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  • Disputas: 2017-05-17 09:00 N420, Umeå
    Skrypnychuk, Vasyl
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Vertical charge transport in conjugated polymers2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers are novel organic electronic materials highly important for organic photovoltaic applications. Charge transport is one of the key properties which defines the performance of conjugated polymers in electronic devices.

    This work aims to explore the charge transport anisotropy in thin films of P3HT, one of the most common conjugated polymers. Using X-ray diffraction techniques and charge transport measurements, the relation between vertical charge transport through thin P3HT films and structure of the films was established.

    It was shown that particular orientations of crystalline domains of P3HT, namely face-on and chain-on, are beneficial for vertical charge transport. These orientations provide the efficient pathways for the charges to be transported vertically, either via π-π stacking interaction between the adjacent conjugated chains, or via the conjugated chain backbones. It was also demonstrated that particular orientations of crystallites are favourable for the formation of interconnected percolated pathways providing enhanced vertical charge transport across the film.

    Deposition of P3HT on most commonly used silicon substrates typically results in the formation of mostly edge-on orientation of crystallites which is unfavourable for vertical charge transport. Nanoimprint lithography was demonstrated as a powerful processing method for reorienting the edge-on crystalline domains of P3HT into chain-on (vertical) orientation. It is also shown that thin P3HT films with preferentially face-on orientations of crystallites can be deposited on graphene surface by spin coating.

    Using patterning of thin P3HT films by nanoimprint lithography, unprecedentedly high average vertical mobilities in the range of 3.1-10.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 were achieved in undoped P3HT.

    These results demonstrate that charge transport in thin films of a relatively simple and well-known conjugated polymer P3HT can be significantly improved using optimization of crystallinity,orientation of crystallites, polymer chain orientation and alignment in the films.

  • Dahlgren, K.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Holzmann, M. J.
    Carlsson, A. C.
    Wandelld, P.
    Hasselstrom, J.
    Ruge, Toralph
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    The use of a Swedish telephone medical advice service by the elderly: a population-based study2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, nr 1, 98-104 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present study aimed to describe contact made by the elderly to Sweden's nationwide medical helpline, Healthcare Guide 1177 by Phone (HGP). Other objectives were to study potential gender differences and the association between different HGP referral levels and acute visits to hospital-based emergency departments and acute visits to primary care centres. Design: De-identified data from recorded calls to HGP was extracted for analysis (n=7477 for the oldest age group). Information about acute visits to emergency departments and to primary care reception was extracted from the patient administration system.Setting: Vasterbotten County, Sweden.Subjects: Patients over 80 years.Main outcome measures: Calling and visiting frequencies for different age groups as well as reasons for contact and individual recommendations. Results: The utilisation rate of the telephone advice service for the oldest age group was high, with an incidence rate of 533 per 1000 person-years. Women had a 1.17 times higher incidence rate compared with men. The most common reason for contact was drug-related questions (17% of all contacts). Calls that were recommended to care by a medical specialist correlated with total emergency department visits (r=0.30, p<0.05) and calls that were given advice correlated with acute primary healthcare visits (r=0.38, p=0.005). Conclusion: The high utilisation of the telephone advice service by the elderly gives the telephone advice service a unique ability to function as a gatekeeper to further healthcare. Our data suggest that with the telephone advice service's present guidelines, a significant proportion of all calls are being directed to further medical help. The high frequency of drug-related questions raises concerns about the elderly's medication regimens.

  • Nylander, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Tunback, Petra
    Commentary on "Phimosis with Preputial Fissures as a Predictor of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Adults"2017Inngår i: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, ISSN 0001-5555, E-ISSN 1651-2057, Vol. 97, nr 1, 145-145 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Wendt, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Att ställa ut folk: Rasbiologi på Stockholmsutställningen 19302017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Lagerström, Marica
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    En utställningssynopsis till Huggarepokenpå Skogsmuseet i Lycksele2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Sörlin Tegenfeldt, Angelica
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Att inkludera de exkluderade: Den judiska representationens funktion på svenska museer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Goldberg, Emily L.
    et al.
    Asher, Jennifer L.
    Molony, Ryan D.
    Shaw, Albert C.
    Zeiss, Caroline J.
    Wang, Chao
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Herzog, Raimund I.
    Iwasaki, Akiko
    Dixit, Vishwa Deep
    beta-Hydroxybutyrate deactivates Neutrophil NLRP3 inflammasome to relieve gout flares2017Inngår i: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 18, nr 9, 2077-2087 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging and lipotoxicity are two major risk factors for gout that are linked by the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Neutrophil-mediated production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) drives gouty flares that cause joint destruction, intense pain, and fever. However, metabolites that impact neutrophil inflammasome remain unknown. Here, we identified that ketogenic diet (KD) increases beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and alleviates urate crystal-induced gout without impairing immune defense against bacterial infection. BHB inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome in S100A9 fibril-primed and urate crystal-activated macrophages, which serve to recruit inflammatory neutrophils in joints. Consistent with reduced gouty flares in rats fed a ketogenic diet, BHB blocked IL-1 beta in neutrophils in a NLRP3-dependent manner in mice and humans irrespective of age. Mechanistically, BHB inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome in neutrophils by reducing priming and assembly steps. Collectively, our studies show that BHB, a known alternate metabolic fuel, is also an anti-inflammatory molecule that may serve as a treatment for gout.

  • Dantoft, Thomas M.
    et al.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Engkilde, Kaare
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hellgren, Lars I.
    Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, e013879Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants. The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom=-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n=-butanol exposure.

    Design: Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure.

    Settings: Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper.

    Participants: 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls.

    Outcome measures: 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels.

    Results: MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls.

    Conclusions: MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the exposure.

  • Rurangirwa, Akashi Andrew
    et al.
    Mogren, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Ntaganira, Joseph
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda, its associated risk factors and relationship to ANC services attendance: a population-based study2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 2, e013155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of four forms of intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Rwandan women, associated sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and relationship to antenatal care service usage.

    Design: This was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in the Northern province of Rwanda and in Kigali city. Participants and settings: A total of 921 women who gave birth within the past 13 months were included. Villages in the study area were selected using a multistage random sampling technique and community health workers helped in identifying eligible participants. Clinical psychologists, nurses or midwives carried out face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations.

    Results: The prevalence rates of physical, sexual, psychological violence and controlling behaviour during pregnancy were 10.2% (95% CI 8.3 to 12.2), 9.7% (95% CI 7.8 to 11.6), 17.0% (95% CI 14.6 to 19.4) and 20.0% (95% CI 17.4 to 22.6), respectively. Usage of antenatal care services was less common among women who reported controlling behaviour (OR) 1.93 (95% CI 1.34 to 2.79). No statistically significant associations between physical, psychological and sexual violence and antenatal care usage were found. Low socioeconomic status was associated with physical violence exposure (OR) 2.27 (95% CI 1.29 to 3.98). Also, young age, living in urban areas and poor social support were statistically significant in their associations with violence exposure during pregnancy.

    Conclusions: Intimate partner violence inquiry should be included in the standard antenatal care services package and professionals should be trained in giving support, advice and care to those exposed. Genderbased violence is criminalised behaviour in Rwanda; existing policies and laws must be followed and awareness raised in society for preventive purposes.

  • Karjala, Jaana
    et al.
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Inter-rater reliability between nurses for a new paediatric triage system based primarily on vital parameters: the Paediatric Triage Instrument (PETI)2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, e012748Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The major paediatric triage systems are primarily based on flow charts involving signs and symptoms for orientation and subjective estimates of the patient's condition. In contrast, the 4-level Paediatric Triage Instrument (PETI) is primarily based on vital parameters and was developed exclusively for paediatric triage in patients with medical symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of this triage system in children when used by nurses.

    Methods: A design was employed in which triage was performed simultaneously and independently by a research nurse and an emergency department (ED) nurse using the PETI. All patients aged <= 12 years who presented at the ED with a medical symptom were considered eligible for participation.

    Results: The 89 participants exhibited a median age of 2 years and were triaged by 28 different nurses. The inter-rater reliability between nurses calculated with the quadratic-weighted kappa was 0.78 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.89); the linear-weighted kappa was 0.67 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.80) and the unweighted kappa was 0.59 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.73). For the patients aged <1, 1-3 and >3 years, the quadratic-weighted kappa values were 0.67 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.94), 0.86 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.97) and 0.73 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.97), respectively. The median triage duration was 6 min.

    Conclusions: The PETI exhibited substantial reliability when used in children aged <= 12 years and almost perfect reliability among children aged 1-3 years. Moreover, rapid application of the PETI was demonstrated. This study has some limitations, including sample size and generalisability, but the PETI exhibited promise regarding reliability, and the next step could be either a larger reliability study or a validation study.

