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  • Edlund, Karolina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Does economic freedom affect the growth rate?: Evidence from middle-income countries2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Despite half a century of aid programs, many countries have not shown a sufficient degree of economic development, leaving their population in poverty. The varying level of productivity has contributed to these dissimilarities and many economists argue that the degree of freedom experienced by citizens is the underlying source of differences in productivity, as it influences the freedom to perform economic activity. In this study, I examine the effect economic freedom has on the growth rate in middle-income countries. Liberal economists are arguing that higher degree of freedom surrounding economic activities is fundamental for economic growth. This point of view is largely adopted by a major lender to less developed countries; the IMF. Common conditions for loans provided by the IMF is to decrease the size of government, privatize public companies, and open up the nation to international trade. I my analysis, including 48 middle-income countries, I test whether these variables affect the economic growth though regression analysis during the years of 2000 to 2014. My results show that economic freedom is an important factor for economic growth, but that the components of economic freedom have different effects on the growth rate. Furthermore, the results differ greatly when comparing the richer and the poorer sections of middle-income countries. I find no evidence that the conditions of the IMF is a good model for development, rather that the countries have different characteristics and are affected differently. The legal system and respect for property rights is shown to have a positive effect on growth, as well as regulating the product, capital, and labor market, while high inflation is associated with low economic growth.

  • Saati, Abrak
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Participatory Constitution-Building in Nepal: A Comparison of the 2008-2012 and the 2013-2015 Process2017Inngår i: Journal of Politics and Law, ISSN 1913-9047, E-ISSN 1913-9055, Vol. 10, nr 4, 29-39 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory constitution-building is a trend that appears to be here to stay; particularly when new constitutions are drafted in the aftermath of war or during transitions from authoritarian to democratic rule. Anticipations as to what the involvement of the public will achieve are several, and scholars are only recently starting to systematically investigate whether or not these expectations find empirical support. Previous research has shown that public participation in the making of the constitution can have certain positive effects at an individual level of analysis, but that the actions of political elites during constitutional negotiations might affect outcomes at a macro level of analysis more than what has hitherto be acknowledged in this strand of research. Nepal is one of the most recent cases of participatory constitution-building, and the country carried out not only one, but two, such processes within a time period of only seven years. The first resulted in failure as a draft constitution was never finalized; the other in success with the adoption of a constitution in 2015. This article takes an interest in exploring and comparing these two separate processes as regards the extent of public participation vis-à-vis political elite negotiations and bargaining behind closed doors. The article finds that what primarily sets the two processes apart, is how broad based public participation and secluded elite negotiations were sequenced. In light of other empirical examples, the article also discusses if elite bargains ought to be struck before the general public are invited to participate.

  • Eriksson, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Kontinuitetsmetoden: Metod för kontiunitetsmätning av jordlinor i högspänningsnät2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning                                                          

    Elförsörjningen är en viktig samhällsfunktion, som vid långa eller stora avbrott kan ge omfattande störningar och ekonomiska förluster. Om stamnätet inte fungerar tillfredsställande ger det stora konsekvenser eftersom det är ”hjärtat” i elnätsstrukturen. Det måste därför säkerställas att nätet är pålitligt, stabilt och säkert. Branschens regelverk föreskriver att drift- och underhållskontroller samt besiktningar ska utföras periodiskt och förebyggande. Mätning av jordtag är en kontroll som ska göras för att den är mycket viktigt för funktion och anläggningssäkerhet, men det ingår inte att kontrollera kontinuitet. Om kontinuitet inte finns, så kan anläggningen tappa sin tänkta funktion och det kan bli omfattande störningar. Det finns beskrivet i SS-EN 61936-1 att kontinuitetsmätning ska kunna utföras på anläggningar, men den texten är inte återkommande på något annat sätt i reglering, råd eller anvisningar. Det är alltså varken en vedertagen eller medveten kontroll inom branschen, som därför måste belysas. Kontinuitetsmätningar har utförts på totalt 5 stolpar fördelade på två stycken 400 kV-nät. Instrumentet, CS3 Site Continuity Meter, är ett nytt instrument för den svenska marknaden och mäter i spänningssatta anläggningar. Det är tillverkat i Australien med förutsättningar för det landet, t ex att omgivningstemperatur för mätning ska vara 0-50°C.

    Kontinuitetsmätning borde vara obligatorisk innan idrifttagning av anläggning. Därefter kan kommande mätning jämföras med denna, vilket ger bästa resultatet i att bedöma om kontinuiteten förändrats.Att bestämma kontinuitet utifrån uppmätta värden i jämförelse med teoretiska värden är osäkert, då de teoretiska beräkningarna bygger på antagande av jordlinans längd, material, ledararea och förläggning. För hitta eventuella samband krävs mängdmätningar samt teoretiska beräkningar grundade på dokumenterade uppgifter om jordlinan. Att fastställa om kontinuitet finns eller inte är enklare att avgöra genom att titta på de mätningar som är utförda inom sitt eget mätområde, t ex runt stolpben, mellan stolpben eller mellan stolpar. Om värdena harmoniserar mellan varandra och är under 250 mΩ kan kontinuitet antas finnas trots stora brus och störningar. Standardisering av alla komponenter och dess position på stolpben bör finnas. Det skulle öka kvalité och minska risken för fel vid mätningar och dokumentation i allmänhet och vid utförande med olika entreprenörer i synnerhet. Ändamålsenliga protokoll bör finnas, helst digitaliserade då det också borde leda till ökad kvalité i samband med registrering av data.Ett embryo till protokoll i kalkyleringsprogrammet Excel har påbörjats, utskrift på papper finns i bilagan.Att ta fram och implementera en enkel och personsäker branschmetod för kontinuitetsmätning behöver förgås av bl. a utredning av branschråd och standarder, utveckling av instrument och dokumentation och inte minst att utföra fler mätningar för att hitta tydligare tumregler. Det finns vissa delar rörande metoden som bör standardiseras och fastställas. Det måste dock undersökas ordentligt eftersom reglering också kan hämma utvecklingen inom området.

  • Thomas, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Solcellers påverkan på landsbygdsnät2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Elnätets utformning står mitt i en stor förändring i och med decentraliseringen där allt fler upptäcker fördelarna med att producera egen el. Antalet nätanslutna solceller ökar och detta förväntas även gälla fortsättningsvis. Om solcellsanläggningar som nätansluts har hög effekt eller om elnätet är svagt kan förstärkande åtgärder vara nödvändiga. Detta projekt syftade till att utreda vilka problem solceller kan orsaka på svaga delar av nätet samt åtgärder för att minska problematiken. Projektet klargör även vad som bör beaktas vid dimensionering av elnät nät solceller ansluts.

    För att uppnå syftet inleddes projektet med informationsletande och producerande av en litteraturrapport. Därefter dimensionerades en framtida solcellsanläggning och nätet kring en befintlig anläggning utvärderades. Dimensioneringen och utvärderingen utfördes med hjälp av simuleringar i dpPower. Vid utvärderingen av den befintliga anläggningen genomfördes även en analys av elkvalitetsmätningar samt mätning av förimpedans på två olika lågspänningsnät. Den ekonomiska aspekten analyserades också i form av jämförelse av effektförluster i olika kablar.

    Nätet kring den framtida solcellsanläggningen undersöktes med avseende på spänningsändringar vid inkoppling av solcellsanläggningen och långsamma spänningsändringar. Resultatet från simuleringar visar att en anläggning på 21 kW kan anslutas till nätet utan behov av förstärkning. Enligt grovuppskattningskurvor för nödvändig nätstyrka vid anslutning av mikroproduktion som finns tillgängliga i handboken MIKRO blir resultatet 23 kW.

    Utvärderingen av nätet kring den befintliga solcellsanläggningen innefattade undersökning av spänningsvariationer, mätning och beräkning av förimpedans samt analys av elkvalitetsmätningar. Resultatet visar att den omdimensionering som utfördes i samband med att anläggningen nätanslöts var nödvändig och att nätet förmodligen kommer behöva förstärkas ytterligare med en större transformator om fler solcellsanläggningar ansluts i framtiden. Elkvalitetsmätningarna visar på höga flimmernivåer men det kan dock inte fastställas om dessa härrör från solcellsanläggningen.

    Genom mätning och beräkning av förimpedans drogs slutsatsen att mätinstrumentet påverkas vid mätning i närheten av en solcellsanläggning. De uppmätta värdena i närheten av solcellsanläggningen stämmer inte med de simulerade och beräknade värdena. Nyare versioner av mätinstrumentet finns tillgängliga hos leverantören och bör testas på samma nät för att se om mätvärdena stämmer bättre.

    Vid beräkning av effektförluster jämfördes olika kabelalternativ. Resultatet visar att det ofta lönar sig ekonomiskt att välja en grövre kabel med högre inköpspris och lägre förluster per meter kabel än tvärtom. De minskade förlustkostnaderna mellan en grövre och en klenare kabel är alltså större än skillnaden i inköpspris under kablarnas livslängd.

    Förutom de slutsatser för de specifika anläggningarna som projektet utmynnade i drogs även några mer generella. De vanligaste problemen som uppstår vid anslutning av solceller på nätets svaga delar är elkvalitetsproblem, oftast i form av spänningsvariationer. För att minska problematiken kan nätet behöva förstärkas, exempelvis i form av kabeldimensionering. Då bör spänningsändringar vid in- och urkoppling av solcellsanläggningen, långsamma spänningsändringar, effektförluster och möjlig utbyggnation av området beaktas.

