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  • Ramirez Alvarez, Daniela
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Guidelines for Onboarding: Developing guidelines by testing a process for onboarding.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Smartphones and applications are becoming more and more popular. Although, the user knowledge varies. Onboarding has been described in other previous studies as a tool for costumers to get a better understanding of applications. This thesis aims to develop guidelines for onboarding by investigating previous studies and by comparing different applications. By investigating to what extent onboarding is beneficial for an application, the question of if it is worth the time and effort for a company to develop an onboarding is discussed. A hi- fi onboarding prototype will be developed to be able to test the guidelines. Simplicity, knowledge of the user, smooth navigation and user satisfaction are a few things that were kept in mind from previous studies when developing the guidelines. To be able to develop guidelines, questions regarding mobile devices, application developing, user behaviour and manuals have also been studied.

    Interviews combined with observations allowed for an analysis of the guidelines by conducting an A/B test. One group of test subjects received an application with onboarding, and the other group received the same application without onboarding. The result of the A/B test showed that onboarding helped the user to find functions that could be considered difficult to locate. The test also showed that many people often skip onboarding, but people that complete the onboarding process gets a better understanding of the application faster. Guidelines for an efficient development of an onboarding are presented. In conclusion, onboarding is a tool that should be utilized if the developer aims to allow as many users as possible to understand the full potential of the application as fast as possible.

  • Disputas: 2019-01-18 13:00 Hörsal E, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Kuuse, Anna-Karin
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för estetiska ämnen i lärarutbildningen.
    ”Liksom ett annat uppdrag”: iscensättning av social rättvisa i musikundervisningens retorik och praktik2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to identify, describe, and problematize constructions of social justice in Swedish music education. The thesis has an ethnographic design, and presents four empirical studies. The studies, in the shape of four scientific articles, emblematise musical practices in community schools of music and art, as well as in elementary schools. The conceptual framework of the concept of social justice precipitates a focus on the prime object of study, El Sistema. Music education as organised by El Sistema explicitly communicates social aims, and the programme operates in both Swedish community schools of music and art, and in elementary schools. All together, the empirical data consist of marketing material (films and written documents), observational field-notes and sound recordings from one semester’s fieldwork in a children’s music educational group (ages 7-9), as well as sound-recorded focus group interviews with music teachers from both community schools of music and art and elementary schools. Article I shows how different conceptions of music, children, emotions, and social transformation are constructed to legitimate El Sistema in the Swedish community schools of music and art. Here, the objects of study are films and written texts published on El Sistema’s Swedish website. Article II elaborates how musical agency is performed by participating children in relation to conceptions of music education and social justice constructed in the educational practice. Articles III and IV elaborate teachers’ negotiations and constructions of teacher roles and the educational task in relation to conceptions of social justice. Within a comprehensive social constructionist perspective, participants’ opportunities for action and negotiation, in practice, are perceived as determined by societal, institutional and local preconditions, and by overarching and established conceptions that are typical for certain eras. With this theoretical point of departure, both local and societal conceptions of the musical subject, its objectives, means, and aims, as well as conceptions about accessibility, equality, democracy and social justice, are constantly negotiated. Thus, apparently natural and established ideas can be problematized. Based on all studies’ results, relations between established conceptions, structural preconditions, and social relations are scrutinised from the way they influence performances of the music educational practice. The final discussion encompasses consequences for teachers’ ability to reflect, as well as children’s and young peoples’ meaning making through musical actions. The thesis’ critical perspective aims at evoking new questions, and generating new knowledge concerning the preconditions and the content of institutionally financed music education.

  • Disputas: 2019-01-25 10:00 S104, Umeå
    Sciuto, Claudia
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Carved Mountains and Moving Stones: applications of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Mineral Characterisation in Provenance Studies2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of stone artefacts is a combination of anthropological archaeology and geology, rooted in analytical techniques for determining the materials’ composition, typological stylistic classification and interpretation of cultural patterns. In this thesis, the archaeology of materials is considered in the context of sites- and landscape transformation, economic history and development of techniques. Focus has been on applications of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for characterising minerals in different case studies. Interdisciplinary protocols are implemented in order to account for the various aspects of stone artefacts, merging geochemical investigation and digital documentation.

    This thesis consists of two parts: an introductory text and five research publications. In the first paper, a NIR portable probe is tested to measure iron oxide-based pigments in rock paintings in Flatruet (Sweden). The study demonstrates that the probe is useful for characterising different sections of paint in-situ and pinpointing similarities and dissimilarities in the pigments used for the figures. The second and third papers are aimed at studying the use of raw materials for tool production in a Mesolithic settlement in Northern Sweden. In the second paper is shown that hyperspectral imaging helps characterise the mineral composition of a selected group of tools and the spectral signature of quartz, quartzite, and flint are examined. In the third paper, hyperspectral imaging-based classification is applied to the entire dataset of lithic tools and flakes collected during excavation of the site. The objects are divided into categories of raw materials according to their spectral features and the distribution is visualised on a 3D GIS platform. The fourth paper deals with the application of hyperspectral imaging, a field probe (MicroNIR) and portable Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF), for in-situ characterisation of building materials on the inner wall of the fortified citadel of Carcassonne (France). The research shows how the combination of these analytical methods in conjunction with a stratigraphic study of the architecture helps to understand the use and re-use of materials in different construction phases. The last paper shows how an in-field NIR-probe may be used in landscape surveys for instant characterisations of different stone types. This study was carried out in the district of Montescaglioso, Southern Italy, to highlight patterns of use and distribution of artefacts made of local calcarenite (limestone) in the period between the 6th and 3rd century BC.

  • Dapi, Léonie N
    et al.
    Tambe, Ayuk Bertrand
    Axberg, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Lundström, Linnéa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    After giving birth to a baby, breastfeeding becomes your responsibility:: infant feeding perceptions and practices among women in Yaoundé, Bamenda and Bandja, Cameroon, Africa2018Inngår i: International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health, ISSN 2360-8803, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 38-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ministry of Public Health of Cameroon advises mothers to follow the World Health Organization’s recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life and to continue breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years or beyond. Despite these recommendations, malnutrition due to inadequate feeding practices is still prevalent in Cameroon. Therefore, this study aims to explore infant feeding perceptions and identify factors influencing infant feeding practices in Cameroon. Forty-nine women aged 19 to 38 who had infants aged 6 days to 15 months were purposively selected from hospitals during the vaccination days and interviewed until saturation. The research tools included six qualitative group interviews, with each group comprising 6 to 10 women. The study was conducted in the rural area of Bandja and the urban areas of Yaoundé and Bamenda. Data were analysed using content analysis. In the study, breastfeeding was agreed upon as the best way to feed infants and was commonly practised for 1 to 2 years. Nevertheless, few infants were breastfed exclusively. Complementary foods were often nutritionally inadequate; many children were not given fruit, vegetables or foods of animal origin on a daily basis. Cultural beliefs, tradition, community norms and low educational and economic levels negatively influenced the implementation of appropriate infant feeding recommendations. The short duration of exclusive breastfeeding and the poor food diversity are the main problems. In response, it is necessary to strengthen the position of women, increase the period of maternal leave, introduce sustainable and practical education for both parents about breastfeeding, and provide good, local complementary foods.

  • Johnson, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    En fallstudie om Endometriosföreningen och dess möjlighetatt påverka landstingspolitiker i Stockholms län2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Endometrios är en kronisk sjukdom som drabbar personer med livmoder. Endometriosvården ansesav många vara bristfällig. Patienter blir runtslussade och har svårt att få en tidig diagnos.Endometriosföreningen är en ideell förening som förutom att stötta drabbade patienter verkar för attpåverka beslutsfattare.Syftet med denna studie är att kartlägga Endometriosföreningens försök att påverkalandstingspolitiker i Stockholm. Studien, som är en fallstudie, ämnar att åskådliggöra hurEndometriosföreningen tar kontakt med landstingspolitiker och hur kontakten ter sig. Dettaanalyseras utifrån tre tematiker — Endometriosföreningens professionaliseringsgrad, hur kontaktenmellan Endometriosföreningen och landstingspolitiker ter sig samt vilka potentiella utmaningar somfinns för Endometriosföreningen. Resultatet utgår primärt ifrån tre telefonintervjuer och tvåmailintervjuer. En aktör från Endometriosföreningen och fyra politiker inkluderas. Materialet haranalyserats utifrån ”the constant comparative method”.I resultatet kan ses att Endometriosföreningen har vissa problem gällande första tematiken,professionaliseringsgrad. Kontakt mellan parterna finns men är högst sporadisk och kräver specifikafrågeställningar. Enskilda politikers intressen styr hur delaktig föreningen blir i den politiskakontexten. Vidare har flertalet utmaningar för föreningen utrönats, såsom fåtaliga medlemmar,bristfällig forskning om endometrios och att den politiska miljön styr föreningens arbete.