  • Bergström, Magdalena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    "I could've had a better life'': reflective life reviews told by late-middle-aged and older women and men with ongoing long-term alcohol problems2017Inngår i: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, nr 1, 6-17 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study accounts for how people aged 55-69 with ongoing long-term alcohol problems conceptualize past, present and future.

    Methods: A total of 19 interviews were performed, from which reflective life reviews were obtained and analyzed as narrative life accounts. Three structuring thematic traits were identified: resentment of life, acceptance of life and gratitude towards life.

    Results: The study shows how past, present and future intertwine into meaningful entities incorporating certain governing master narratives about recovery, familiar for example from expert discourse and the AA movement. When it comes to the theme of resentment, the participants articulated disappointment over what life had become and emphasized especially the missed work-related opportunities that the drinking had caused. In the theme of acceptance letting go of the past was viewed as important for creating a sober future. Within the dimension of gratitude the past was seen as a resource for self-development and future recovery.

    Conclusions: How long-term alcohol problems are conceptualized in the long view of a life narrative may have great implications for outlooks of a sober future. A closer look at the social and cultural material incorporated in the stories of this age group is an important task for future research.

  • Chatrin, Friman Brantvik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bullernivåer i förskola och skola i Nordmaling kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Noise levels in preschools and school in Nordmaling Municipality

     

    Abstract

    Noise is a problem that many people are affected by. This report analyses noise exposure levels at preschools and analyses if sound reducing measures made in a school has made any difference. The A-weighting equivalent sound level was measured using a Norsonic 102 digital sound level meter and the A-weighting min and max sound levels was measured using a Kimo GSH 8922 digital sound level meter. The noise level measurements were performed in Nordmaling, in the north of Sweden, inside four preschools in the activity room and in two different classrooms in the school. Measurements were made when the room was empty and then during playtime or class. Health risk issues associated with the exposure to high noise levels were investigated using a questionnaire. This report will answer to the following questions: What noise levels are the staff and children exposed to? What sound reducing measures are recommended for the preschools? Do the staff in the school experiencing any difference before and after sound reducing measures? The results showed that measured noise levels of the preschools were below the limit ​​for noise at a workplace. But if you ask the staff, no one experience their work environment as good or very good and 10 of 12 preschool departments experiencing health effects due to noise. Measures can be made in the form of noise reducing installations, but also changes in the organization. In the school, it was difficult to compare the before and after measurements when they were performed differently, but the staff are experiencing a positive difference.

  • Ekstrand, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Byström, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    “Man ska inte behöva skämmas när någon frågar var man jobbar”: En kvalitativ analys av populära IT-företagskommunikation på sociala medier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractAuthors​: Johan Byström and Jonathan Ekstrand.

    Advisor​: Jesper Enbom.

    Examinator​: Eric Carlsson.

    The purpose of this thesis is to increase our understanding about how some of the most popular tech business’ use the phenomenon employer branding to make their own company look more attractive towards future workers through their social media channels. But also, expand our knowledge when it comes down to what makes a company attractive among students who study information technology and data programs. This thesis consisted of two methods which were a semiotic image analysis and two qualitative interviews. The data from the semiotic analysis consists of nine different images from the selected companies and the qualitative interviews consists of two separate group interviews which concluded a total of nine students from Umeå university.

    The results showed us new insights on how successful companies operate on their social media channels Instagram and Facebook. We could also identify that each company had their own idea of strategic communication on their channels. But something mutual between all channels were that they published content which purpose was to please a wider audience rather than a small selected group of people.

    Through this study we landed in the conclusion that the three companies do not aim their communication directly towards the group of students we interviewed. However, you can see patterns of the phenomenon employer branding in the published content, which contributes to make the companies look attractive. The interviewed students meant that the work environment had to be inviting. They also explained that some of the most important things that they look for in a future workplace are; fellowship, common interests and personal development. If companies use social media their chance of attractiveness and good reputation increases, rather than being lost in the crowd if they are never seen.

    Keywords: ​Employer branding, identity, social identity, social media, consumption, attractiveness, IT, personal development, corporate culture, students, communication, semiotics

  • Sörstam, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Åkebo, Markus
    Kødder du med meg din drittsekk?: En diskursanalys av den svenska pressens texter om tv-serien Skam vintern 2016-20172017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine how the image of the TV series Skam was constructed in the Swedish press during the winter of 2016-2017, with a focus on how Skam’s importance for individuals and society was expressed in the texts. To analyze how the discourse of Skam was constructed in the Swedish press, a discourse theoretical perspective based on Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s discourse theory was used, along with various theories of the media, the audience's production of meaning and pleasure, realism and psychology of religion. Different discursive tools from Laclau and Mouffe’s conceptual world are put into practice during the analysis part. Metaphors are also used as a method to understand and analyze the material. 

    In the analysis of the media discourse of Skam, four main themes emerged in the analyzed texts; Realism, identification, moralism and Norway and the Norwegian language. The discourse of realism raised the question whether Skam is realistic or not, and whether it is possible to understand teenagers by watching the series. The discourse of identification included questions like; whether participants could identify with the characters and situations in Skam or not, often from a nostalgic point of view. The discourse of moralism focused much on the different characters in the series and how they acted, or were portrayed. Topics such as feminism and homosexuality were discussed, along with other things. The discourse of Norway and the Norwegian language was a lot about the Swedish relations with Norway and the Norwegian language spoken in Skam. The discourse was very homogenous and notably it concerned the phenomena that Swedes have begun to speak Norwegian, and Swedish people creates a closeness and understanding of Norway and the Norwegians through the tv-series. 

    Skam was also constructed as something sacred that brings people together, in discussions as well as in cultural identity. A great majority of the texts discussed however adults should watch the tv-series or not. 

  • Edler, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 461, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Guedes, Thais
    Zizka, Alexander
    Rosvall, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Antonelli, Alexandre
    Infomap Bioregions: Interactive Mapping of Biogeographical Regions from Species Distributions2017Inngår i: Systematic Biology, ISSN 1063-5157, E-ISSN 1076-836X, Vol. 66, nr 2, 197-204 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogeographical regions (bioregions) reveal how different sets of species are spatially grouped and therefore are important units for conservation, historical biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Several methods have been developed to identify bioregions based on species distribution data rather than expert opinion. One approach successfully applies network theory to simplify and highlight the underlying structure in species distributions. However, this method lacks tools for simple and efficient analysis. Here, we present Infomap Bioregions, an interactive web application that inputs species distribution data and generates bioregion maps. Species distributions may be provided as georeferenced point occurrences or range maps, and can be of local, regional, or global scale. The application uses a novel adaptive resolution method to make best use of often incomplete species distribution data. The results can be downloaded as vector graphics, shapefiles, or in table format. We validate the tool by processing large data sets of publicly available species distribution data of the world's amphibians using species ranges, and mammals using point occurrences. We then calculate the fit between the inferred bioregions and WWF ecoregions. As examples of applications, researchers can reconstruct ancestral ranges in historical biogeography or identify indicator species for targeted conservation.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-15 09:00 MA121, Mit-huset, Umeå
    Piltti, Juha
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Responses of fibroblasts and chondrosarcoma cells to mechanical and chemical stimuli2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Osteoarthritis is an inflammation-related disease that progressively destroys joint cartilage. This disease causes pain and stiffness of the joints, and at advanced stages, limitations to the movement or bending of injured joints. Therefore, it often restricts daily activities and the ability to work. Currently, there is no cure to prevent its progression, although certain damaged joints, such as fingers, knees and hips, can be treated with joint replacement surgeries. However, joint replacement surgeries of larger joints are very invasive operations and the joint replacements have a limited lifetime.

    Cell-based therapies could offer a way to treat cartilage injuries before the ultimate damage of osteoarthritis on articular cartilage. The development of novel treatments needs both a good knowledge of articular cartilage biology and tissue engineering methods. This thesis primarily investigates the effects of mechanical cyclic stretching, a 5% low oxygen atmosphere and the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, on protein responses in chondrocytic human chondrosarcoma (HCS-2/8) cells. Special focus is placed on Rho-kinase inhibition, relating to its potential to promote and support extracellular matrix production in cultured chondrocytes and its role in fibroblast cells as a part of direct chemical cellular differentiation. The means to enhance the production of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix is needed for cell-based tissue engineering applications, since cultured chondrocytes quickly lose their cartilage-specific phenotype.