  • Bergvik, David
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Designing experiences for virtual reality, in virtual reality: A design process evaluation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Creating immersive experiences for virtual reality (VR) presents new design opportunities and challenges that do not appear when creating experiences on a screen. Creating prototypes and exploring concepts in VR is today limited to professionals with previous knowledge in 3D application development, and testing 3D experiences requires the usage of an Head-Mounted Display (HMD), which forces professionals to switch medium from the computer to an HMD. With new advances in this field, there have to be new solutions to these challenges. The goal of this thesis is to explore how VR technology can be utilized in the experience design process for VR. This is achieved through a literature study and conducting expert interviews, followed by a hardware evaluation of different HMDs and concept creation using rapid prototyping. From the interviews, a number of issues could be identified that correlates with the research from the literature study. Based on these findings, two phases were identified as suitable for further improvements; Concept prototyping and testing/tweaking of a created experience. Lo-fi and hi-fi prototypes of a virtual design tool were developed for HTC Vive and Google Daydream, which were selected based on the hardware evaluation. The prototypes are designed and developed, then tested using a Wizard of Oz approach. The purpose of the prototypes is to solve some of the issues when designing immersive experiences for HMDs in the suitable experience design phases that were identified by analyzing the interview results. An interactive testing suite for HTC Vive was developed for testing and evaluation of the final prototype, to verify the validity of the concept. Using Virtual Reality as a medium for designing virtual experiences is a promising way of solving current issues within this technological field that are identified in this thesis. Tools for object creation and manipulation will aid professionals when exploring new concepts as well as editing and testing existing immersive experiences. Furthermore, using a Wizard of Oz approach to test VR prototypes significantly improves the prototype quality without compromising the user experience in this medium. 

  • Alekzandra, Granath
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Filmskapande för nybörjare - steg för steg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about film making, wich parts that are included in film making and things that is good to think of when doing film for the first time. A short movie has been created and from this, this study has been done to figure out if the theory is like the reality. Also the report is based om the book ”How to get started in film making” by Tom Holden and interviews with people working with film.

  • Andersson, Rasmus
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Hur maskulin är Donald Trump?: En jämförande diskursanalys av hur Donald Trumps maskulinitet(er) framställs på The New York Times, The Guardian & Aftonbladets hemsidor2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Title: How masculine is Donald Trump? – A comparative discourse analysis of how Donald Trumps masculinities are portrayed on The New York Times, The Guardian & Aftonbladets webpages

    The aim of this essay is to compare how Donald Trumps masculinities are portrayed in the news reporting by The New York Times, The Guardian and Aftonbladets webpages. The time period of the study capture Donald Trump before he was elected as president, after the election and then as the position as incumbent president to grasp one more dimension of his masculine identity throw different time periods and capture his subject position in the news reporting.

    The method that is used to examine this issue is Laclau and Mouffes discourse theory that work as a combination of discourse analysis as a method of analyzing the news text and locate different discourses. As well as in combination with theories about masculinities and previous studies about former presidents, macho culture and hegemonic masculinities.

    The result show Donald Trump with different masculine identities through both time and media channel. Donald Trump has first been seen as a masculine joke, a stunt like one of the Jackass-gang would pull in the TV-series. A man that is not afraid to take the challenge and run for president even if the odds are well against him, he represent a masculine crisis.

    Later on he take the form of a business man that hopefully will ”not” run USA like his worldwide affairs, fast and unpredictable. The latest chapter portray Donald Trump as a fearless president that do whatever he want in policy making and the media is afraid of what will happen to the world order. From a former identity of a ”business rockstar” that does what he wants with females and worldwide affairs to become one of the most fearsome manly leader of the western civilication. Alongside with the theory of masculinities Donald Trump try to defend the hegemonic masculinity of politics and business leders by playing on a possible ”mancard” like Ronald Reagan back in the 80 ́s, by reaching out to the industry workers that mostly are men and defending there chances of labour – when the society evolved form industrial to a more service economic society with women competing alongside men about workplace.

    The slogan ”America First” would rather be ”Masculinity First”, ”Make America Masculine Again” would be the text on the caps 

  • Pohjanen, Alexander
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Energibalans och inomhusklimat i ett parkeringshus under jord med behovsstyrd ventilation2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är gjort hos VVS-konsulterna Skellefteå AB. Det behandlar projektering av ett parkeringshus med hänsyn till värme och ventilation och en jämförelse av ventilationssystem på ett parkeringshus som är planerad att stå klar 2019. Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka hur man projekterar ett parkeringshus ventilation och om det går att spara energi och utgifter genom att använda sig av behovsstyrd ventilation istället för konstant ventilation. Eftersom det är dyrare att investera i behovsstyrd ventilation kommer det också undersöka återbetalningstiden för den investeringen. För att göra undersökningarna har programmet IDA ICE använts för att rita upp en modell av byggnaden och simulera dess energianvändning för att senare jämföra resultaten och se skillnaderna mellan de olika ventilationssystemen. Ett förslag har framtagits på hur ventilationen kan dras och hur fläktluftvärmare ska installeras och hur rören ska dras. Resultatet från simuleringarna gav den totala energiförbrukningen minskade med 705 000 kWh/ med behovsstyrd ventilation jämfört med konstant ventilation. Fläktens energianvändning minskade med 75% och uppvärmningsenergin minskade med 72%. Investeringen för behovsstyrd ventilation jämfört med konstantflödes ventilation är 600 000 kr dyrare och får utifrån beräkningarna i detta arbete en återbetalningstid på 1 år. Livslängden på ventilationssystemet antas vara 25–30 år.

  • Disputas: 2017-10-10 10:30 N320, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå
    Khan, Muhammad Sikandar Lal
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Presence through actions: theories, concepts, and implementations2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During face-to-face meetings, humans use multimodal information, including verbal information, visual information, body language, facial expressions, and other non-verbal gestures. In contrast, during computer-mediated-communication (CMC), humans rely either on mono-modal information such as text-only, voice-only, or video-only or on bi-modal information by using audiovisual modalities such as video teleconferencing. Psychologically, the difference between the two lies in the level of the subjective experience of presence, where people perceive a reduced feeling of presence in the case of CMC. Despite the current advancements in CMC, it is still far from face-to-face communication, especially in terms of the experience of presence.

    This thesis aims to introduce new concepts, theories, and technologies for presence design where the core is actions for creating presence. Thus, the contribution of the thesis can be divided into a technical contribution and a knowledge contribution. Technically, this thesis details novel technologies for improving presence experience during mediated communication (video teleconferencing). The proposed technologies include action robots (including a telepresence mechatronic robot (TEBoT) and a face robot), embodied control techniques (head orientation modeling and virtual reality headset based collaboration), and face reconstruction/retrieval algorithms. The introduced technologies enable action possibilities and embodied interactions that improve the presence experience between the distantly located participants. The novel setups were put into real experimental scenarios, and the well-known social, spatial, and gaze related problems were analyzed.

    The developed technologies and the results of the experiments led to the knowledge contribution of this thesis. In terms of knowledge contribution, this thesis presents a more general theoretical conceptual framework for mediated communication technologies. This conceptual framework can guide telepresence researchers toward the development of appropriate technologies for mediated communication applications. Furthermore, this thesis also presents a novel strong concept – presence through actions - that brings in philosophical understandings for developing presence- related technologies. The strong concept - presence through actions is an intermediate-level knowledge that proposes a new way of creating and developing future 'presence artifacts'. Presence- through actions is an action-oriented phenomenological approach to presence that differs from traditional immersive presence approaches that are based (implicitly) on rationalist, internalist views.

  • Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Nilsson, Hans
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Schillings, Audrey
    Quantification of the total ion transport in the near-Earth plasma sheet2017Inngår i: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 35, nr 4, 869-877 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies strongly suggest that a majority of the observed O+ cusp outflows will eventually escape into the solar wind, rather than be transported to the plasma sheet. Therefore, an investigation of plasma sheet flows will add to these studies and give a more complete picture of magnetospheric ion dynamics. Specifically, it will provide a greater understanding of atmospheric loss. We have used Cluster spacecraft 4 to quantify the H+ and O+ total transports in the near-Earth plasma sheet, using data covering 2001-2005. The results show that both H+ and O+ have earthward net fluxes of the orders of 1026 and 1024 s(-1), respectively. The O+ plasma sheet return flux is 1 order of magnitude smaller than the O+ outflows observed in the cusps, strengthening the view that most ionospheric O+ outflows do escape. The H+ return flux is approximately the same as the ionospheric outflow, suggesting a stable budget of H+ in the magnetosphere. However, low-energy H+, not detectable by the ion spectrometer, is not considered in our study, leaving the complete magnetospheric H+ circulation an open question. Studying tailward flows separately reveals a total tailward O+ flux of about 0 : 5 x w10(25)s(-1), which can be considered as a lower limit of the nightside auroral region O+ outflow. Lower velocity flows (< 100 km s(-1)) contribute most to the total transports, whereas the high-velocity flows contribute very little, suggesting that bursty bulk flows are not dominant in plasma sheet mass transport.

  • Norris, Shane A.
    et al.
    Daar, Abdallah
    Balasubramanian, Dorairajan
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin. Stellenbosch Univ, Wallenberg Res Ctr, Stellenbosch Inst Adv Study STIAS, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth
    Macnab, Andrew
    Pauw, Christoff
    Singhal, Atul
    Yajnik, Chittaranjan
    Akazili, James
    Levitt, Naomi
    Maatoug, Jihene
    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi
    Moore, Sophie E.
    Nyirenda, Moffat
    Pulliam, Juliet R. C.
    Rochat, Tamsen
    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat
    Seedat, Soraya
    Sobngwi, Eugene
    Tomlinson, Mark
    Toska, Elona
    van Schalkwyk, Cari
    Understanding and acting on the developmental origins of health and disease in Africa would improve health across generations2017Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, nr 1, 1334985Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from many high- and low- or middle-income countries have linked exposures during key developmental periods (in particular pregnancy and infancy) to later health and disease. Africa faces substantial challenges with persisting infectious disease and now burgeoning non-communicable disease. This paper opens the debate to the value of strengthening the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) research focus in Africa to tackle critical public health challenges across the life-course. We argue that the application of DOHaD science in Africa to advance life-course prevention programmes can aid the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, and assist in improving health across generations. To increase DOHaD research and its application in Africa, we need to mobilise multisectoral partners, utilise existing data and expertise on the continent, and foster a new generation of young African scientists engrossed in DOHaD.