  • Blåhed, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Indigenous peoples as political actors within the Arctic Council: A case study2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Indigenous peoples as political actors in the Arctic Council is an understudied subject.Indigenous peoples have a unique status as Permanent Participants to the Arctic Council,enabling them to affect the policy-making and decisions made within the Council. There areconcerns, however, to the level of Indigenous peoples’ inclusion. Research shows that theworking relationships between the eight Arctic member states of the Council and thePermanent Participants creates dependency, among other things because the PermanentParticipants rely on funding from the member states. This in turn questions the status of thePermanent Participants, and whether they are included into the Arctic Council as independentpolitical actors. This paper aims to build upon research done by Michaela Louise Coote andMonica Tennberg, researchers whom both have contributed to this field of research.

  • Pettersson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Strävan efter världsmakt via främjandet av internationell fred: En fallstudie av Kinas agerande på den internationella arenan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to examine if UN (United Nations) peacekeeping operations an be used as a tool to promote great powers own interests and enable power maximization for states in the international system. In other words, if great powers really cooperate with each other to promote peace or if they only seek to maximize their own power position. Based on the assumption that the state’s own interests benefit from its commitment to the UN and that it ultimately can increase the state’spower position, it becomes thus important to identify a state’sown interests to contribute to an explanation of how states act within international institutions. The case of China and its actions in African countries through the UN peacekeeping operations MONUSCO and UNMIS are evaluated, to verify if China applies to 4 of the 5 assumptions raised in John Mearsheimer’s theory of offensive realism. This, to illustrate how states attempt to use economic, military and multilateral means to increase their power position in the international system. The conclusion of the analysis is that 3 (possibly 4) of Mearsheimer’s assumptions are encountered by China’s actions. After demonstrating that China applies to some of theas sumptions of offensive realism, this study suggests further research concerning the connection between great powers pursuit of power and its commitment to UN peacekeeping operations.

  • Muzito-Bagenda, Florence
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Emergenta grupper: en förstärkningsresurs för svensk krisberedskap?: En studie om icke-traditionella frivilliga grupper i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien är baserad på en kvalitativ jämförande fallstudie och behandlar olika typer av frivilliga organisationer i Sverige. Syftet med denna studie har varit att förstå och kartlägga olika typer av frivilliga organisationer inom svensk krisberedskap och krishantering. Studien har fokuserat på icke-traditionella frivilliga grupper och deras roll inom svensk krishantering. Det teoretiska ramverket för denna studie utgår ifrån krishanteringslitteratur vilken rör frivilliga organisering och Disaster Research Centers (DRC) typologi. Intervjuer genomfördes med respondenter vilka var delaktiga i verksamheter som icke-traditionella grupper utförde. Dessa tillsammans med skrivna dokument från traditionella frivilliga organisationer i Sverige utgjorde studiens empiriska material. Resultatet för denna studie indikerar att det finns potential att utöka gruppen som utgör förstärkningsresurser inom svensk krisberedskap. De icke-traditionella grupperna i denna studie har påvisat denna potential. Arbetet är uppdelat i åtta delar.

  • Livingstone, Alma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Påverkan eller medverkan: En retorikanalys av offentligt tryck föregående militära interventionen i Libyen 20112018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to uncover the rhetoric strategies foreign policy makers usedto persuade and influence the Swedish voters and public opinionprior to thedecision regardingSwedishparticipation in the international military operation in Libya in 2011.By analyzing the propositions placed by the Swedish Government and the opposingSwedish Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna)through three rhetorical concepts, ethos, logos and pathos, the study found that the Swedish Government used argumentsthat had a closer link to the public’s perception of their legitimacy and the voters’own feelings and values. the Swedish Democratsused a strategy of trying to convince the public of logical arguments that was sometimes used to frame the Government in somewhat of a bad light.The rhetorical strategy culminatedwith arguments that would introduce the Swedish Democratsas the better and more reliable option.The differing strategies could be attributed to the reasoning behind the Swedish Democrats’ political profiling,andwas used as an ideological demonstration with the purpose of influencing the public opinion.

  • Linna Lundström, Molly
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Stora stygga vargen?: Porträtteringen av Ryssland och dess inverkan på svensk försvars- och säkerhetspolitik, 2008–20182018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on a theoretical framework based on securitization and threat construction, the attempt in this study was to broaden the understanding of how the perception of a Russian threat in the Baltic Sea is influencing Swedish defence and security policy. The method used was based on Bacchis WPR-approach. Three questions were asked at the beginning of this study, regardning how Russia is viewed in Sweden, how the representation of Russia has changed from the war in Georgia in 2008 until 2018, as well as how Sweden is to strengthen it's defence capacity, nationally and through cooperation, to tacle the Russian threat. Four key aspects of Russian behaviour that is considered threatening were identified. Russia is viewed as a country with power ambitions and expansionist tendencies; characterised as tactically unpredictable; looked upon as a risk calculating actor; and considered misstrusting in its views of the West. The perception of Russia is complex which creates difficulties regarding how the threat is to be met. Policy makers have urged the strengthening of Swedish national defence capacity to create a conflict threshold in the region. To further strengthen this threshold, the bilateral defence cooperation with Finland has deepened. In addition, the question of military non-alignment has been raised in relation to a possible Swedish membership in Nato. The answer to whether or not Sweden should join depends on political affiliation. This underlines the theoretical assumptions; security and defence policy is not merely a response to an external circumstance, but rather the result of an interplay between circumstance and actor.

  • Kolli, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Cyberkonflikten i Ukraina: Cyberattacker som instrument i tvingande diplomati2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe and explain the Russian use of cyberattacks in the Ukrainian conflict. Two major cyber events, BlackEnergy in 2015 and NotPetya in 2017, are analysed by the theoretical framework of coercive diplomacy developed by Daniel Byman and Matthew Waxman, as well as the theory of cyber coercion made by Daniel R. Flemming and Neil C. Rowe. This paper concludes that the Russian use of cyberattacks could be understood as an extension of their already widespread practice of coercive diplomacy as a foreign policy tool. The cyberattacks were developed to pressure the Ukrainian energy and economic sector, through destabilisation of the economic powerbase and the country as a whole. The cyber offenses are developed to push the Ukrainian politics from western influence back towards the Russian political orbit. This due to the political, economic, and power interests Russia finds in the post-soviet state of Ukraine.

  • Hoffsten, Theodor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Demokratiseringsprocesser: En komparativ studie av Ghana och Elfenbenskusten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Atthe beginning of the 19th century, the world consisted of about ten democracies. During the 1990showever, more than 60 of the world's countries counted as democratized.Intherecent decades, the number of democracies in the world has increased by a great deal. Democracy is, in what Samuel P. Huntington describes in his book "The Third wave" its third democratization wave. The first wave started in 1828 and lasted for almost a hundred years. At the same time as thefirstwave slowed down, the first wave of oppression began with the start of the great depression of the 1920s. Atthe end of the Second World War, the second, and short-lived, democratization wave began. It lasted until the mid-1970s. The third, and lastwave,as described by Huntington,is the one that has been going on since 1974 until his book was publishedin 1991.

    In thisthird democratization wave, states went from having a non-democratic rule of law to a democratic system with free elections. Many countries went from being dictatorships to becoming democracies. In the opposing waves, fewer countries went from a democratic government to a more authoritativeonethan in the democratization waves. After the decolonization of the 1960s, the vast majority of African states had embraced authoritarian non-democratic governance and the continent was characterized by one-party states. One of the few countries that followed this wave of democratization was Ghana, a country that counts as a democratic highlightamong dictatorships and hybrid-regimes in the region. Ghana’s peaceful many transitions of powers since their democratization process began in the mid-1990sis standing out amongst their neighbors. What has caused Ghana to succeed? Can Huntington's third democratization wave say anythingabout the reason? And why have not more countries been democratically successful?

  • Hardell, Georg
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    PESCO – ett hot mot svensk alliansfrihet?: En kritisk studie av svensk utrikespolitiskpolicy och utökade militära samarbeten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur uppfattas den svenska militära alliansfrihetens ställning i takt med utökade militära samarbeten? Sveriges ingående av PESCO (Permanent Structured Cooperation), ett försvars-och säkerhetspolitiskt samarbete inom EU, har presenterats som ett steg i mot ett militariserat EU. Syftet med den här uppsatsen har varit att redogöra för och förstå underliggande problemframställningar till Sveriges säkerhets-och försvarspolicy samt vilken innebörd svenska policyskapare anseratt ökade samarbeten har för alliansfriheten. För att besvara syftet har regeringens utrikesdeklaration 2018, statens offentliga utredningar om säkerhetssamarbeten och propositionen om Sveriges ingående av PESCO analyserats med Carol Lee Bacchis kritiska policyanalys, What’s the problem represented to be?, och tolkats utifrån det teoretiska ramverket om nationell säkerhet och regionala säkerhetskomplex. Dominerande problemframställningar har presenterats utgöras av ryska aggressioner i östersjöområdet och Ukraina där både den svenska nationella säkerheten och EU:s regionala säkerhet upplevs hotad. Studiens slutsatser sammanfattas till att den nationella och regionala säkerheten upplevs förbättras med PESCO. Policyskapare anser även att alliansfriheten stärks och är beroende av ökade militära samarbeten, något som presenterats som ett nära steg till en allians, men studien kan inte avgöra hur allians friheten skulle påverkas av en direkt konflikt där en involverad stat undertecknat PESCO.