    A mechanical 8% cyclic cell stretching at a 1 Hz frequency was used to model a stretching rhythm similar to walking. The cellular stretching relates to stresses, which are directed to chondrocytes during the mechanical load. The stretch induced changes in proteins related, e.g., to certain cytoskeletal proteins, but also in enzymes associated with protein synthesis, such as eukaryotic elongation factors 1-beta and 1-delta. Hypoxic conditions were used to model the oxygen tension present in healthy cartilage tissue. Long-term hypoxia changed relative amounts in a total of 44 proteins and induced gene expressions of aggrecan and type II collagen, in addition to chondrocyte differentiation markers S100A1 and S100B. A short-term inhibition of Rho-kinase failed to induce extracellular matrix production in fibroblasts or in HCS-2/8 cells, while its long-term exposure increased the expressions of chondrocyte-specific genes and differentiation markers, and also promoted the synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans by chondrocytic cells. Interestingly, Rho kinase inhibition under hypoxic conditions produced a more effective increase in chondrocyte-specific gene expression and synthesis of extracellular matrix components by HCS-2/8 cells. The treatment induced changes in the synthesis of 101 proteins and ELISA analysis revealed a sixfold higher secretion of type II collagen compared to control cells. The secretion of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was simultaneously increased by 65.8%. Thus, Rho-kinase inhibition at low oxygen tension can be regarded as a potential way to enhance extracellular matrix production and maintain a chondrocyte phenotype in cell-based tissue engineering applications.

  • Escamez, Sacha
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Tuominen, Hannele
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Contribution of cellular autolysis to tissular functions during plant development2017Inngår i: Current opinion in plant biology, ISSN 1369-5266, E-ISSN 1879-0356, Vol. 35, 124-130 s.Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant development requires specific cells to be eliminated in a predictable and genetically regulated manner referred to as programmed cell death (PCD). However, the target cells do not merely die but they also undergo autolysis to degrade their cellular corpses. Recent progress in understanding developmental cell elimination suggests that distinct proteins execute PCD sensu stricto and autolysis. In addition, cell death alone and cell dismantlement can fulfill different functions. Hence, it appears biologically meaningful to distinguish between the modules of PCD and autolysis during plant development.

  • Ekbom, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    "Alla kan ju berätta": - en kvalitativ studie om bibliotekariers arbete med barns muntliga berättande2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka bibliotekariers upplevelser av att arbeta med barns muntliga berättande. Metoden som används är kvalitativa intervjuer, där sammanlagt sex bibliotekarier intervjuas. I analysen presenteras resultatet från informanterna i tre olika delar, upplevelser och erfarenheter av barns muntliga berättande, arbetssätt som fungerat särskilt bra och särskilda utmaningar för att arbeta med barns muntliga berättande. Utöver detta går analysen även in på specifika områden som pedagogiska svårigheter, svåra ämnen, samarbeten och skillnader mellan äldre och yngre barn. Uppsatsen förankras kontinuerligt i tidigare forskning och i slutsatsen konstateras att bibliotekarierna är positiva till att arbeta med barns muntliga berättande, men att det inte görs i särskilt hög grad. De anser att det är något som är värdefullt för barnen av flera skäl, men upplever också att det finns svårigheter att genomföra detta arbete, trots att det är en uttalad uppgift för folkbiblioteken. Förhoppningsvis kan uppsatsen vara ett bidrag till att öka kunskapen i arbetet med barns muntliga berättande på biblioteken.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-12 09:00 E04_R1, Umeå
    Sandén, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Efficacy and safety of warfarin treatment in venous thromboembolic disease2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    As a major cause of morbidity and mortality treatment of venous thromboembolism is important, with the correct use of anticoagulants it is possible to greatly reduce both mortality and morbidity. Warfarin is among the most widely used anticoagulants being effective in treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism with few negative side effects other than bleeding complications. With a narrow therapeutic window warfarin treatment requires constant monitoring and adjustments to stay effective without an increased bleeding risk.

    The aim of this thesis was to study the efficacy and safety of warfarin treatment in venous thromboembolic disease.

    Methods

    Using AuriculA, the Swedish national quality register for atrial fibrillation and anticoagulation, a cohort was created of patients registered with warfarin treatment during the study time January 1st 2006 to December 31th 2011, including all different indications for anticoagulation. In all four studies the study design was retrospective with information added to the cohort from the Swedish national patient register about background data and endpoints in form of bleeding complications in all studies and thromboembolic events in study 1 and 2. In study 3 and 4 information was added from the cause of death register about occurrence of death and in study 3 cause of death. In study 3, information from the prescribed drugs register about retrieved prescriptions of acetylsalicylic acid was added.

    Results

    In study 1 the mean TTR was found to be high both among patients managed at primary healthcare centres and specialised anticoagulation clinics at 79.6% and 75.7%. There was no significant difference in rate of bleeding between the two types of managing centres being 2.22 and 2.26 per 100 treatment years. In study 2 no reduction in complication rate with increasing centre TTR was seen for patients with atrial fibrillation with few centres having centre TTR below 70% (2.9%), in contrast to previous findings by Wan et al(1). For those with warfarin due to VTE where a larger proportion of the centres had centre TTR below 70% (9.1%) there was a reduction in complication rate with increasing centre TTR. Among the 13859 patients with treatment for VTE in study 3 age (HR 1.02, CI 95% 1.01-1.03), hypertension (HR 1.29, CI 95%1.02-1.64), Cardiac failure (HR 1.55, CI 95% 1.13-2.11), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 1.43, CI 95% 1.04- 1.96), alcohol abuse (HR 3.35, CI 95% 1.97-5.71), anaemia (HR 1.77, CI 95% 1.29-2.44) and a history of major bleeding (HR 1.75, CI 95% 1.27-2.42) increased the risk of bleeding during warfarin treatment. In study 4 both those with high iTTR and those with low INR variability had a low rate of bleedings at 1.27 (1.14-1.41) or 1.20 (0.94-1.21) per 100 treatment years compared to those with low iTTR and high INR variability having a rate of bleeding at 2.91 (2.61-3.21) or 2.61 (2.36-2.86) respectively. Those with the combination of both low iTTR and high INR variability had an increased risk of bleeding, hazard ratio HR 3.47 (CI 95 % 2.89-4.17). The quartile with both the lowest iTTR and the highest INR variability had an increased risk of bleeding with a hazard ratio 4.03 (3.20-5.08) and 3.80 (CI 95%, 3.01-4.79) compared to the quartile with the highest iTTR and lowest INR variability.

    Conclusion

    It is possible to achieve a safe warfarin treatment both in specialised anticoagulation centres and in primary health care. At initiation of treatment some of the patients at high risk of bleeding can be identified using knowledge about their background. With the use of quality indicators as TTR and INR variability during treatment those at high risk of complications can be identified and analysing treatment quality on centre level gives an opportunity to identify improvement areas among managing centres. With the addition of new treatment options warfarin can still be the most suitable option for some patients, being safe and effective when well managed.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-12 13:15 Hörsal C, Lindellhallen, Umeå
    Walther, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Till death do us part: a comparative study of government instability in 28 European democracies2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is rooted in the research tradition known as coalition politics, where governments, political parties and political institutions are the central focus. The main emphasis here is on government instability and the question of why governments in modern parliamentary democracies often come to an end before the next regular election. In five distinct but interrelated papers, the thesis explores the issue of early government termination and how it is affected by public support, economic developments and the functioning of the state apparatus. The studies included in this thesis generally take a quantitative approach and make use of a dataset that contains 640 governments in 29 European democracies. Their joint goal is to improve our understanding of when early termination happens by introducing and testing new explanatory factors as well as by improving how previously identified factors are modelled.

    The first paper focuses on Central and Eastern Europe. It shows that the stability of governments in that region is affected by slightly different factors than those that impact on governments in Western Europe. In particular, ideological factors and political institutions are found to be less important in Central and Eastern Europe while the formal power basis of the government and the country’s economic performance matter more. In the second paper, co-authored with Professor Torbjörn Bergman, the state is brought into government stability research. The paper shows that countries with a lower quality of governance and a less efficient public sector have less stable governments. This is mainly because government parties struggle to achieve their policy goals when the state apparatus is inefficient and corrupt.

    Paper 3, co-written with Associate Professor Johan Hellström, looks at how different types of governments respond to economic challenges. In particular, this paper demonstrates that the same changes in economic circumstances (e.g. increases in unemployment or inflation) have different effects on cabinet stability depending on which type of government is in charge. Single party governments are better equipped to deal with economic changes, because they are better positioned to devise new policy responses without having to compromise with other parties. Coalition governments, in contrast, become significantly more likely to terminate early when the economy takes a turn for the worse.

