring pin and a dowel pin that keeps the cam ring in position and prevents potential torque. All pistons should be pressurised by pulsation at the same time using the same pressure, thus, the torque is expected to be zero. One of the holes which is holding the cam ring is oval, this is to allow deformation of the cam ring. The result of this work is a basic plan for the components included which affects the mechanical function of the testing equipment. A limitation of this work has been that the residual stresses in the clearance holes is unknown. These residual stresses have a great importance for fatigue resistance of the cam rings. As a consequence of this, it has been difficult to estimate which working pressure the test rig has to use in order to achieve the desired life span. Experimental testing when using the rig will indicate this. Task monotoring  The testing equipment will generate 1-10 million loading cycles before failure of the cam ring occurs. Will be achieved through experimental testing  Testing time should be reasonable, result would preferably be achieved within 2-4 weeks. Will be achieved through experimental testing  The testing equipment should be customised for a CA 50-50 cam ring. (CA 50 motor series strongest motor 50 Nm/bar) Achieved  Testing equipment should be usable with the current laboratory equipment of Bosh Rexroths (420 bars maximum preassure). Probably achieved  The crack needs to be detected in an appropriate way, to stop the testing. Achieved  The testing equipment needs to be able to be manufactured by using the developed blueprints. Achieved