  • Granström, Erika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Den svenska försvarsomställningen: Teknologi, politik eller kultur – en kvalitativ motivanalys2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Kalla krigets slut kom att innebära en ökad andel militära försvarsomställningar. Ända sedan dess har det rått delade meningar i forskarvärlden angående hur militära försvarsomställningar ska förklaras; Farrell och Terriff är några av de forskare som försökt förklara dessa genom att skapa en teoretisk förklaringsmodell. Den teoretiska förklaringsmodellen utgår ifrån tre förklarande kategorier: teknologibaserade, politiskastrategiska och kulturbaserade. För att uppfylla syftet med denna uppsats genomfördes en teoriprövning med Farrell och Terriffs teoretiska förklaringsmodell som utgångspunkt för att testa om den kunde förklara den svenska försvarsomställningen. För att kunna genomföra teoriprövningen genomfördes en motivanalys av proposition 2014/15:109 Försvarspolitisk inriktning – Sveriges försvar 2016-2020. Utifrån det analyserade materialet drogs slutsatsen att den teoretiska förklaringsmodellen kunde förklara den svenska försvarsomställningen, främst genom politiska-strategiska orsaker, men att den behöver utvecklas ytterligare för att på ett mer strukturerat och omfattande sätt kunna förklara försvarsomställningar.

  • Burlin, Josefin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Varför/varför inte hemberedskap?: Riskmedvetenhet och hemberedskap i Boden kommun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Globalt råder det en enad bild av hushåll som en viktig aktör i krishanteringssystem. Stor del av den tidigare forskningen har visat på att hushåll i Sverige saknar en hemberedskap för att klara sig i 72 timmar utan hjälp från myndigheter, men inte anledningen till varför så är fallet. Därmed identifierades en kunskapslucka om varför vissa hushåll förbereder sig medan andra inte gör det. Syftet för denna studie var därför att finna en förklaring till varför en del hushåll förbereder sig medan andra inte gör det. För att uppfylla syftet användes teorin Relational Theory of Risk vilken förklarar varför och hur individer uppfattar risker och därefter agerar för att förebygga riskerna. Den valda metoden var semi-strukturerade intervjuer med 6 stycken hushåll i Boden kommun, där inriktningen på intervjuerna var vilka risker respondenterna identifierade som hotfulla mot deras hushåll, vilka förberedelser de vidtagit samt hur god deras hemberedskap var. Resultatet visade på att hushåll som hade en lägre riskmedvetenhet hade en sämre hemberedskap respektive de hushåll som hade en högre riskmedvetenhet hade en bättre hemberedskap. Slutsatsen som drogs var att vilka risker hushållen identifierade påverkade deras hemberedskap.

  • Blomqvist, Linnéa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Gender Quotas in the Constitution: A method to achieve gender equality?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on earlier research and theories regarding female political representation and its effects on gender equality, the attempt in this study is to investigate whether political gender quotas, legislated in the constitution, has a positive association and effect on gender equality in a society. A substantial number of studies supports the notion that quotas increase female representation in the political context. Yet, few studies examine gender quotas effect on women’s everyday life. The study investigates the variation in gender equality amongst new democracies where countries with gender quotas are compared to countries without. The overall findings appoint that political gender quotas demonstrate more far-reaching effects than to increase the number of women elected. Having a high female representation does affect women’s everyday life and a quota will increase gender equality in a society. This should be regarded as a solid argument in favour of an implementation of a gender quota. Additionally, the results from this study indicate that Anne Phillips theory the Politics of Presence, which points out the importance of having high female representation, does exert an effect.

  • Nair, Sujith
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    The temporal dimensions of business incubation: a value-creation perspective2018Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503, E-ISSN 2043-6882Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to develop an understanding of business incubation along its temporal dimensions from a value creation perspective. We explore the temporal dimensions of business incubation by conducting a case study of six Swedish incubators with 43 semi-structured interviews of entrepreneurs and incubator coaches and managers. We show that temporality could be understood along the content and process of value creation. Such a delineation brings out the temporal tensions associated with the value creation processes in incubation. Our study adds to the current incubator literature by providing a more comprehensive explanation of its processes from a value creation perspective.

  • Schmidt, Tobias T.
    et al.
    Sharma, Sushma
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Reyes, Gloria X.
    Gries, Kerstin
    Gross, Maike
    Zhao, Boyu
    Yuan, Jui-Hung
    Wade, Rebecca
    Chabes, Andrei
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Hombauer, Hans
    A genetic screen pinpoints ribonucleotide reductase residues that sustain dNTP homeostasis and specifies a highly mutagenic type of dNTP imbalance2018Inngår i: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The balance and the overall concentration of intracellular deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are important determinants of faithful DNA replication. Despite the established fact that changes in dNTP pools negatively influence DNA replication fidelity, it is not clear why certain dNTP pool alterations are more mutagenic than others. As intracellular dNTP pools are mainly controlled by ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), and given the limited number of eukaryotic RNR mutations characterized so far, we screened for RNR1 mutations causing mutator phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 24 rnr1 mutant alleles resulting in diverse mutator phenotypes linked in most cases to imbalanced dNTPs. Among the identified rnr1 alleles the strongest mutators presented a dNTP imbalance in which three out of the four dNTPs were elevated (dCTP, dTTP and dGTP), particularly if dGTP levels were highly increased. These rnr1 alleles caused growth defects/lethality in DNA replication fidelity-compromised backgrounds, and caused strong mutator phenotypes even in the presence of functional DNA polymerases and mismatch repair. In summary, this study pinpoints key residues that contribute to allosteric regulation of RNR’s overall activity or substrate specificity. We propose a model that distinguishes between different dNTP pool alterations and provides a mechanistic explanation why certain dNTP imbalances are particularly detrimental.

  • Brännström, Christin
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Fredagsmys - Varför det?En undersökning om upplevelsen av meningsfullhet och påverkan.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Sten, Agaton
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Gruvan och luftslottet: En undersökning om den regionalpolitiska investeringen i Stekenjokkgruvan 1952-1988 och återspeglingen med Stålverk 802018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen kartlägger Stekenjokkgruvans historiska utveckling utifrån en politisk beslutsprocessmodell. Undersökningsperioden tar start redan vid upptäckten av

    Stekenjokkmalmen år 1918 men uppsatsen fokuserar främst på det tidiga 70-talet, då Stekenjokkgruvan blev en politisk fråga, fram till gruvans nedläggning i november 1988. Idag har Stekenjokkgruvan åter blivit aktuell eftersom ett gruvbolag vill återuppta gruvdriften i området. Utgångspunkten är att problematisera vad staten hade för motiv att investera i Stekenjokkgruvan utifrån en Industrial policy-ansats. Uppsatsen återspeglar även processerna i Stekenjokkfrågan med Stålverk 80 som var en annan samtida statlig industriinvestering.  Detta för att stärka bilden av hur beslutsprocessen gick till vid statliga industriinvesteringar under 70-talet och för att fånga upp vilka faktorer som påverkade beslutet. I denna uppsats dras slutsatsen att statens ingripande i Stekenjokkgruvan kan förklaras av det tidiga 70-talets regionalpolitiska målsättning. Politiken inriktades mot att minska den dåvarande utflyttningstrenden från landsbygden, genom att skapa sysselsättning i form av industrisatsningar i framförallt Norrland. Staten hade även starka samhällsekonomiska skäl att investera i Stekenjokkgruvan. Stålverk 80 kunde även motiveras av liknande anledningar men med skillnad att Stålverk 80 förväntades vara ett mycket företagsekonomiskt lönsamt projekt som till och med skulle förbättra den svenska handelsbalansen.