  • Palmgren, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Hyperkonvergerad lösning med Storage spaces direct, för och nackdelar2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar frågor angående Storage Spaces Direct i Windows 2016:s server. Den tar upp hur man installerar en hyperkonvergerad lösning samt vilka konfigureringar som krävs för att kunna sätta upp funktionen. Två olika frågeställningar uppkom i början av projektet, dessa var: ”hur bra är Storage Spaces Direct?” samt ”går det att implementera funktionen på ett företag idag?”. Utförandet av projektet gjordes i ett samarbete med ett konsultföretag som heter TeamNorr och med deras hårdvara. Storage Spaces Direct är en funktion som fungerar bra och smidigt. Detta om man har rätt information, har nog med kunskap om funktionen samt gör ett grundligt och detaljerat förarbete. Två olika installationer av servrar jämförs, den ena är via desktop experience där man tar hjälp av Windows GUI och det andra är via en Powershellterminal. Båda kan användas vid installation av Storage Spaces Direct. Dessa två olika servrar har olika för- och nackdelar. Jag kom fram till att när man använder Powershell för att installera servrar och tillägg var det överlägset bäst och säkrast. Slutresultatet blev som förväntat. Storage Spaces Direct är det bästa sättet att spara information och köra redundans som finns i dagsläget. Storage Spaces Direct är både enklare använda och att underhålla samt mer kostnadseffektivt för företag.

  • Fredriksson, Mio
    et al.
    Eriksson, Max
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Tritter, Jonathan
    Who wants to be involved in health care decisions?: Comparing preferences for individual and collective involvement in England and Sweden2017Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, 18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patient and public involvement (PPI) is framed as positive for individuals, the health system, public health, as well as for communities and society as a whole. We investigated whether preferences for PPI differed between two countries with Beveridge type health systems-Sweden and England. We measured willingness to be involved in individual treatment decisions and in decisions about the organization and provision of local health and social care services. Methods: This was a comparative cross-sectional study of the general population's preferences. Together, the two samples included 3125 respondents; 1625 in England and 1500 in Sweden. Country differences were analysed in a multinomial regression model controlling for gender, age and educational attainment. Results: Overall, 68% of respondents wanted a passive patient role and 44% wanted to be involved in local decisions about organization and provision of services. In comparison with in Sweden, they were in England less likely to want a health professional such as a GP or consultant to make decisions about their treatment and also more likely to want to make their own decisions. They were also less likely to want to be involved in local service development decisions. An increased likelihood of wanting to be involved in organizational decision-making was associated with individuals wanting to make their own treatment decisions. Women were less likely to want health professionals to make decisions and more likely to want to be involved in organizational decisions. Conclusions: An effective health system that ensures public health must integrate an effective approach to PPI both in individual treatment decisions and shaping local health and social care priorities. To be effective, involvement activities must take in to account the variation in the desire for involvement and the implications that this has for equity. More work is needed to understand the relationship between the desire to be involved and actually being involved, but both appear related to judgements of the impact of involvement on health care decisions.

  • Koller-Smith, Louise I. M.
    et al.
    Shahr, Prakesh S.
    Ye, Xiang Y.
    Sjoers, Gunnar
    Wang, Yueping A.
    Chow, Sharon S. W.
    Darlow, Brian A.
    Lee, Shoo K.
    Håkansson, Stellan
    Umeå universitet.
    Lui, Kei
    Comparing very low birth weight versus very low gestation cohort methods for outcome analysis of high risk preterm infants2017Inngår i: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 17, 166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Compared to very low gestational age (<32 weeks, VLGA) cohorts, very low birth weight (<1500 g; VLBW) cohorts are more prone to selection bias toward small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants, which may impact upon the validity of data for benchmarking purposes. Method: Data from all VLGA or VLBW infants admitted in the 3 Networks between 2008 and 2011 were used. Two-thirds of each network cohort was randomly selected to develop prediction models for mortality and composite adverse outcome (CAO: mortality or cerebral injuries, chronic lung disease, severe retinopathy or necrotizing enterocolitis) and the remaining for internal validation. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) of themodels were compared. Results: VLBW cohort (24,335 infants) had twice more SGA infants (20.4% vs. 9.3%) than the VLGA cohort (29,180 infants) and had a higher rate of CAO (36.5% vs. 32.6%). The two models had equal prediction power for mortality and CAO (AUC 0.83), and similarly for all other cross-cohort validations (AUC 0.81-0.85). Neither model performed well for the extremes of birth weight for gestation (<1500 g and >= 32 weeks, AUC 0.50-0.65; >= 1500 g and >= 32 weeks, AUC 0.60-0.62). Conclusion: There was no difference in prediction power for adverse outcome between cohorting VLGA or VLBW despite substantial bias in SGA population. Either cohorting practises are suitable for international benchmarking.

  • Wettström, Rune
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Kan vi tro på kvalia?: En granskning av Amy Kinds underkännande av transparenstesen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsatsen granskar Amy Kinds argument för kvaliarealism. I artikeln från 2008, ”How to Believe in Qualia”, hävdar hon att transparenstesen utgör ett hot mot kvaliarealism. En stor del av min uppsats handlar därför om att undersöka hennes avfärdande av transparenstesen. Uppsatsen ger henne ett visst, men inte fullt, stöd i detta och följaktligen också ett visst stöd för kvaliarealism. Samtidigt visar uppsatsen på andra argument gentemot transparenstesen, som också utgör ett hot mot kvaliarealism.

  • Hjälmarö, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Om det existerar objektiva värden, har objektivismen då löst frågan om livets mening?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I intend to presuppose the existence of objective value and investigate the problems that the objective view faces further ahead, in its effort to answer the question of life’s meaning. Objectivism claims that in order for a life to be meaningful, one must engage in some way with values that are objective, values that exists independent of the subject. The aim here is to show that even with the existence of objective values the objective view hasn’t yet finally answered the question. In order for the objectivistic answer to be relevant for us we need to know what it is that has objective value and thereto, that this is a meaning-giving value. In addition, we either need to find internal reasons to engage in it, otherwise objectivism need to, besides assuming the existence of objective value, also assume the existence of external reasons.

  • Disputas: 2017-09-08 09:00 KB.E3.03 (stora hörsalen), KBC-huset, Umeå
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Design strategies for new drugs targeting multicomponent systems: focusing on class II MHC proteins and acetylcholinesterase2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving. Aided by advances within techniques as well as knowledge of biological systems, increasingly complex targets and drugs can be considered. This thesis includes two projects focusing on the design of drugs targeting multicomponent systems, referring to systems for which multiple components must be considered during the drug design process.

    In the first project, the long-term goal is to develop a vaccine against the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The cause of RA is unknown, but it is genetically linked to expression of class II MHC proteins that present antigens to T-cell receptors (TCRs), responsible for initiating an immune response. A glycopeptide fragment, CII259–273, from type II collagen has shown promising results as a vaccine against arthritis resembling RA in mice. CII259–273 binds to the class II MHC protein followed by presentation to the TCR, forming a multicomponent system.

    We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect that modifications of CII259–273 have on the multicomponent system. Non-native amino acids and amide bond isosteres have been introduced. This has demonstrated the importance of retaining the backbone conformation of CII259–273, as well as the hydrogen bonds formed to the backbone. The ability to introduce such modifications would be of value to affect the potency towards the MHC protein, and prevent degradation of the glycopeptide. The studies have revealed a multicomponent system that is highly sensitive to even small modifications that can affect the dynamics of the entire complex.

    In the second project, the long-term goal is to develop a broad-spectrum antidote against nerve agents. Nerve agents are extremely toxic compounds that act by covalently inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is essential for termination of nerve signalling. A major limitation of current antidotes is that their efficiency is dependent on the type of nerve agent. A broad-spectrum antidote must be able to bind to the multicomponent system consisting of AChE covalently inhibited by different nerve agents. It will then act by performing a nucleophilic attack on the nerve agent adduct, thus breaking the covalent bond to AChE.

    We have used statistical molecular design (SMD) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling to identify a fragment with a potency for AChE inhibited by different nerve agents. A nucleophilic component able to restore the enzyme to the active form was thereafter introduced. This resulted in a functional reactivator, efficient for multiple nerve agents. Furthermore, the mechanism of reactivation has been investigated through structural studies, enabled by a combination of X-ray crystallography and molecular modelling. A high flexibility of the reactivator, as well as the ability to bind to AChE in multiple conformations, are defined as important properties for a broad-spectrum antidote.

  • Disputas: 2017-09-08 10:00 Föreläsningssal 5, Falun
    Borg, Farhana
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Caring for people and the planet: preschool children’s knowledge and practices of sustainability2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Children across the globe today are continuously being exposed to and affected by various kinds of real-world complexities and challenges; however, research on their knowledge and practices in terms of sustainability is limited, in particular with regards to how preschool- and home-related factors are associated with their learning for sustainability. Since 1998, different types of eco-certification have been awarded by the Swedish National Agency for Education and Keep Sweden Tidy Foundation to promote education for sustainability (EfS) in all areas of education and learning. Despite certificates having been granted in Sweden since 1998, no studies have been conducted at the national level to investigate whether eco-certification has any role to play in children’s learning for environmental and sustainability issues. This knowledge is important to develop pedagogical activities to engage young children meaningfully in learning for sustainability at preschool. This study was undertaken so as to address this research gap in a Swedish context.

    The overall aim of this study was to enhance the existing knowledge about preschool children’s learning for sustainability in Sweden. The objectives of this study have been to investigate and compare the knowledge and self-reported practices of sustainability among children attending eco-certified and non-eco-certified preschools, respectively, and to explore the extent to which preschool- and home-related factors are associated with children’s knowledge and practices of sustainability. Further, this study explored children’s perceived sources of such knowledge. The term ‘knowledge’ in this text refers to the descriptions of children’s ideas and thoughts. Similarly, eco-certified preschool refers to a school that work explicitly with EfS.

    The study was designed from a "child’s perspective": this means that it was designed by adults to understand children’s perceptions and actions. Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory and Bruner’s (1961) iconic (image-based) modes of representation were applied in various stages of the study. A conceptual framework was developed within the three-interlocking-circles model of sustainability that illustrates how environmental, social and economic dimensions are interconnected. The concept of sustainability was operationalized in four themes: economic equality, resource sharing, recycling and transport use.

    With the use of illustrations and semi-structured questions, final-year preschool children (n=53), aged five to six years, and the directors (n=7) at six eco-certified and six non-eco-certified preschools were interviewed, while guardians (n=89) and teachers (n=74) filled out questionnaires. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed using content analysis and Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), respectively. The quality and complexity of children’s responses were assessed and classified using the SOLO Taxonomy (Biggs & Collis, 1982).