    Finally, over the course of two papers I first explore new techniques for analysing polling data and then use them to empirically test whether governments sometimes choose termination as a way to cope with bad poll numbers. Most of the existing techniques for pooling polls and forecasting elections were explicitly designed with two party systems in mind. In Paper 4, I test some of these techniques to determine their usefulness in complex, multiparty systems, and I develop some improvements that enable us to take advantage of more of the information in the data. In the final paper, I combine the two themes of polling and government stability by looking at how changes in government popularity affect the likelihood of premature dissolution. I find that governments, particularly single party governments, do, in fact, use terminations as a strategic response to changes in their popularity among the public. When support is high, governments tend to opportunistically call an early election, whereas they tend to abandon or reshuffle the government when support is low.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-12 09:00 KB.E3.01 Lilla Hörsalen, Umeå
    Jonna, Venkateswara Rao
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Class I Ribonucleotide Reductases: overall activity regulation, oligomerization, and drug targeting2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is a key enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis and homeostatic maintenance of all four DNA building blocks by being able to make deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides. It is important for the cell to control the production of a balanced supply of the dNTPs to minimize misincorporations in DNA. Because RNR is the rate-limiting enzyme in DNA synthesis, it is an important target for antimicrobial and antiproliferative molecules. The enzyme RNR has one of the most sophisticated allosteric regulations known in Nature with four allosteric effectors (ATP, dATP, dGTP, and dTTP) and two allosteric sites. One of the sites (s-site) controls the substrate specificity of the enzyme, whereas the other one (a-site) regulates the overall activity.  The a-site binds either dATP, which inhibits the enzyme or ATP that activates the enzyme. In eukaryotes, ATP activation is directly through the a-site and in E. coli it is a cross-talk effect between the a and s-sites. It is important to study and get more knowledge about the overall activity regulation of RNR, both because it has an important physiological function, but also because it may provide important clues to the design of antibacterial and antiproliferative drugs, which can target RNR.

    Previous studies of class I RNRs, the class found in nearly all eukaryotes and many prokaryotes have revealed that the overall activity regulation is dependent on the formation of oligomeric complexes. The class I RNR consists of two subunits, a large α subunit, and a small β subunit. The oligomeric complexes vary between different species with the mammalian and yeast enzymes cycle between structurally different active and inactive α6β2 complexes, and the E. coli enzyme cycles between active α2β2 and inactive α4β4 complexes. Because RNR equilibrates between many different oligomeric forms that are not resolved by most conventional methods, we have used a technique termed gas-phase electrophoretic macromolecule analysis (GEMMA). In the present studies, our focus is on characterizing both prokaryotic and mammalian class I RNRs. In one of our projects, we have studied the class I RNR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and found that it represents a novel mechanism of overall activity allosteric regulation, which is different from the two known overall activity allosteric regulation found in E. coli and eukaryotic RNRs, respectively.  The structural differences between the bacterial and the eukaryote class I RNRs are interesting from a drug developmental viewpoint because they open up the possibility of finding inhibitors that selectively target the pathogens. The biochemical data that we have published in the above project was later supported by crystal structure and solution X-ray scattering data that we published together with Derek T. Logan`s research group.

    We have also studied the effect of a novel antiproliferative molecule, NSC73735, on the oligomerization of the human RNR large subunit. This collaborative research results showed that the molecule NSC73735 is the first reported non-nucleoside molecule which alters the oligomerization to inhibit human RNR and the molecule disrupts the cell cycle distribution in human leukemia cells.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-12 10:15 Hörsal B, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Skogsbruk och renskötsel på samma mark: En rättsvetenskaplig studie av äganderätten och renskötselrätten2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the northern parts of Sweden forestry and Sami reindeer herding are exercised on the same land and there is an ongoing land use dispute between the land users. Land ownership and reindeer herding rights, based on immemorial prescription and customary law, are parallel property rights to the same land. Studies have concluded that the legal framework does not sufficiently reflect the property rights perspective of the land use conflict. This study examines the legal framework that regulates the relationship between forestry and reindeer herding from a property rights perspective. Starting points of the study are basic aspects of property rights, such as the right to use, decide on and benefit economically from property and the legal protection required in relation to others. Comparisons are made with the legal frameworks that regulate other relationships within real estate law, including e.g. neighbors, easements, joint facilities and utility easement.

    The study concludes that the relationship between land ownership and reindeer herding rights can be understood only against the background of historical events such as colonization and demarcation. The rights are more independent of each other than other legal relations and can be compared to a double ownership. It is further concluded that the Forestry Act is based on the assumption that reindeer herding is primarily a public interest that needs protection. Land owners have a far-reaching right to use forests that causes damages to reindeer pasture lands that is not in accordance with the legal nature of the reindeer herding right. Further, central elements usually used to regulate property rights relations are missing, e.g. mutual consideration, damages and judicial review.

    The study also examines if the legal framework is in accordance with the constitutional protection of property in Chapter 2 Section 15 of the constitutional Instrument of Government and Article 1 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights. It is concluded that the legal framework has several deficiencies in this respect. Elements are discussed that can be implemented in law to appropriately reflect the property rights studied.

  • Saati, Abrak
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Constitution-building  bodies and the sequencing of public participation: a comparison of seven empirical cases2017Inngår i: Journal of Politics and Law, ISSN 1913-9047, E-ISSN 1913-9055, Vol. 10, nr 3, 13-25 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Constitution-building is one of the most salient aspects of transitional processes, from war to peace or from authoritarian rule, in terms of establishing and strengthening democracy. This paper is part of a research project that aims to identify the circumstances under which constitution-building can strengthen democracy after violent conflict and during transitions from authoritarian rule. Previous research has indicated that the actions and relations of political elites from opposing political parties when making the constitution has bearing on the state of democracy post promulgation, but that the careful sequencing of public participation in the process can be of relevance as well. This paper conducts a systematic analysis of seven empirical cases and focuses the investigation to the type of constitution-building body that has been employed and to during what stage of the process the general public have been invited to participate. It concludes that popularly elected constitution-building bodies tend to include a broad range of political parties and that they, additionally, tend to have rules of procedure that encourage compromise and negotiation, whereas appointed bodies are dominated by one single party or one single person and do not have rules of procedure that necessitate compromise. The paper also discusses the potential need for political elites to have negotiated a number of baseline constitutional principles prior to inviting the general public to get involved in the constitution-building process, and concludes that this is an area of research in need of further in-depth empirical case-studies.

  • Pettersson, Mona
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Microchip implants and you: A study of the public perceptions of microchip implants2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As technology advances with time, new devices are invented and old ones used in innovative ways. Microchips have been increasingly minimized to the point where they can now fit on a fingernail. When encased in a bio-friendly coating and equipped with the appropriate in- or output technology, new modes of natural digital interaction can be explored. This thesis studies how the general public perceives microchip implants as a digital interaction tool, as well as which features of microchip implants are important to them. Three different scenarios of implanted microchip use were created and used in eight semi-structured interviews. The results showed skepticism towards the technology due to worries about security and privacy, and a lack of knowledge of this technology. Benefits included keeping better track of health and making everyday actions easier, as well as excitement about this new technology. 

  • Ku, Dennis
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Take a Paws: Using cute media to alleviate computer frustration2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Computers have become an indispensable resource in assisting us in our daily life. While they do a good job most of the time, sometimes they can create a seemingly endless nightmare. Horrible user interfaces, bugs, errors, hardware issues and other factors are various causes of user frustration. The current approach is to either prevent it from happening or to fix the issue after it has appeared. In this study, an alternative approach is explored which makes use of distraction through mood induction. By using cute images of infantile animals it was argued that this could alleviate computer frustration. For this study, 60 participants were used to test this theory by first doing a frustrating task and a consequent treatment or control exposure. Mood and frustration levels were collected throughout the test and later analyzed. Additionally, opinions and reactions were collected using a follow-up interview and observations. Findings suggest that looking at cute images helps alleviate frustration caused by computers.

  • Nygren, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Kampen för religionsfrihet: Förbundet för religionsfrihet 1952-19682016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Tanentzap, Andrew J.
    et al.
    Kielstra, Brian W.
    Wilkinson, Grace M.
    Berggren, Martin
    Craig, Nicola
    del Giorgio, Paul A.
    Grey, Jonathan
    Gunn, John M.
    Jones, Stuart E.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Solomon, Christopher T.
    Pace, Michael L.
    Terrestrial support of lake food webs: Synthesis reveals controls over cross-ecosystem resource use2017Inngår i: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, nr 3, e1601765Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread evidence that organic matter exported from terrestrial into aquatic ecosystems supports recipient food webs remains controversial. A pressing question is not only whether high terrestrial support is possible but also what the general conditions are under which it arises. We assemble the largest data set, to date, of the isotopic composition (delta H-2, delta C-13, and delta N-15) of lake zooplankton and the resources at the base of their associated food webs. In total, our data set spans 559 observations across 147 lakes from the boreal to subtropics. By predicting terrestrial resource support from within-lake and catchment-level characteristics, we found that half of all consumer observations that is, the median were composed of at least 42% terrestrially derived material. In general, terrestrial support of zooplankton was greatest in lakes with large physical and hydrological connections to catchments that were rich in aboveground and belowground organic matter. However, some consumers responded less strongly to terrestrial resources where within-lake production was elevated. Our study shows that multiple mechanisms drive widespread cross-ecosystem support of aquatic consumers across Northern Hemisphere lakes and suggests that changes in terrestrial landscapes will influence ecosystem processes well beyond their boundaries.

