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  • Simpson, Andrew J.
    et al.
    Hekking, Pieter-Paul
    Shaw, Dominick E.
    Fleming, Louise J.
    Roberts, Graham
    Riley, John H.
    Bates, Stewart
    Sousa, Ana R.
    Bansal, Aruna T.
    Pandis, Ioannis
    Sun, Kai
    Bakke, Per S.
    Caruso, Massimo
    Dahlén, Barbro
    Dahlén, Sven-Erik
    Horvath, Ildiko
    Krug, Norbert
    Montuschi, Paolo
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Singer, Florian
    Adcock, Ian M.
    Wagers, Scott S.
    Djukanovic, Ratko
    Chung, Kian Fan
    Sterk, Peter J.
    Fowler, Stephen J.
    Treatable traits in the European U-BIOPRED adult asthma cohorts2019Ingår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 74, nr 2, s. 406-411Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • Rehnmark Käck, Theresa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Extra anpassningar och flerspråkighet: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fokus för studien ligger primärt på att undersöka hur pedagoger anpassar undervisningen för flerspråkiga elever. Jag har särskilt valt att studera extra anpassningar utifrån ett läroplansteoretiskt synsätt med fokus på flerspråkiga elever i årskurs 1, 3 samt förberedelseklass.

    De teoretiska utgångspunkterna för studien är ett sociokulturellt perspektiv, där pedagogens didaktiska val kopplas till elevens lärande på realiseringsarenan. Metoden för genomförandet av studien är kvalitativ bestående av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Dessa intervjuer genomfördes på två av arenorna: transformering- och realiseringsarenan där resultatet av studien jämfördes med skollagen, läroplanen, forskares syn på flerspråkighet, tal – och språkstörning, samt utvecklingsstörning.

    För att avgränsa studien lades fokus på två rektorer, fyra pedagoger i årskurs 1 och 3, en pedagog från förberedelseklass, två personer ur den lokala elevhälsan, samt två modersmålslärare. Resultatet av studien visar att samarbete och kunskapsutveckling bland pedagoger är något som kan generera ökade förutsättningar i skolframgångar för flerspråkiga elever.

  • Emanuelsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Engström, Marlene
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Intensivträning av läsflytet hos lässvaga elever: En studie av avkodningsträning och morfologisk medvetenhetsträning som insats i liten grupp i årskurs 32019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects on reading flow of decoding training and decoding training in combination with morphological awareness instruction. The study included a small group of students with reading and writing difficulties in grade three. Based on reading comprehension tests, two intervention groups were identified with three students in each class and two corresponding control groups. The students received intensive training for six weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their attitude to reading at school and at home. Three different pre- and posttests have been carried out to measure any change in student reading flow. The results show that there are benefits in terms of reading flow resulting from the short intensive training for this group of students. The interventionstudents gained insight into the importance of reading as well as a more positive attitude towards their own reading ability after the intervention.

  • Disputation: 2019-04-13 10:15 S 205, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå
    Benerdal, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Nationell utvärderingspolicy: utformning och förändring på grundskoleområdet 1988-20142019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation has grown in both volume and scope across levels and sectors in recent decades, particularly in the school sector. Despite this growth, there is insufficient knowledge about how and in what ways evaluations are formed, institutionalized and used in education governance and education reforms. This thesis addresses some of these issues by studying evaluation policy. The aim of the thesis is to explore and analyse the design and possible changes in national evaluation policy in compulsory education during two periods of extensive education reforms (1988-1994 and 2008-2014).

    The theoretical framework builds on evaluation research and policy studies, particularly the literature on policy design. These two strands of literature are supplemented with additional analytical tools from historical institutionalism regarding policy change. Drawing on previous research, a definition of evaluation policy that incorporates the policy context and also enables studying an implicit policy is proposed. On the empirical level, the findings are based on official policy documents, material produced by national government agencies as well as evaluations and evaluation systems.

    The thesis shows that during the first period (1988-1994), the evaluation policy was characterized as a means of helping to implement the extensive reforms. Evaluations were to be conducted on all levels of the school system to promote development on each executive level. The policy design reflected evaluation as a learning and capacity-building tool. Schools and municipalities were positioned as owners and co-creators of evaluation knowledge. During the second period (2008-2014), the evaluation policy was partially revised in order to come to terms with inadequate evaluations and declining school results. The policy included more sanctions and hortatory tools, and more emphasis was placed on comparisons and rankings. The evaluation policy was based on the assumption that local actors should and will act on evaluative knowledge created by the agencies and international actors, and that they could be motivated to do so by the threat of, for example sanctions or issues of ranking and comparisons.

    The evaluation policy design was largely stable over time. However, three more incremental but significant changes were identified: i) the policy design element “agents and implementation structures” was altered, ii) the evaluation policy expanded and iii) became more directed towards national and external control. These changes also indicated more negative implications for democracy during the second period. In relation to evaluations’ democratic function the analysis showed that the evaluation policy mainly strengthened the legitimizing and controlling function, whereas the enlightenment function was not prominent.

    This implies a risk that issues that may be relevant from a broader democratic and societal perspective may be overlooked and not subjected to evaluation. The thesis also acknowledges and illustrates the importance of uncovering and reconstructing evaluation policies, policies that are partly veiled, since also implicit policies will have democratic implications.

  • Disputation: 2019-04-12 13:00 Sal B, trapphus A, 9 trappor
    Otten, Volker T C
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    The Uncemented Cup in Total Hip Arthroplasty: stability, Wear and Osteolysis2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Artificial hip joint replacement has undergone tremendous development in the past 100 years. In the beginning, complications, such as infection and early loosening, were the rule rather than the exception. Today, complications of any sort are rare during the first decade after the operation. Artificial hip joint replacement has been chosen as the "Operation of the Century" and has dramatically improved the quality of life of millions of patients. Unfortunately, in the long-term, prosthesis loosening due to pathological bone resorption (osteolysis) around the prosthesis is still common. Traditionally, the prosthesis is anchored in the bone with bone cement (Plexiglas). However, since this cementation method was suspected to cause late loosening, alternative methods, such as the implantation of so-called uncemented prostheses, have been developed and are being increasingly applied. Because the early movement of a prosthesis (migration) increases the risk of loosening, uncemented cups are often augmented with additional screws. The mechanisms regulating the early and late loosening of uncemented cups are not fully established. Wear particles from the artificial joint and intermittent fluid pressure on the bone appear to accelerate or even cause bone loss and can eventually lead to loosening of the prosthesis. Therefore, screw holes in the uncemented cup have been suspected to be a risk factor.

    Aims: We have studied whether the additional augmentation of modern uncemented cups with screws, pegs or hydroxyapatite increases the long-term stability, affects the wear rate, influences the development of osteolysis, or has any impact on the risk of cup revision. Furthermore, we investigated whether computed tomography (CT), which is needed to detect osteolysis around the prosthesis, could also be used in the follow-up of migration studies without losing significant precision compared to radiostereometry (RSA), which is the gold standard for these measurements.

    Patients and Methods: In studies I-III, we evaluated 48 hips (45 patients) randomized to receive cups with or without augmentation. As part of the 14-year follow-up with conventional radiographs of the pelvis, two pairs of stereo radiographs and a CT scan were obtained. Migration and wear were measured by RSA. The volume and type of osteolysis were determined on CT. Furthermore, we calculated the precision and limit of agreement of RSA and CT to compare these two modalities as tools for migration measurements.

    In study IV, we compared the risk of cup revision between 10,371 uncemented cups with and 12,354 without screw holes, using data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register.

    Results: Study I: Cup stability was equally good regardless of cup augmentation. The mean wear rate of the cup liner was high, at 0.21 mm/year, with no significant difference between the groups.

    Study II: The limit of agreement between CT and RSA was 1.15°, 1.51°, and 0.70° for rotation and 0.46, 0.43, and 0.52 mm for translation. These results were within the described normal 99% confidence limits for precision in RSA: 0.3° to 2° for rotation and 0.15 to 0.6 mm for translation.

    Study III: Osteolysis of some degree was visible in all 48 hips on CT. We found three different types of osteolytic lesions: type 1A, absent trabecular bone and a sclerotic border around the lesion; type 1B, absent trabecular bone and no sclerotic border; and type 2, reduced radiodensity and reduced trabecular number. Cups with screw holes were surrounded with larger osteolytic lesions, and osteolysis around these cups was more likely to be a type 1A lesion.

    Study IV: Cups without screw holes showed a decreased risk of cup revision (implant exchange or removal) due to any reason at both 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio, HR: 0.6, confidence interval, CI: 0.5-0.8) and 10 years (HR: 0.7, CI: 0.5- 0.9). However, for aseptic loosening, there was no significant difference between cups with and without screw holes, with an implant survival rate of 99.9% (CI: 99.8-99.9) at 2 years and 99.1% (CI: 98.6-99.7) at 10 years.

    Conclusion: Uncemented cups augmented with screws, pegs, or hydroxyapatite do not have improved long-term stability compared with cups with press-fit only. Unsealed screw holes in uncemented cups appear to be a risk factor for the development of larger osteolytic lesions. CT showed three different types of osteolytic lesions. The risk of aseptic loosening for modern uncemented cup designs is very low, and cups without additional augmentation do not have an increased revision rate. In contrast, the risk of cup revision for any reason was higher for cups with screw holes. CT can be used for migration studies for the longitudinal evaluation of patients with tantalum markers with precision comparable to that of RSA.

  • Pedersen, Terje
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Gymnasielärares förhållningssätt till bedömning2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bedömning är av central betydelse i skolan. Traditionellt har den summativa bedömningen varit dominerande. Emellertid har denna syn på bedömning ändrats under det senaste decenniet genom att den formativa bedömningen fått allt större inflytande. Denna synsättsförändring har dock varit föremål för en debatt inom skolvärden med avseende på hur dessa två bedömningsmetoder skall användas och vad de egentligen innebär.

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur gymnasielärare förhåller sig till dessa bedömningsformer och hur de använder sig av dessa i sin undervisningspraktik samt att undersöka hur lärarna ser på sitt eget- samt skolans arbetssätt för att uppnå en likvärdig bedömning. För att genomföra studien har semistrukturerade intervjuer använts samt en tematisk innehållsanalys av dessa intervjuer, vilket har resulterat i följande resultat: Lärarna har ett varierat förhållningssätt till bedömningsformerna samt använder sig av dessa i olika utsträckning beroende på vilket ämne de undervisar i. Majoriteten av lärarna anser i studien att den summativa bedömningen i dagens skola inte är likvärdig. Orsaker till detta är otydliga bedömningskriterier, skillnad i bedömningsstöd beroende på undervisningsämne samt användningen av olika läromedel i undervisningen. För att göra bedömningen mer likvärdig efterlyser lärarna tydligare bedömningskriterier samt utökat bedömningsstöd från skolverket.

    Framtida forskning inom detta område skulle kunna bestå av hur formativ bedömning kan tillämpas på olika ämnen.

  • Murray, Christopher J. L.
    et al.
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Population and fertility by age and sex for 195 countries and territories, 1950–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172018Ingår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, nr 10159, s. 1995-2051Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Population estimates underpin demographic and epidemiological research and are used to track progress on numerous international indicators of health and development. To date, internationally available estimates of population and fertility, although useful, have not been produced with transparent and replicable methods and do not use standardised estimates of mortality. We present single-calendar year and single-year of age estimates of fertility and population by sex with standardised and replicable methods.

    Methods: We estimated population in 195 locations by single year of age and single calendar year from 1950 to 2017 with standardised and replicable methods. We based the estimates on the demographic balancing equation, with inputs of fertility, mortality, population, and migration data. Fertility data came from 7817 location-years of vital registration data, 429 surveys reporting complete birth histories, and 977 surveys and censuses reporting summary birth histories. We estimated age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs; the annual number of livebirths to women of a specified age group per 1000 women in that age group) by use of spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression and used the ASFRs to estimate total fertility rates (TFRs; the average number of children a woman would bear if she survived through the end of the reproductive age span [age 10–54 years] and experienced at each age a particular set of ASFRs observed in the year of interest). Because of sparse data, fertility at ages 10–14 years and 50–54 years was estimated from data on fertility in women aged 15–19 years and 45–49 years, through use of linear regression. Age-specific mortality data came from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 estimates. Data on population came from 1257 censuses and 761 population registry location-years and were adjusted for underenumeration and age misreporting with standard demographic methods. Migration was estimated with the GBD Bayesian demographic balancing model, after incorporating information about refugee migration into the model prior. Final population estimates used the cohort-component method of population projection, with inputs of fertility, mortality, and migration data. Population uncertainty was estimated by use of out-of-sample predictive validity testing. With these data, we estimated the trends in population by age and sex and in fertility by age between 1950 and 2017 in 195 countries and territories.

    Findings: From 1950 to 2017, TFRs decreased by 49·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 46·4–52·0). The TFR decreased from 4·7 livebirths (4·5–4·9) to 2·4 livebirths (2·2–2·5), and the ASFR of mothers aged 10–19 years decreased from 37 livebirths (34–40) to 22 livebirths (19–24) per 1000 women. Despite reductions in the TFR, the global population has been increasing by an average of 83·8 million people per year since 1985. The global population increased by 197·2% (193·3–200·8) since 1950, from 2·6 billion (2·5–2·6) to 7·6 billion (7·4–7·9) people in 2017; much of this increase was in the proportion of the global population in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The global annual rate of population growth increased between 1950 and 1964, when it peaked at 2·0%; this rate then remained nearly constant until 1970 and then decreased to 1·1% in 2017. Population growth rates in the southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania GBD super-region decreased from 2·5% in 1963 to 0·7% in 2017, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa, population growth rates were almost at the highest reported levels ever in 2017, when they were at 2·7%. The global average age increased from 26·6 years in 1950 to 32·1 years in 2017, and the proportion of the population that is of working age (age 15–64 years) increased from 59·9% to 65·3%. At the national level, the TFR decreased in all countries and territories between 1950 and 2017; in 2017, TFRs ranged from a low of 1·0 livebirths (95% UI 0·9–1·2) in Cyprus to a high of 7·1 livebirths (6·8–7·4) in Niger. The TFR under age 25 years (TFU25; number of livebirths expected by age 25 years for a hypothetical woman who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) in 2017 ranged from 0·08 livebirths (0·07–0·09) in South Korea to 2·4 livebirths (2·2–2·6) in Niger, and the TFR over age 30 years (TFO30; number of livebirths expected for a hypothetical woman ageing from 30 to 54 years who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) ranged from a low of 0·3 livebirths (0·3–0·4) in Puerto Rico to a high of 3·1 livebirths (3·0–3·2) in Niger. TFO30 was higher than TFU25 in 145 countries and territories in 2017. 33 countries had a negative population growth rate from 2010 to 2017, most of which were located in central, eastern, and western Europe, whereas population growth rates of more than 2·0% were seen in 33 of 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2017, less than 65% of the national population was of working age in 12 of 34 high-income countries, and less than 50% of the national population was of working age in Mali, Chad, and Niger.

    Interpretation: Population trends create demographic dividends and headwinds (ie, economic benefits and detriments) that affect national economies and determine national planning needs. Although TFRs are decreasing, the global population continues to grow as mortality declines, with diverse patterns at the national level and across age groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide transparent and replicable estimates of population and fertility, which can be used to inform decision making and to monitor progress.

  • Sontheimer, Christoph
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Czubacki, Benjamin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Shark Repellents: Predicting the Takeover-Likelihood by Means of Pre-emptive Anti-Takeover Provisions & Key Performance Indicators2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with public companies (listed on the stock exchange) which are threatened by an unwanted takeover-attempt. Particularly, the investigation is centered around opportunities for such companies to defend themselves against hostile takeovers. Therefore, this study covers defense strategies, the so-called anti-takeover provisions (ATPs) or shark repellents. More specifically, pre-emptive ATPs were analyzed in order to determine whether they are effective measures for a takeover-target to avoid being acquired. This question is widely discussed by existing literature that is concerned with the overall topic of mergers & acquisitions, whereby findings of prior researchers often are contradicting or inconclusive. Moreover, there is a lack of literature examining the case of takeover-attempts which are characterized by a hostile deal-attitude specifically. As the adoption of pre-emptive ATPs does have its pitfalls, we aimed to find implications for the management of publicly traded companies concerning the question if they should deploy pre-emptive ATPs or not.

     

    We analyzed hostile takeover-events which took place within the timeframe of 2003-2018, whereby target-companies where located all over the world. As done by other researchers before, the level of resistance against takeovers has been measured by forming an index (in this study denoted by G-Index*), which accounts for the number of pre-emptive ATPs adopted by the takeover-target. That index was used subsequently to test, if companies with a low/high level of resistance against takeovers were more/less likely to be acquired. As not only the resistance against takeovers is an influencing factor on the outcome of a takeover-event, we also measured the impact of performance- and contextual factors. Those comprise key performance indicators (KPIs) for efficiency and profitability, as well as the context factors region and industry. That measurement has been carried out using the binary logistic regression, whereby all mentioned aspects were included in one model to form a representative model of takeover-events. This model was used to examine the individual impacts of all variables on the one hand, and for predicting the takeover-likelihood for each company on the other hand. Subsequently, the predicted takeover-likelihood was tested via the Pearson correlation with the number of pre-emptive ATPs adopted by the public companies.

     

    By using the binary regression, we found that a higher level of managerial resistance against takeovers is decreasing the probability for a company to be acquired. High resistance against takeovers, measured by a high number of pre-emptive anti-takeover provisions adopted, does have a statistically significant negative effect on the takeover-likelihood. Moreover, another key finding is that a company which is more efficient than the average of its industry, is more likely to be acquired. High efficiency (measured by gross profit margin) does have a statistically significant positive effect on the takeover-likelihood. By using the Pearson correlation, we found a statistically significant relation between the number of pre-emptive ATPs adopted and the predicted takeover-likelihood. The predicted takeover-likelihood correlates negatively with the number of pre-emptive ATPs.

     

    These results show that pre-emptive ATPs can be an effective measure against hostile takeovers.

  • Wagner, Ryan G.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Crowther, Nigel J.
    Gomez-Olive, Xavier
    Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Mhembere, Memory
    Myakayaka, Zola
    Tollman, Stephen M.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Wade, Alisha N.
    Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, clinical and behavioural predictors of body mass index vary by sex in rural South African adults-findings from the AWI-Gen study2018Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, s. 80-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite increasing obesity in South African adults, data on the prevalence and determinants of body mass index (BMI) from rural communities, home to a significant proportion of the population, are scarce. Objectives: To investigate overall and sex-specific determinants of BMI in a rural adult South African population undergoing rapid social and epidemiological transitions. Methods: Baseline cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, clinical and behavioural data were collected between 2015 and 2016 from 1388 individuals aged 40-60 years and resident in the Agincourt sub-district of Mpumalanga province, a setting typical of rural northeast South Africa. A Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) underpins the sub-district and contributes to the Africa Wits-INDEPTH partnership for Genomic Studies (AWI-Gen). Linear regression was used to investigate univariate associations between log-transformed BMI and individual variables and multiple linear regression was used to investigate independent predictors of BMI overall and in sex-stratified analyses. Results: Median BMI was significantly higher in females (28.7 kg/m(2) [95% CI 24.2-33.2] vs 23.0 kg/m(2) (95% CI 20.3-26.8tp < 0.001) with male sex associated with 17% lower BMI. In sex-stratified multiple linear regression models, compared to those never married, BMI was 7% higher in currently married males and 6% in currently married females. Current smoking in men and former smoking in women were associated with reductions in BMI of 13% and 26% respectively, compared with non-smokers. Higher educational attainment in women and higher socioeconomic status in men were both associated with higher BMI, while being HIV positive and alcohol consumption in women were associated lower BMI. Conclusions: Female sex strongly predicts higher BMI in this rural African population. While some predictors of higher BMI differ by sex, married individuals in both sexes had a higher BMI, suggesting that, in addition to developing sex-specific interventions to combat overweight and obesity, targeting married couples may result in reduction in population BMI.

  • Harlid, Sophia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Xu, Zongli
    Kirk, Erin
    Wilson, Lauren E
    Troester, Melissa A
    Taylor, Jack A
    Hormone therapy use and breast tissue DNA methylation: analysis of epigenome wide data from the normal breast study2019Ingår i: Epigenetics, ISSN 1559-2294, E-ISSN 1559-2308, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hormone therapy (HT) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, strongly dependent on type, duration, and recency of use. HT use could affect cancer risk by changing breast tissue transcriptional programs. We hypothesize that these changes are preceded by changes in DNA methylation. To explore this hypothesis we used histologically normal-appearing breast tissue from the Normal Breast Study (NBS). DNA methylation β-values were obtained using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChips for 90 samples including all NBS-participants who used HT within 5 y before surgery. Data were analyzed using the reference-free cell mixture method. Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) mRNA-Seq data were used to assess correlation between DNA methylation and gene expression. We identified 527 CpG sites in 403 genes that were associated with ever using HT at genome wide significance (FDR q < 0.05), of these, 68 sites were also significantly associated with duration of use or recency of use. Twelve sites reached significance in all analyses one of which was cg01382688 in ARHGEF4 (p < 1.2x10-7). Mutations in ARHGEF4 have been reported in breast tumors, but this is the first report of possible breast cancer-related DNA methylation changes. In addition, 22 genes included more than one significant CpG site and a majority of these sites were significantly correlated with gene expression. Although based on small numbers, these findings support the hypothesis that HT is associated with epigenetic alterations in breast tissue, and identifies genes with altered DNA methylation states which could be linked to breast cancer development.

  • Björn, Norlin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Sjögren, David
    Uppsala universitet.
    Educational history in the age of apology: The Church of Sweden’s “White book” on historical relations to the Sami, the significance of education and scientific complexities in reconciling the past2019Ingår i: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, nr 1, s. 69-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconciliation processes – wherein governments and other organizations examine their past institutional practices to understand contemporary problems in relation to minorities or indigenous groups – have become a widespread international phenomenon in recent decades. In Sweden, such an ongoing process is the reconciliation work between the Church of Sweden and the Sami. In this process, which recently resulted in the publication of a scholarly anthology (or a “white book”), educational history has come to play a vital part. The present article uses the Church of Sweden’s White Book as an empirical object of study to examine in more detail the role and significance of knowledge of educational history for this specific reconciliation process. By focusing on various scientific complexities and epistemological tensions that tend to arise in these kinds of undertakings, this paper also aims to problematize the white book genre itself as a path to historical knowledge. By doing this, this article’s overall ambition is to contribute to future scholarly work in reconciliation activities, white papers and truth commissions. This study applies a qualitative content analysis and connects theoretically to the growing field of transitional justice research.

  • Carlén, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Forsman, August
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Jesper, Svensson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Sandberg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    IoT Enabled Process Innovation: Exploring Sensor-Based Digital Service Design Through an Information Requirements Framework2019Ingår i: Internet of Things: Information Processing in an Increasingly Connected World / [ed] Strous, Leon, Cerf, Vinton G., Springer, 2019, Vol. 548, s. 105-120Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Through digitisation of physical artefacts and environments, the Internet of Things carries vast potential for process innovation. However, navigation of the quickly evolving technological landscape and identification of emerging opportunities for value creation remains challenging. To this end, we combine existing frameworks on information requirements, IT capability, and business value of IT. We evaluate the usability of these frameworks for IoT enabled innovation in our analysis of two sensor-based process innovation projects. We investigate the fit between process characteristics and technological functionality, and the implications of this alignment. Our analysis demonstrates that the framework provides a practically useful and theoretically coherent conceptual device for analyzing process characteristics and digital options to innovate processes. Furthermore, we find that IoT sensors are well suited to address connectivity and uncertainty requirements. However, in order to leverage them to address high equivocality requirements designers need deep contextual understanding to align IoT capability with information requirements.

  • Söderström, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Jarstad, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Friends, Fellows and Foes: A new framework for studying relational peace2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest that taking a relational view of peace serious is a fruitful avenue for expanding current theoretical frameworks surrounding peace as a concept. Paving the way for such an approach, this paper conducts a review of the literature which takes on peace as a relational concept. We then return to how a relationship is conceptualized, before turning to how such components would be further defined in order to specify relational peace. Based on this framework, we argue that a peaceful relation entails non-domination, deliberation and cooperation between the actors in the dyad, the actors involved recognize and trust each other and believe that the relationship is one between legitimate actors and ultimately an expression of friendship. It clarifies the methodological implications of studying peace in this manner. It also demonstrates some of the advantages of this approach, as it shows how peace and war can co-exist in webs of multiple interactions, and the importance of studying relations, and how actors understand these relationships, as a way of studying varieties of peace.

  • Engqvist, Carl-Erik (Författare till förord, introducerande material, etc.)
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    The Wise Eye2018Konstnärlig output (Ogranskad)
  • Lindh, Markus V.
    et al.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Sensitivity of Bacterioplankton to Environmental Disturbance: A Review of Baltic Sea Field Studies and Experiments2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, artikel-id UNSP 361Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterioplankton communities regulate energy and matter fluxes fundamental to all aquatic life. The Baltic Sea offers an outstanding ecosystem for interpreting causes and consequences of bacterioplankton community composition shifts resulting from environmental disturbance. Yet, a systematic synthesis of the composition of Baltic Sea bacterioplankton and their responses to natural or human-induced environmental perturbations is lacking. We review current research on Baltic Sea bacterioplankton dynamics in situ (48 articles) and in laboratory experiments (38 articles) carried out at a variety of spatiotemporal scales. In situ studies indicate that the salinity gradient sets the boundaries for bacterioplankton composition, whereas, regional environmental conditions at a within-basin scale, including the level of hypoxia and phytoplankton succession stages, may significantly tune the composition of bacterial communities. Also the experiments show that Baltic Sea bacteria are highly responsive to environmental conditions, with general influences of e.g. salinity, temperature and nutrients. Importantly, nine out of ten experiments that measured both bacterial community composition and some metabolic activities showed empirical support for the sensitivity scenario of bacteria - i.e., that environmental disturbance caused concomitant change in both community composition and community functioning. The lack of studies empirically testing the resilience scenario, i.e., experimental studies that incorporate the long-term temporal dimension, precludes conclusions about the potential prevalence of resilience of Baltic Sea bacterioplankton. We also outline outstanding questions emphasizing promising applications in incorporating bacterioplankton community dynamics into biogeochemical and food-web models and the lack of knowledge for deep-sea assemblages, particularly bacterioplankton structure-function relationships. This review emphasizes that bacterioplankton communities rapidly respond to natural and predicted human-induced environmental disturbance by altering their composition and metabolic activity. Unless bacterioplankton are resilient, such changes could have severe consequences for the regulation of microbial ecosystem services.

  • Henriksson, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Till vilket pris som helst?: En kvalitativ studie av svenska soldaters riskuppfattning om utlandstjänst i Afghanistan2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Introduction: Swedish soldiers expose themselves to significant risks in international efforts, despite the risks soldiers are still motivated to participate in operations for Försvarsmakten (FM). Most often, expert assessments of risks have been formed before a specific effort that excludes the soldiers 'subjective perception of the threats and risks that may arise, this can mean that soldiers risk getting inadequate information about future risks and that training prior to intervention lacks important and central parts of the soldiers' risk assessment.

    Aim: The study aims to investigate risk understanding and risk perception by interviewing Swedish soldiers who have been in place in Afghanistan.

    Method: The study uses a case study based on the implementation of qualitative interviews.

    Results: When collecting data and during the analysis process, three main themes were identified with the following subcategories.

    Conclusion: The respondents' experience of the international effort highlights that their risk perception does not correlate with the risk understanding they had with them from home. The assignment changed the respondents' subjective risk understanding and risk perception.

  • Charisis, Georgina
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Mina språk: Tredjeklassares uppfattningar om språkligt kapital, flerspråkighet samt modersmål2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate thoughts of pupils in third grade about language, language acquisition, multilingualism and mother tongue. The group is highly multicultural and multilingual which has resulted in many opinions regarding the following issues of conduct: How do the pupils describe their use of their language skills and what do they do to develop them? What thoughts do they have about multilingualism? To what and when do the pupils make use of their mother tongue? A mixed method has been used which makes the study equally quantitative and qualitative. The results show that language is a means of communication encountering people in your daily life, in example at home, school and in your free time. The children show great skills in language usage when they cross the different social arenas during a normal day and also an awareness regarding learning strategies. The pupils’ mother tongues are being used mostly with family though and although multilingualism is considered positive the children do not use all their language capacity when learning a second language.

  • Sjöquist, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Utvecklad metod vid utredning av inomhusklimatproblem.: Previa-modellen: utredning av byggnadsrelaterad ohälsa och ospecifik byggnadsrelaterad ohälsa2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    More individuals gets symptoms which relates to the indoor climate or the building at the workplace. Indoor climate investigations are often multifactorial, symptoms can come to existence from building-related problems as well from psychic- and social problems. To deal with the problem a working method called the Previa-model was manufactured. The Previa-model builds on working with both building-related symptoms (BRS) and nonspecific building-related symptoms (NBRS) side by side as far as it goes. Furthermore, chart the individuals symptoms, demands on management and a cooperation between psychologists, work environment engineers, company doctors and nurses. The focus is on helping individuals decrease their anxiety and stress as much as possible. The purpose of this study was to examine how the Previa-model have facilitated indoor climate investigations. Which components in the Previa-model could decrease anxiety and stress. Also, how psychologists could help individuals who have NBRS. The study builds on interviews with one work environment engineer and three psychologists. Data was collected from assignments based on the Previa-model, one ongoing and three finished and result from a survey. The result showed that the application of the Previa-model led to good results in the investigations and customers were in general very pleased with the outcome. Sixteen components that could decrease anxiety and stress were found. Furthermore, could psychologists support individuals by dealing with stress, anxiety and emotional impingement. Indoor climate problems are often very complex and difficult to solve, but working with several investigations and actions at the same time makes it possible to succeed.

  • Mohamed, Ahmed
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Barnidrott och föreningsavgifter: En studie om föreningslivet, ideellt arbete och avgift2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Sports club fees keep increasing among members and participants in Sweden, as an effect of proffesionalization and commersialization. When the Swedish National Sports Association abolished the amateur rules in 1967, the state and the market gained more possibilities to affect the Swedish sports movement. Sports should be a platform where children and young adults can spend time and grow as individuals as well as develop an interest for a healthy lifestyle. Nowadays, the proffesionalism and commercialism causes many young athletes to quit exercising sports. Multi-faceted sports are an essential part of keeping children in the sports movement, as well as creating a lifelong interest in sports. The purpose of this study was to investigate the club of Gimonäs Umeå IF in Sweden, to see what thoughts and experiences seemed frequent regarding club fees, also investigate if the parents are happy with the content how the fees were being used. To summarize, the parents were generally pleased with the fees being taken although some were miss content since they had preferred lower fees. The clubs, on the other hand, were disappointed with the contribution from the state and the county.

  • Subramani Palanisamy, Harisubramanyabalaji
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Risk Assessment based Data Augmentation for Robust Image Classification: using Convolutional Neural Network2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous driving is increasingly popular among people and automotive industries in realizing their presence both in passenger and goods transportation. Safer autonomous navigation might be very challenging if there is a failure in sensing system. Among several sensing systems, image classification plays a major role in understanding the road signs and to regulate the vehicle control based on urban road rules. Hence, a robust classifier algorithm irrespective of camera position, view angles, environmental condition, different vehicle size & type (Car, Bus, Truck, etc.,) of an autonomous platform is of prime importance.

    In this study, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based classifier algorithm has been implemented to ensure improved robustness for recognizing traffic signs. As training data play a crucial role in supervised learning algorithms, there come an effective dataset requirement which can handle dynamic environmental conditions and other variations caused due to the vehicle motion (will be referred as challenges). Since the collected training data might not contain all the dynamic variations, the model weakness can be identified by exposing it to variations (Blur, Darkness, Shadow, etc.,) faced by the vehicles in real-time as a initial testing sequence. To overcome the weakness caused due to the training data itself, an effective augmentation technique enriching the training data in order to increase the model capacity for withstanding the variations prevalent in urban environment has been proposed.

    As a major contribution, a framework has been developed to identify model weakness and successively introduce a targeted augmentation methodology for classification improvement. Targeted augmentation is based on estimated weakness caused due to the challenges with difficulty levels, only those necessary for better classification were then augmented further. Predictive Augmentation (PA) and Predictive Multiple Augmentation (PMA) are the two proposed methods to adapt the model based on targeted challenges by delivering with high numerical value of confidence. We validated our framework on two different training datasets (German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark (GTSRB) and Heavy Vehicle data collected from bus) and with 5 generated test groups containing varying levels of challenge (simple to extreme). The results show impressive improvement by ≈ 5-20% in overall classification accuracy thereby keeping their high confidence.

  • LI, Songyu
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    A New Hands-free Face to Face Video Communication Method: Profile based frontal face video reconstruction2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis proposes a method to reconstruct a frontal facial video basedon encoding done with the facial profile of another video sequence.The reconstructed facial video will have the similar facial expressionchanges as the changes in the profile video. First, the profiles for boththe reference video and for the test video are captured by edge detection.Then, asymmetrical principal component analysis is used to model thecorrespondence between the profile and the frontal face. This allows en-coding from a profile and decoding of the frontal face of another video.Another solution is to use dynamic time warping to match the profilesand select the best matching corresponding frontal face frame for re-construction. With this method, we can reconstructed the test frontalvideo to make it have the similar changing in facial expressions as thereference video. To improve the quality of the result video, Local Lin-ear Embedding is used to give the result video a smoother transitionbetween frames.

  • Lindman, Julia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Vegansk kosthållning: En kvantitativ studie om upplevelser, erfarenheter och kostmönster hos veganer2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Bakgrund Vegetarisk kosthållning blir vanligare och intresset för veganism ökar. Kosthållningen kan innebära hälsofördelar vilket är ett av motiven till veganism. Trots ökad popularitet cirkulerar fortfarande fördomar kring kosthållningen.

    Syfte Syftet med studien var att undersöka veganers motiv till, upplevelser av och eventuella svårigheter med kosthållningen. Syftet med studien var även att undersöka veganers uppgivna intag av frukt, grönsaker och bär, utrymmesmat, ersättningsprodukter samt kosttillskott.

    Metod Veganer rekryterades via Facebook där 517 veganer besvarade en webbenkät innehållande frågor om bland annat motiv till veganism, upplevda hälsoförändringar, livsmedelsintag och svårigheter. Statistiska test som användes var: Chi-två test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Spearman correlation coefficient och One sample Wilcoxon Ranked. Signifikansnivån sattes till p<0,05.

    Resultat De vanligaste motiven till veganism var etik (94,2%), miljö (60,1%) och hälsa (41,2%). Många deltagare hade upplevt positiva hälsoförändringar efter kostombytet, (77,3%) till exempel mindre mag-tarmbesvär (45,8%) och mera energi (41,8%). Deltagarna uppgav att omgivningen ofta hade åsikter om kosthållningen (p<0,001), samtidigt som de försökte inspirera omgivningen att äta växtbaserat (p<0,001). Den vanligaste svårigheten med kosthållningen var restaurangbesök (34,6%). Majoriteten av deltagarna använde sojabaserade köttersättningsprodukter (99,6%) och mjölkersättningsprodukter (99%). Kosttillskott användes frekvent (85,5%), framför allt B12 (56,3%).

    Slutsats Veganerna åt mera frukt, grönsaker och kosttillskott än genomsnittspopulationen. Många veganer upplevde dock svårigheter med kosthållningen. Detta kunde leda till undvikande av växtbaserad kost trots möjliga hälsofördelar. Även om det fanns hälsofördelar med kosthållningen valde majoriteten av veganer kosten av etiska skäl. Trots utmaningarna är det lättare att vara vegan idag. Till exempel är utbudet av ersättningsprodukter större än tidigare. Detta underlättar vardagen för veganer men kan dock innebära ett mindre näringsrikt matintag, vilket kan göra den veganska kosthållningen mindre fördelaktig.

  • Svebrant, Sofia
    et al.
    Olsen, Therese
    Larsson, Jim
    Öhagen, Patrik
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Järhult, Josef D
    The enzyme toilet rim block 'pCure' does not efficiently remove drug residues in a hospital setting: exemplifying the importance of on-site implementation testing2018Ingår i: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id 1553463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Negative environmental effects of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are increasingly recognized, especially concerning antibiotics, and hospitals are important point sources. "pCure" is a toilet rim block containing API-degrading enzymes; the producing company claims positive in vitro results but no implementation studies have been performed.

    Materials and methods: In a university hospital setting, 16 weeks were randomized to installation or no installation of pCure in all 261 toilets connected to the same cesspit where sewage water was sampled daily. Ninety-six samples were analyzed for 102 APIs using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Results and Discussion: Fifty-one APIs were detected with a large variation in levels but no significant differences in the initial statistical analysis. More statistical testing of API level ratios (pCure installed/not installed) yielded some cases of significant decrease. Differences were small and not consistent when comparing means and medians. We cannot exclude a small pCure effect but clearly pCure has no effect of biological importance. Conclusion: pCure is not useful to reduce drug residue discharge in a hospital setting. In a bigger perspective, our study exemplifies that products claiming to reduce an environmental problem need to be tested in on-site implementation studies by independent researchers before reaching the market.

  • Devito, Fiorella
    et al.
    Zito, Annapaola
    Dragonieri, Silvano
    Carratu, Pierluigi
    Quaranta, Vitaliano N.
    Vitale, Francesco
    Quaranta, Nicola
    Panza, Francesco
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Cameli, Matteo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Kardiologi.
    Resta, Onofrio
    Ciccone, Marco M.
    Evaluation of endothelial function and cardiovascular risk in non-obese patients with slight degree of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome2017Ingår i: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, ISSN 1122-0643, Vol. 87, nr 3, s. 112-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, it has been clearly described an independent relationship between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and cardiovascular risk, with underlying mechanisms also including endothelial dysfunction. We enrolled 32 consecutive non-obese patients (mean age of 39.5 +/- 11.5 years), of which 16 with mild OSAS and 16 snoring without OSAS. Mild OSAS is defined by an AHI index between 5 and 15. We have investigated if whether there was a relationship between mild OSAS, endothelial function and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT). The population was divided into two groups: Group 1 (16 simple snorer patients with an average age of 39.4 +/- 12.1 years) and Group 2 (16 subjects with mild OSAS with an average age of 39.6 +/- 11.2 years). Each group underwent cardiovascular investigation including measurement of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery and C-IMT. Both groups comprised non-obese subjects. Patients with mild OSAS had serum total cholesterol values statistically significantly higher than simple snores patients (178.6 +/- 24.9 vs 159.2 +/- 25.3; p=0.038). OSAS patients had also a trend towards higher values of maximum C-IMT compared to simple snorer patients (0.70 +/- 0.15 vs 0.65 +/- 0.16), although below the level of significance. Between the two groups, no difference was found for FMD values. The present results on mild OSAS strengthen the importance of a diagnosis of OSAS as soon as possible, in order to encourage all primary prevention interventions to correct risk factors responsible for disease progression and the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, not excluding the use of therapies of non-invasive ventilation even in the early stages of the disease.

  • Pasquali, C. E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Client self-image, therapist acting, and the establishment of the therapeutic alliance in a training context2018Ingår i: European Journal of Psychotherapy, ISSN 1364-2537, E-ISSN 1469-5901, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 373-390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined how clients' self-image and perception of therapist's behavior are related to the therapeutic alliance, as well as how these variables change in the psychotherapy process in trainee-led psychotherapy. A total of 164 participants (M = 28.9 years) who attended two semesters of treatment at the Psychology Clinic of Umea University completed the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) to evaluate their perception of their alliance with the therapist. They also completed two questionnaires based on the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) model to give insight into their self-image patterns and to analyze their perceptions of the therapist's behavior. The results show that a positive self-image and positive perceptions of the therapist's actions increased significantly over the course of the therapy, with a corresponding decrease in negative patterns. The alliance scores show that the therapeutic alliance gains significance over time and that it is influenced more by the perception of the therapist's behavior than by the self-image. The self-image becomes relevant after the mid part of therapy, underlining the role of the therapist in co-creating the treatment relationship. The implications of these results are discussed, and so are directions for future research in other traineeled settings and samples.

  • Zhou, Zhiyong
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Yu, Jun
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    A New Nonconvex Sparse Recovery Method for Compressive Sensing2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics, ISSN 2297-4687, Vol. 5, s. 1-11, artikel-id 14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As an extension of the widely used ℓr-minimization with 0 < r ≤ 1, a new non-convex weighted ℓr − ℓ1 minimization method is proposed for compressive sensing. The theoretical recovery results based on restricted isometry property and q-ratio constrained minimal singular values are established. An algorithm that integrates the iteratively reweighted least squares algorithm and the difference of convex functions algorithmis given to approximately solve this non-convex problem. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate our results.

  • Disputation: 2019-04-05 09:00 Hörsal D, Umeå
    Eid Rodríguez, Daniel V.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    The rough journey to access health care: the case of leishmaniasis in the Bolivian rainforest2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease transmitted by vectors that cause three main clinical syndromes: cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML), and visceral (VL). Since VL is not relevant to this thesis, only CL and ML will be further discussed. Leishmaniasis is present in 98 countries, with more than 350 million people at risk of infection. Leishmaniasis disproportionately affects poor countries and, in particular, remote areas where health services are weaker. Bolivia, a lower-middle-income country, is the fifth country with more cases in Latin America, and case detection and management is the main control strategy of the National Leishmaniasis Control Programme (NLCP). The NLCP provides free treatment to patients, which consists of systemic pentavalent antimonials (SPA) for 20 days. This treatment is highly toxic for patients and costly for the government, resulting in long periods of shortage of the drug. A good alternative to SPA is the use of intralesional pentavalent antimonials (ILPA), which are safer and have similar efficacy to SPA in treating CL. Case detection and management depend on a well-structured health-care system, and the primary level of care is responsible for this task in Bolivian endemic areas. It is well known that health-care access for leishmaniasis patients is limited but the extent and the determinant factors of this problem are unknown. The aim of this thesis is to assess health-care access among patients with leishmaniasis in a Bolivian rainforest rural area, addressing four specific questions: Who is most vulnerable to CL?; What is the extent of their lack of access to health care?; How do the dimensions of access and the quality of care influence health-care utilization in a context of vulnerability?; and how can a change in NLCP policy related to the treatment of CL improve the level of access to health care?

    Methods: This thesis is based on four studies that use quantitative and qualitative methods. Data collection was conducted through surveys, in-depth interviews and revision of official documents. Sub-study 1 was based on a cross-sectional study conducted in two communities of Cochabamba and assessed risk factors for CL using multivariate analysis. Sub-study 2 used the method of capture−recapture to assess the level of under-reporting of the national register for the period of 2013−2014,  using Chapman’s formula. Sub-study 3 was conducted through in-depth interviews applied to 14 participants, using thematic analysis. Sub-study 4 was an economic evaluation that used data from surveys with physicians, official documents and key informants and compared the costs of systemic pentavalent antimonials (SPA) and intralesional pentavalent antimonials (ILPA) from the perspective of the Ministry of Health (MoH) and society. Additionally, a budget impact analysis of the implementation of ILPA in hypothetical scenarios of increasing level of demand was carried out.

    Main findings: Sub-study 1 showed that gender/sex was the only statistically significant factor associated with CL, with men being the most affected group. Other classical factors, such as animal ownership, house materials and protective measures were, however, not related to CL. Sub-study 2 revealed a high level of under-reporting (73%) of CL in the study area, and this under-reporting was higher among men compared to women. Sub-study 3 showed that the lack of availability, accessibility, affordability and quality of care were the main factors that limited the access to care of CL and ML patients. In sub-study 4, the economic analysis pointed out that the use of ILPA was cost-saving for the MoH and society, and the budget analysis confirmed that the implementation of ILPA as first-line treatment was not only cost-saving for the MoH, but it would also increase the number of patients accessing the treatment.