  • Wenell, Sam
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Kyrkoherdens lön i Björklinge församling 1910-1932: En undersökning av dess vardagliga funktion med grund i Martin Heideggers Vara och tid2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här magisteruppsatsen förenar de tre områdena Svenska kyrkans ekonomiska historia, svensk lönebildningshistoria och Martin Heidegger. Jag hävdar inledningsvis att prästerskapets löner är den bästa utgångspunkten för en ekonomisk-historiker som vill ta sig an Svenska kyrkan, och konstaterar mot bakgrund av tidigare forskning om lönebildning på den svenska arbetsmarknaden att lönebegreppet i bristande utsträckning har bearbetats på den mikrohistoriska nivå jag väljer att kalla ”den mänskliga tillvarons nivå”. För att angripa denna nivå definierar jag lönebegreppet utifrån Martin Heideggers teori om människan och hennes möjligheter i den vardagliga världen. Med grund i Heideggers Vara och tid analyserar jag löneutbetalningarna i kontanter till kyrkoherden i Björklinge församling 1910-1932, samt prästgården som var knuten till tjänsten. Resultaten visar att Heideggers ontologi kan vara fruktbar att använda, men att tillämpbarheten vid empiriska studier ännu är begränsad, och att fortsatt teoretiskt arbete är nödvändigt.

  • Schoemaker, Minouk J.
    et al.
    Nichols, Hazel B.
    Wright, Lauren B.
    Brook, Mark N.
    Jones, Michael E.
    O'Brien, Katie M.
    Adami, Hans-Olov
    Baglietto, Laura
    Bernstein, Leslie
    Bertrand, Kimberly A.
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Braaten, Tonje
    Chen, Yu
    Connor, Avonne E.
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Dossus, Laure
    Eliassen, A. Heather
    Giles, Graham G.
    Hankinson, Susan E.
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Key, Timothy J.
    Kirsh, Victoria A.
    Kitahara, Cari M.
    Koh, Woon-Puay
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    Linet, Martha S.
    Ma, Huiyan
    Masala, Giovanna
    Merritt, Melissa A.
    Milne, Roger L.
    Overvad, Kim
    Ozasa, Kotaro
    Palmer, Julie R.
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Riboli, Elio
    Rohan, Thomas E.
    Sadakane, Atsuko
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Tamirni, Rulla M.
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Ursin, Giske
    Vatten, Lars
    Visvanathan, Kala
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Willett, Walter C.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Yuan, Jian-Min
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    Sandler, Dale P.
    Swerdlow, Anthony J.
    Association of body mass index and age With subsequent breast cancer risk in premenopausal women2018Inngår i: JAMA Oncology, ISSN 2374-2437, E-ISSN 2374-2445, Vol. 4, nr 11, artikkel-id e181771Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as wei ght in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation.

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This multicenter analysis used pooled individual-level data from 758 592 premenopausal women from 19 prospective cohorts to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of premenopausal breast cancer in association with BMI from ages 18 through 54 years using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median follow-up was 9.3 years (interquartile range, 4.9-13.5 years) per participant, with 13 082 incident cases of breast cancer. Participants were recruited from January 1,1963, through December 31, 2013, and data were analyzed from September 1.2013, through December 31, 2017.

    EXPOSURES Body mass index at ages 18 to 24, 25 to 34,35 to 44, and 45 to 54 years.

    MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Invasive or in situ premenopausal breast cancer.

    RESULTS Among the 758 592 premenopausal women (median age, 40.6 years; interquartile range, 35.2-45.5 years) included in the analysis, inverse linear associations of BMI with breast cancer risk were found that were stronger for BMI at ages 18 to 24 years (HR per 5 kg/m(2) [5.0-U] difference, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) than for BMI at ages 45 to 54 years (HR per 5.0-U difference, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). The inverse associations were observed even among nonoverweight women. There was a 4.2-fold risk gradient between the highest and lowest BMI categories (BMI >= 35.0 vs <17.0) at ages 18 to 24 years (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.14-0.40). Hazard ratios did not appreciably vary by attained age or between strata of other breast cancer risk factors. Associations were stronger for estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive than for hormone receptor-negative breast cancer for BMI at every age group (eg, for BMI at age 18 to 24 years: HR per 5.0-U difference for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.70-0.81] vs hormone receptor-negative tumors, 0.85 [95% CI: 0.76-0.95]); BMI at ages 25 to 54 years was not consistently associated with triple-negative or hormone receptor-negative breast cancer overall.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The results of this study suggest that increased adiposity is associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer at a greater magnitude than previously shown and across the entire distribution of BMI. The strongest associations of risk were observed for BMI in early adulthood. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.

  • Östman, Sofi
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Makrofossilanalys av jordprover från kulturlager inom Sandarnaboplatsen, Raä Göteborg 15:1, Västergötland2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Östman, Sofi
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Makrofossilanalys av sex prover från en boplatsmiljö inom Raä 218, Växjö socken, Småland2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Wallin, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Pollenanalys av ett prov från ett vattenhål/kallkälla inom Fjelie socken, Raä 54, Lomma kommun, Skåne2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Östman, Sofi
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Makrofossilanalys av fyra prover från kokgropar och nedgrävningar inom Klockarbäcken, Raä Umeå socken 589, Västerbotten2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Nilsson, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie
    Theos, Apostolos
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Ferguson, Richard A
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Malm, Christer B.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Aerobic Variables for Prediction of Alpine Skiing Performance: A Novel Approach2018Inngår i: Sports Medicine International Open, ISSN 2367-1890, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 105-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive power of aerobic test results and anthropometric variables on FIS-ranking of junior elite alpine skiers. Results from twenty-three male and female adolescent elite alpine skiers from two seasons were included in the multivariate statistical models. Physical work capacity was determined by V̇O2peak, blood lactate concentration ([HLa]b), and heart rate (HR) during ergometer cycling. Anthropometric variables were body stature, body weight and calculated BMI. No significant correlation between competitive performance and aerobic work capacity or anthropometric data was observed neither in male nor female adolescent skiers. Pre-season physical tests and anthropometric data could therefore not predict end-season FIS-ranking. The best regression (R2) and prediction (Q2) models of FIS slalom (SL) and giant slalom (GS) rank reached R2=0.51 to 0.86, Q2=−0.73 to 0.18, indicating no valid models. This study could not establish V̇O2peak and other included variables as predictors of competitive performance. When combining results from commonly used tests for alpine skiers, and applying multivariate statistical models, investigated tests seems of limited used for athletes, coaches, and ski federations. Performance-specific pre-season tests must be developed and validated for prediction of performance and guidance of exercise training.

  • Sparring, Vibeke
    et al.
    Granström, Emma
    Sachs, Magna Andreen
    Brommels, Mats
    Nyström, Monica E
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    One size fits none: a qualitative study investigating nine national quality registries' conditions for use in quality improvement, research and interaction with patients2018Inngår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 802Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish National Quality Registries (NQRs) are observational clinical registries that have long been seen as an underused resource for research and quality improvement (QI) in health care. In recent years, NQRs have also been recognised as an area where patients can be involved, contributing with self-reported experiences and estimations of health effects. This study aimed to investigate what the registry management perceived as barriers and facilitators for the use of NQRs in QI, research, and interaction with patients, and main activities undertaken to enhance their use for these purposes. The aim was further to identify potential differences between various types of NQRs for their use in these areas.

    Methods: In this multiple case study, nine NQRs were purposively selected. Interviews (n = 18) were conducted and analysed iteratively using conventional and directed content analysis.

    Results: A recent national investment initiative enabled more intensive work with development areas previously identified by the NQR management teams. The recent focus on value-based health care and other contemporary national healthcare investments aiming at QI and public benchmarking were perceived as facilitating factors. Having to perform double registrations due to shortcomings in digital systems was perceived as a barrier, as was the lack of authority on behalf of the registry management to request participation in NQRs and QI activities based on registry outcomes. The registry management teams used three strategies to enhance the use of NQRs: ensuring registering of correct and complete data, ensuring updated and understandable information available for patients, clinicians, researchers and others stakeholders, and intensifying cooperation with them. Varied characteristics of the NQRs influenced their use, and the possibility to reach various end-users was connected to the focus area and context of the NQRs.

    Conclusions: The recent national investment initiative contributed to already ongoing work to strengthen the use of NQRs. To further increase the use, the demands of stakeholders and end-users must be in focus, but also an understanding of the NQRs' various characteristics and challenges. The end-users may have in common a need for training in the methodology of registry based research and benchmarking, and how to be more patient-centred.

  • Nilsson, Ingeborg
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Luborsky, Mark
    Rosenberg, Lena
    Sandberg, Linda
    Bostrom, Anne-Marie
    Borell, Lena
    Perpetuating harms from isolation among older adults with cognitive impairment: observed discrepancies in homecare service documentation, assessment and approval practices2018Inngår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 800Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Older persons with cognitive impairment (CI) risk social isolation. Strong evidence shows that perceived loneliness, or inadequate social networks, triggers and increases health problems. How homecare systems address social participation remains unknown; anecdotal data suggests there are significant gaps. This study's objective was to identify and describe how the assessors of homecare needs document social participation among persons with CI and how their documentation corresponds with the services actually provided to meet social needs. The research questions were: How and what kinds of social participation needs are documented on need assessment forms? What types of homecare services (with a social focus) are documented and approved? How are specified needs in social participation profiles addressed by a homecare service?