    The results showed that by the time the children completed preschool, many had acquired some knowledge about how to use money, about the sorting of different recyclable items at home and at preschool, and about the impact of different modes of transport on the environment and people’s lives. They also had ideas about the lives of other children in the world and what it can mean to share resources with other people. There was a positive relationship between children’s declarative (understanding) and functional (practice) knowledge of sustainability issues and the involvement of teachers and guardians in sustainability-related discussions and activities. No statistically significant differences between eco-certified and non-eco-certified preschools in terms of children’s declarative and functional knowledge were found. Parents were reported to be the main sources of children’s knowledge along with the children themselves, teachers and media.

    The findings offer support for integrating environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainability into the daily pedagogical activities of preschools and for giving children opportunities to participate in discussions and practical activities that concern their lives. Further studies are needed to investigate the extent to which different educational activities contribute to developing children’s understanding and behavior when it comes to a sustainable society.

  • Disputas: 2017-09-01 09:00 Sal 135, byggnad 9 A, Allmänmedicin, Umeå
    Muindi, Kanyiva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Air pollution in Nairobi slums: sources, levels and lay perceptions2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Air quality in Africa has remained a relatively under-researched field. Most of the African population is dependent on biomass for cooking and heating, with most of the combustion happening in low efficiency stoves in unvented kitchens. The resulting high emissions are compounded by ingress from poor outdoor air in a context of poor emissions controls. The situation is dire in slum households where homes are crowded and space is limited, pushing households to cook in the same room that is used for sleeping. This study assessed the levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter £ 2.5 microns (PM2.5) in slum households and people's perceptions of and attitudes towards air pollution and health risks of exposure in two slum areas, Viwandani and Korogocho, in the Nairobi city.

    Methods

    The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods. For the quantitative study, we used structured questionnaires to collect data about the source of air pollution among adults aged 18 years and above and pregnant women residing in the two study communities. We used the DustTrak™ air samplers to monitor the indoor PM2.5 levels in selected households. We also collected data on community perceptions on air pollution, annoyance and associated health risks. We presented hotspot maps to portray the spatial distribution of perceptions on air pollution in the study areas. For the qualitative study, we conducted focus group discussions with adult community members. Groups were disaggregated by age to account for different languages used to communicate with the younger and older people. We analysed the qualitative data using thematic analysis.

    Results

    Household levels of PM2.5 varied widely across households and ranged from 1 to 12,369μg/m3 (SD=287.11). The household levels of PM2.5 levels were likely to exceed the WHO guidelines given the high levels observed in less than 24 hours of monitoring periods (on average 10.4 hours in Viwandani and 11.8 hours in Korogocho). Most of the respondents did not use ventilation use in the evening which coincided with the use of cookstove and lamp, mostly burning kerosene. The levels of PM2.5 varied by the type of fuels, with the highest emissions in households using kerosene for cooking and lighting. The PM2.5 levels spiked in the evenings and during periods of cooking using charcoal/wood. Despite these high levels, residents perceived indoor air to be less polluted compared with the outdoor air, possibly due to the presence of large sources of emissions near the communities such as dumpsites and industries. The community had mixed perceptions on the health impacts of air pollution, with respiratory illnesses perceived as the main consequence while vector or sanitation related diseases such as diarrhoea was also perceived to be related to air pollution.

    Conclusions

    With poor housing and reliance on dirty fuels, households in slums face potentially high levels of exposure to PM2.5 with dire implications on health. To address the poor perception on air pollution and knowledge gaps on the health effects of air pollution, education programs need to be developed and tailored. These programs should aim to provide residents with information on air quality and its impact on the health; what they can do as communities as well as empower them to reach out to government/stakeholders for action on outdoor sources of pollution such as emissions from dumpsites or industries. The government has a larger role in addressing some of the key pollution sources through policy formulation and strong implementation/enforcement.

  • Kristoffer, Johansson
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Utveckling av insticksprogram för DigiSign2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    DigiSign är en webbapplikation skapad av företaget Omegapoint som används för att styra så kallade ”Digital Signage” skärmar och hantera innehållet skärmarna ska visa. Applikationen saknar en funktion för att kunna skapa egna mallar. Målet med detta projekt är att utveckla ett insticksprogram för DigiSign där det är möjligt att skapa egna mallar som underlättar användningen av DigiSign för kunderna.

    Denna rapport beskriver utvecklingen av insticksprogrammet samt hur integrering med DigiSign applikationen gått till. Insticksprogrammet som konstruerats är skapat med Microsoft ASP.NET Web forms och JavaScript.

    Arbetet under detta projekt har varit uppdelat i tre olika faser, förstudie, utveckling av användargränssnitt och integrering av insticksprogrammet i DigiSign. I förstudien så undersöktes det vilka tekniker som kunde tänkas att användas, hur konkurrerande produkter fungerade samt planering av projektet genomfördes. När valet av teknik bestämts så gjordes det en instudering av de tekniker där erfarenhet saknades. Efter en diskussion med företaget där parterna kommit överens om vilka krav och funktioner insticksprogrammet skulle innefatta gjorts så påbörjades utvecklingen av insticksprogrammet. Resultatet av projektet blev ett insticksprogram som underlättar för kunderna genom att de själva kan skapa mallar för sina bildspel.

  • Wikström, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Knowledge Transfer between User Interfaces: Exploring mental model influence in learning new UI - A case study at Skatteverket.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of mental models has long been studied in both cognitive science and HCI, yet their impact in knowledge transfer between user interfaces are not as commonly studied. Rarely are practical examples of this phenomenon studied from an academic perspective. Using a real world example, Skatteverket’s (Swedish tax authorities) information system Basregister, this case study seeks to explore the role of mental models in knowledge transfer between user interfaces.

    Method of investigation entailed utilizing two design iterations, three interview phases, and five participants employed at Skatteverket. This study investigated if, and how much design elements from well-known external- and the original- system impact the acquisition of new mental models for the newly produced user interface designs. Main results conclude that both external and internal design elements may be to tremendous benefit when the goal is to design with maximum knowledge transfer, as to reduce cognitive load on the user. However, that such implementations should be carefully instigated when designing new UI, and always from a user-centric approach.

  • Tärnholm, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wallén, Josefin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Mellanchefers intention att stanna kvar på sin tjänst inom privat omsorg: betydelsen av psykosocial arbetsmiljö2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning visar att den psykosociala arbetsmiljön har betydelse för anställdas hälsa och att olika arbetsmiljöfaktorer kan ha betydelse för viljan att stanna kvar på arbetet. Chefers arbetssituation skiljer sig från andra anställdas och kunskapen inom området är fortfarande begränsad. Syftet med studien var att undersöka den psykosociala arbetsmiljön för verksamhetschefer inom ett privat omsorgsföretag samt eventuella samband mellan arbetsmiljöfaktorer och intention att stanna kvar på aktuell chefsposition. En webbenkät mailades till 146 verksamhetschefer inom ett privat omsorgsföretag, varav 87 besvarade enkäten. Enkäten innehöll bakgrundsfrågor, frågor om psykosocial arbetsmiljö ur QPS-Nordic samt en fråga om intention att säga upp sig. Verksamhetschefernas skattningar av sin psykosociala arbetsmiljö jämfördes med nordiska referensdata från QPS-Nordics manual (Dallner et al., 2000). Oberoende t-test visade att deltagarna skattade högre avseende beslutskrav, rollkonflikt, stöd från chef, kontroll samt engagemang i organisationen i jämförelse med tidigare insamlade referensdata. Stöd från chef och rollkonflikt var enligt hierarkisk regressionsanalys de arbetsmiljöfaktorer som hade betydelse för verksamhetschefernas intention att säga upp sig, med kontroll för antal anställda. Lägre stöd från chef respektive högre skattad rollkonflikt predicerade intention att säga upp sig. Det blir därmed viktigt att som organisation arbeta för att minimera risken för uppkomst av rollkonflikter samt främja socialt stöd och då främst stöd från chef. 

  • Jansson, Emil
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    SharePoint Online: Arbeta bland molnen2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är det allt fler företag som väljer molnlösningar framför ”on premise lösningar” därför det för många företag blir mer lönsamt än en traditionell lösning för IT-infrastrukturen. SharePoint Online (SPO) tillsammans med Microsoft Office 365 är ett sådant verktyg. Rapporten behandlar uppbyggnaden av en webbplattformslösning för det fiktiva företaget K800, SPO valdes eftersom SPO är en kollaborativ webbplattform med många olika användningsområden och funktioner som hjälper företag att samarbeta online. SPO har ett enkelt sätt att administrera konton och användare, man får gott om lagringsutrymme som kan utökas. Uppdateringarna sker per automatik och utan att en administratör behöver göra en fysisk insats. De anställda har också en accesspunkt oavsett var de befinner sig oberoende av vilken enhet de använder sig av, och företaget betalar bara för de licenser man använder sig av. I SPO så byggdes en gemensam webbplats upp för internt bruk där användarna kan använda sig av sidor och funktioner beroende på den behörighetsnivå de blivit tilldelade. SPO kan kännas svårt till en början, men tack vare all material på Internet så går det att lära sig själv. Det uppstod några problem och svårigheter på vägen men tack vare Microsofts många Supportteam och andra nämnda så kunde felen avhjälpas och det var möjligt att leverera en färdigutvecklad webbplattform till K800.

  • Söderlund, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Objectivity and realms of explanation in academic journal articles concerning sex/gender: a comparison of Gender studies and the other social sciences2017Inngår i: The Scientist (Philadelphia, Pa.), ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 112, nr 2, 1093-1109 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender studies (GS) has been challenged on epistemological grounds. Here, we compare samples of peer-reviewed academic journal publications written by GS authors and authors from closely related disciplines in the social sciences. The material consisted of 2805 statements from 36 peer-reviewed journal articles, sampled from the Swedish Gender Studies List, which covers > 12,000 publications. Each statement was coded as expressing a lack of any of three aspects of objectivity: Bias, Normativity, or Political activism, or as considering any of four realms of explanation for the behaviours or phenomena under study: Biology/genetics, Individual/group differences, Environment/culture, or Societal institutions. Statements in GS publications did to a greater extent express bias and normativity, but not political activism. They did also to a greater extent consider cultural, environmental, social, and societal realms of explanation, and to a lesser extent biological and individual differences explanations.