    Conclusions: The predominance of a sylvatic pattern of transmission, with men as the most affected group, demands new approaches to prevention related to occupational activities. The NLCP policy related to case management has been essential to reducing economic barriers for patients with leishmaniasis; however, there are still a considerable amount of cases who do not have access to the treatment. Lacko f health services, equipment and drugs, as well as difficulties in reaching health services, the high costs of seeking health care and the low quality of care are important factors that must be addressed to fulfil the right to health care for these patients. Finally, new therapeutic alternatives, such as ILPA, must be considered to reduce problems of affordability, adherence, as well as side effects to the treatment. This information can be used to develop targeted interventions aimed at increasing the access to health care of people with leishmaniasis in the rainforest of Bolivia.

  • Disputation: 2019-04-05 10:00 Hörsal E, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Egelström, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Samma lärare – olika praktiker?: en studie av literacy och meningsskapande i grundskolans tidiga ämnesundervisning2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie riktar sitt intresse mot skolämnen som arenor för elevers literacyutveckling och meningsskapande. I fokus står ämnesundervisning i grundskolans mellanår (elever 10–13 år gamla) och jämförelser av fyra klasslärares arbete i matematik- och historieundervisning. Studien utgår från begreppet literacypraktiker som ett sätt att belysa hur literacy används på olika sätt i olika sammanhang samt värderingar och normer kring denna användning (Barton & Hamilton, 2000). Literacy förstås då som en uppsättning olika literacies associerade med olika sammanhang i livet (Barton & Hamilton, 2000:8), exempelvis i olika skolämnen. Studien handlar om en resa in i två olika skolämnen och literacypraktiker i dem med utgångspunkten att samma lärare undervisar i båda ämnena.

    En central uppgift för skolan är att försäkra sig om att alla elever lär och utvecklas på ett sätt som ger dem möjlighet till fullt offentligt, samhälleligt och ekonomisk deltagande (New London Group (NLG), 1996). I linje med sådana beskrivningar vilar den svenska skolan på principer om alla elevers rätt till utveckling och lärande (Skollagen, SFS, 2010:800). Likaså ska elever tillförsäkras en likvärdig utbildning oavsett av vem eller var i landet den anordnas. Att undervisningen ska vara likvärdig innebär inte en undervisning utformad på samma sätt överallt och för alla. Istället handlar likvärdigheten om att elever ska ges möjligheter att lyckas genom att undervisningen utformas med elevers olika förutsättningar och behov som utgångspunkt. En strävan för skolan ska vara att uppväga skillnader i elevernas förutsättningar (Skollagen, SFS 2010:800), något som benämnts som skolans kompensatoriska uppdrag. Resultat som visar en oroande utveckling av likvärdighetsaspekter inom skolan (Skolverket, 2018b) indikerar dock svårigheter för skolan att möta detta kompensatoriska uppdrag.

    Hur väl elever lyckas i skolarbetet är bland annat en konsekvens av den undervisning de möter. Sättet att utforma undervisning fungerar som en förutsättning för elevers möjligheter att lära och skapa mening i skolarbetet (Hiebert, 2003; Moje & Lewis, 2007). I mitt arbete som mellanstadielärare och specialpedagog har jag sett många exempel på betydelsen av den undervisning elever möter och hur undervisningens utformning kan innebära skillnader. Elever har beskrivit hur en undervisning de upplevt som tillgänglig och möjlig att lyckas i har kunnat ge energi och motivation till skolarbete, trots ibland komplexa förutsättningar. Elever har också beskrivit hur upplevelser av att inte förstå eller känna delaktighet i undervisningssammanhanget har inneburit sämre välbefinnande och/eller sämre studieresultat. Jag har därmed på ett påtagligt sätt erfarit hur olika sätt att utforma undervisning kan vara en viktig faktor för elevers möjligheter till lärande och utveckling.

    Forskning beskriver läraren som en viktig del i och förutsättning för hur undervisningen utformas (Hattie, 2008). Samtidigt verkar inte läraren i isolering. Snarare ingår hen som en del i skola och undervisning som system, där faktorer som administrativa ramar och regler, tillgång till resurser av olika slag, historiskt utvecklade traditioner med mera också påverkar undervisningens utformning. Läraren agerar därmed inte i ett vakuum utan ingår i ett system av komplexa historiska och kulturella samband, vilka skapar olika förutsättningar för hur undervisningen utformas (Carlgren, 2015; Engeström, 2015). Att studera hur undervisningen utformas i olika undervisningssammanhang och vilka möjligheter till och villkor för lärande och utveckling de innebär tycks därmed viktigt.

  • Pettersson, Ove
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Den ryska bylinans propagandafunktion i sovjetisk lyrik2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • Elsholz, Alexander K. W.
    et al.
    Birk, Marlene S.
    Charpentier, Emmanuelle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany; Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    Turgay, Kuersad
    Functional Diversity of AAA plus Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, ISSN 2296-889X, Vol. 4, artikel-id 44Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics.

  • Engert, Andreas
    et al.
    Balduini, Carlo
    Brand, Anneke
    Coiffier, Bertrand
    Cordonnier, Catherine
    Doehner, Hartmut
    de Wit, Thom Duyvene
    Eichinger, Sabine
    Fibbe, Willem
    Green, Tony
    de Haas, Fleur
    Iolascon, Achille
    Jaffredo, Thierry
    Rodeghiero, Francesco
    Salles, Gilles
    Schuringa, Jan Jacob
    Andre, Marc
    Andre-Schmutz, Isabelle
    Bacigalupo, Andrea
    Bochud, Pierre-Yves
    den Boer, Monique
    Bonini, Chiara
    Camaschella, Clara
    Cant, Andrew
    Cappellini, Maria Domenica
    Cazzola, Mario
    Lo Celso, Cristina
    Dimopoulos, Meletios
    Douay, Luc
    Dzierzak, Elaine
    Einsele, Hermann
    Ferreri, Andres
    De Franceschi, Lucia
    Gaulard, Philippe
    Gottgens, Berthold
    Greinacher, Andreas
    Gresele, Paolo
    Gribben, John
    de Haan, Gerald
    Hansen, John-Bjarne
    Hochhaus, Andreas
    Kadir, Rezan
    Kaveri, Srini
    Kouskoff, Valerie
    Kuehne, Thomas
    Kyrle, Paul
    Ljungman, Per
    Maschmeyer, Georg
    Mendez-Ferrer, Simon
    Milsom, Michael
    Mummery, Christine
    Ossenkoppele, Gert
    Pecci, Alessandro
    Peyvandi, Flora
    Philipsen, Sjaak
    Reitsma, Pieter
    Maria Ribera, Jose
    Risitano, Antonio
    Rivella, Stefano
    Ruf, Wolfram
    Schroeder, Timm
    Scully, Marie
    Socie, Gerard
    Staal, Frank
    Stanworth, Simon
    Stauder, Reinhard
    Stilgenbauer, Stephan
    Tamary, Hannah
    Theilgaard-Monch, Kim
    Thein, Swee Lay
    Tilly, Herve
    Trneny, Marek
    Vainchenker, William
    Vannucchi, Alessandro Maria
    Viscoli, Claudio
    Vrielink, Hans
    Zaaijer, Hans
    Zanella, Alberto
    Zolla, Lello
    Zwaginga, Jaap Jan
    Martinez, Patricia Aguilar
    van den Akker, Emile
    Allard, Shubha
    Anagnou, Nicholas
    Andolfo, Immacolata
    Andrau, Jean-Christophe
    Angelucci, Emanuele
    Anstee, David
    Aurer, Igor
    Avet-Loiseau, Herve
    Aydinok, Yesim
    Bakchoul, Tamam
    Balduini, Alessandra
    Barcellini, Wilma
    Baruch, Dominique
    Baruchel, Andre
    Bayry, Jagadeesh
    Bento, Celeste
    van den Berg, Anke
    Bernardi, Rosa
    Bianchi, Paola
    Bigas, Anna
    Biondi, Andrea
    Bohonek, Milos
    Bonnet, Dominique
    Borchmann, Peter
    Borregaard, Niels
    Braekkan, Sigrid
    van den Brink, Marcel
    Brodin, Ellen
    Bullinger, Lars
    Buske, Christian
    Butzeck, Barbara
    Cammenga, Jorg
    Campo, Elias
    Carbone, Antonino
    Cervantes, Francisco
    Cesaro, Simone
    Charbord, Pierre
    Claas, Frans
    Cohen, Hannah
    Conard, Jacqueline
    Coppo, Paul
    Vives Corrons, Joan-Lluis
    da Costa, Lydie
    Davi, Frederic
    Delwel, Ruud
    Dianzani, Irma
    Domanovic, Dragoslav
    Donnelly, Peter
    Drnovsek, Tadeja Dovc
    Dreyling, Martin
    Du, Ming-Qing
    Dufour, Carlo
    Durand, Charles
    Efremov, Dimitar
    Eleftheriou, Androulla
    Elion, Jacques
    Emonts, Marieke
    Engelhardt, Monika
    Ezine, Sophie
    Falkenburg, Fred
    Favier, Remi
    Federico, Massimo
    Fenaux, Pierre
    Fitzgibbon, Jude
    Flygare, Johan
    Foa, Robin
    Forrester, Lesley
    Galacteros, Frederic
    Garagiola, Isabella
    Gardiner, Chris
    Garraud, Olivier
    van Geet, Christel
    Geiger, Hartmut
    Geissler, Jan
    Germing, Ulrich
    Ghevaert, Cedric
    Girelli, Domenico
    Godeau, Bertrand
    Goekbuget, Nicola
    Goldschmidt, Hartmut
    Goodeve, Anne
    Graf, Thomas
    Graziadei, Giovanna
    Griesshammer, Martin
    Gruel, Yves
    Guilhot, Francois
    von Gunten, Stephan
    Gyssens, Inge
    Halter, Jorg
    Harrison, Claire
    Harteveld, Cornelis
    Hellstrom-Lindberg, Eva
    Hermine, Olivier
    Higgs, Douglas
    Hillmen, Peter
    Hirsch, Hans
    Hoskin, Peter
    Huls, Gerwin
    Inati, Adlette
    Johnson, Peter
    Kattamis, Antonis
    Kiefel, Volker
    Kleanthous, Marina
    Klump, Hannes
    Krause, Daniela
    Hovinga, Johanna Kremer
    Lacaud, Georges
    Lacroix-Desmazes, Sebastien
    Landman-Parker, Judith
    LeGouill, Steven
    Lenz, Georg
    von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie
    von Lindern, Marieke
    Lopez-Guillermo, Armando
    Lopriore, Enrico
    Lozano, Miguel
    MacIntyre, Elizabeth
    Makris, Michael
    Mannhalter, Christine
    Martens, Joost
    Mathas, Stephan
    Matzdorff, Axel
    Medvinsky, Alexander
    Menendez, Pablo
    Migliaccio, Anna Rita
    Miharada, Kenichi
    Mikulska, Malgorzata
    Minard, Veronique
    Montalban, Carlos
    de Montalembert, Mariane
    Montserrat, Emili
    Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel
    Mountford, Joanne
    Muckenthaler, Martina
    Mueller-Tidow, Carsten
    Mumford, Andrew
    Nadel, Bertrand
    Navarro, Jose-Tomas
    el Nemer, Wassim
    Noizat-Pirenne, France
    O'Mahony, Brian
    Oldenburg, Johannes
    Olsson, Martin
    Oostendorp, Robert
    Palumbo, Antonio
    Passamonti, Francesco
    Patient, Roger
    de Latour, Regis Peffault
    Pflumio, Francoise
    Pierelli, Luca
    Piga, Antonio
    Pollard, Debra
    Raaijmakers, Marc
    Radford, John
    Rambach, Ralf
    Rao, A. Koneti
    Raslova, Hana
    Rebulla, Paolo
    Rees, David
    Ribrag, Vincent
    Rijneveld, Anita
    Rinalducci, Sara
    Robak, Tadeusz
    Roberts, Irene
    Rodrigues, Charlene
    Rosendaal, Frits
    Rosenwald, Andreas
    Rule, Simon
    Russo, Roberta
    Saglio, Guiseppe
    Sanchez, Mayka
    Scharf, Ruediger E.
    Schlenke, Peter
    Semple, John
    Sierra, Jorge
    So-Osman, Cynthia
    Manuel Soria, Jose
    Stamatopoulos, Kostas
    Stegmayr, Bernd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Stunnenberg, Henk
    Swinkels, Dorine
    Taborda Barata, Joao Pedro
    Taghon, Tom
    Taher, Ali
    Terpos, Evangelos
    Thachil, Jecko
    Tissot, Jean Daniel
    Touw, Ivo
    Toye, Ash
    Trappe, Ralf
    Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra
    Unal, Sule
    Vaulont, Sophie
    Viprakasit, Vip
    Vitolo, Umberto
    van Wijk, Richard
    Wojtowicz, Agnieszka
    Zeerleder, Sacha
    Zieger, Barbara
    The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document2016Ingår i: Haematologica, ISSN 0390-6078, E-ISSN 1592-8721, Vol. 101, nr 2, s. 115-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at (sic)23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap. The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders. The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients.

  • Audisio, Paolo
    et al.
    Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel
    Slipinski, Adam
    Nilsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jelinek, Josef
    Taglianti, Augusto Vigna
    Turco, Federica
    Otero, Carlos
    Canepari, Claudio
    Kral, David
    Liberti, Gianfranco
    Sama, Gianfranco
    Nardi, Gianluca
    Lobl, Ivan
    Horak, Jan
    Kolibac, Jiri
    Hava, Jiri
    Sapiejewski, Maciej
    Jaech, Manfred
    Bologna, Marco Alberto
    Biondi, Maurizio
    Nikitsky, Nikolai B.
    Mazzoldi, Paolo
    Zahradnik, Petr
    Wegrzynowicz, Piotr
    Constantin, Robert
    Gerstmeier, Roland
    Zhantiev, Rustem
    Fattorini, Simone
    Tomaszewska, Wioletta
    Ruecker, Wolfgang H.
    Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier
    Cassola, Fabio
    Angelini, Fernando
    Johnson, Colin
    Schawaller, Wolfgang
    Regalin, Renato
    Baviera, Cosimo
    Rocchi, Saverio
    Cianferoni, Fabio
    Beenen, Ron
    Schmitt, Michael
    Sassi, David
    Kippenberg, Horst
    Zampetti, Marcello Franco
    Trizzino, Marco
    Chiari, Stefano
    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria
    Sabatelli, Simone
    de Jong, Yde
    Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea)2015Ingår i: Biodiversity Data Journal, ISSN 1314-2836, E-ISSN 1314-2828, Vol. 3, nr 1, artikel-id e4750Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum fur Naturkunde.

  • Vain, Thomas
    et al.
    Raggi, Sara
    Ferro, Noel
    Barange, Deepak Kumar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Chemical Biology Umeå, Chemical Biology Consortium Sweden.
    Kieffer, Martin
    Ma, Qian
    Doyle, Siamsa M.
    Thelander, Mattias
    Pařízková, Barbora
    Novák, Ondřej
    Ismail, Alexandre
    Enquist, Per-Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Chemical Biology Umeå, Chemical Biology Consortium Sweden.
    Rigal, Adeline
    Łangowska, Małgorzata
    Ramans Harborough, Sigurd
    Zhang, Yi
    Ljung, Karin
    Callis, Judy
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Chemical Biology Umeå, Chemical Biology Consortium Sweden.
    Kepinski, Stefan
    Estelle, Mark
    Pauwels, Laurens
    Robert, Stéphanie
    Selective auxin agonists induce specific AUX/IAA protein degradation to modulate plant development2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The plant hormone auxin coordinates almost all aspects of plant development. Throughout plant life, the expression of hundreds of genes involved in auxin regulation is orchestrated via several combinatorial and cell-specific auxin perception systems. An effective approach to dissect these complex pathways is the use of synthetic molecules that target specific processes of auxin activity. Here, we describe synthetic auxins, RubNeddins (RNs), which act as selective auxin agonists. The RN with the greatest potential for dissecting auxin perception was RN4, which we used to reveal a role for the chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA in apical hook development. Therefore, the understanding of RN mode of action paves the way to dissecting specific molecular components involved in auxin-regulated developmental processes.Auxin phytohormones control most aspects of plant development through a complex and interconnected signaling network. In the presence of auxin, AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (AUX/IAA) transcriptional repressors are targeted for degradation by the SKP1-CULLIN1-F-BOX (SCF) ubiquitin-protein ligases containing TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESISTANT 1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (TIR1/AFB). CULLIN1-neddylation is required for SCFTIR1/AFB functionality, as exemplified by mutants deficient in the NEDD8-activating enzyme subunit AUXIN-RESISTANT 1 (AXR1). Here, we report a chemical biology screen that identifies small molecules requiring AXR1 to modulate plant development. We selected four molecules of interest, RubNeddin 1 to 4 (RN1 to -4), among which RN3 and RN4 trigger selective auxin responses at transcriptional, biochemical, and morphological levels. This selective activity is explained by their ability to consistently promote the interaction between TIR1 and a specific subset of AUX/IAA proteins, stimulating the degradation of particular AUX/IAA combinations. Finally, we performed a genetic screen using RN4, the RN with the greatest potential for dissecting auxin perception, which revealed that the chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA is implicated in auxin-mediated apical hook development. These results demonstrate the power of selective auxin agonists to dissect auxin perception for plant developmental functions, as well as offering opportunities to discover new molecular players involved in auxin responses.

  • Löfgren, Sarah
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    En likvärdig skola?: En studie om kommunala utgifter för den svenska grundskolan2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This aims to study how spending per student in primaryschool differs between all the 290 Swedish municipalities. Furthermore, it examines what factors effect how much is spent per student and what implications this has from an equality standpoint.

    The report used a cross-sectional data from 2016 and analysed the results using the OLS method. A number of variables were chosen based on earlier research. The results show that main variables that affect spending are tax, population, number of students per teacher, percentage children in the municipality and population density. The changes in spending results in that some students are allocated more resources than others and this could have consequences from an equality standpoint. However, overall the spending per student seems to be based more on factors that the municipality can’t control and less on individuals preferences.

  • Steffner, Asta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Kost, livsstil och vuxenakne hos kvinnor: En kvantitativ enkätstudie om hur kvinnor ser på sambanden mellan kost, livsstil och vuxenakne2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Acne is a common inflammatory skin disease with an increasing prevalence in adult women. Existing treatment options often have inadequate efficacy and significant side effects.

    Purpose: To investigate how women perceive the relation between diet, lifestyle and adult acne.

    Method: Participants to a web survey were recruited on Facebook. Quantitative statistical analysis of 101 completed questionnaires was performed in SPSS. One Sample Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, Chi-square Test and Mann Whitney U test with the significance level p <0.05 were applied.

    Results: Dietary factors considered to aggravate acne were: milk products, chocolate, alcohol, sugar/foods with high sugar content and foods with high saturated fat content (p <0.001). Poor sleep and/or too few hours of sleep, stress, tobacco, smoking and snus were lifestyle factors that were considered to aggravate acne (p <0.001). The diet and lifestyle factors that were considered to reduce acne were: fruits and vegetables, Mediterranean diet, dietary supplements of zinc and good sleep and/or enough hours of sleep, physical activity and meditation or other relaxation exercises (p <0.001). The majority of the participants responded that diet and lifestyle factors are often not included in the treatment for acne, but favored that they should be included. Websites on the internet was the most common source of information. Healthcare professionals ("doctors/nurses") was the most trusted source of information.

    Conclusion: The participants' perceptions on the links between adult acne and diet and lifestyle, respectively, were broadly in line with what is described in the scientific literature as well as in official diet and lifestyle recommendations. The participants trusted advice provided by the healthcare system on relations between adult acne and diet and lifestyle and were in favor of receiving more advice of that type.

  • Younes, Amena
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Bilingual Code-Switching in a Swedish Context: A study of three Swedish-Arabic and three Swedish-English speakers2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Code-Switching (CS) is a world-wide phenomenon, allowing bilinguals across the globe to alternate effortlessly between their languages. As interesting as it sounds, code-switching can be used for a number of reasons, and there are different linguistic contexts in which this phenomenon occurs. Umeå is a very multinational city in northern Sweden, and this paper will present the results from interviewing a group of three (a) Arabic-Swedish speakers and a group of three (b) English-Swedish speakers on their use of language and code-switching. The results show that group a and group b both use CS as a tool to express themselves better, and also to feel a sense of belonging in their different surroundings. Being a bilingual usually comes with two cultures, and this includes many different situations in which these bilinguals use CS.

  • Jönsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Barnen, orden, skogen2019Ingår i: Provins, ISSN 0280-9974, nr 1, s. 46-49Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Alping, Peter
    et al.
    Piehl, Fredrik
    Langer-Gould, Annette
    Frisell, Thomas
    Burman, Joachim
    Fink, Katharina
    Fogdell-Hahn, Anna
    Gunnarsson, Martin
    Hillert, Jan
    Kockum, Ingrid
    Lycke, Jan
    Nilsson, Petra
    Olsson, Tomas
    Salzer, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Svenningsson, Anders
    Virtanen, Suvi
    Vrethem, Magnus
    Validation of the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Register Further Improving a Resource for Pharmacoepidemiologic Evaluations2019Ingår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 230-233Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Register is a national register monitoring treatment and clinical course for all Swedish multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, with high coverage and close integration with the clinic. Despite its great value for epidemiologic research, it has not previously been validated. In this brief report, we summarize a large validation of >3,000 patients in the register using clinical chart review in the context of the COMBAT-MS study. While further improving the data quality for a central cohort of patients available for future epidemiologic research, this study also allowed us to estimate the accuracy and completeness of the register data.