    Methods: Descriptive data from need assessment forms and their attached care plans for all applicants aged 65+ were collected during a 2 month period from a large homecare agency serving a municipality in Sweden. Persons with documented CI (n = 43) in the group were identified. Qualitative data analysis was conducted to examine the research questions.

    Results: Social participation factors were not documented consistently. The relationship between recognition of limitations to social participation and approval of service eligibility was not consistent. Social participation was designated by references to social status, sometimes by social network size, and occasionally by limitations to social participation. The range of approved homecare services (with social focus) covered services such as day care center visits or companionship. Three profiles of social participation were identified: clients with, (a) no participation limitations; (b) potential limitations; and (c) marked limitations.

    Conclusion: Given the known health harms from social isolation and the high risk of isolation among older persons with CI, this novel study's documentation of inadequate and inconsistent information in homecare social need assessments and services is sobering. The findings suggest a pressing need for initiatives to formulate best practices and standards to ensure alignment of care service systems to the health needs of the growing group of aging individuals with CI.

  • Nerudová, Danuše
    et al.
    Mendel University in Brno.
    Dobranschi, Marian
    Mendel University in Brno.
    Solilová, Veronika
    Mendel University in Brno.
    Schratzenstaller, Margit
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO).
    Sustainability-oriented Future EU Funding: A Fuel Tax Surcharge2018Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses the potential of a surcharge on national fuel taxes as sustainability-oriented own resource to finance the EU budget. Our estimations show that such a surcharge could yield substantial revenues, ranging between € 12.93 billion (for a surcharge of 0.03 €) and 86.2 billion (for a surcharge of 0.2 €) per year. Besides the contribution an EU fuel tax would make to various sustainability-related EU goals and strategies, it would help to address two specific problems inherent in the current EU system of fuel taxation. An EU fuel tax designed as a surcharge on national fuel taxes would decrease the existing tax bias in favour of diesel, as the surcharge would be levied uniformly on gasoline and diesel, which in most EU Member States is taxed at lower rates, alike. Moreover, by increasing national fuel tax rates, the surcharge would – depending on its level – mitigate or even remove the “under-taxation” of fuel in relation to the minimum fuel tax rates stipulated in the EU Energy Tax Directive in a number of Member States, which is caused by the absence of regular inflation adjustment of nominal fuel tax rates.

  • Al-Behadili, Ali
    et al.
    Uhler, Jay P.
    Berglund, Anna-Karin
    Peter, Bradley
    Doimo, Mara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Reyes, Aurelio
    Wanrooij, Sjoerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Zeviani, Massimo
    Falkenberg, Maria
    A two-nuclease pathway involving RNase H1 is required for primer removal at human mitochondrial OriL2018Inngår i: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 46, nr 18, s. 9471-9483Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of Ribonuclease H1 (RNase H1) during primer removal and ligation at the mitochondrial origin of light-strand DNA synthesis (OriL) is a key, yet poorly understood, step in mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Here, we reconstitute the replication cycle of L-strand synthesis in vitro using recombinant mitochondrial proteins and model OriL substrates. The process begins with initiation of DNA replication at OriL and ends with primer removal and ligation. We find that RNase H1 partially removes the primer, leaving behind the last one to three ribonucleotides. These 5′-end ribonucleotides disturb ligation, a conclusion which is supported by analysis of RNase H1-deficient patient cells. A second nuclease is therefore required to remove the last ribonucleotides and we demonstrate that Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) can execute this function in vitro. Removal of RNA primers at OriL thus depends on a two-nuclease model, which in addition to RNase H1 requires FEN1 or a FEN1-like activity. These findings define the role of RNase H1 at OriL and help to explain the pathogenic consequences of disease causing mutations in RNase H1.

  • Landi, Pietro
    et al.
    Minoarivelo, Henintsoa O.
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Hui, Cang
    Dieckmann, Ulf
    Complexity and stability of ecological networks: a review of the theory2018Inngår i: Population Ecology, ISSN 1438-3896, E-ISSN 1438-390X, Vol. 60, nr 4, s. 319-345Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our planet is changing at paces never observed before. Species extinction is happening at faster rates than ever, greatly exceeding the five mass extinctions in the fossil record. Nevertheless, our lives are strongly based on services provided by ecosystems, thus the responses to global change of our natural heritage are of immediate concern. Understanding the relationship between complexity and stability of ecosystems is of key importance for the maintenance of the balance of human growth and the conservation of all the natural services that ecosystems provide. Mathematical network models can be used to simplify the vast complexity of the real world, to formally describe and investigate ecological phenomena, and to understand ecosystems propensity of returning to its functioning regime after a stress or a perturbation. The use of ecological-network models to study the relationship between complexity and stability of natural ecosystems is the focus of this review. The concept of ecological networks and their characteristics are first introduced, followed by central and occasionally contrasting definitions of complexity and stability. The literature on the relationship between complexity and stability in different types of models and in real ecosystems is then reviewed, highlighting the theoretical debate and the lack of consensual agreement. The summary of the importance of this line of research for the successful management and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services concludes the review.

  • Guan, Jikui
    et al.
    Fransson, Susanne
    Siaw, Joachim Tetteh
    Treis, Diana
    Van den Eynden, Jimmy
    Chand, Damini
    Umapathy, Ganesh
    Ruuth, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Svenberg, Petter
    Wessman, Sandra
    Shamikh, Alia
    Jacobsson, Hans
    Gordon, Lena
    Stenman, Jakob
    Svensson, Pär-Johan
    Hansson, Magnus
    Larsson, Erik
    Martinsson, Tommy
    Palmer, Ruth H.
    Kogner, Per
    Hallberg, Bengt
    Clinical response of the novel activating ALK-I1171T mutation in neuroblastoma o the ALK inhibitor ceritinib2018Inngår i: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies, ISSN 2373-2873, Vol. 4, nr 4, artikkel-id a002550Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tumors with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion rearrangements, including non-small-cell lung cancer and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, are highly sensitive to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), underscoring the notion that such cancers are addicted to ALK activity. Although mutations in ALK are heavily implicated in childhood neuroblastoma, response to the ALK TKI crizotinib has been disappointing. Embryonal tumors in patients with DNA repair defects such as Fanconi anemia (FA) often have a poor prognosis, because of lack of therapeutic options. Here we report a child with underlying FA and ALK mutant high-risk neuroblastoma responding strongly to precision therapy with the ALK TKI ceritinib. Conventional chemotherapy treatment caused severe, life-threatening toxicity. Genomic analysis of the initial biopsy identified germline FANCA mutations as well as a novel ALK-I1171T variant. ALK-I1171T generates a potent gain-of-function mutant, as measured in PC12 cell neurite outgrowth and NIH3T3 transformation. Pharmacological inhibition profiling of ALK-I1171T in response to various ALK TKIs identified an 11-fold improved inhibition of ALK-I1171T with ceritinib when compared with crizotinib. Immunoaffinity-coupled LC-MS/MS phosphoproteomics analysis indicated a decrease in ALK signaling in response to ceritinib. Ceritinib was therefore selected for treatment in this child. Monotherapy with ceritinib was well tolerated and resulted in normalized catecholamine markers and tumor shrinkage. After 7.5 mo treatment, the residual primary tumor shrunk, was surgically removed, and exhibited hallmarks of differentiation together with reduced Ki67 levels. Clinical follow-up after 21 mo treatment revealed complete clinical remission including all metastatic sites. Therefore, ceritinib presents a viable therapeutic option for ALK-positive neuroblastoma.

  • Jonzon, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. The Public Health Agency of Sweden, Nobels väg 18, Solna, Sweden.
    Lindkvist, Pille
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Structural and procedural barriers to health assessment for asylum seekers and other migrants - an explorative survey in Sweden2018Inngår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikkel-id 813Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health assessments (HAs) for newly arrived asylum seekers have become a regular practice in most EU countries, but what is performed, how they are organized, and whether it is mandatory or not to attend varies between countries. Swedish national statistics have shown that only about 45% of asylum seekers attend the optional HA offered upon their arrival in Sweden. There are significant variations among Sweden's 21 counties, ranging from 20 to 90%. The reasons for the low attendance have not yet been fully explored, though there are indications of structural weaknesses within the healthcare system. This study aimed to identify variations in policies and implementation of HAs targeting asylum seekers and other migrants. The study analyzes the structure and processes in different Swedish counties and discusses how this might influence the coverage.

    METHODS: This research project had an exploratory quantitative descriptive design applying a cross-sectional survey based on two structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were performed to summarize the data.