  • Lindh, Markus V.
    et al.
    Sjostedt, Johanna
    Ekstam, Borje
    Casini, Michele
    Lundin, Daniel
    Hugerth, Luisa W.
    Hu, Yue O. O.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Metapopulation theory identifies biogeographical patterns among core and satellite marine bacteria scaling from tens to thousands of kilometers2017Inngår i: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 19, nr 3, 1222-1236 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Metapopulation theory developed in terrestrial ecology provides applicable frameworks for interpreting the role of local and regional processes in shaping species distribution patterns. Yet, empirical testing of metapopulation models on microbial communities is essentially lacking. We determined regional bacterioplankton dynamics from monthly transect sampling in the Baltic Sea Proper using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A strong positive trend was found between local relative abundance and occupancy of populations. Notably, the occupancy-frequency distributions were significantly bimodal with a satellite mode of rare endemic populations and a core mode of abundant cosmopolitan populations (e.g. Synechococcus, SAR11 and SAR86 clade members). Temporal changes in population distributions supported several theoretical frameworks. Still, bimodality was found among bacterioplankton communities across the entire Baltic Sea, and was also frequent in globally distributed datasets. Datasets spanning waters with widely different physicochemical characteristics or environmental gradients typically lacked significant bimodal patterns. When such datasets were divided into subsets with coherent environmental conditions, bimodal patterns emerged, highlighting the importance of positive feedbacks between local abundance and occupancy within specific biomes. Thus, metapopulation theory applied to microbial biogeography can provide novel insights into the mechanisms governing shifts in biodiversity resulting from natural or anthropogenically induced changes in the environment.

  • Fulton, Joel
    et al.
    Mazumder, Bismoy
    Whitchurch, Jonathan B.
    Monteiro, Cintia J.
    Collins, Hilary M.
    Chan, Chun M.
    Clemente, Maria P.
    Hernandez-Quiles, Miguel
    Stewart, Elizabeth A.
    Amoaku, Winfried M.
    Moran, Paula M.
    Mongan, Nigel P.
    Persson, Jenny L.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Division of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ali, Simak
    Heery, David M.
    Heterodimers of photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor (PNR/NR2E3) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma) are disrupted by retinal disease-associated mutations2017Inngår i: Cell Death and Disease, ISSN 2041-4889, E-ISSN 2041-4889, Vol. 8, e2677Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor (PNR/NR2E3) and Tailless homolog (TLX/NR2E1) are human orthologs of the NR2E group, a subgroup of phylogenetically related members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of transcription factors. We assessed the ability of these NRs to form heterodimers with other members of the human NRs representing all major subgroups. The TLX ligand-binding domain (LBD) did not appear to form homodimers or interact directly with any other NR tested. The PNR LBD was able to form homodimers, but also exhibited robust interactions with the LBDs of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma)/NR1C3 and thyroid hormone receptor b (TRb) TR beta/NR1A2. The binding of PNR to PPAR. was specific for this paralog, as no interaction was observed with the LBDs of PPAR alpha/NR1C1 or PPAR delta/NR1C2. In support of these findings, PPAR. and PNR were found to be co-expressed in human retinal tissue extracts and could be co-immunoprecipitated as a native complex. Selected sequence variants in the PNR LBD associated with human retinopathies, or a mutation in the dimerization region of PPAR. LBD associated with familial partial lipodystrophy type 3, were found to disrupt PNR/PPAR gamma complex formation. Wild-type PNR, but not a PNR309G mutant, was able to repress PPAR gamma-mediated transcription in reporter assays. In summary, our results reveal novel heterodimer interactions in the NR superfamily, suggesting previously unknown functional interactions of PNR with PPAR. and TR beta that have potential importance in retinal development and disease.

  • Hellström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Extra anpassningar: Har det påverkat pedagogernas sätt att arbeta?2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva och analysera ett antal pedagogers uppfattningar av begreppet extra anpassningar, hur de arbetar med extra anpassningar, samt hur det har påverkat deras arbete med att stödja elever i svårigheter på ett antal grundskolor i en mindre kommun i södra Norrland. Forskningsfrågorna lyder: Hur identifieras elevernas behov av stödinsatser? Hur tolkas begreppet extra anpassningar av pedagogerna? Hur arbetar pedagogerna kring extra anpassningar och hur följs insatserna upp? Den metod som använts i studien är kvalitativa intervjuer som genomfördes med nio klasslärare och tre specialpedagoger på fyra olika grundskolor i den valda kommunen. Resultatet visade att alla intervjuade pedagoger var medvetna om begreppet extra anpassningar, men uttrycker en osäkerhet i skillnaden mellan de olika begreppen extra anpassningar och särskilt stöd som förekommer i de allmänna råden. Dock framkommer att klasslärarna ger uttryck för att det är något de alltid har gjort, men inte uppmärksammat på det sätt som Skolverket (2014a) belyser i de allmänna råden. Studien visar att om lärare ska kunna inkludera alla elever med hjälp av stödinsatser såsom extra anpassningar, är det viktigt, att de får stöd i det arbetet, både från ledning och med stöd av resultat från forskning i det specialpedagogiska fältet i form av ökade kunskaper och verktyg som kan användas i undervisningen, samt att rutiner fastställs för hur detta arbete ska genomföras.

  • Rehnman, Bernice
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Kämpa eller ge upp?: En studie om attityder till lärande hos gymnasieelever som får stödinsatser2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Myhr, Madeleine
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    "Hvis du undrer så har jeg endret språket på telefonen!": En netnografisk studie om Skams fandom på Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine how Swedish fans of the TV-series Skam use the Facebook group Kosegruppa Sverige in order to construct and maintain a fandom, and how fan practices can contribute in creating identity among the members of the group. Theories related to fan research, discourse psychology and intersectionality were applied, as well as a brief overview of earlier research results related to these areas. By using a netnographic approach combined with a discourse analyses, posts made by fans on Kosegruppa Sverige during December 2016 were examined and analyzed.

    Three main fan practices were found to be used in constructing fandom in the group; fans made their own material such as edits, videos and attire that had a connection to the narrative, they acted out on their fandom both by adapting their language and looks, and finally by buying and selling merchandise and thus collecting things related to the series. Identity was created through intersectional perspectives of gender, sexuality and age. Finally, the study concluded that fandom could be seen as an integral tool within media production, which blurs the line between producers and consumers. 

  • Farrokhi, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Barn i kris: Specialpedagogers tankar om bemötande av och arbete med barn i kris2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att utvinna kunskap ur åtta specialpedagogers berättelser om deras arbete med barn i kris. Studien bygger på en kvalitativ metod genom semistrukturerade intervjuer och en tematisk innehållsanalys. Bakgrunden presenterar en genomgång av lagar och styrdokument som påverkar arbetet med barn i kris, tidigare forskning om arbete med barn i kris samt en genomgång av specialpedagogiska perspektiven som utgör studiens teoretiska grund. Resultatet uppvisar att arbete med barn i kris i skolan är krävande och bygger på en organisation som sluter upp kring barnet. Det stöd som behövs ska ges genom anpassning av lärmiljön, till personen som jobbar närmast barnet och från de professionella i elevhälsan för att kunna skapa en gynnsam miljö för en optimal återhämtningsprocess. Resultatet visar även på brister inom de organisatoriska förutsättningarna för att kunna arbeta optimalt med barn i kris. Resursbristerna pekas ut som de största orsakerna till svårigheterna. I resultatanalysen åskådliggörs att specialpedagogernas tankar kring arbetet med barn i kris följer tidigare forskning, lagar och styrdokumentens skrivelser. Det tydliggörs även att specialpedagogerna över lag har svårigheter att genomföra de optimala åtgärderna trots de kunskaper de besitter. Avslutningsvis diskuteras slutsatserna av studien, där det framgår att barn i kris och barn i dolda kriser löper en stor risk att få ökad psykisk ohälsa. Slutsatser som dras är att proaktivt arbete behöver aktualiseras i skolans grundläggande arbete, där framförallt barns mående, relationer och grupprocesser måste vara i fokus.