  • Patterson, Christopher C.
    et al.
    Harjutsalo, Valma
    Rosenbauer, Joachim
    Neu, Andreas
    Cinek, Ondrej
    Skrivarhaug, Torild
    Rami-Merhar, Birgit
    Soltesz, Gyula
    Svensson, Jannet
    Parslow, Roger C.
    Castell, Conxa
    Schoenle, Eugen J.
    Bingley, Polly J.
    Dahlquist, Gisela
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslawa K.
    Marciulionyte, Dale
    Roche, Edna F.
    Rothe, Ulrike
    Bratina, Natasa
    Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin
    Weets, Ilse
    Kocova, Mirjana
    Cherubini, Valentino
    Putarek, Natasa Rojnic
    Debeaufort, Carine E.
    Samardzic, Mira
    Green, Anders
    Trends and cyclical variation in the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in 26 European centres in the 25year period 1989-2013: a multicentre prospective registration study2019Ingår i: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 62, nr 3, s. 408-417Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: Against a background of a near-universally increasing incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes, recent reports from some countries suggest a slowing in this increase. Occasional reports also describe cyclical variations in incidence, with periodicities of between 4 and 6years.

    Methods: Age/sex-standardised incidence rates for the 0- to 14-year-old age group are reported for 26 European centres (representing 22 countries) that have registered newly diagnosed individuals in geographically defined regions for up to 25years during the period 1989-2013. Poisson regression was used to estimate rates of increase and test for cyclical patterns. Joinpoint regression software was used to fit segmented log-linear relationships to incidence trends.

    Results: Significant increases in incidence were noted in all but two small centres, with a maximum rate of increase of 6.6% per annum in a Polish centre. Several centres in high-incidence countries showed reducing rates of increase in more recent years. Despite this, a pooled analysis across all centres revealed a 3.4% (95% CI 2.8%, 3.9%) per annum increase in incidence rate, although there was some suggestion of a reduced rate of increase in the 2004-2008 period. Rates of increase were similar in boys and girls in the 0- to 4-year-old age group (3.7% and 3.7% per annum, respectively) and in the 5- to 9-year-old age group (3.4% and 3.7% per annum, respectively), but were higher in boys than girls in the 10- to 14-year-old age group (3.3% and 2.6% per annum, respectively). Significant 4year periodicity was detected in four centres, with three centres showing that the most recent peak in fitted rates occurred in 2012.

    Conclusions/interpretation: Despite reductions in the rate of increase in some high-risk countries, the pooled estimate across centres continues to show a 3.4% increase per annum in incidence rate, suggesting a doubling in incidence rate within approximately 20years in Europe. Although four centres showed support for a cyclical pattern of incidence with a 4year periodicity, no plausible explanation for this can be given.

  • Horneij, Gustav
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    För musikens skull?: Hur musik används och upplevs av förskollärare2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur det står till med musikämnet i dagens förskola. Musik kan enligt förskolans läroplan utgöra både metod och innehåll men även om musik har en stark traditionsbunden roll i förskolan som sällan ifrågasätts finns det möjligheter att utveckla användandet av musik inom förskolan, exempelvis via en ökad didaktisk medvetenhet. Forskning visar också på att musikaliskt innehåll i förskolan minskat på senare år. Verksamma pedagoger i förskolan får i denna studie svara på hur de upplever och har upplevt sina egna och andras musikaliska aktiviteter genom sina yrkesliv. Detta i syfte att öka kunskapen om musikens närvaro, ställning och utveckling inom förskolan samt hur förskollärare kan utveckla musikpedagogiken ytterligare. Det inhämtade materialet består av fyra intervjuade pedagogers svar. De mest centrala aspekterna som framkommer rör pedagogens roll i utformningen av förskolans musikaliska inslag, en motsägelsefull bild av hur musikens ställning i förskolan har förändrats samt ett behov av fortbildning i syfte att inspirera och förnya.

  • Östling, Ida
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Life cycle analysis as a tool for CO2 mitigation in the building sector2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    After the Paris agreement 2015 the Energy Commission in Sweden proposed a goal for Sweden of net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2045. The focus in this report has been on how buildings in Sweden could reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Year 2017 the government gave a task for Boverket in Sweden (National Board of Housing, Building and Planning) to investigate the possibility to introduce a climate declaration on buildings. The idea is a life cycle analysis (LCA) should be performed on the building in order to get a building permit. An LCA include all CO2 emissions emitted from resources used for raw material extraction, production of materials, construction site operations, user phase and also the demolition and disposal in the end of life of the building. The first draft from Boverket was published in February 2018 where they recommended a simple declaration. They recommended in the beginning to only include a few components in the declaration, and to only include the production phase. The major interest in this report have been to gain more understanding on how to perform LCAs and also how the LCA result could be used to decrease CO2 emissions. A case study was made on a residential building project called Mården, in Umeå Sweden.

    The first part in this thesis was to determine the phase in the buildings life cycle with the largest potential for decreasing CO2 emissions. When the LCA was performed on case study building Mården it was difficult to use exact data, since only 20 % of the construction products where declared in an environmental product declaration (EPD). Therefore the other 80 % where approximated with similar products declared in an EPD, or with generic data (general data for a type of product). An EPD is an LCA on a single product and could therefore give exact information on CO2 emissions for a specific product. However, several improvements where implemented in the buildings life cycle and where compared with this reference case. The result from the LCA showed the energy use in the user phase emitted the largest amount of CO2 emissions, and therefore also where the phase with the largest potential for reducing CO2 emissions. When the Swedish district heating mix where replaced with an energy source with 50 % less CO2 emissions, the emissions for the whole life cycle could be decreased with 20 %. Smaller improvements such as more environmental friendlier concrete, shorter transport distance between manufacturer and construction site or less water usage resulted in a decrease by 1.6-7 %. It was though shown these smaller improvement could result in a large decrease of CO2 emissions if more buildings also would improve the same thing. 2.4 million tons of CO2 emissions could for example be reduced in Sweden if 50 % of Sweden’s all new building projects would improve their choice of concrete. To make sure buildings could reduce their CO2 emissions there is important LCAs are performed before the building is constructed, to make sure all phases in the life cycle can be improved. If an LCA will be performed when the building is constructed, it is only possible to improve a few parts in the user phase, since the other phases already have passed.

    The second part in this thesis was to compare the different LCA softwares; (i) One Click LCA (needs license, from Finland), (ii) e-tool (free, from Australia) and (iii) BM (free, from Sweden). When more exact data were tried to be used in e-tool and One Click LCA the results were similar for the CO2 emissions from the production phase. E-tool only resulted in 6 % higher CO2 emissions in the production phase than One Click LCA. The LCA in the eventual future climate declaration will probably be performed with generic data, since in an early stage the contractors will not have detailed information on their construction products. An LCA was thus performed in each software with generic data, and the result differed a lot. The CO2 emissions from the production phase resulted in 36 % and 23 % less CO2 emissions in BM and e-tool than in One Click LCA. If several softwares will be allowed in this eventual climate declaration, the judgment could be difficult since different generic data is used in each sofware. The generic data were also different for one type of product in a single software, where the CO2 emission could differ with as much as 50 % between two types of generic data for one type of products. This leads to a difficulty when choosing generic data since there will be lack of information on the construction products at the time when this eventual climate declaration should be performed. A main focus for the future development should be on evaluating a standard database that could be used in EU.

    If a future law will be implemented it could be valuable to declare detailed rules on how to perform the LCA. Since depending on who will perform the LCA different results could occur due to different data used or assumptions on things like products, boundaries or used resource. However, this master thesis has shown there is possible to use the LCA methodology to find solutions for decreasing the CO2 emissions for buildings.

  • Ljung, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    "Det finns så mycket annat att prata om": En kvalitativ studie om hemtjänstpersonals upplevelse av e-tjänsten Nollvision undernäring2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund År 2017 hade 164 170 personer över 65 år i Sverige hemtjänst. Cirka 30 % av alla över 70 år riskerar undernäring. Sverige har som mål att år 2025 vara bäst i världen på att använda välfärdsteknik för att främja hälsa. ”Nollvision undernäring” var en elektronisk tjänst som lanserades 2018 för att förebygga undernäring hos äldre.

    Syfte Att undersöka hemtjänstpersonals upplevelse av e-tjänsten Nollvision undernäring som en välfärdsteknik och ett eventuellt verktyg i det dagliga arbetet för att förebygga undernäring hos personer över 65 år i ordinärt boende.

    Metod Semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med tre undersköterskor och ett vårdbiträde från fyra hemtjänstenheter i Stockholm. Materialet analyserades med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat Hemtjänstpersonalen beskrev en digital trend och upplevde både för- och nackdelar med välfärdsteknik i det dagliga arbetet. Nollvision undernäring beskrevs som användarvänlig och ett bra verktyg för att förebygga undernäring. Vidare skildrades olika förutsättningar i personalgruppen för att arbeta med välfärdsteknik och e-tjänsten där teknisk ovana hos kollegor och en besvärlig nedladdning beskrevs. Ytterligare framkom vissa hinder för utbildning och teknisk kompetensutveckling på enheterna samt brist på gemensam tid i arbetsgruppen såväl som hemma hos brukaren. Deltagarna upplevde att vissa kollegor saknade intresse för arbetet och att det var svårt att få alla i personalgruppen att arbeta på samma sätt. Deltagarna ville arbeta mer med Nollvision undernäring och hade flera förslag för en lyckad implementering.

    Slutsats Hemtjänstpersonalen upplevde att Nollvision undernäring var ett bra verktyg för att förebygga undernäring. Samtidigt framkom vissa hinder för användningen av välfärdsteknik som försvårade implementeringen av e-tjänsten. Detta kan delvis bero på att en implementeringsprocess är komplex och att det endast gått sex månader sedan lanseringen vid tidpunkten för den här studien.

  • Persson, Matilda
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Förorenade markers påverkan på grundvatten vid ökad erosion till följd av ett förändrat klimat: Kartläggning av erosionsrisk för MIFO – riskklass 1 och 2 i anslutning till Umeälven i Umeå kommun2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how increasing erosion, caused by increasing precipitation due to climate change, could have an effect on groundwater. Four maps were created using ArcGIS 10.4.1 (ArcMap). The maps include information from climate scenario RCP 8.5 referring to a baseline period from 1961 to 1990, flowage by natural casual factors like water storage or shifting rainfalls, and the geographical representation showing diversity of soil types within Umeå municipality. Each map was analyzed with the risk classification method referred to as - Methods for Inventories of Contaminated Site (MIFO). The study was limited to sites with objects of risk class 1 and 2. The results of the study showed that changes in climate can have a direct impact on precipitation in Västerbotten (Umeå municipality). With increased precipitation the risk of flooding increases in watercourses, which in this study refers to Umeälven. The result showed a high variability of soil erosion in areas near Umeälven where groundwater storage for water supplies were found. Three objects with preliminary class 2 were identified in this area. Other studies have shown that increasing rainfall may, affect soil stability and cause increased soil erosion, and therefore increase the mobility of metals in the soil. The conclusion of this study is that increased precipitation due to a changing climate could cause an increase soil erosion and landslides. This could increase mobility and erosion of soil contaminated with heavy metals and potentially contaminate important areas downstream Umeälven.

  • Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jantunen, Liisa M.
    Kucklick, John R.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Letcher, Robert J.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Wong, Fiona
    A review of halogenated natural products in Arctic, Subarctic and Nordic ecosystems2019Ingår i: Emerging Contaminants, ISSN 2405-6650, E-ISSN 2405-6642, Vol. 5, s. 89-115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Halogenated natural products (HNPs) are organic compounds containing bromine, chlorine, iodine, and rarely fluorine. HNPs comprise many classes of compounds, ranging in complexity from halocarbons to higher molecular weight compounds, which often contain oxygen and/or nitrogen atoms in addition to halogens. Many HNPs are biosynthesized by marine bacteria, macroalgae, phytoplankton, tunicates, corals, worms, sponges and other invertebrates. This paper reviews HNPs in Arctic, Subarctic and Nordic ecosystems and is based on sections of Chapter 2.16 in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) assessment Chemicals of Emerging Arctic Concern (AMAP, 2017) which deal with the higher molecular weight HNPs. Material is updated and expanded to include more Nordic examples. Much of the chapter is devoted to “bromophenolic” HNPs, viz bromophenols (BPs) and transformation products bromoanisoles (BAs), hydroxylated and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs, MeO-BDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), since these HNPs are most frequently reported. Others discussed are 2,2′ -dimethoxy-3,3′ ,5,5′ -tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2′ -dimethoxy-BB80), polyhalogenated 1′- methyl-1,2′-bipyrroles (PMBPs), polyhalogenated 1,1′ -dimethyl-2,2′ -bipyrroles (PDBPs), polyhalogenated N-methylpyrroles (PMPs), polyhalogenated N-methylindoles (PMIs), bromoheptyl- and bromooctyl pyrroles, (1R,2S,4R,5R,1′E)-2-bromo-1-bromomethyl-1,4-dichloro-5-(2′-chloroethenyl)-5- methylcyclohexane (mixed halogenated compound MHC-1), polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivatives (PBHDs) and polyhalogenated carbazoles (PHCs). Aspects of HNPs covered are physicochemical properties, sources and production, transformation processes, concentrations and trends in the physical environment and biota (marine and freshwater). Toxic properties of some HNPs and a discussion of how climate change might affect HNPs production and distribution are also included. The review concludes with a summary of research needs to better understand the role of HNPs as “chemicals of emerging Arctic concern”.

  • Hjältén, Adrian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Modeling the cavity dispersion in cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb Fourier transform spectroscopy2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Cavity enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy is a technique that allows

    for quick and sensitive measurements of molecular absorption spectra. Locking

    the comb lines of an optical frequency comb to the cavity modes of an enhancement

    cavity and then extracting the spectral information with a Fourier

    transform spectrometer grants easy access to wide segments of absorption spectra.

    One of the main obstacles complicating the analysis of the measurements is

    the inevitable dispersion occurring inside the cavity. In this project, absorption

    measurements of CO2 were performed using an existing and well established

    setup consisting of a near-infrared optical frequency comb locked to a Fabry-

    Pérot enhancement cavity using the Pound-Drever-Hall technique, and a Fourier

    transform spectrometer. The purpose was to improve theoretical models of the

    measured absorption spectra by creating and verifying a model for the cavity

    dispersion, stemming mostly from the cavity mirrors but also from the normal

    dispersion of the intracavity medium. Until now, the cavity dispersion has been

    treated as an unknown and was included as a fitting parameter together with

    the CO2 concentration when applying fits to the absorption measurements. The

    dispersion model was based on previously performed precise measurements of

    the positions of the cavity modes. The model was found to agree well with

    measurements. In addition, pre-calculating the dispersion drastically reduced

    computation time and seemed to improve the overall robustness of the fitting

    routine. A complicating factor was found to be small discrepancies between

    the locking frequencies as determined prior to the measurements and the values

    yielding optimum agreement with the model. These apparent shifts of the locking

    points were found to have a systematic dependence on the distance between

    the locking points. The exact cause of this was not determined but the results

    indicate that with the locking points separated by more than about 10nm the

    shifts are negligible.

  • Kaloteka, Karolina
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Spatial Quarantine: The Swedish quarantine system 1850-1894 and a spatial theoretical framework2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • Brunet Johansson, Albert
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Kristen värdegrund: En studie av Kristdemokratiska samhällspartiets utbildningspolitiska ställning i frågan om konfessionella friskolor åren 1984-1994.2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has investigated how the Swedish Christian Democratic Party (KDS) argued for the right of private actors to operate tax-funded schools outside of the public sector – charter schools. The hypothesis of this study was that KDS were openly positive to such a reform and saw it as a chance to run state-funded confessional schools.The study examined political texts produced by the party during a ten-year period, ranging from 1984 to 1994. The study’s methodological approach was one of a qualitative textual analysis, aided by a theoretical framework adapted from Samuel Moyn’s thesis in his book Christian Human Rights.The study concluded that there is empirical support to the thesis, and that KDS were very positive to a reform of the public school system in order to enable publicly funded private schools. There is less evidence to conclude that KDS intended for these schools to be confessional, although this study proposes that there is evidence to suggest as much.

  • Farias, Fabiana H. G.
    et al.
    Dahlqvist, Johanna
    Kozyrev, Sergey V.
    Leonard, Dag
    Wilbe, Maria
    Abramov, Sergei N.
    Alexsson, Andrei
    Pielberg, Gerli R.
    Hansson-Hamlin, Helene
    Andersson, Goran
    Tandre, Karolina
    Bengtsson, Anders A.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi.
    Syvanen, Ann-Christine
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    A rare regulatory variant in the MEF2D gene affects gene regulation and splicing and is associated with a SLE sub-phenotype in Swedish cohorts2019Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 432-441Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with heterogeneous clinical presentation and complex etiology involving the interplay between genetic, epigenetic, environmental and hormonal factors. Many common SNPs identified by genome wide-association studies (GWAS) explain only a small part of the disease heritability suggesting the contribution from rare genetic variants, undetectable in GWAS, and complex epistatic interactions. Using targeted resequencing of coding and conserved regulatory regions within and around 215 candidate genes selected on the basis of their known role in autoimmunity and genes associated with canine immune-mediated diseases, we identified a rare regulatory variant rs200395694:G > T located in intron 4 of the MEF2D gene encoding the myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2D transcription factor and associated with SLE in Swedish cohorts (504 SLE patients and 839 healthy controls, p = 0 .014 , CI = 1.1-10). Fisher's exact test revealed an association between the genetic variant and a triad of disease manifestations including Raynaud, anti-Ul-ribonucleoprotein (anti-RNP), and anti-Smith (anti-Sm) antibodies (p = 0.00037) among the patients. The DNA-binding activity of the allele was further studied by EMSA, reporter assays, and minigenes. The region has properties of an active cell-specific enhancer, differentially affected by the alleles of rs200395694:G > T. In addition, the risk allele exerts an inhibitory effect on the splicing of the alternative tissue-specific isoform, and thus may modify the target gene set regulated by this isoform. These findings emphasize the potential of dissecting traits of complex diseases and correlating them with rare risk alleles with strong biological effects.

  • Pham, Long Vo
    et al.
    Olmos, Julian David Janna
    Chernev, Petko
    Kargul, Joanna
    Messinger, Johannes
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Unequal misses during the flash-induced advancement of photosystem II: effects of the S state and acceptor side cycles2019Ingår i: Photosynthesis Research, ISSN 0166-8595, E-ISSN 1573-5079, Vol. 139, nr 1-3, s. 93-106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Photosynthetic water oxidation is catalyzed by the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II (PSII). This process is energetically driven by light-induced charge separation in the reaction center of PSII, which leads to a stepwise accumulation of oxidizing equivalents in the OEC (S-i states, i=0-4) resulting in O-2 evolution after each fourth flash, and to the reduction of plastoquinone to plastoquinol on the acceptor side of PSII. However, the S-i-state advancement is not perfect, which according to the Kok model is described by miss-hits (misses). These may be caused by redox equilibria or kinetic limitations on the donor (OEC) or the acceptor side. In this study, we investigate the effects of individual S state transitions and of the quinone acceptor side on the miss parameter by analyzing the flash-induced oxygen evolution patterns and the S-2, S-3 and S-0 state lifetimes in thylakoid samples of the extremophilic red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. The data are analyzed employing a global fit analysis and the results are compared to the data obtained previously for spinach thylakoids. These two organisms were selected, because the redox potential of Q(A)/Q(A)(-) in PSII is significantly less negative in C. merolae (E-m=-104mV) than in spinach (E-m=-163mV). This significant difference in redox potential was expected to allow the disentanglement of acceptor and donor side effects on the miss parameter. Our data indicate that, at slightly acidic and neutral pH values, the E-m of Q(A)(-)/Q(A) plays only a minor role for the miss parameter. By contrast, the increased energy gap for the backward electron transfer from Q(A)(-) to Pheo slows down the charge recombination reaction with the S-3 and S-2 states considerably. In addition, our data support the concept that the S-2 S-3 transition is the least efficient step during the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen in the Kok cycle of PSII.

  • Elgh, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hu, Xiaolei
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Dynamic Trajectory of Long-Term Cognitive Improvement Up to 10 Years in Young Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors: A Cohort Study2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Neurology, ISSN 1664-2295, E-ISSN 1664-2295, Vol. 10, artikel-id 97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective: The trajectories of long-term and domain-specific cognitive alterations over a decade after stroke are largely unknown. This study aims to investigate the dynamic alterations of domain-specific cognitive performance among young stroke survivors over 10 years after their first stroke.

    Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried out on 38 young stroke survivors (aged 18-65 at stroke onset) living in the community at 10 years after their first stroke. The cognitive outcomes were assessed repeatedly at 1 week, 7 months, and 10 years after their first stroke on the sub-domains: process speed (Symbol search and Coding from WAIS, TMT-A), visual attention (Bells test), visuospatial function (Block design from WAIS, RCFT), executive function (TMT-B, verbal fluency), verbal function [Letter fluency (FAS) from D-KEFS and CD], working memory (Digit Span from WAIS), immediate memory (RCFT and CD), and delayed memory (RCFT and CD). Global cognition was evaluated with Mini mental state examination at the two later time-points.

    Results: We found a delayed significant improvement of working memory with total recovery 10 years after participants' stroke. Visuospatial function recovered already at 7 months and remained stable at 10-year follow-up. Process speed demonstrated a significant decrease at 10 years compared to 7 months after stroke onset, a decrease which could be compensated by enhancements of other cognitive domains. No further deterioration was found in verbal function, immediate-, and delayed memory, and executive function during 10-year follow-up. Global cognition improved by on average two points between 7 months and 10 years. Education level and fatigue showed low to moderate positive correlations with cognitive improvements.

    Conclusions: The concordance of cognitive improvements between domain-specific and global cognitions strongly suggest that some young stroke survivors do improve their cognitive outcome over a 10-year period following their first stroke. This finding fills a gap of knowledge with respect to the dynamic trajectory of post-stroke cognition, with important implications in clinical practice.