  • Fortner, Renee T.
    et al.
    Tolockiene, Egle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Schock, Helena
    Oda, Husam
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Lakso, Hans-Åke
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Toniolo, Paolo
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Early pregnancy sex steroids during primiparous pregnancies and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study in the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort2017Inngår i: Breast Cancer Research, ISSN 1465-5411, E-ISSN 1465-542X, Vol. 19, 82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pregnancy and parity are associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest a role for pregnancy sex steroid hormones.

    Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study in the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (1975–2007). Eligible women had provided a blood sample in the first 20 weeks of gestation during a primiparous pregnancy leading to a term delivery. The current study includes 223 cases and 417 matched controls (matching factors: age at and date of blood collection). Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status was available for all cases; androgen receptor (AR) data were available for 41% of cases (n = 92). Sex steroids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression.

    Results: Higher concentrations of circulating progesterone in early pregnancy were inversely associated with ER+/PR+ breast cancer risk (ORlog2: 0.64 (0.41–1.00)). Higher testosterone was positively associated with ER+/PR+ disease risk (ORlog2: 1.57 (1.13–2.18)). Early pregnancy estrogens were not associated with risk, except for relatively high estradiol in the context of low progesterone (split at median, relative to low concentrations of both; OR: 1.87 (1.11–3.16)). None of the investigated hormones were associated with ER–/PR– disease, or with AR+ or AR+/ER+/PR+ disease.

    Conclusions: Consistent with experimental models, high progesterone in early pregnancy was associated with lower risk of ER+/PR+ breast cancer in the mother. High circulating testosterone in early pregnancy, which likely reflects nonpregnant premenopausal exposure, was associated with higher risk of ER+/PR+ disease.

  • Nilsson, Tohr
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hand-arm vibration and the risk of vascular and neurological diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 7, e0180795Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Increased occurrence of Raynaud's phenomenon, neurosensory injury and carpal tunnel syndrome has been reported for more than 100 years in association with work with vibrating machines. The current risk prediction modelling (ISO-5349) for "Raynaud's phenomenon" is based on a few studies published 70 to 40 years ago. There are no corresponding risk prediction models for neurosensory injury or carpal tunnel syndrome, nor any systematic reviews comprising a statistical synthesis (meta-analysis) of the evidence. Objectives Our aim was to provide a systematic review of the literature on the association between Raynaud's phenomenon, neurosensory injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure. Moreover the aim was to estimate the magnitude of such an association using meta-analysis. Methods This systematic review covers the scientific literature up to January 2016. The databases used for the literature search were PubMed and Science Direct. We found a total of 4,335 abstracts, which were read and whose validity was assessed according to pre-established criteria. 294 articles were examined in their entirety to determine whether each article met the inclusion criteria. The possible risk of bias was assessed for each article. 52 articles finally met the pre-established criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. Results The results show that workers who are exposed to HAV have an increased risk of vascular and neurological diseases compared to non-vibration exposed groups. The crude estimate of the risk increase is approximately 4-5 fold. The estimated effect size (odds ratio) is 6.9 for the studies of Raynaud's phenomenon when including only the studies judged to have a low risk of bias. The corresponding risk of neurosensory injury is 7.4 and the equivalent of carpal tunnel syndrome is 2.9. Conclusion At equal exposures, neurosensory injury occurs with a 3-time factor shorter latency than Raynaud's phenomenon. Which is why preventive measures should address this vibration health hazard with greater attention.

  • Eriksson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Saliva and tooth biofilm bacterial microbiota in adolescents in a low caries community2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 5861Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The oral cavity harbours a complex microbiome that is linked to dental diseases and serves as a route to other parts of the body. Here, the aims were to characterize the oral microbiota by deep sequencing in a low-caries population with regular dental care since childhood and search for association with caries prevalence and incidence. Saliva and tooth biofilm from 17-year-olds and mock bacteria communities were analysed using 16S rDNA Illumina MiSeq (v3-v4) and PacBio SMRT (v1-v8) sequencing including validity and reliability estimates. Caries was scored at 17 and 19 years of age. Both sequencing platforms revealed that Firmicutes dominated in the saliva, whereas Firmicutes and Actinobacteria abundances were similar in tooth biofilm. Saliva microbiota discriminated caries-affected from caries-free adolescents, with enumeration of Scardovia wiggsiae, Streptococcus mutans, Bifidobacterium longum, Leptotrichia sp. HOT498, and Selenomonas spp. in caries-affected participants. Adolescents with B. longum in saliva had significantly higher 2-year caries increment. PacBio SMRT revealed Corynebacterium matruchotii as the most prevalent species in tooth biofilm. In conclusion, both sequencing methods were reliable and valid for oral samples, and saliva microbiota was associated with cross-sectional caries prevalence, especially S. wiggsiae, S. mutans, and B. longum; the latter also with the 2-year caries incidence.

  • Winbo, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik. Department of Physiology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Stattin, Eva-Lena
    Westin, Ida Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Norberg, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Persson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Jensen, Steen M.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Rydberg, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Sex is a moderator of the association between NOS1AP sequence variants and QTc in two long QT syndrome founder populations: a pedigree-based measured genotype association analysis2017Inngår i: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 18, 74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sequence variants in the NOS1AP gene have repeatedly been reported to influence QTc, albeit with moderate effect sizes. In the long QT syndrome (LQTS), this may contribute to the substantial QTc variance seen among carriers of identical pathogenic sequence variants. Here we assess three non-coding NOS1APsequence variants, chosen for their previously reported strong association with QTc in normal and LQTS populations, for association with QTc in two Swedish LQT1 founder populations.

    Methods: This study included 312 individuals (58% females) from two LQT1 founder populations, whereof 227 genotype positive segregating either Y111C (n = 148) or R518* (n = 79) pathogenic sequence variants in the KCNQ1 gene, and 85 genotype negatives. All were genotyped for NOS1AP sequence variants rs12143842, rs16847548 and rs4657139, and tested for association with QTc length (effect size presented as mean difference between derived and wildtype, in ms), using a pedigree-based measured genotype association analysis. Mean QTc was obtained by repeated manual measurement (preferably in lead II) by one observer using coded 50 mm/s standard 12-lead ECGs.

    Results: A substantial variance in mean QTc was seen in genotype positives 476 ± 36 ms (Y111C 483 ± 34 ms; R518* 462 ± 34 ms) and genotype negatives 433 ± 24 ms. Female sex was significantly associated with QTc prolongation in all genotype groups (p < 0.001). In a multivariable analysis including the entire study population and adjusted for KCNQ1 genotype, sex and age, NOS1AP sequence variants rs12143842 and rs16847548 (but not rs4657139) were significantly associated with QT prolongation, +18 ms (p = 0.0007) and +17 ms (p = 0.006), respectively. Significant sex-interactions were detected for both sequent variants (interaction term r = 0.892, p < 0.001 and r = 0.944, p < 0.001, respectively). Notably, across the genotype groups, when stratified by sex neither rs12143842 nor rs16847548 were significantly associated with QTc in females (both p = 0.16) while in males, a prolongation of +19 ms and +8 ms (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02) was seen in multivariable analysis, explaining up to 23% of QTc variance in all males.

    Conclusions: Sex was identified as a moderator of the association between NOS1AP sequence variants and QTc in two LQT1 founder populations. This finding may contribute to QTc sex differences and affect the usefulness of NOS1AP as a marker for clinical risk stratification in LQTS.

  • Strandberg, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Portfolio Optimization with NonLinear Instruments2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Rohr, Julia K.
    et al.
    Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier
    Rosenberg, Molly
    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer
    Geldsetzer, Pascal
    Wagner, Ryan G.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Houle, Brian
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Berkman, Lisa
    Baernighausen, Till
    Performance of self-reported HIV status in determining true HIV status among older adults in rural South Africa: a validation study2017Inngår i: Journal of the International AIDS Society, ISSN 1758-2652, E-ISSN 1758-2652, Vol. 20, 691Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In South Africa, older adults make up a growing proportion of people living with HIV. HIV programmes are likely to reach older South Africans in home-based interventions where testing is not always feasible. We evaluate the accuracy of self-reported HIV status, which may provide useful information for targeting interventions or offer an alternative to biomarker testing.

    Methods: Data were taken from the Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI) baseline survey, which was conducted in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A total of 5059 participants aged ≥40 years were interviewed from 2014 to 2015. Self-reported HIV status and dried bloodspots for HIV biomarker testing were obtained during at-home interviews. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for self-reported status compared to “gold standard” biomarker results. Log-binomial regression explored associations between demographic characteristics, antiretroviral therapy (ART) status and sensitivity of self-report.

    Results: Most participants (93%) consented to biomarker testing. Of those with biomarker results, 50.9% reported knowing their HIV status and accurately reported it. PPV of self-report was 94.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 92.0–96.0), NPV was 87.2% (95% CI: 86.2–88.2), sensitivity was 51.2% (95% CI: 48.2–54.3) and specificity was 99.0% (95% CI: 98.7–99.4). Participants on ART were more likely to report their HIV-positive status, and participants reporting false-negatives were more likely to have older HIV tests.

    Conclusions: The majority of participants were willing to share their HIV status. False-negative reports were largely explained by lack of testing, suggesting HIV stigma is retreating in this setting, and that expansion of HIV testing and retesting is still needed in this population. In HIV interventions where testing is not possible, self-reported status should be considered as a routine first step to establish HIV status.

  • Olsson, Adam
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Graphene Growth through Chemical Vapor Deposition - Optimization of Growth and Transfer Parameters2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis work is to investigate the possibility to grow graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on copper foil with acetylene as a precursor and varigon (5\% H$_2$ in Ar) as a carrier gas. The possibility of nitrogen doping by ammonia treatment during the growth process is also investigated. The possibility of graphene transfer, with the use of Poly(Methyl Metacrylate) (PMMA), from the copper onto another target substrate, Flourine doped Tin Oxide (FTO), is also explored. The main technique of characterization of the grown and transfered graphene is Raman spectroscopy, a great tool for investigating the number of graphene layers and amount of defects. Other characterization methods used are Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate morphology and elemental composition, respectively.