  • Brännvall, Maria-Sofia Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Morin Johansson, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Är specialpedagogen på väg att reformeras bort?: Skolpolitiska reformers potentiella inverkan på specialpedagogprofessionen.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande uppsats ville vi fokusera på den styrning vi i dag ser och hur den i olika grad påverkar specialpedagogens yrkesroll. Diskussionen om lärarna som professionella har betonats i takt med att styrningen av skolan har förändradrats och decentraliserats till att bli den mål- och resultatstyrda skola vi har i dag med ett kommunalt huvudmannaskap. Syftet formulerades som så att beskriva och analysera ett antal skolpolitiska reformer och deras potentiella inverkan på specialpedagogprofessionen. Vi utgick ifrån professionsteori som ett teoretiskt ramverk som hjälpte oss att expandera förståelsen för studiens resultat. Med hjälp av styrdokument, forskning inom området samt intervjuer med specialpedagoger skulle studien besvara följande frågeställningar. Vad har specialpedagoger för tankar, erfarenheter och idéer gällande sin profession? Vad har specialpedagoger för tankar, erfarenheter och idéer om professionen i förhållande till de senaste reformerna på området? Vilka faktorer påverkar specialpedagogens profession? Specialpedagogerna i studien har alla ett specialpedagogiskt perspektiv där de ser på skolan utifrån tre olika nivåer; organisation-, grupp- och individ. Vi fann att ändringarna i lagen gällande extra anpassningar och särskilt stöd samt förstelärarreformen har inverkat på professionen och i och med delvis detta kom vi fram till fem faktorer som påverkar specialpedagogprofessionen. Forskning om och utvärdering av implementering av reformer och utfallet av dem kan vara ett sätt att förhoppningsvis stärka professionerna i vårt ovanifrån styrda utbildningsväsende.

  • Spruyt, Jon
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Gamified Individual Brainstorming: Reaching for the stars2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Ideation is a critical step in the creation of new solutions to problems. Brainstorming, being the most commonly known ideation method, is mostly done in groups. However, research points out that brainstorming individually is more effective than brainstorming in groups. This paper investigates if negative aspects (reduced enjoyment, motivation and self-rated performance) associated with brainstorming alone can be overcome by using a gamified approach to brainstorming. Gamified and non-gamified prototypes have been made and used in combination with a questionnaire to measure differences in these negative aspects. From the within-subject study including 20 participants, it appears that the implemented gamification approach was not different from the non-gamified approach for most of the negative aspects. Self-rated performance was however significantly higher in the non-gamified version. Using the gamified or non-gamified approach seems to largely come down to the preference of the user.

  • Hulo, Fatma
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Jämförelse av effektivitet och säkerhet vid oral eller intravenös järnsubstitution för behandling av järnbristanemi under graviditet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Karlström, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Ankyloserande Spondylit och tumörnekrosfaktor-α-hämmare: En jämförelse av effekt och säkerhet vid behandling hos patienter med ankyloserande spondylit2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Tanghöj, Gustaf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik. Unit of Research Education and Development, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Odermarsky, Michal
    Naumburg, Estelle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik. Unit of Research Education and Development, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Liuba, Petru
    Early Complications After Percutaneous Closure of Atrial Septal Defect in Infants with Procedural Weight Less than 15 kg2017Inngår i: Pediatric Cardiology, ISSN 0172-0643, E-ISSN 1432-1971, Vol. 38, nr 2, 255-263 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the most common congenital cardiac lesion accounting for 10-15% of all cardiac malformations. In the majority of cases, the secundum type of the ASD is closed percutaneously in the catheterization laboratory. Although transcatheter closure of ASD is considered safe and effective in pediatric patients, there are limited data regarding the efficacy and safety of device ASD closure in smaller infants. The aim of this study was to determine risk of complications within 72 h following device closure of ASD in children of body weight < 15 kg compared to larger children. Overall 252 children who underwent transcatheter closure of ASD at Children's Heart Centre in Lund, Sweden, between 1998 and 2015 were included. Data regarding demographics, comorbidity and complications occurring during and after device procedure until discharge were retrieved from the hospital's databases. Echocardiographic data were obtained from the digital and videotape recordings. Nearly half of the study cohort (n = 112; 44%) had a procedural weight < 15 (median 11.3) kg with a median procedural age of 2.02 years. Among this study group, 22 (9%) children had post-procedural in-hospital complications, of which 16 (7%) were considered as major and six (2%) considered as minor. No deaths occurred. There was no significant difference in of the occurrence of major or minor complications between the two groups (p = 0.32). Larger ASD was more often associated with minor complications, OR 1.37 (95% CI 0.99-1.89), which most often consisted of transient arrhythmias during or after the procedure. Percutaneous ASD device closure can be performed safely in low-weight infants with a risk of post-procedural in-hospital complications comparable to larger/older children. Nevertheless, careful considerations of the indications to device closure is needed, particularly in children with larger ASD, as recommended by the current international guidelines for ASD closure.

  • Seekell, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carr, Joel
    Dell'Angelo, Jampel
    D'Odorico, Paolo
    Fader, Marianela
    Gephart, Jessica
    Kummu, Matti
    Magliocca, Nicholas
    Porkka, Miina
    Puma, Michael
    Ratajczak, Zak
    Rulli, Maria Cristina
    Suweis, Samir
    Tavoni, Alessandro
    Resilience in the global food system2017Inngår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 12, nr 2, 025010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring food security requires food production and distribution systems function throughout disruptions. Understanding the factors that contribute to the global food system's ability to respond and adapt to such disruptions (i.e. resilience) is critical for understanding the long-term sustainability of human populations. Variable impacts of production shocks on food supply between countries indicate a need for national-scale resilience indicators that can provide global comparisons. However, methods for tracking changes in resilience have had limited application to food systems. We developed an indicator-based analysis of food systems resilience for the years 1992-2011. Our approach is based on three dimensions of resilience: socio-economic access to food in terms of income of the poorest quintile relative to food prices, biophysical capacity to intensify or extensify food production, and the magnitude and diversity of current domestic food production. The socio-economic indicator has a large variability, but with low values concentrated in Africa and Asia. The biophysical capacity indicator is highest in Africa and Eastern Europe, in part because of a high potential for extensification of cropland and for yield gap closure in cultivated areas. However, the biophysical capacity indicator has declined globally in recent years. The production diversity indicator has increased slightly, with a relatively even geographic distribution. Few countries had exclusively high or low values for all indicators. Collectively, these results are the basis for global comparisons of resilience between countries, and provide necessary context for developing generalizations about resilience in the global food system.

  • Forssell, Linnéa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Sjöström, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Inte en vanlig eljätte men lite mer inlindat i bomull: En receptionsanalys av Skellefteå Krafts externa kommunikation av CSR och hållbar utveckling samt hur studenter avkodar budskapet.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A reception analysis on Skellefteå Krafts external communication on CSR and sustainable development and in what ways students decode the message.

    As an effect of today's climate changes and global issues, one of the most important subjects for companies to communicate to consumers and stakeholders is corporate social responsibility (CSR). The purpose of this paper is to investigate in what ways the concept of responsibility in relation to corporate social responsibility and sustainable development infuse meaning in the external communication by the company Skellefteå Kraft. The paper also examines the way three respondent groups of students relate to this message.

    The theoretical frame stretches from different views on CSR- communication to green brand strategy and sustainable development. The critic on CSR-communication includes the concept of greenwashing. The study also relies on theories within semiotic analysis, reception analysis and Stuart Halls encoding decoding model. Using the method visual semiotic analysis made it possible to reveal what Stuart Hall calls the preferred reading of the company's external communication. To be able to analyze the way students relate to the message qualitative interviews was used. Tools within reception analyze was applied on the material from the interviews.

    Both the visual semiotic analysis and the analyze of the interviews showed that the external communication did not include the economic side of CSR as much as the social- and environmental aspect. This was to be expected since the campaigns are focused on customers and other stakeholders. The main result was that the respondents in large made a hegemonic read of both the advertising films and the campaign site. They lay focus primarily on the caption and less on the image itself. The respondents could mainly distinguish the communication of social responsibility. This may be because both campaigns focus primarily on the human being and different life styles. When it comes to environmental responsibility the analysis show that Skellefteå Kraft uses ecological arguments in their external communication about energy and electrician, but they do not demonstrate the extraction which does in fact have some negative effects on nature. If Skellefteå Kraft had been more willing to demonstrate the extraction process they probably would have been described as honest and their ecological arguments would have been more comprehensible. This would also be proof that the company has little to hide when it comes to environmental

    responsibility. The advertising film as well as the campaign site communicates joyfulness and naturally produced electricity.

  • Sonevik, Linnéa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Wahlgren, Agnes
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    ”I’ve never been politically correct – truthfully it takes far too much time and can often make it more difficult to achieve total victory”: En kritisk diskursanalys av Donald Trumps tal under valåret 20162017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study, ​“‘I’ve never been politically correct – truthfully it takes far too much time and can often make it more difficult to achieve total victory’ - a Critical Discourse Analysis of Donald Trump's speeches during United States presidential election of 2016”​, examines the political communication through linguistic strategies throughout 10 of Donald Trump’s speeches from the Trump rallies during the election year 2016. In order to serve that purpose, this thesis investigates which ones of the discourses that dominates the republican agenda in this context. ​Accordingly to the Critical Discourse Analysis the aim is also to see whether the worldview in Trumps speeches is constructed or deconstructed.

    The study is based on a theoretical framework with theories about social constructionism, nationalism and populism. A quantitative content analysis was made through the online text tool “Textometrica” in order to see Trumps main discourses. The qualitative content analysis was made through Norman Faircloughs three-dimensional model for a Critical Discourse Analysis.

    According to the analysis of this study, the five main discourses are ​Establishment, Trump, USA, Immigration ​and​ Work​. Around these discourses, Donald Trump’s main strategy is constructing an opposition between “us” and “them”, where “us” consist with Trump himself and the american people, and “them” includes the establishment, other countries and immigrants. Based on these opponents, and through disparaging “them” in a strategy, here called “the thief-strategy”, Trump constructs a reality where “us” is the better half and he appears as the hero in this duo.

    In conclusion, Trumps strategy in order to win the presidential election 2016 included running a political agenda characterized by populism which later on can lead to a polarized community, and a dissatisfied american people who will be open for change and a new leader.

  • Pettersson, Felix
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    ”Det handlar om mentala faktorer”: En studie i hur vinnarmentalitet gestaltas i svensk sportpress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Title: ”It’s about mental factors” – Examining how a “winner’s mentality” is portrayed in Swedish sports mediaThis essay aims to explore what the Swedish sports media means when it discusses the term of a “winner’s mentality”, through a discourse analysis. More specifically this essay studies how the language in nine different sports papers in Sweden construes the meaning of the word by combining it with different signs and through the use of metaphors, a commonly used linguistic trick in Sportugese. The articles selected for analysis were all published in a one month span between the 8th of December 2016 and the 8th of January 2017. This particular period of time was selected because it included the 2017 World Juniors in ice hockey, a tournament in which the Swedes have placed fourth three years in a row, and which sparked a debate in the Swedish sports press about the team’s “winner’s mentality”.The study found five major themes within the sports journalistic discourse. A major aspect was focusing on the athlete´s psychology, their self-confidence and their will to win. This closely resembles the discourse in popular psychology, more specifically self-help texts where the readers are encouraged to change through active will. Another major theme was that of a winning record. According to the sports press, if an athlete or a team wins more often than not than that proves they possess a “winner’s mentality” and helps them win in the future as well. The essay also found differences in “winner´s mentality” based on a cultural aspect. Swede’s ability to win was downplayed while Americans were praised for their unusually strong mental abilities. This is also found in Swedish self-help texts and might indicate a much larger discourse in national identity at work. The two last themes identified were the importance of experience, and also that a “winner´s mentality” could be affected by a large amount of external factors.Overall the study found that the discourse was in disagreement within itself. A “winner´s mentality” could mean plenty of different things, and in some cases actively opposes itself. Another finding was that the sports press rarely reflects on the meaning of the term and instead mostly uses it as a rhetoric weapon or to make a point across. This raises the question whether or not the term has an actual use within sports terminology and debate if it can be interpreted in many different ways.

  • Söderqvist, Marlene
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Lyckodiskurser i en senmodern verklighet: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys och kritisk diskursanalys av porträtteringen av lyckliga människor i kvällspress under 20152016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    We are today living in a society with endless possibilities. A society where you can dream about something more. What makes you happy is important to study, though it’s a big part of people’s life quality. It’s important to consider how media chooses to portray it, because it affects how the society judges and adapts to the message media is sending out. The purpose of this essay is to consider how happiness is constructed in evening papers and how it differs between different gender portrayals.

    The methods that were used were a quantitative content analysis and a critical discourse analysis founded by Norman Fairclough. The material was mainly taken from Swedish evening papers Aftonbladet and Expressen. A total of 203 articles were analyzed, and a total of 19 articles were more closely analyzed with a critical discourse analysis.

    Theories that were used in the analysis were theories about happiness, gender, framing and stereotypes, as well as earlier research on the subject concerning portraits and gender.The result shows that there are different subjects that are being connected to happiness, but being in a happy relationship and having a well receiving job are the most popular ones. Most the portrayed people are famous in some way. There are several differences between male and female portrayals and the most vital ones are a central focus on men’s work life, and for women there are more focus on children, looks and praise for managing to fight her way through life.

  • Lif, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Bland hyckleri och hemohes: En textanalytisk studie av den svenska rapporteringen om finska och ryska dopningsfall2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to, through a quantitative content analysis and a qualitative

    text analysis, determine which meaning nationality is given in news reports in Swedish daily

    press, and how it creates the event as a scandal. Focusing on two major scandals in cross

    country skiing, articles from the Finnish scandal in Lahtis 2001 and the revealing of doped

    Russian skiers in 2016 has been analysed. The theoretical framework for the study has been

    Stuart Halls representation theory, the framing theory, and theories regarding media scandals

    and nationality. The results from the quantitative and qualitative analyses has been divided

    into four themes: Imagined communities, Us and them, Individual and corporate and Fallen

    star. The results show that nationality is given meaning through the creation of imagined

    communities. It creates a gap between us and them, a sense of the nations parting from each

    other in form of cultural and moral aspects. There is also a difference between the

    representation of the countries. In the Russian doping scandal, Russia is considered as a doped

    nation, with a systematic doping where little guilt is to be put on the skiers themselves. In

    Finland, the nation stands for the people and is not in any ways to be associated with the

    doping scandal. Instead, the skiers get all the blame and little notion is made about the doping

    as being organised. This has also made the scandals to be divided into individual or corporate

    doping. As for the framing of the event as a scandal, attributes as “cheating” and a portrayal

    of the skiers as fallen stars is represented. By revealing the names of the suspected dopers it

    increases the news worth. An unexpected outcome was that the Russian dopers was not

    mentioned by name as often as the Finnish, which could enhance the event as a scandal even

    more. Furthermore, doping scandals could be studied in many different ways and is an

    interesting subject to immerse oneself in.

  • Källman, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Fellman, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Kvinnor i olympiaden. En jämförande studie av kvinnors representation och framställning i media under OS-åren 1996 och 20162017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Women in the olympics - A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the representation and portayal of female athletes in the olympics

    The purpose of the study was to examine how often female athletes occur in swedish sports media and how they are portrayed, in comparison to male athletes. The years studied was 1996 and 2016. Since the female participants increased over those twenty years it was interesting to see if the media followed that development. The study is based on earlier research such as Natalie Koivula and her concepts of the trivialization, infantilization and ambivalens of female athletes. Some theories used in the study is agenda setting, discourse analysis and different gender theories by, among others, Hirdman, Butler and Conell & Pearse.

    A quantitative and a qualitative analysis has been used in order to determine the representation and portrayal of female athletes. Over 400 articles about the olympics from the newspapers Aftonbladet and Expressen was coded using a content analysis to identify how often female athletes occur in comparison to men. For the discourse analysis 12 articles, three from every newspaper and year was coded using both theories and earlier research.

    The result shows that there was a difference in both representation and portrayal between men and women in 1996, with men overrepresented in both team sports and individual sports. In 2016 there the results show a complete reversal with women overrepresented in all sports. There was a clear difference in the portrayal of female and male athletes in 1996, where womens looks were described more often than their sporting efforts. In 2016 however the portrayal of women were more similar to men, with a few exceptions.

    The results of the study from 1996 can be explained by the patriarchal structures that our society is built on. Although the patriarchy still is present it is clear to see that feminism and gender issues have affected the society over the last twenty years, giving female athletes a better chance to be represented and portrayed equally to male athletes.