    RESULTS: The number of healthcare centers in each county that carried out HAs on asylum seekers varied independently of the size of the county. Variations in regard to structure, organization, processes, and performance monitoring of the HA process also appeared diverse, and these were in some cases also reported differently by administrators and healthcare professionals in the same county. Most commonly, the HAs were carried out in ordinary health centers, though some counties presented alternative solutions on how to organize the HAs.

    CONCLUSIONS: There seems to be no coherent national system for carrying out HAs on asylum seekers in Sweden. The structure, organization, processes, and outcomes vary between the counties, and the reasons for the low coverage of HAs appear to be multifaceted.

  • Broglia, Laura
    et al.
    Materne, Solange
    Lecrivain, Anne-Laure
    Hahnke, Karin
    Le Rhun, Anaïs
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Berlin, Germany; Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany; Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Charpentier, Emmanuelle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Berlin, Germany; Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany; Institute for Biology, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany; Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.
    RNase Y-mediated regulation of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B2018Inngår i: RNA Biology, ISSN 1547-6286, E-ISSN 1555-8584, Vol. 15, nr 10, s. 1336-1347Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Endoribonuclease Y (RNase Y) is a crucial regulator of virulence in Gram-positive bacteria. In the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, RNase Y is required for the expression of the major secreted virulence factor streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB), but the mechanism involved in this regulation remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the 5′ untranslated region of speB mRNA is processed by several RNases including RNase Y. In particular, we identify two RNase Y cleavage sites located downstream of a guanosine (G) residue. To assess whether this nucleotide is required for RNase Y activity in vivo, we mutated it and demonstrate that the presence of this G residue is essential for the processing of the speB mRNA 5′ UTR by RNase Y. Although RNase Y directly targets and processes speB, we show that RNase Y-mediated regulation of speB expression occurs primarily at the transcriptional level and independently of the processing in the speB mRNA 5′ UTR. To conclude, we demonstrate for the first time that RNase Y processing of an mRNA target requires the presence of a G. We also provide new insights on the speB 5′ UTR and on the role of RNase Y in speB regulation.

  • Xu, Fu
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Zhou, Yang
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Byström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Johansson, Marcus J. O.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Identification of factors that promote biogenesis of tRNACGASer.2018Inngår i: RNA Biology, ISSN 1547-6286, E-ISSN 1555-8584, Vol. 15, nr 10, s. 1286-1294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide variety of factors are required for the conversion of pre-tRNA molecules into the mature tRNAs that function in translation. To identify factors influencing tRNA biogenesis, we previously performed a screen for strains carrying mutations that induce lethality when combined with a sup61-T47:2C allele, encoding a mutant form of tRNACGASer. Analyzes of two complementation groups led to the identification of Tan1 as a protein involved in formation of the modified nucleoside N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) in tRNA and Bud13 as a factor controlling the levels of ac4C by promoting TAN1 pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we describe the remaining complementation groups and show that they include strains with mutations in genes for known tRNA biogenesis factors that modify (DUS2, MOD5 and TRM1), transport (LOS1), or aminoacylate (SES1) tRNACGASer. Other strains carried mutations in genes for factors involved in rRNA/mRNA synthesis (RPA49, RRN3 and MOT1) or magnesium uptake (ALR1). We show that mutations in not only DUS2, LOS1 and SES1 but also in RPA49, RRN3 and MOT1 cause a reduction in the levels of the altered tRNACGASer. These results indicate that Rpa49, Rrn3 and Mot1 directly or indirectly influence tRNACGASer biogenesis.

  • Torres-Espinola, Francisco J.
    et al.
    Berglund, Staffan K.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik. Centre of Excellence for Paediatric Research EURISTIKOS, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Garcia, Salome
    Perez-Garcia, Miguel
    Catena, Andres
    Rueda, Ricardo
    Antonio Saez, Jose
    Campoy, Cristina
    Visual evoked potentials in offspring born to mothers with overweight, obesity and gestational diabetes2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikkel-id e0203754Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes (GD) during pregnancy may negatively affect neurodevelopment in the offspring. However, the mechanisms are unclear and objective measures of neurodevelopment in infancy are scarce. We hypothesized that these maternal metabolic pathologies impair cortical visual evoked potentials (cVEPs), a proxy for visual and neuronal maturity.

    Design: The PREOBE study included 331 pregnant women stratified into four groups; normal weight (controls), overweight, obesity, and GD (the latter including mothers with normal weight, overweight and obesity). In a subsample of the offspring at 3 months (n = 157) and at 18 months (n = 136), we assessed the latencies and amplitudes of the P100 wave from cVEPs and calculated visual acuity.

    Results: At 3 months of age, visual acuity was significantly poorer in offspring born to GD mothers. At 18 months of age, there were no differences in visual acuity but infants born to GD mothers had significantly longer latencies of cVEPs when measured at 15', and 30' of arc. The group differences at 30' remained significant after confounder adjustment (mean [SD] 121.0 [16.0] vs. 112.6 [7.6] ms in controls, p = 0.007) and the most prolonged latencies were observed in offspring to GD mothers with concurrent overweight (128.9 [26.9] ms, p = 0.002) and obesity (118.5 [5.1] ms, p = 0.020).

    Conclusions: Infants born to mothers with GD, particularly those with concurrent overweight or obesity, have prolonged latencies of visual evoked potentials at 18 months of age, suggesting that this maternal metabolic profile have a long lasting, non-optimal, effect on infants' brain development.

  • Melki, Philipé
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Masso, Ninib
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Shear Strength between a Resin Cement and a Cobalt-Chromium Alloy and Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    New trademarks appear on the dental market every year and it is difficult to determine whether they should be used in clinical praxis or not. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate different types of materials, trying to declare which material is best suited for a certain type of restorations. The study objective was to investigate if there are any differences in the shear bond strength between a self-adhesive cement and an yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconium dioxide (Y-TZP) and a dental cobalt-chromium alloy (Co-Cr).  The null hypothesis was used. The hypothesis was that the shear bond strengths was the same when cementing the adhesive cement to the dental Co-Cr alloy and the yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconium dioxide. Twenty plastic embedded samples were used in this study, 10 specimens of Co-Cr alloy, and 10 specimens of Y-TZP. The cement was applied, and the specimen were stored in water of 37°C for 24 hr. The tests were performed with an UltraTester with the speed of 1 mm / min to measure the shear bond strength (SBS) between the adhesive cement, the Y-TZP and the Co-Cr alloy. The values where then registered. The mean value of the shear bond strength for adhesive cement and Y-TZP was 23.5 MPa, and for Co-Cr alloy 22.8 MPa. No significant difference in shear bond strength were found between the adhesive cement and the Y-TZP and the Co-Cr alloy, after being stored in water for 24 hrs, p > 0.05.

  • Erlandsson, Ann
    et al.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    Lundholm, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Fält, Anna
    Andersson, Sven-Olof
    Andrén, Ove
    Davidsson, Sabina
    M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells in lethal prostate cancer2018Inngår i: The Prostate, ISSN 0270-4137, E-ISSN 1097-0045Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in the world. Emerging evidence suggests that inflammatory cells such as M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells (Tregs) can contribute to cancer progression by suppressing the anti‐tumor immune response. This study investigated the number of CD163‐positive M2 macrophages in PCa tissue. It also investigated the correlation and interaction of M2 macrophages and Tregs.

    Methods: This nested case‐control study included subjects from a cohort of men diagnosed with PCa as an incidental finding during transurethral resection of the prostate. The cases were 225 men who died from PCa, and the controls were 367 men who survived more than 10 years after PCa diagnosis without disease progression. Infiltrating CD163‐positive M2 macrophages and FOXP3/CD4‐positive Tregs in PCa tissue were identified using immunohistochemistry. The correlation and interaction of M2 macrophages and Tregs were assessed using Spearman's rank‐order correlation and a likelihood test, respectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for lethal PCa and macrophage counts.

    Results: The number of M2 macrophages and Tregs showed a significant correlation (P < 0.001) but no interactions. The OR for lethal PCa was 1.93 (95%CI: 1.23‐3.03) for men with high numbers of M2 macrophages. Also for cases with uncertain outcome (GS categories 3 + 4 and 4 + 3) high numbers of M2 macrophages does predict a poorer prognosis.

    Conclusions: Our data showed that men with high numbers of M2 macrophages in the prostate tumor environment had increased odds of dying of PCa. It is possible that M2 macrophages, together with other suppressor cells such as Tregs, promote an immunosuppressive environment.