    The result of this thesis study is that graphene growth is entirely possible with acetylene as a precursor, as shown by the Raman spectroscopy, XPS and SEM. The grown graphene has a high quality with few layers and a low number of defects. The ammonia treatment, however, doesn't seem to have an immediate effect on the graphene growth. The XPS data indicates that there are no nitrogen doping in the graphene, though there might be a correlation between the ammonia and the number of layers, but further investigations has to be made. Transfer is also proven possible with the method developed. However, improvements to the transfer method can be done since there are both larger tares, caused by the transfer onto the FTO, as well as microscopic tares, possibly caused by thermal expansion of the PMMA.

  • Forsberg, Anton
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Shopping for emotion - Evaluating the usefulness of emotion recognition data from a retail perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study researches the usefulness of emotion recognition technology and respective data within the retail space. Emotion recognition is a relatively novel technology that promises to pinpoint a subjects emotional state. While the use cases could be many for a retailer there is still little available research on how to implement these tools and how to interpret their data. This study aims to provide an answer to those questions by reviewing current studies in emotion recognition and by setting up a rudimentary field test to compare data gathered by the Microsoft Emotion Recognition service with standard user satisfaction measurements. The responses are examined to determine if a subjects’ identified emotion has any connection to their perceived satisfaction with an experience. No such connection is found within the gathered data however, but several other points of interest are discovered. The study concludes that current emotion recognition tools may not live up to their hype and offer little in terms of useful data. They tend to require exaggerated emotional expressions and perform subpar to humans in many cases. The reasons for this, and possible improvements to these tools are also discussed.

  • Lundström, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Rosberg, Rasmus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Socially Responsible Investments?: -An empirical study on why investors do not invest in SRI2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society sustainability has become a highly discussed topic due to the increase in global average temperatures and changing ecosystems. Despite differentiating views regarding the origins of these changes, a proportion of the society have begun to adjust themselves into having more green profiles. This has led to an uprising among the number of investors who focus on making socially and responsible investments. However, on the contrary, there is still a substantial proportion of investors who do not invest in environmentally, animal and human friendly products. Which in turn may negate the pace of the ethical and sustainable development of our society. This issue leads to this study’s research question:

    What are the reasons or hindrances as to why students at Umeå School of Business and Economics do not invest in SRI financial products?  

    The main purpose of this paper is to explore why individuals at Umeå School of Business and Economics do not invest in SRI financial products. Furthermore, the paper aim to have an extra emphasis on information. In addition to the main purpose, the thesis will investigate if any links exist between investing ethically/sustainable and one’s daily behaviour. In order to explore these purposes, the authors uses past research within this area together with theoretical concepts regarding “Investment Decisions”, “Markowitz Portfolio Optimisation Model” and “Pro-Social Behaviour”. To conduct this study, the paper uses a quantitative approach with both primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected through a survey sent out to 917 students at Umeå School of Business and Economics. In order to achieve the purposes of this study, the data from non-SRI investors was used to analyse their investment behaviours.  

    The results of this study indicate that the majority of non-SRI investors are men. Furthermore, the findings illustrate that the expected financial return of SRI and risk when investing is significantly related to the probability of not investing in SRI. Additionally, the results point at that the demeanour of not investing in SRI products are significantly due to a lower level of knowledge concerning financial return of SRI. In conclusion, the authors argue that the attraction of capital ethical and sustainable investments can be greatly increased by educating investors in SRI products. Consequently, the increase in awareness and attraction of capital can aid solving the ethical and sustainable issues that exists today.

  • Gidlund, Alexander
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Lund, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    The Norwegian Gender Quota Law and its Effects on Corporate Boards2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has examined which medium-term effects the Norwegian gender quota law has had on corporate boards listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange from 2009 to 2015. Wehave studied the gender quota law’s impact on different corporate board factors, such as board composition, the number of directorships held, basic remuneration, board size, andthe age of directors. Further, we also compared the gender quota law’s effects on these factors with similar studies made in earlier periods. The reason for that is to recognise whether there is a tendency of convergence over time.

    The study have been conducted using a quantitative approach by gathering information from mostly annual reports. Since, this is a comparative study, we will be using the same methods as previous researchers. These methods are arithmetic averages and standard deviations. We have also included some other methods to strengthen the results, such as geometric average, median, correlations, and significance test.

    The results of our research show that the number of directorships held by female directors decreased in both absolute numbers as well as in averages and dispersion. Remuneration for female directors increased. However, it diverged with male directors. The average board size did not remain significantly constant over time. We also found that the average age of board directors both increase and converges between the genders. We also believed that the proportion of female directors was depended on the firm’s board size, which the results showed was an incorrect assumption.

    This paper has applied an overarching theory called contingency theory. Further, other complementary theories within the area of corporate governance have also been used such as stakeholder theory, agency theory, and resource dependency theory. When analysing the results from this paper, there were too many plausible and contrasting theoretical explanations for why the various outcomes occurred. Therefore, we do not believe that the existing theoretical frameworks available are appropriate to explain how the gender quota law will impact corporate boards.

    The main contribution of this study is the results that show how both female and maledirectors’ average age and directorships held are converging over the observed period. Also, that the gender quota law has enabled female directors to gain more experience, which has led to a higher proportion of female directors.

  • Disputas: 2017-09-22 09:00 KBE303-Stora hörsalen, KBC-huset
    Zhou, Yang
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Regulation of pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Messenger RNAs are transcribed and co-transcriptionally processed in the nucleus, and transported to the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, mRNAs serve as the template for protein synthesis and are eventually degraded. The removal of intron sequences from a precursor mRNA is termed splicing and is carried out by the dynamic spliceosome. In this thesis, I describe the regulated splicing of two transcripts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I also describe a study where the mechanisms that control the expression of magnesium transporters are elucidated.

    The pre-mRNA retention and splicing (RES) complex is a spliceosome-associated protein complex that promotes the splicing and nuclear retention of a subset of pre-mRNAs. The RES complex consists of three subunits, Bud13p, Snu17p and Pml1p. We show that the lack of RES factors causes a decrease in the formation of N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) in tRNAs. This phenotype is caused by inefficient splicing of the pre-mRNA of the TAN1 gene, which is required for the formation of ac4C in tRNAs. The RES mutants also show growth defects that are exacerbated at elevated temperatures. We show that the temperature sensitive phenotype of the bud13Δ and snu17Δ cells is caused by the inefficient splicing of the MED20 pre-mRNA. The MED20 gene encodes a subunit of the Mediator complex. Unspliced pre-mRNAs that enter the cytoplasm are usually degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway, which targets transcripts that contain premature translation termination codons. Consistent with the nuclear retention function of the RES complex, we find that NMD inactivation in the RES mutants leads to the accumulation of both TAN1 and MED20 pre-mRNAs. We also show that the cis-acting elements that promote RES-dependent splicing are different between the TAN1 and MED20 pre-mRNAs.

    The NMD pathway also targets transcripts with upstream ORFs (uORFs) for degradation. The ALR1 gene encodes the major magnesium importer in yeast, and its expression is controlled by the NMD pathway via a uORF in the 5’ untranslated region. We show that the ribosome reaches the downstream main ORF by a translation reinitiation mechanism. The NMD pathway was shown to control cellular Mg2+ levels by regulating the expression of the ALR1 gene. We further show that the NMD pathway targets the transcripts of the vacuolar Mg2+ exporter Mnr2p and the mitochondrial Mg2+ exporter Mme1p for degradation.

    In summary, we conclude that the RES complex has a role in the splicing regulation of a subset of transcripts. We also suggest a regulatory role for the NMD pathway in maintaining the cellular Mg2+ concentration by controlling the expression of Mg2+ transporters.

  • Sebastian, Pettersson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    IPMA- certifierade projektledares upplevelser av att vara certifierad2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien ämnade att få reda på vad upplevelsen av den Svenska certifieringsprocess hos svenskt Projektforum var samt om det medförde en kompetenshöjning och ett värde hos de individer som har certifierat sig. För att medföra en bredare inblick i vad individer värdesätter i och med en certifiering och för att ge Svenskt Projektforum de verktyg de kan behöva för att förbättra den Svenska certifieringsprocessen utformades denna studie. En kvalitativ innehållsanalys med en summerande ansats genomfördes genom 11 semistrukturerade intervjuer som utfördes på IPMA-certifierade (International Project Management Association) projektledare, valda från Svenskt Projektforums databaser. Utifrån det berörda ämnet utvecklades följande frågeställningar: Hur beskriver IPMA-certifierade projektledare sin eventuella kompetenshöjning i och med certifieringen? Samt, vilket eventuellt värde tillskriver de en IPMA-certifiering? Resultatet påvisade att både en kompetenshöjning och ett värde upplevs i och med en IPMA-certifiering samt en lucka i tidigare forskning identifierades när det kommer till reflektion och bedömningssätt. 

  • Linder, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olsson, Sandra
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Psykologers subjektiva upplevelser av den egna psykosociala arbetsmiljön inom företagshälsovården2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykologer tillhör den yrkesgrupp inom vilken långtidssjukskrivningar till följd av stressrelaterade orsaker är vanligast. Samtidigt tycks det saknas kunskap kring psykologers arbetsmiljö. Arbetsmiljön inom företagshälsovården tycks dessutom vara ett outforskat område. Denna studie syftade till att undersöka hur psykologer verksamma inom företagshälsovården subjektivt upplever sin egen psykosociala arbetsmiljö. I studien deltog sex psykologer verksamma inom företagshälsovården. Semistrukturerade telefonintervjuer användes för att insamla empiri och en induktiv tematisk analys genomfördes. Analysen resulterade i åtta övergripande teman och 29 underteman. Resultaten visade exempelvis att det finns tydliga ekonomiska mål som psykologerna måste rätta sig efter. Samtidigt som kraven i vissa fall upplevdes som höga, uttrycktes ett behov av mer resurser. Vidare visade sig samverkan sällan förekomma, möjligheter till kollegialt stöd ibland saknas och bristande chefsstöd i vissa fall föreligga. Den slutsats som kan dras är att det tycks finnas brister i både de organisatoriska och sociala förhållandena.  