  • Jernstig, Embla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Wikström, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Hur viktig är vikten?: En kvantitativ och kvalitativ studie av Expressen och Aftonbladets framställning av vikt, utseende och hälsa.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In media we often see articles about how to lose weight, what we shouldn’t like about our bodies and how to get rid of these so called problems. In this essay we examine how weight is portrayed in Sweden’s two largest evening papers, Expressen and Aftonbladet. The purpose of the essay is to see how Swedish evening papers portray weight in relation to health, appearance, and diet. We have used a quantitative content analysis combined with a qualitative critical discourse analysis to examine this. The two methods combined strengthen the validity and reliability in our results. We examine articles from the newspapers from the years of 1996, 2006 and 2016 to be able to see the differences between these years. Through the quantitative content analysis, we found many interesting patterns. Some of the most important findings are that weight often is portrayed in a way of change and not as something static. A loss of weight is in a majority of the articles described as something positive, whereas to gain weight is described as a problem and something negative. We have also found interesting results about gender. Women take the roll of a private person in a majority of the cases. The role of the expert in the articles have changed from a majority of men to a majority of women. Dieting is portrayed as something typically feminine. In the discourse of weight there seems to be at strong connection between the skinny body, happiness and health whereas the fat body is submissively connected to sickness and ill-health. Our bodies seem to be looked at like a project to be taken care of, in order to fit in to the bodily-norms. If someone fits in to the norm they get values in life in return. Our conclusion is that stereotypical norms of the skinny body and the good in loss of weight is reproduced in Expressen and Aftonbladet, and that this haven’t changed over time. We argue that this can lead to consequences in peoples lifes and a discrimination to certain groups in the society.

  • Hansson Vikström, Greta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Hedlund, Julia
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Det flexibla livet som journalister älskar: En jämförelse mellan journalister på en tidning och radioredaktion i norra Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Title: “Journalists who loves the flexible life” - A case between journalists occupational

    perception and work-future who works at a newspaper compared to a radio station in northern Sweden.

    This study is a qualitative comparison between journalists without permanent employment on a commercial newspaper and a public service owned radio station in a medium sized town in northern Sweden. The main purpose was to analyse the occupational perception and work-future among young journalists without permanent employment in the public service and the commercial sector. Another intention was to figure out if there was any similarities or differences between working for a public service owned radio station compare to a commercial newspaper. We wanted to investigate how these journalists experience and manage their work and in which way they look at their own future and journalism in general. The research applies theories such as the precariat and studies about convergence. The chosen method for the study were qualitative semi-structured interviews based on the answers from six journalists and was processed through a thematic analysis.

    The main conclusion of this study was that multi journalism has become a part of the journalistic agenda, both on the radio station and the newspaper. It showed that journalists has to be flexible when it comes to working schedules. Even though they had to adapt to a lot of the journalistic requirement they still accepted the funny, but yet stressful life as a journalist. One conclusion that can be drawn is that todays journalism can demand almost anything, and job seeking journalists will adapt quite well regardless of change. A final conclusion was that it's difficult to predict the future of these journalists. But a common stand point for the journalists was that almost everyone could imagine a future in another profession.

  • Bergström, Tim
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Eriksson, Jon
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Nationalism och Norrientalism: En diskursanalys av den norrländska självständighetsdebatten sensommaren 2016 och framåt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The student thesis Nationalism and Norrientalism: A Discourse Analysis of the Norrlandic Independence Debate of Late Summer 2016 and Beyond aims to examine the style and content of the recent secession debate in the Swedish and Norrlandic printed press.

    From the late summer of 2016 to the beginning of 2017 the question of Norrlandic sovereignty was a prioritized topic in the legacy media debate, as well as in social media. It commenced after the Swedish government enterprise Vattenfall planned to relocate forty employment opportunities from Jokkmokk, raising the question of Norrlandic independence based on a post-colonialist view of the region. This thesis examines how the framing of Northern Sweden as a colony has been established, re-established or refuted in the different discourses of the printed debate, through a faceted lens composed of various theories of Orientalism and nationalism.

    Rooted in the discourse theory of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, merged with the critical discourse analysis of Norman Fairclough, and leaning against media theories of inoculation and framing, the study takes aim at the myths, metaphors, articulations and antagonisms which constituted the polemics in the printed press of the period.

    The results conclude that the debate revolved around independence, resources, and the myth regarding Norrland—often described as a barren landscape, marked by vast distances and a lack of social services. The term colony was used to describe Norrland as marginalised and robbed of its natural resources, whereas the term was met by opposition from the objecting side, who emphasised the historic and present representation of Norrlanders in high politics. The colonial identity was constituted in the press through internal Orientalism by Stockholm writers and self-Orientalisation by Norrlandic ones. The most distinct patterns of difference between the objecting side and the advocating side of independence was the determination of the real economic loser of a Norrlandic secession from Sweden.

  • Angvarson, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Jesper
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Jag är inte porrmoralist, men...: En diskursanalys av pornografidebatten i svensk press år 20162017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate the opinions of pornography in the Swedish press 2016. To perform this, a quantitative method and discourse analysis on 139 published texts have been used. This study shows that the year of 2016 primarily is focused on a strong sence of concern about the effects of pornography rather than the industry itself, and the concerns are primarily rooted in anxiety of the effects on pornography-consumers, that is primarily young boys and men. The debate that is mainly represented by women with a great variety of work titles like scholars, criminologist, politicians, mothers, columnists, and film directors. The articles used for this study were found in newspapers and magazines from all over Sweden. When opinions about pornography is expressed it's usually a negative or critical opinions. If the opinion is positive or defending towards pornography it's usually a response to an already written negative or critical article. The critic is from different feminist theories, pro and counter arguments from both radical- and liberal feminism. Arguments that has its roots in the three counter waves during the 70's-, 80's- and 21's centrury is portrayed by the liberal feminist Petra Östergren in the publication Porr, Horor och Feminister. Some of the feminist arguments occur in contexts that describes the effects of pornography like something that inspire men and young boys to commit violent crimes. But there are also some arguments from the liberal feminist side that is more positive and that is arguing against the fact that women's pleasure is excluded from the male influenced debate. In the beginning of 2016 was the debate mostly focused on violence in pornography, that after a criminologist by the name Nina Rung published an article about sexuell crimes. During the summer the debate was mostly focused on sexual assaults due to the high numbers of assaults and harassments during the summer festivals. It will not be until october that the debate reached its heights, due to an article about the negative effects of pornography written by a group of politicians, tv-personalities and celebrities. Opinions that are possible to recognise during the rest of the year are adults and their concerns for kids and youths. A will to protect children and teenagers from pornography are strongly defined, but also a major discussion about sex norms and ideal in pornography are to be seen during 2016. The effect of pornography are also included in contexts like pornography- or emotional-impotence. An interesting part of the discourse analysis is the concept disclaimer. A linguistic discourse concept introduced by the researcher Teun A. van Dijk. The term have been used frequently by the counter porn critics. “I'm no moralist, but…” is an usual term used by the porn critics, something that could be used due to today's desire and habbit of building once’s own identity in our social media-opinion bubbles. 

  • Shah, Mansi
    et al.
    Cardenas, Ryan
    Wang, Belinda
    Persson, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Mongan, Nigel P.
    Grabowska, Anna
    Allegrucci, Cinzia
    HOXC8 regulates self-renewal, differentiation and transformation of breast cancer stem cells2017Inngår i: Molecular Cancer, ISSN 1476-4598, E-ISSN 1476-4598, Vol. 16, 38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Homeobox genes are master regulators of cell fate during embryonic development and their expression is altered in cancer. By regulating the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation, they maintain homeostasis of normal tissues. Here, we screened the expression of homeobox genes in mammary stem cells to establish their role in stem cells transformation in breast cancer. Methods: Using a Homeobox Genes PCR array, we screened 83 homeobox genes in normal cancer breast stem/progenitor cells isolated by flow cytometry. The candidate gene HOXC8 epigenetic regulation was studied by DNA methylation and miRNA expression analyses. Self-renewal and differentiation of HOXC8-overexpressing or knockdown cells were assessed by flow cytometry and mammosphere, 3D matrigel and soft agar assays. Clinical relevance of in vitro findings were validated by bioinformatics analysis of patient datasets from TCGA and METABRIC studies. Results: In this study we demonstrate altered expression of homeobox genes in breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. HOXC8 was consistently downregulated in stem/progenitor cells of all breast molecular subtypes, thus representing an interesting tumour suppressor candidate. We show that downregulated expression of HOXC8 is associated with DNA methylation at the gene promoter and expression of miR196 family members. Functional studies demonstrated that HOXC8 gain of function induces a decrease in the CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) cancer stem cell population and proportion of chemoresistant cells, with a concomitant increase in CD24(+) differentiated cells. Increased HOXC8 levels also decrease the ability of cancer cells to form mammospheres and to grow in anchorage-independent conditions. Furthermore, loss of HOXC8 in non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells expands the cancer stem/progenitor cells pool, increases stem cell self-renewal, prevents differentiation induced by retinoic acid and induces a transformed phenotype. Conclusions: Taken together, our study points to an important role of homeobox genes in breast cancer stem/progenitor cell function and establishes HOXC8 as a suppressor of stemness and transformation in the mammary gland lineage.