  • Frisan, Teresa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Department of Cell and Molecular Biology Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nagy, Noemi
    Chioureas, Dimitrios
    Terol, Marie
    Grasso, Francesca
    Masucci, Maria G.
    A bacterial genotoxin causes virus reactivation and genomic instability in Epstein-Barr virus infected epithelial cells pointing to a role of co-infection in viral oncogenesis2019Inngår i: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 144, nr 1, s. 98-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have addressed the role of bacterial co-infection in viral oncogenesis using as model Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpesvirus that causes lymphoid malignancies and epithelial cancers. Infection of EBV carrying epithelial cells with the common oral pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) triggered reactivation of the productive virus cycle. Using isogenic Aa strains that differ in the production of the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and purified catalytically active or inactive toxin, we found that the CDT acts via induction of DNA double strand breaks and activation of the Ataxia Telangectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase. Exposure of EBV-negative epithelial cells to the virus in the presence of sub-lethal doses of CDT was accompanied by the accumulation of latently infected cells exhibiting multiple signs of genomic instability. These findings illustrate a scenario where co-infection with certain bacterial species may favor the establishment of a microenvironment conducive to the EBV-induced malignant transformation of epithelial cells.

  • Egondi, Thaddaeus
    et al.
    Ettarh, Remare
    Kyobutungi, Catherine
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Exposure to Outdoor Particles (PM2.5) and Associated Child Morbidity and Mortality in Socially Deprived Neighborhoods of Nairobi, Kenya2018Inngår i: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikkel-id 351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the health burden related to ambient outdoor air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. This study examined the relationship between exposure to outdoor air pollution and child health in urban slums of Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted a semi-ecological study among children under 5 years of age from two slum areas and exposure measurements of particulate matter (PM2.5) at the village level were aligned to data from a retrospective cohort study design. We used logistic and Poisson regression models to ascertain the associations between PM2.5 exposure level and child morbidity and mortality. Compared to those in low-pollution areas (PM2.5 < 25 µg/m3), children in high-pollution areas (PM2.5 ≥ 25 µg/m3) were at significantly higher risk for morbidity in general (odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.41) and, specifically, cough (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.20–1.48). Exposure to high levels of pollution was associated with a high child mortality rate from all causes (IRR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.08–1.39) and respiratory causes (IRR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.88–1.42). The findings indicate that there are associated adverse health outcomes with air pollution in urban slums. Further research on air pollution health impact assessments in similar urban areas is required.

  • D'Odorico, Paolo
    et al.
    Davis, Kyle Frankel
    Rosa, Lorenzo
    Carr, Joel A.
    Chiarelli, Davide
    Dell'Angelo, Jampel
    Gephart, Jessica
    MacDonald, Graham K.
    Seekell, David A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Suweis, Samir
    Rulli, Maria Cristina
    The global Food-Energy-Water Nexus2018Inngår i: Reviews of geophysics, ISSN 8755-1209, E-ISSN 1944-9208, Vol. 56, nr 3, s. 456-531Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water availability is a major factor constraining humanity's ability to meet the future food and energy needs of a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Water plays an important role in the production of energy, including renewable energy sources and the extraction of unconventional fossil fuels that are expected to become important players in future energy security. The emergent competition for water between the food and energy systems is increasingly recognized in the concept of the "food-energy-water nexus." The nexus between food and water is made even more complex by the globalization of agriculture and rapid growth in food trade, which results in a massive virtual transfer of water among regions and plays an important role in the food and water security of some regions. This review explores multiple components of the food-energy-water nexus and highlights possible approaches that could be used to meet food and energy security with the limited renewable water resources of the planet. Despite clear tensions inherent in meeting the growing and changing demand for food and energy in the 21st century, the inherent linkages among food, water, and energy systems can offer an opportunity for synergistic strategies aimed at resilient food, water, and energy security, such as the circular economy.

  • Sköld, Bore
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Baltruszewicz, Marta
    Aall, Carlo
    Andersson, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Herrmann, Alina
    Amelung, Dorothee
    Barbier, Carine
    Nilsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Bruyère, Sébastien
    Sauerborn, Rainer
    Household Preferences to Reduce Their Greenhouse Gas Footprint: A Comparative Study from Four European Cities2018Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikkel-id 4044Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates households’ preferences to reduce their carbon footprint (CF) measured in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e). It assumes that a substantial CF reduction of households is essential to reach the 1.5 ◦C goal under the Paris Agreement. Data was collected in four mid-size cities in France, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Quantitative data was obtained from 308 households using a CF calculator based on a questionnaire, and a simulation game. The latter investigated households’ preferences when being confronted with the objective to reduce their CF by 50 percent by 2030 in a voluntary and forced scenario. Our results show that the greater the CO2e-reduction potential of a mitigation action, the less willing a household was to implement that action. Households preferred actions with moderate lifestyle changes foremost in the food sector. Voluntarily, households reached a 25% footprint reduction by 2030. To reach a substantial reduction of 50 percent, households needed to choose actions that meant considerable lifestyle changes, mainly related to mobility. Given our results, the 1.5 ◦C goal is unlikely to be realizable currently, unless households receive major policy support. Lastly, the strikingly similar preferences of households in the four European cities investigated seem to justify strong EU and international policies.

  • Murillo, Pilar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Departamento de Enfermería I, Escuela de Enfermería, Universidad del País Vasco, Leioa, España.
    Vives-Cases, Carmen
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Grupo de Investigación en Salud Pública, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, España.
    Factores asociados a la respuesta a la violencia del compañero íntimo en atención primaria de salud en España2018Inngår i: Gaceta Sanitaria, ISSN 0213-9111, E-ISSN 1578-1283, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 433-438Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [es]

    Objetivo: Analizar la capacidad de respuesta a la violencia del compañero íntimo (VCI) de profesionales sanitarios/as españoles/as en atención primaria e identificar posibles determinantes que puedan favorecer una mejor respuesta.

    Método: Estudio transversal con muestreo no probabilístico y por conveniencia en profesionales sanitarios/as de 15 centros de atención primaria españoles. El instrumento Physician Readiness to Manage Intimate Partner Violence Survey (PREMIS), en su versión validada y traducida al español, permitió recolectar información sobre conocimientos, opiniones y prácticas sobre VCI. Se realizaron análisis estadísticos descriptivo y de regresión lineal bivariada y multivariada.

    Resultados: Se recibieron 265 cuestionarios diligenciados, con una tasa de respuesta del 80,3%. Se observó un efecto exposición-respuesta, en el que a más horas de formación, mayor puntuación en las escalas del cuestionario (p <0,05). La edad, el tipo de profesión, los años de experiencia en atención primaria, las horas de formación en VCI y la lectura del protocolo mostraron asociación positiva con conocimientos (preparación percibida, conocimiento percibido, conocimiento real), opiniones (preparación del equipo, requerimientos legales, autoeficacia, disponibilidad de recursos en el lugar de trabajo, barreras, entendimiento de la víctima) y prácticas del personal sanitario.

    Conclusiones: Leer el protocolo de actuación regional/nacional y recibir formación en VCI fueron las intervenciones más importantes asociadas a una mejor capacidad de respuesta a la VCI de los/las profesionales sanitarios/as en atención primaria.

  • Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hultstrand Ahlin, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Marchal, Bruno
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Accessibility and factors associated with utilization of mental health services in youth health centers: a qualitative comparative analysis in northern Sweden2018Inngår i: International Journal of Mental Health Systems, ISSN 1752-4458, E-ISSN 1752-4458, Vol. 12, artikkel-id 69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Youth-friendly health care services can facilitate young people's access to health care services and promote their health, including their mental health. In Sweden, a network of youth health centers exist since the 1970s, incorporated within the public health system. Even if such centers take a holistic approach to youth health, the focus has been in sexual and reproductive health care, and the extent of integrating mental health care services is less developed though it varies notably between different centers. This study aims to analyse the various conditions that are sufficient and/or necessary to make Swedish youth health centers accessible for mental and psychosocial health.

    Methods: Multiple case study design, using qualitative comparative analysis to assess the various conditions that makes a youth health center accessible for mental and psychosocial issues and mental health. The cases included 18 youth health centers (from a total of 22) in the four northern counties of Sweden.

    Results: In order to enhance accessibility for mental health services, youth health centers need to be trusted by young people. Trust was necessary but not sufficient, meaning that it had to be combined with other conditions: either having a team with a variety of professions represented in the youth health center, or being a youth health center that is both easy to contact and well-staffed with mental health professionals.

    Conclusions: Differentiated, first-line services for youth can play an important role in promoting youth mental health if certain conditions are fulfilled. Trust is necessary, but has to be combined with either multidisciplinary teams, or expertise on mental health and easy accessibility.

  • Deschasaux, Melanie
    et al.
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Murphy, Neil
    Julia, Chantal
    Hercberg, Serge
    Srour, Bernard
    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle
    Latino-Martel, Paule
    Biessy, Carine
    Casagrande, Corinne
    Jenab, Mazda
    Ward, Heather
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Dahm, Christina C.
    Overvad, Kim
    Kyro, Cecilie
    Olsen, Anja
    Affret, Aurelie
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Mahamat-Saleh, Yahya
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Boeing, Heiner
    Schwingshackl, Lukas
    Bamia, Christina
    Peppa, Eleni
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Masala, Giovanna
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Panico, Salvatore
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Buen-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Hjartåker, Anette
    Rylander, Charlotta
    Skeie, Guri
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Jakszyn, Paula
    Salamanca-Fernandez, Elena
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Amiano, Pilar
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Huseinovic, Ena
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Bradbury, Kathryn E.
    Perez-Cornago, Aurora
    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Riboli, Elio
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Touvier, Mathilde
    Nutritional quality of food as represented by the FSAm-NPS nutrient profiling system underlying the Nutri-Score label and cancer risk in Europe: results from the EPIC prospective cohort study2018Inngår i: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 15, nr 9, artikkel-id e1002651Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Helping consumers make healthier food choices is a key issue for the prevention of cancer and other diseases. In many countries, political authorities are considering the implementation of a simplified labelling system to reflect the nutritional quality of food products. The Nutri-Score, a five-colour nutrition label, is derived from the Nutrient Profiling System of the British Food Standards Agency (modified version) (FSAm-NPS). How the consumption of foods with high/low FSAm-NPS relates to cancer risk has been studied in national/regional cohorts but has not been characterized in diverse European populations.

    Methods and findings

    This prospective analysis included 471,495 adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, 1992-2014, median follow-up: 15.3 y), among whom there were 49,794 incident cancer cases (main locations: breast, n = 12,063; prostate, n = 6,745; colon-rectum, n = 5,806). Usual food intakes were assessed with standardized country-specific diet assessment methods. The FSAm-NPS was calculated for each food/beverage using their 100-g content in energy, sugar, saturated fatty acid, sodium, fibres, proteins, and fruits/vegetables/legumes/nuts. The FSAm-NPS scores of all food items usually consumed by a participant were averaged to obtain the individual FSAm-NPS Dietary Index (DI) scores. Multi-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were computed. A higher FSAm-NPS DI score, reflecting a lower nutritional quality of the food consumed, was associated with a higher risk of total cancer (HRQ5 versus (Q1) = 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.10, P-trend < 0.001). Absolute cancer rates in those with high and low (quintiles 5 and 1) FSAm-NPS DI scores were 81.4 and 69.5 cases/10,000 person-years, respectively. Higher FSAm-NPS DI scores were specifically associated with higher risks of cancers of the colon-rectum, upper aerodigestive tract and stomach, lung for men, and liver and postmenopausal breast for women (all P < 0.05). The main study limitation is that it was based on an observational cohort using self-reported dietary data obtained through a single baseline food frequency questionnaire; thus, exposure misclassification and residual confounding cannot be ruled out.

    Conclusions

    In this large multinational European cohort, the consumption of food products with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher risk of cancer. This supports the relevance of the FSAm-NPS as underlying nutrient profiling system for front-of-pack nutrition labels, as well as for other public health nutritional measures.

  • Byenfeldt, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Elvin, Anders
    Fransson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Influence of Probe Pressure on Ultrasound-Based Shear Wave Elastography of the Liver Using Comb-Push 2-D Technology2018Inngår i: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0301-5629, E-ISSN 1879-291XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been postulated that in the liver, applying increased probe pressure during ultrasound-based shear wave elastography (SWE) might lead to a false increase in the SWE result. We aimed to determine the influence of increased intercostal probe pressure when performing SWE of the liver. We also investigated the number of measurements required to achieve technically successful and reliable SWE examinations. This prospective, clinical study included 112 patients and 2240 SWE measurements of the liver. We applied probe pressure intercostally, to reduce the skin-to-liver capsule distance (SCD), which could stabilize the SWE signal and thus increase the number of technically successful measurements. We performed 10 measurements with maximum probe pressure and 10 with normal pressure in each patient. Thus, two analysis groups were compared for differences. Compared with normal pressure, maximum probe pressure significantly reduced the SCD (p < 0.001) and significantly increased the number of technically successful measurements from 981 to 1098, respectively (p < 0.001). The SWE results with normal and maximum probe pressure were 5.96 kPa (interquartile range: 2.41) and 5.45 kPa (interquartile range: 1.96), respectively (p < 0.001). In obese patients, a large SCD poses a diagnostic challenge for ultrasound SWE. We found that maximum intercostal probe pressure could reduce the SCD and increase the number of technically successful measurements, without falsely increasing the SWE result. Only three measurements were required to achieve technically successful and reliable SWE examinations.

  • Lindh, Magnus
    et al.
    Falster, Daniel S.
    Zhang, Lai
    Dieckmann, Ulf
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Latitudinal effects on crown shape evolution2018Inngår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, nr 16, s. 8149-8158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large variations in crown shape are observed across the globe, from plants with wide and deep crowns to those with leaves clustered at the top. While there have been advances in the large-scale monitoring of forests, little is known about factors driving variations in crown shape with environmental conditions. Previous theoretical research suggests a gradient in crown shape with latitude, due to the effects of sun angle. Yet, it remains unclear whether such changes are also predicted under competition. Using a size-structured forest-growth model that incorporates self-shading from plants and competitive shading from their neighbors, we investigate how changes in site productivity and sun angle shape crown evolution. We consider evolution in two traits describing the top-heaviness and width-to-height ratio of crowns, shaped by trade-offs reflecting the costs and benefits of alternative architectures. In top-heavy trees, most of the leaves are at the top half of the trunk. We show that, contrary to common belief, the angle of sun beams per se has only a weak influence on crown shapes, except at low site productivity. By contrast, reduced site productivity has a strong effect, with trees growing in less productive sites keeping their leaves closer to the ground. The crown width-to-height ratio is generally higher at a lower site productivity, but this trait is not strongly influenced by any environmental factor. This theoretical analysis brings into question established beliefs about the effects of latitude on crown shapes. By introducing geometry-related growth constraints caused by shading from both the surrounding forest and the tree on itself, and costs for constructing and maintaining a three-dimensional crown, our analysis suggests crown shapes may vary with latitude, mostly via effects on overall site productivity, and less because of the angle of the sun.

  • Kowlessur, Sudhirsen
    et al.
    Hu, Zhibin
    Heecharan, Jaysing
    Wang, Jianming
    Dai, Juncheng
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko O.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Zimmet, Paul
    Barengo, Noel C.
    Predictors of hypertension in Mauritians with normotension and prehypertension at baseline: a cohort study2018Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, nr 7, artikkel-id 1394Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information on the predictors of future hypertension in Mauritians with prehypertension is scant. The aim of this study was to analyze the 5-year and 11-year risk of hypertension and its predictors in people with normotension and prehypertension at baseline in Mauritius in 1987. This was a retrospective cohort study of 883 men and 1194 women of Mauritian Indian and Mauritian Creole ethnicity, aged 25-74 years old, free of hypertension at baseline in 1987 with follow-up examinations in 1992 and 1998 using the same methodology. The main outcome was 5- and 11-year risk of hypertension. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The 5-year risk of hypertension was 5.4-times higher in people with prehypertension compared with normotensive individuals at baseline. The corresponding odds for prehypertensive people at baseline regarding 11-year hypertension risk was 3.39 (95% CI 2.67-4.29) in the adjusted logistic regression models. Being of Creole ethnicity (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.09-1.86) increased the 11-year odds of hypertension compared with the Indian population. It is of importance to screen for people with prehypertension and implement strategies to reduce their systolic blood pressure levels to the recommended levels of 120/80 mmHg. Special attention needs to be given to Mauritians of Creole ethnicity.

  • Östlund, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Könskodade jobbannonser,snarare en regel änett undantag: - En studie av jobbannonser i den svenska mediebranschen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har undersökt om jobbannonser i den svenska mediebranschen är könskodade, och i så fall hur denna könskodning kommer till uttryck. Anledningen till att jag valde att studera mediebranschen är för att media är idag en stor del av mångas liv och har stor påverkan på oss och det samhälle vi lever i. Statistik visar på att mediebranschen är, likt den övriga svenska arbetsmarknaden segregerad både horisontellt och vertikalt, kvinnor och män arbetar inom olika områden och männen sitter oftare på ledande positioner. Jämställdhet är bland de största samhällsfrågorna vi har idag, därför är det intressant att undersöka hur en bransch som media arbetar med denna fråga. Tidigare forskning visar på att könskodade jobbannonser är vanligt förekommande vilket i sin tur påverkar vilka kandidater som söker tjänsterna, och har därmed effekt på könsfördelningen inom branscher. Studien består av en diskursanalys av 40 jobbannonser från kvinnodominerande och mansdominerade tjänster. Resultatet från studien visar på att könskodning är vanligt förekommande i jobbannonserna, och att när det kommer till tekniska tjänster är det mer vanligt med kvinnligt könskodade jobbannonser än manligt. Anledningen till detta kan vara att företag strävar efter att jämna ut könsfördelningen inom detta område. Resultatet visade också att vissa könskodade ord används betydligt mer frekvent än andra.