  • Langefeld, Carl D.
    et al.
    Ainsworth, Hannah C.
    Graham, Deborah S. Cunninghame
    Kelly, Jennifer A.
    Comeau, Mary E.
    Marion, Miranda C.
    Howard, Timothy D.
    Ramos, Paula S.
    Croker, Jennifer A.
    Morris, David L.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Almlof, Jonas Carlsson
    Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo M.
    Alarcon, Graciela S.
    Babini, Alejandra M.
    Baca, Vicente
    Bengtsson, Anders A.
    Berbotto, Guillermo A.
    Bijl, Marc
    Brown, Elizabeth E.
    Brunner, Hermine I.
    Cardiel, Mario H.
    Catoggio, Luis
    Cervera, Ricard
    Cucho-Venegas, Jorge M.
    Rantapää Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi.
    D'Alfonso, Sandra
    Da Silva, Berta Martins
    de la Rua Figueroa, Inigo
    Doria, Andrea
    Edberg, Jeffrey C.
    Endreffy, Emoke
    Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge A.
    Fortin, Paul R.
    Freedman, Barry I.
    Frostegard, Johan
    Garcia, Mercedes A.
    Garcia de la Torre, Ignacio
    Gilkeson, Gary S.
    Gladman, Dafna D.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Guthridge, Joel M.
    Huggins, Jennifer L.
    James, Judith A.
    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.
    Kamen, Diane L.
    Karp, David R.
    Kaufman, Kenneth M.
    Kottyan, Leah C.
    Kovacs, Laszlo
    Laustrup, Helle
    Lauwerys, Bernard R.
    Li, Quan-Zhen
    Maradiaga-Cecena, Marco A.
    Martin, Javier
    McCune, Joseph M.
    McWilliams, David R.
    Merrill, Joan T.
    Miranda, Pedro
    Moctezuma, Jose F.
    Nath, Swapan K.
    Niewold, Timothy B.
    Orozco, Lorena
    Ortego-Centeno, Norberto
    Petri, Michelle
    Pineau, Christian A.
    Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.
    Pope, Janet
    Raj, Prithvi
    Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind
    Reveille, John D.
    Russell, Laurie P.
    Sabio, Jose M.
    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.
    Scherbarth, Hugo R.
    Scorza, Raffaella
    Seldin, Michael F.
    Sjowall, Christopher
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Thompson, Susan D.
    Toloza, Sergio M. A.
    Truedsson, Lennart
    Tusie-Luna, Teresa
    Vasconcelos, Carlos
    Vila, Luis M.
    Wallace, Daniel J.
    Weisman, Michael H.
    Wither, Joan E.
    Bhangale, Tushar
    Oksenberg, Jorge R.
    Rioux, John D.
    Gregersen, Peter K.
    Syvanen, Ann-Christine
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Criswell, Lindsey A.
    Jacob, Chaim O.
    Sivils, Kathy L.
    Tsao, Betty P.
    Schanberg, Laura E.
    Behrens, Timothy W.
    Silverman, Earl D.
    Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.
    Kimberly, Robert P.
    Harley, John B.
    Wakeland, Edward K.
    Graham, Robert R.
    Gaffney, Patrick M.
    Vyse, Timothy J.
    Transancestral mapping and genetic load in systemic lupus erythematosus2017Inngår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 16021Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with marked gender and ethnic disparities. We report a large transancestral association study of SLE using Immunochip genotype data from 27,574 individuals of European (EA), African (AA) and Hispanic Amerindian (HA) ancestry. We identify 58 distinct non-HLA regions in EA, 9 in AA and 16 in HA (similar to 50% of these regions have multiple independent associations); these include 24 novel SLE regions (P < 5 x 10(-8)), refined association signals in established regions, extended associations to additional ancestries, and a disentangled complex HLA multigenic effect. The risk allele count (genetic load) exhibits an accelerating pattern of SLE risk, leading us to posit a cumulative hit hypothesis for autoimmune disease. Comparing results across the three ancestries identifies both ancestry-dependent and ancestry-independent contributions to SLE risk. Our results are consistent with the unique and complex histories of the populations sampled, and collectively help clarify the genetic architecture and ethnic disparities in SLE.

  • Carlsson, Christian
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Profiting from serial correlation: Constructing a trading strategy on the DAX2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how technical analysis has been used throughout historyand constructs a technical trading strategy to be used in a computer algorithm.The strategy is based on a linear regression indicator and aims to prot fromthe assumption that markets, in this case the DAX, has some degree of serialcorrelation in daily price-movements. The strategy developed in this paper doesbeat a buy and hold with a substantial margin. Further, I test the validity of theseresults by simulating two different sets of random stock-paths using monte-carlosimulations; one following a geometric Brownian motion and the other a wienerprocess with serial correlation. I nd that the strategy based on a linear regressionhas signicantly higher returns than a buy and hold strategy over the same timeperiod and that the results generated by the strategy on the DAX give some degreeof evidence for serial correlation in daily prices on the DAX.

  • Hörnblad, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Laborationer för integration och naturvetenskapligt lärande?: Aspekter på ett laborativt möte2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien har en naturvetenskaplig laboration genomförts som en gemensam aktivitet för en gymnasieklass som läser Biologi 1 och en språkintroduktionsklass som läser NO. Aktiviteten har sedan utvärderats med avseende på elevernas tillägnande av det naturvetenskapliga innehållet, deras användande av naturvetenskapligt språk, vilka kommunikationsvägar som uppstod, elevernas försök till samarbete, samt elevernas och lärarnas subjektiva upplevelser. Studien visade att den här typen av aktiviteter är genomförbara på ett mycket heterogent elevunderlag avseende både etniska-, sociala och förkunskapsmässiga faktorer. De naturvetenskapliga laborationerna har därmed en potential i att fungera som verktyg både i ämnesinlärning och som arena för integration. Vidare visade studien på behovet av kommunikationsverktyg utöver listor med ämnesspecifika ord och begrepp både för elever med svenska som andraspråk och med svenska som modersmål. För utveckling av det naturvetenskapliga språket föreslås en utförligare uppföljning av laborationsaktiviteten än den som gjordes inom ramen för den här studien.

  • George, Karl
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Coping with Anxiety Sensitivity during Adolescence2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between Anxiety Sensitivity (AS) and certain anxiety disorders such as Panic Disorder and the panic response itself are well established by theory and research. Adolescence is understood to be a risk period for the development of Anxiety disorders. Certain styles of coping such as avoidance has beensuggested to be risk factors as well. In this study, the relation between AS and coping is explored using self-report measures (CASI-R and A-COPE), aiming to see if adolescents with high or low AS have an association with certain coping styles, understood by theory also to be potential risk factors. No reliable association were found between groups with high or low AS and any coping style. AS and total extent of coping did not correlate. A small and negative, significant correlation was found between age and AS.

  • Zimmerman, Malin
    et al.
    Enes, Sara Rolandsson
    Skarstrand, Hanna
    Pourhamidi, Kaveh
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Gottsater, Anders
    Wollmer, Per
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla
    Dahlin, Lars B.
    Temporal trend of autonomic nerve function and HSP27, MIF and PAI-1 in type 1 diabetes2017Inngår i: Journal of clinical and translational endocrinology, ISSN 2214-6237, Vol. 8, 15-21 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1D) has numerous complications including autonomic neuropathy, i.e. dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system. This study focuses on Heat Shock Protein 27 (HSP27), Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF), Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and HbA1c and their possible roles in effects of diabetes on the autonomic nervous system.

    Methods: Patients with T1D (n = 32, 41% women) were recruited in 1985 and followed up on four occasions (1989, 1993, 1998, and 2005). Autonomic function was tested using expiration/inspiration (E/I-ratio). Blood samples, i.e. HSP27 (last three occasions), MIF, PAI-1 (last two occasions) and HbA1c (five occasions), were analyzed.

    Results: Autonomic nerve function deteriorated over time during the 20-year-period, but levels of HSP27, MIF, and PAI-1 were not associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. MIF and PAI-1 were lower in T1D than in healthy controls in 2005. Increased HbA1c correlated with a decrease in E/I-ratio.

    Conclusions: Neither the neuroprotective substance HSP27 nor the inflammatory substances, MIF and PAI-1 were associated with measures of cardiovascular autonomic nerve function, but a deterioration of such function was observed in relation to increasing HbA1c in T1D during a 20-year follow-up period. Improved glucose control might be associated with protection against autonomic neuropathy in T1D.

  • Gaziano, Thomas A.
    et al.
    Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika
    Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier
    Wade, Alisha
    Crowther, Nigel J.
    Alam, Sartaj
    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer
    Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.
    Wagner, Ryan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa ; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana ; Africa Wits-INDEPTH Genomic Studies of Cardiovascular Disease, University of the Witwatersrand.
    Rohr, Julia
    Montana, Livia
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa ; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana ; Africa Wits-INDEPTH Genomic Studies of Cardiovascular Disease, University of the Witwatersrand.
    Baernighausen, Till W.
    Berkman, Lisa F.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Cardiometabolic risk in a population of older adults with multiple co-morbidities in rural south africa: the HAALSI (Health and Aging in Africa: longitudinal studies of INDEPTH communities) study2017Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A consequence of the widespread uptake of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is that the older South African population will experience an increase in life expectancy, increasing their risk for cardiometabolic diseases (CMD), and its risk factors. The long-term interactions between HIV infection, treatment, and CMD remain to be elucidated in the African population. The HAALSI cohort was established to investigate the impact of these interactions on CMD morbidity and mortality among middle-aged and older adults. Methods: We recruited randomly selected adults aged 40 or older residing in the rural Agincourt sub-district in Mpumalanga Province. In-person interviews were conducted to collect baseline household and socioeconomic data, self-reported health, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), HbA1c, HIV-status, and point-of-care glucose and lipid levels. Results: Five thousand fifty nine persons (46.4% male) were enrolled with a mean age of 61.7 +/- 13.06 years. Waist-to- hip ratio was high for men and women (0.92 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.89 +/- 0.08), with 70% of women and 44% of men being overweight or obese. Blood pressure was similar for men and women with a combined hypertension prevalence of 58.4% and statistically significant increases were observed with increasing age. High total cholesterol prevalence in women was twice that observed for men (8.5 vs. 4.1%). The prevalence of self-reported CMD conditions was higher among women, except for myocardial infarction, and women had a statistically significantly higher prevalence of angina (10.82 vs. 6.97%) using Rose Criteria. The HIV- persons were significantly more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, or be overweight or obese than HIV+ persons. Approximately 56% of the cohort had at least 2 measured or self-reported clinical co-morbidities, with HIV+ persons having a consistently lower prevalence of co-morbidities compared to those without HIV. Absolute 10-year risk cardiovascular risk scores ranged from 7.7-9.7% for women and from 12.5-15.3% for men, depending on the risk score equations used. Conclusions: This cohort has high CMD risk based on both traditional risk factors and novel markers like hsCRP. Longitudinal follow-up of the cohort will allow us to determine the long-term impact of increased lifespan in a population with both high HIV infection and CMD risk.

  • Kunz, Sabine
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Quality assessment and epistemic beliefs: If you tell me what you believe in, can I tell you what you’ll get?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bedömning av kvaliteten är en av de viktigaste processerna som en lärare utför varje arbetsdag för att kunna relatera elevernas prestationer mot ett kulturellt och individuellt anpassat betygssystem. Med ambitionen att främja jämställdhet och reliabilitet av bedömningar tillhandahåller Skolverket bedömningskrav och kriterier för att skilja olika grader av kvalitet (Selghed 2011). Dessa kriterier förefaller emellertid ibland otydliga och inte lämpliga för att särskilja mellan kvalitativa nivåer, särskilt på högre nivåer, vilka därför kan uppfattas som delvis överlappande. Som följd finns det mycket utrymme för tolkning av den enskilda läraren när det slutliga bedömningssystemet konstrueras (Schreiber et al., 2012, Selghed 2011). En alternativ bedömningsmetod som är rekommenderad av t.ex. Hattie (2012), är den mindre komplexa SOLO-taxonomin vilken idag används i de högre utbildnings miljöer.För att uppskatta överlappningen mellan resultat som härrör från olika bedömningsmetoder analyserar denna studie kvalitetsnivåer av en skrivuppgift av andraårs-gymnasieelever med hjälp av det läroplanbaserade betygssystemet och SOLO-taxonomin. Med hjälp av principiell komponentanalys (PCA) och korrelationsanalys kunde man dra slutsatsen att de olika bedömningsmetoderna är lämpliga för att skilja högre från lägre komplexitet eller kvalitetsnivåer. Men SOLO-taxonomin kunde inte tydligt skilja de mer sofistikerade skillnaderna mellan högre betygsnivå A och B.Dessutom undersökte denna studie om en noggrant genomförd konstruktivistisk undervisningsdesign oundvikligen resulterar i högkvalitativa skriftliga arbeten. Detta analyserades med hjälp av PCA och korrelationsanalys av relationen mellan deltagarnas kunskapssyn och bedömningsresultatet. Inom detta sammanhang kunde det dras slutsatsen att (I) en mer sofistikerad syn på naturen av kunskap och kunskap och (II) heterogeniteten hos en studentgrupp med avseende på kunskapssynen verkar vara kopplad till högre kvalitativa prestationer. Bevis för en korrelation mellan elevernas individuella kunskapssyn och de valda inlärningsmetoderna diskuteras inom ramen för en generell lämplighet av konstruktivistiska undervisningsmetoder.

  • Elvin, Lottie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Pettersson, Alexander
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Equity Crowdfunding i Sverige: Finansieringskälla eller marknadsföringsverktyg?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs have a hard time raising enough capital to be able to reach their targeted growth. The access to external capital is limited because of factors like a lack of cash flow, information and other assets. There is a gap between supply and demand that the traditional financing methods do not fill. Crowdfunding is a financing method where a collective pool their assets together to contribute to certain businesses’ continued growth. Crowdfunding has seen a significant growth over the past years, where the latest category is equity crowdfunding.

     

    This qualitative study sets out to examine why Swedish entrepreneurs use equity crowdfunding to raise capital and what factors are behind a successful campaign in Sweden. The purpose of the study is to add to the relatively unexplored field that is equity crowdfunding in Sweden by using existing theories regarding entrepreneurship and crowdfunding. The goal is that the result will be of help to entrepreneurs that are planning to raise capital. To achieve this, seven semi-structured interviews have been conducted, summarized and analyzed to finally lead to a conclusion. To gain different perspectives of the subject, all three parties involved in equity crowdfunding have been heard. Five of the respondents are entrepreneurs whom have gone through a successful round of equity crowdfunding, one respondent is from a crowdfunding platform and one is an investor. 

     

    The study showed that there are a number of reasons why entrepreneurs choose equity crowdfunding as their method to raise capital. The method is available to companies in earlier stages than other, traditional, methods are. Other than gaining the capital that comes from a successful campaign the company will gain plenty of attention, mainly from its investors whom have a tendency to act as ambassadors for the company. These ambassadors generate a large marketing effect through their social networks. The main factors behind a successful campaign have proven to be active communication, the ability to present the business in a pedagogic matter, a substantial social network and the support of friends and family in the early stages. 

  • Agdahl, Helen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    THE INTEGRATION PROCESS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION FOR FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING: DRAWING EXAMPLES FROM ÄLVSTADEN-GOTHENBURGBETWEEN 1999-20152017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to climate change and natural variations in the hydrological cycle, global mean sea levels are increasing, causing the mean sea levels in different regions of the world to increase. In Sweden, coastal cities are facing rising water levels which is increasing flooding. The coastal community of Gothenburg, Sweden was identified the 18th most vulnerable city in the country both to flooding induced by water level rise and other climate change related impacts. Its location, in proximity of Lake Vänern, and in the mouth of the Göta River and its tributaries: Säveån, Mölndalsån and Lärjeån is heightening flood risk and vulnerability in the area. This thesis aims to contribute in comprehending the integration process of natural hazard and climate change adaptation for flood management in Älvstaden- central Gothenburg between 1999 and 2015. With the main objectives being” how the municipality of Gothenburg has applied the urban land use planning theory for the integration of natural hazard and climate change adaptation, with regards to adaptation for flood management in Älvstaden between 1999 and 2015? “What climate change adaptation policies for flood management have been implemented in Gothenburg within this time frame, and how the policies have been revised to match the reality of flood issues?” And “What improvements would be made in the integration process to better address adaptation for flood management?” A desk-based research and one case study approach was adopted for this study. The findings indicate that although the city has systematically used the steps involved in the integration process of natural hazard and climate change adaptation for flood management, it does not link the policies and the measures applied to adaptation for flood management. Which is an issue as it has led to the exclusion of vital functions of the integration process. Suggestions on how the integration process could be improved are provided.

  • Abdollahian, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Kanwar, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Optimering av kortaste vägen vid hantering och avledning av skadligt dagvatten: Lösning med A-stjärna algoritm samt en guide med ekonomiska styrmedel för beslutsfattande aktörer2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Jordens befolkning växer och allt fler flyttar in till urbana områden. Detta medför att städer växer, nya byggnader tillkommer och infrastrukturer expanderar. Denna snabba tillväxtfas står i direkt anslutning till ökade översvämningar till följd av de förändringar som görs i naturen.

    De redan överbelastade dagvattensystemen har i många fall svårt att hantera de befintliga kraven. Till följd av detta uppstår översvämningar vid större regnintensitet och utgör stora omkostnader för samhället. Dagvattenhanteringen brister då det inom kommunens organisationer är otydliga ansvarsfördelningar. För att kunna planera för hållbara städer även i framtiden är det viktigt att hitta en genomförbar lösning gällande både ansvarsfördelningen samt hur dagvattnet ska hanteras på bästa sätt för att uppnå kostnadsfördelar.

    I denna studie tas det fram en guide för kommunen över hur ansvaret bör fördelas mellan kommun och exploatör i dagvattenfrågan. Guiden bygger på simuleringar och teorier inom optimeringslära för att kunna föreslå rimliga lösningar. Genom dessa simuleringar av dagvattensystemet har mängden vatten som inte ryms i dagvattensystemet kvantifierats. Vidare för att hitta en rimlig alternativ avrinningsväg för det överflödiga dagvattnet har olika algoritmer för kortaste vägen problemet undersökts.

    Resultaten visar att en klassisk algoritm med en heuristisk funktion som appliceras på kortaste vägen problemet inte kan identifiera den mest lämpliga avrinningsvägen. Detta då den heuristiska funktionen i algoritmen förhindrar att en naturligare avrinningsväg uppströms väljs även om denna skulle ge en mer optimal lösning. 

  • Lundquist, Josefin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    O'Hara, Linnéa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    An optimization model using the Assignment Problem to manage the location of parts: Master Thesis at the engine assembly at Scania CV AB2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A key challenge for manufacturing companies is to store parts in an efficient way atthe lowest cost possible. As the demand of differentiated products increases, togetherwith the fact that old products are not phased out at the same pace, the need of usingstorage space as dynamically as possible becomes vital.Scania’s engine assembly manufactures engines for various automotive vehicles andmarine & industry applications. The variation in engine range in Scania’s offeringleads to the need of holding a vast, and increasing, assortment of parts in the produc-tion. As a consequence, this puts more pressure on the logistics and furnishing withinthe engine assembly.This master thesis aims to facilitate the process of assigning parts’ storage locationsin the most profitable manner through an optimization model, the Location Model, inExcel VBA. Together with the model, suggestions of work methods are presented.By implementing the Location Model at Scania’s engine assembly, 4,98 % of all keptparts are recommended location changes, while resulting in cost savings, for the chosen30-day period. These location changes result in a cost saving of 6,73 % of the totallogistic costs for the same time period.

  • Kero, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Optimering av GC-FID-metod för rutinanalys av alkoholer i plasma: Utvärdering av olika separationskolonner och provappliceringstekniker2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Müller, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Characterization of dangerous pollutants in bio and waste ashes: Analysing content and leaching behaviour of several ashes for persistent organic pollutants and toxic heavy metals2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave