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  • Papenberg, Goran
    et al.
    Jonasson, Lars S.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Koehncke, Ylva
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Tomtebodavägen 18A, 171 65 Solna, Sweden.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Lovden, Martin
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Backman, Lars
    Mapping the landscape of human dopamine D2/3 receptors with [11C]raclopride2019Ingår i: Brain Structure and Function, ISSN 1863-2653, E-ISSN 1863-2661, Vol. 224, nr 8, s. 2871-2882Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dopamine D2/3 system is fundamental for sensory, motor, emotional, and cognitive aspects of behavior. Small-scale human histopathological and animal studies show high density of D2/3 dopamine receptors (D2/3DR) in striatum, but also demonstrate the existence of such receptors across cortical and limbic regions. Assessment of D2/3DR BPND in the extrastriatal regions with [C-11]raclopride has long been considered unreliable due to the relatively low density of D2/3DR outside the striatum. We describe the distribution and interregional links of D2/3DR availability measured with PET and [C-11]raclopride across the human brain in a large sample (N = 176; age range 64-68 years). Structural equation modeling revealed that D2/3DR availability can be organized according to anatomical (nigrostriatal, mesolimbic, mesocortical) and functional (limbic, associative, sensorimotor) dopamine pathways. D2/3DR availability in corticolimbic functional subdivisions showed differential associations to corresponding striatal subdivisions, extending animal and pharmacological work. Our findings provide evidence on the dimensionality and organization of [C-11]raclopride D2/3DR availability in the living human brain that conforms to known dopaminergic pathways.

  • Banda, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Svanemyr, Joar
    Sandoy, Ingvild Fossgard
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Zulu, Joseph Mumba
    Acceptability of an economic support component to reduce early pregnancy and school dropout in Zambia: a qualitative case study2019Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 1685808Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cash Transfer (CT) schemes have become popular poverty reducing measures in many low and middle-income countries. Research indicates that when provided to girls in resource poor settings, cash transfers can increase education and postpone marriage and pregnancy. However, a few studies indicate that they can also have negative effects which can affect their acceptability, such as generating intra-community tensions.

    Objective: Conceptually informed by Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory, this paper explores factors affecting the acceptability of economic support in a randomized controlled trial in rural Monze and Pemba Districts of Southern Province in Zambia.

    Methods: Qualitative data were collected through five focus group discussions and six in-depth, semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. This study was done in the combined arm of a trial where girls received both economic support and participated in youth clubs offering sexuality and life-skills education.

    Results: In the study communities, acceptability was encouraging by the belief that economic support provided benefits beyond beneficiaries and that it improved access to education, and reduced teen pregnancies, marriages and school drop-out. However, provision of economic support only to selected girls and their parents and fear among some that the support was linked to satanic practices negatively affected acceptability. These fears were mitigated through community sensitisations.

    Conclusion: The study demonstrated that relative advantage, observability, simplicity and compatibility were key factors in influencing acceptability of the economic support. However, to enhance acceptability of cash transfer schemes aimed at addressing early marriage and pregnancy, it is important to explore socio-cultural factors that create suspicions and negative perceptions and to provide schemes that are perceived as relatively better than available similar schemes, understood, compatible and viable beyond the immediate beneficiary.

  • Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Lofmarck, Erik
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Felton, Adam
    Widmark, Camilla
    Rist, Lucy
    Johansson, Johanna
    Nordin, Annika
    Nilsson, Urban
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Ranius, Thomas
    From ecological knowledge to conservation policy: a case study on green tree retention and continuous-cover forestry in Sweden2019Ingår i: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 28, nr 13, s. 3547-3574Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which scientific knowledge translates into practice is a pervasive question. We analysed to what extent and how ecological scientists gave input to policy for two approaches advocated for promoting forest biodiversity in production forests in Sweden: green-tree retention (GTR) and continuous-cover forestry (CCF). GTR was introduced into forest policy in the 1970s and became widely implemented in the 1990s. Ecological scientists took part in the policy process by providing expert opinions, educational activities and as lobbyists, long before research confirming the positive effects of GTR on biodiversity was produced. In contrast, CCF was essentially banned in forest legislation in 1979. In the 1990s, policy implicitly opened up for CCF implementation, but CCF still remains largely a rare silvicultural outlier. Scientific publications addressing CCF appeared earlier than GTR studies, but with less focus on the effects on biodiversity. Ecological scientists promoted CCF in certain areas, but knowledge from other disciplines and other socio-political factors appear to have been more important than ecological arguments in the case of CCF. The wide uptake of GTR was enhanced by its consistency with the silvicultural knowledge and normative values that forest managers had adopted for almost a century, whereas CCF challenged those ideas. Public pressure and institutional requirements were also key to GTR implementation but were not in place for CCF. Thus, scientific ecological knowledge may play an important role for policy uptake and development, but knowledge from other research disciplines and socio-political factors are also important.

  • Sellgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Koman, Anna
    Nordenström, Erik
    Hellman, Per
    Hennings, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Muth, Andreas
    Outcomes After Surgery for Unilateral Dominant Primary Aldosteronism in Sweden2019Ingår i: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for unilateral dominant PA, but reported cure rates varies. The aim of the present study was to investigate contemporary follow-up practices and cure rates after surgery for PA in Sweden.

    Methods: Patients operated for PA and registered in the Scandinavian Quality Register for Thyroid, Parathyroid and Adrenal Surgery (SQRTPA) 2009–2015 were identified. Patient data were extracted, and follow-up data (1–24 months) was recorded. Doses of antihypertensive medication and potassium supplementation were calculated using defined daily doses (DDD), and the Primary Aldosteronism Surgical Outcome (PASO) criteria were used to evaluate outcomes.

    Results: Of 190 registered patients, 171 (47% female, mean age 53 years, median follow-up 3.7 months) were available for analysis. In 75 patients (44%), missing data precluded evaluation of biochemical cure according to the PASO criteria. Minimal invasive approach was used in 168/171 patients (98%). Complication rate (Clavien-Dindo >3a) was 3%. No mortality was registered. Pre/postoperatively 98/66% used antihypertensives (mean DDD 3.7/1.5). 89/2% had potassium supplementation (mean DDD 2.0/0) before/after surgery. Complete/partial biochemical and clinical success according to the PASO criteria were achieved in 92/7% and 34/60%, respectively.

    Conclusion: In this study, reflecting contemporary clinical practice in Sweden complete/partial biochemical and clinical success after surgery for PA was 92/7% and 34/60%. Evaluation of biochemical cure was hampered by lack of uniform reporting of relevant outcome measures. We suggest mandatory reporting of surgical outcomes using the PASO criteria for all units performing surgery for PA.

  • Felton, Adam
    et al.
    Löfroth, Therese
    Angelstam, Per
    Gustafsson, Lena
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Felton, Annika M.
    Simonsson, Per
    Dahlberg, Anders
    Lindbladh, Matts
    Svensson, Johan
    Nilsson, Urban
    Lodin, Isak
    Hedwall, P. O.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Lämås, Tomas
    Brunet, Jörg
    Kalen, Christer
    Kriström, Bengt
    Gemmel, Pelle
    Ranius, Thomas
    Keeping pace with forestry: Multi-scale conservation in a changing production forest matrix2019Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The multi-scale approach to conserving forest biodiversity has been used in Sweden since the 1980s, a period defined by increased reserve area and conservation actions within production forests. However, two thousand forest-associated species remain on Sweden's red-list, and Sweden's 2020 goals for sustainable forests are not being met. We argue that ongoing changes in the production forest matrix require more consideration, and that multi-scale conservation must be adapted to, and integrated with, production forest development. To make this case, we summarize trends in habitat provision by Sweden's protected and production forests, and the variety of ways silviculture can affect biodiversity. We discuss how different forestry trajectories affect the type and extent of conservation approaches needed to secure biodiversity, and suggest leverage points for aiding the adoption of diversified silviculture. Sweden's long-term experience with multi-scale conservation and intensive forestry provides insights for other countries trying to conserve species within production landscapes.

  • Krab, Eveline J
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Monteux, Sylvain
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Weedon, James T.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Plant expansion drives bacteria and collembola communities under winter climate change in frost-affected tundra2019Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 138, artikel-id UNSP 107569Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At high latitudes, winter warming facilitates vegetation expansion into barren frost-affected soils. The interplay of changes in winter climate and plant presence may alter soil functioning via effects on decomposers. Responses of decomposer soil fauna and microorganisms to such changes likely differ from each other, since their life histories, dispersal mechanisms and microhabitats vary greatly.

    We investigated the relative impacts of short-term winter warming and increases in plant cover on bacteria and collembola community composition in cryoturbated, non-sorted circle tundra. By covering non-sorted circles with insulating gardening fibre cloth (fleeces) or using stone walls accumulating snow, we imposed two climate-change scenarios: snow accumulation increased autumn-to-late winter soil temperatures (−1 cm) by 1.4 °C, while fleeces warmed soils during that period by 1 °C and increased spring temperatures by 1.1 °C. Summer bacteria and collembola communities were sampled from within-circle locations differing in vegetation abundance and soil properties.

    Two years of winter warming had no effects on either decomposer community. Instead, their community compositions were strongly determined by sampling location: communities in barren circle centres were distinct from those in vegetated outer rims, while communities in sparsely vegetated patches of circle centres were intermediate. Diversity patterns indicate that collembola communities are tightly linked to plant presence while bacteria communities correlated with soil properties.

    Our results thus suggest that direct effects of short-term winter warming are likely to be minimal, but that vegetation encroachment on barren cryoturbated ground will affect decomposer community composition substantially. At decadal timescales, collembola community changes may follow relatively fast after warming-driven plant establishment into barren areas, whereas bacteria communities may take longer to respond. If shifts in decomposer community composition are indicative for changes in their activity, vegetation overgrowth will likely have much stronger effects on soil functioning in frost-affected tundra than short-term winter warming.

  • Creel, Scott
    et al.
    Spong, Göran
    Becker, Matthew
    Simukonda, Chuma
    Norman, Anita
    Schiffthaler, Bastian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Chifunte, Clive
    Carnivores, competition and genetic connectivity in the Anthropocene2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 16339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current extinction rates are comparable to five prior mass extinctions in the earth's history, and are strongly affected by human activities that have modified more than half of the earth's terrestrial surface. Increasing human activity restricts animal movements and isolates formerly connected populations, a particular concern for the conservation of large carnivores, but no prior research has used high throughput sequencing in a standardized manner to examine genetic connectivity for multiple species of large carnivores and multiple ecosystems. Here, we used RAD SNP genotypes to test for differences in connectivity between multiple ecosystems for African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and lions (Panthera leo), and to test correlations between genetic distance, geographic distance and landscape resistance due to human activity. We found weaker connectivity, a stronger correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance, and a stronger correlation between genetic distance and landscape resistance for lions than for wild dogs, and propose a new hypothesis that adaptations to interspecific competition may help to explain differences in vulnerability to isolation by humans.

  • Knoll, Lesley B.
    et al.
    Sharma, Sapna
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Flaim, Giovanna
    Hori, Yukari
    Magnuson, John, I
    Straile, Dietmar
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Consequences of lake and river ice loss on cultural ecosystem services2019Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 4, nr 5, s. 119-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    People extensively use lakes and rivers covered by seasonal ice. Although ice cover duration has been declining over the past 150 years for Northern Hemisphere freshwaters, we know relatively little about how ice loss directly affects humans. Here, we synthesize the cultural ecosystem services (i.e., services that provide intangible or nonmaterial benefits) and associated benefits supported by inland ice. We also provide, for the first time, empirical examples that give quantitative evidence for a winter warming effect on a wide range of ice-related cultural ecosystem services and benefits. We show that in recent decades, warmer air temperatures delayed the opening date of winter ice roads and led to cancellations of spiritual ceremonies, outdoor ice skating races, and ice fishing tournaments. Additionally, our synthesis effort suggests unexploited data sets that allow for the use of integrative approaches to evaluate the interplay between inland ice loss and society.

  • Sharma, Sumit
    et al.
    Hagbom, Marie
    Carlsson, Beatrice
    Ohd, Joanna Nederby
    Insulander, Mona
    Eriksson, Ronnie
    Simonsson, Magnus
    Widerström, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Department of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Secretor Status is Associated with Susceptibility to Disease in a Large GII.6 Norovirus Foodborne Outbreak2019Ingår i: Food and Environmnetal Virology, ISSN 1867-0334, E-ISSN 1867-0342Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Norovirus is commonly associated with food and waterborne outbreaks. Genetic susceptibility to norovirus is largely dependent on presence of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA), specifically ABO, secretor, and Lewis phenotypes. The aim of the study was to determine the association between HBGAs to norovirus susceptibility during a large norovirus foodborne outbreak linked to genotype GII.6 in an office-based company in Stockholm, Sweden, 2015. A two-episode outbreak with symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting occurred in 2015. An online questionnaire was sent to all 1109 employees that had worked during the first outbreak episode. Food and water samples were collected from in-house restaurant and tested for bacterial and viral pathogens. In addition, fecal samples were collected from 8 employees that had diarrhea. To investigate genetic susceptibility during the outbreak, 98 saliva samples were analyzed for ABO, secretor, and Lewis phenotypes using ELISA. A total of 542 of 1109 (49%) employees reported gastrointestinal symptoms. All 8 fecal samples tested positive for GII norovirus, which was also detected in coleslaw collected from the in-house restaurant. Eating at the in-house restaurant was significantly associated with risk of symptom development. Nucleotide sequencing was successful for 5/8 fecal samples and all belonged to the GII.6 genotype. HBGA characterization showed a strong secretor association to norovirus-related symptoms (P = 0.014). No association between norovirus disease and ABO phenotypes was observed. The result of this study shows that non-secretors were significantly less likely to report symptoms in a large foodborne outbreak linked to the emerging GII.6 norovirus strain.

  • Hallman, David M.
    et al.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    Björklund, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering. Department of Occupational Health Sciences and Psychology, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    Norregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte D.
    Sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain: determinants of distinct trajectories over 1 year2019Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, nr 8, s. 1099-1108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed to identify sub-groups of workers with different trajectories of sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain over 1 year, and to investigate the extent to which the identified trajectories are associated with personal, occupational, lifestyle, and pain-related factors at baseline.

    Methods: Data on 981 blue- and white-collar workers were analyzed in the DPHACTO cohort (2012-2014). The number of days on sick leave due to pain was reported using text messages at 4-week intervals across 1 year. Latent class growth analysis was used to distinguish sub-groups with different trajectories of sick leave. A web-based questionnaire at baseline was used to assess personal, occupational (physical and psychosocial), lifestyle, and pain-related factors. Multinomial regression models were constructed to determine associations between baseline factors and trajectories of sick leave (referencing no sick leave), with adjustment for potential confounders.

    Results: Four distinct sub-groups were identified, with trajectories of sick leave due to pain ranging from no sick leave (prevalence 76%; average 0.5 days/year) to some days and increasing sick leave due to pain over 1 year (2%; 89 days/year). The increasing trajectory of sick leave was associated with higher perceived physical exertion, more time in manual work, less social community and influence at work, less leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and more severe symptoms (e.g., multisite pain, low back pain intensity, and pain interference).

    Conclusions: We identified four distinct trajectories of sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain. The sub-group with increasing sick leave due to pain was associated with several modifiable physical and psychosocial factors at work and outside work, which may have implications for prevention.

  • Kohestani, Kimia
    et al.
    Wallström, Jonas
    Dehlfors, Niclas
    Sponga, Ole Martin
    Månsson, Marianne
    Josefsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM). Department of Urology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Urology, Region Västra Götaland, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Sigrid
    Hellstrom, Mikael
    Hugosson, Jonas
    Performance and inter-observer variability of prostate MRI (PI-RADS version 2) outside high-volume centres2019Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of urology, ISSN 2168-1805, E-ISSN 2168-1813Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Despite the growing trend to embrace pre-biopsy MRI in the diagnostic pathway for prostate cancer (PC), its performance and inter-observer variability outside high-volume centres remains unknown. This study aims to evaluate sensitivity of and variability between readers of prostate MRI outside specialized units with radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen as the reference standard.

    Materials and methods: Retrospective study comprising a consecutive cohort of all 97 men who underwent MRI and subsequent RP between January 2012 and December 2014 at a private hospital in Sweden. Three readers, blinded to clinical data, reviewed all images (including 11 extra prostate MRI to reduce bias). A tumour was considered detected if the overall PI-RADS v2 score was 3-5 and there was an approximate match (same or neighbouring sector) of tumour sector according to a 24 sector system used for both MRI and whole mount sections.

    Results: Detection rate for the index tumour ranged from 67 to 76%, if PI-RADS 3-5 lesions were considered positive and 54-66% if only PI-RADS score 4-5 tumours were included. Detection rate for aggressive tumours (GS >= 4 + 3) was higher; 83.1% for PI-RADS 3-5 and 79.2% for PI-RADS 4-5. The agreement between readers showed average values of 0.41 for PI-RADS score 3-5 and 0.51 for PI-RADS score 4-5.

    Conclusions: Prostate MRI evidenced a moderate detection rate for clinically significant PC with a rather large variability between readers. Clinics outside specialized units must have knowledge of their performance of prostate MRI before considering omitting biopsies in men with negative MRI.

  • Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Mahani, Seyed Alireza Nematollahi
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Avdelningen för virologi.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Khalil, Hussein
    Wildfire-induced short-term changes in a small mammal community increase prevalence of a zoonotic pathogen?2019Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, nr 22, s. 12459-12470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disturbances like droughts and fires are important determinants of wildlife community structure and are suggested to have important implications for prevalence of wildlife-borne pathogens. After a major wildfire affecting >1,600 ha of boreal forest in Sweden in 2006, we took the rare opportunity to study the short-term response (2007-2010 and 2015) of small mammal community structure, population dynamics, and prevalence of the Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV) hosted by bank voles (Myodes glareolus). We performed snap-trapping in permanent trapping plots in clear-cuts (n = 3), unburnt reference forests (n = 7), and the fire area (n = 7) and surveyed vegetation and habitat structure. Small mammal species richness was low in all habitats (at maximum three species per trapping session), and the bank vole was the only small mammal species encountered in the fire area after the first postfire year. In autumns of years of peak rodent densities, the trapping index of bank voles was lowest in the fire area, and in two of three peak-density years, it was highest in clear-cuts. Age structure of bank voles varied among forest types with dominance of overwintered breeders in the fire area in the first postfire spring. PUUV infection probability in bank voles was positively related to vole age. Infection probability was highest in the fire area due to low habitat complexity in burnt forests, which possibly increased encounter rate among bank voles. Our results suggest that forest fires induce cascading effects, including fast recovery/recolonization of fire areas by generalists like bank voles, impoverished species richness of small mammals, and altered prevalence of a rodent-borne zoonotic pathogen. Our pilot study suggests high human infection risk upon encountering a bank vole in the fire area, however, with even higher overall risk in unburnt forests due to their higher vole numbers.

  • Zhang, Yue
    et al.
    Santosa, Ailiana
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institution of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wang, Na
    Wang, Weibing
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institution of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zhao, Qi
    Jiang, Yonggen
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Zhao, Genming
    Prevalence and the Association of Body Mass Index and Other Risk Factors with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Among 50,867 Adults in China and Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study2019Ingår i: Diabetes Therapy, ISSN 1869-6953, E-ISSN 1869-6961, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 2061-2077Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Understanding socioeconomic differences for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) can offer guidance for the most effective development of both prevention and intervention programmes in different settings. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors for prediabetes and T2DM and to explore the effect of high body mass index (BMI) on the probability of T2DM being present among adults in China and Sweden.

    Methods: This study enrolled 25,356 adults (35–64 years old) from the Shanghai Survey in China and 25,511 adults (aged 40, 50, 60) from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme in Sweden. Data on haemoglobin A1c, capillary fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose and self-reported diagnoses of T2DM were used in the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the determinants of prediabetes and T2DM. The average predicted probabilities of T2DM developing or presenting were determined for the different ages and levels of BMI in each population.

    Results: Chinese participants had a higher adjusted prevalence of T2DM (men 12.8% vs. 4.6%; women 10.6% vs. 3.1%) and prediabetes (men 12.4% vs. 12.2%; women 14.4% vs. 12.2%) than Swedish participants. Age, overweightedness/obesity, hypertension and a family history of diabetes were significant risk factors for prediabetes and T2DM. In both populations, the predicted probability of T2DM increased as the BMI increased in all age groups. At the same BMI level, Chinese participants were more likely to have T2DM compared to their Swedish counterparts. The average predicted probability of T2DM was less than 20% in nearly all age groups among Swedish women.

    Conclusions: Chinese adults had the higher prevalence of prediabetes and T2DM and a higher probability of T2DM at the same BMI level compared with Swedish adults. These results indicate the importance of addressing the ongoing obesity epidemic as a matter of urgency in order to curb what has become an apparent diabetes epidemic in both countries.

  • Rolandsson, Olov
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Hampe, Christiane S.
    Sharp, Stephen J.
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Boeing, Heiner
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Mancini, Francesca Romana
    Nilsson, Peter M.
    Overvad, Kim
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Key, Timothy J.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Palli, Domenico
    Panico, Salvatore
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Severi, Gianluca
    Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.
    Tumino, Rosario
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Riboli, Elio
    Forouhi, Nita G.
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Autoimmunity plays a role in the onset of diabetes after 40 years of age2019Ingår i: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes differ with respect to pathophysiological factors such as beta cell function, insulin resistance and phenotypic appearance, but there may be overlap between the two forms of diabetes. However, there are relatively few prospective studies that have characterised the relationship between autoimmunity and incident diabetes. We investigated associations of antibodies against the 65 kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65) with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores and incident diabetes in adults in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a case-cohort study nested in the EPIC cohort.

    Methods: GAD65 antibodies were analysed in EPIC participants (over 40 years of age and free of known diabetes at baseline) by radioligand binding assay in a random subcohort (n = 15,802) and in incident diabetes cases (n = 11,981). Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores were calculated. Associations between GAD65 antibodies and incident diabetes were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression.

    Results: GAD65 antibody positivity at baseline was associated with development of diabetes during a median follow-up time of 10.9 years (HR for GAD65 antibody positive vs negative 1.78; 95% CI 1.43, 2.20) after adjustment for sex, centre, physical activity, smoking status and education. The genetic risk score for type 1 diabetes but not type 2 diabetes was associated with GAD65 antibody positivity in both the subcohort (OR per SD genetic risk 1.24; 95% CI 1.03, 1.50) and incident cases (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.72, 2.26) after adjusting for age and sex. The risk of incident diabetes in those in the top tertile of the type 1 diabetes genetic risk score who were also GAD65 antibody positive was 3.23 (95% CI 2.10, 4.97) compared with all other individuals, suggesting that 1.8% of incident diabetes in adults was attributable to this combination of risk factors.

    Conclusions/interpretation: Our study indicates that incident diabetes in adults has an element of autoimmune aetiology. Thus, there might be a reason to re-evaluate the present subclassification of diabetes in adulthood.

  • Levitsky, Adrian
    et al.
    Pernemalm, Maria
    Bernhardson, Britt-Marie
    Forshed, Jenny
    Kölbeck, Karl
    Olin, Maria
    Henriksson, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Lehtiö, Janne
    Tishelman, Carol
    Eriksson, Lars E.
    Early symptoms and sensations as predictors of lung cancer: a machine learning multivariate model2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 16504Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify a combination of early predictive symptoms/sensations attributable to primary lung cancer (LC). An interactive e-questionnaire comprised of pre-diagnostic descriptors of first symptoms/sensations was administered to patients referred for suspected LC. Respondents were included in the present analysis only if they later received a primary LC diagnosis or had no cancer; and inclusion of each descriptor required >= 4 observations. Fully-completed data from 506/670 individuals later diagnosed with primary LC (n = 311) or no cancer (n = 195) were modelled with orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS). After analysing 145/285 descriptors, meeting inclusion criteria, through randomised seven-fold cross-validation (six-fold training set: n = 433; test set: n = 73), 63 provided best LC prediction. The most-significant LC-positive descriptors included a cough that varied over the day, back pain/aches/discomfort, early satiety, appetite loss, and having less strength. Upon combining the descriptors with the background variables current smoking, a cold/flu or pneumonia within the past two years, female sex, older age, a history of COPD (positive LC-association); antibiotics within the past two years, and a history of pneumonia (negative LC-association); the resulting 70-variable model had accurate cross-validated test set performance: area under the ROC curve = 0.767 (descriptors only: 0.736/background predictors only: 0.652), sensitivity = 84.8% (73.9/76.1%, respectively), specificity = 55.6% (66.7/51.9%, respectively). In conclusion, accurate prediction of LC was found through 63 early symptoms/sensations and seven background factors. Further research and precision in this model may lead to a tool for referral and LC diagnostic decision-making.

  • Jarlbrink, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Lundell, Patrik
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Mediernas historia: från big bang till big data2019Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag upplever många att medier genomsyrar allt fler delar av vardag och samhälle. Men vår samtid delar denna erfarenhet med människor som levt under tidigare perioder. För att hitta en tid då medier inte satte sin prägel på liv och samhälle måste vi gå mycket långt tillbaka i historien. Mediehistoriska perspektiv kan anläggas på de flesta historiska fenomen. Det förflutna är nämligen endast tillgängligt i medierad form – om det så gäller antikt klotter, runstenar, dammiga arkiv­ dokument, sönderfallande tidningslägg, muntliga berättelser eller förra årets Youtubeklipp. I Mediernas historia. Från big bang till big data skildras en mycket lång mediehistoria. Att mäta medievanor genom big data är idag vanligt – men även urknallen big bang är ett medialt fenomen vars kosmiska bakgrundsstrålning inte kan studeras utan att först registreras. Med en disposition i 44 avsnitt betonar boken olika mediekulturers särprägel, samtidigt som den lyfter fram hur ett myller av medier har interagerat – från beständiga lertavlor över predikstolar och tidigmodern visuell kommunikation till strömmande medier. Istället för att framhäva mediehistoriska brott och revolutioner synlig­ gör boken kontinuiteter ifråga om hur medier har etablerats, använts och förändrats fram till vår egen tid. Relationen mellan vår samtids sociala medier och traditionella mass­ medier utgör här endast ett exempel på den komplexa väv av sinsemellan hopflätade kommunikationsformer som historien består av.

  • Jönsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Recension av Affect, emotion, and children's literature2019Ingår i: Barnboken, ISSN 0347-772X, E-ISSN 2000-4389, Vol. 42Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Lindahl, Bernt
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin.
    Johansson, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Lindvall, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Persson, Amanda
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin.
    Vanoli, Davide
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Schulz, Peter J.
    Institute of Communication and Health, University of Lugano, Switzerland.
    Health literacy is independently and inversely associated with carotid artery plaques and cardiovascular risk2019Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Health literacy, the degree to which individuals understand and act upon health information, may have a pivotal role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with low health literacy potentially explaining poorer adherence to prevention guidelines. We investigated the associations between health literacy, ultrasound-detected carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Methods: Baseline data (cross-sectional analysis) from a randomized controlled trial, integrated within the Västerbotten Intervention Program, Northern Sweden, was used. We included 3459 individuals, aged 40 or 50 years with ≥1 conventional risk factor or aged 60 years old. The participants underwent clinical examination, blood sampling, carotid ultrasound assessment of intima-media wall thickness (CIMT) and plaque formation, and answered a questionnaire on health literacy – the Brief Health Literacy Screen. The European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation and Framingham Risk Score were calculated.

    Results: About 20% of the participants had low health literacy. Low health literacy was independently associated with the presence of ultrasound-detected carotid artery plaques after adjustment for age and education, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.54 (1.28–1.85), demonstrating a similar level of risk as for smoking. Health literacy was associated with CIMT in men. Low health literacy was associated with higher CVD risk scores. Sensitivity analyses with low health literacy set to 9% or 30% of the study sample, respectively, yielded essentially the same results.

    Conclusions: Low health literacy was independently associated with carotid artery plaques and a high level of CVD risk scores. Presenting health information in a fashion that is understood by all patients may improve preventive efforts.

  • Strid, Anna
    et al.
    Hallström, Elinor
    Hjorth, Therese
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Winkvist, Anna
    Huseinovic, Ena
    Climate impact from diet in relation to background and sociodemographic characteristics in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme2019Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 22, nr 17, s. 3288-3297Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics in a population-based cohort in northern Sweden.

    Design: A cross-sectional study within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Dietary data from a 64-item food frequency questionnaire collected during 1996–2016 were used. Energy-adjusted greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) for all participants, expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents/day and 4184 kJ (1000 kcal), were estimated using data from life cycle analyses. Differences in background and sociodemographic characteristics were examined between participants with low and high GHGE from diet, respectively. The variables evaluated were age, BMI, physical activity, marital status, level of education, smoking, and residence.

    Setting: Västerbotten county in northern Sweden.

    Participants: In total, 46 893 women and 45 766 men aged 29–65 years.

    Results: Differences in GHGE from diet were found across the majority of examined variables. The strongest associations were found between GHGE from diet and age, BMI, education, and residence (all P < 0·001), with the highest GHGE from diet found among women and men who were younger, had a higher BMI, higher educational level, and lived in urban areas.

    Conclusions: This study is one of the first to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics. The results show that climate impact from diet is associated with age, BMI, residence and educational level amongst men and women in Västerbotten, Sweden. These results define potential target populations where public health interventions addressing a move towards more climate-friendly food choices and reduced climate impact from diet could be most effective.

  • Nurmi, Maura
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. University of Helsinki.
    Understanding racism in Finland: A qualitative study on social workers’  interpretations of racism2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The thesis examines Finnish social workers’ understandings of racism. The research task is to view how professionals understand racism as a phenomenon, how they perceive social work’s role in relation to racialization and racism and how they understand the complex relationship between race and gender in the Nordic context. The data consists of two focus group interviews and three indepth interviews conducted with child welfare professionals. Qualitative content analysis is used as an analysis method. Anti-racist social work and intersectionality are presented as a theoretical framework in the thesis. Anti-racist social work is part of the tradition of anti-oppressive theory, where societal power structures are raised to the centre of attention. Race is understood as a socially constructed power hierarchy enabling privileged and oppressed positions. The concept of intersectionality refers to the similar nature of all power structures, where all forms of oppression are understood as mutually constructed. The findings suggest that racism is infrequently recognized in social work practices. The dominant approach in Finland emphasizes cultural competence, while the importance of anti-racism remains scarce. The gender equality discourse is especially strong in relation to immigration. Immigrant women are often portrayed as victims of their culture, and gendered violence is explained through culture. The thesis suggests that racism is rarely accounted as a cause when viewing problems in racialized families. Combining anti-racism and intersectionality while reinforcing critical reflection on social workers’ stance and privileges is proposed as a method for improving social work practice. 

  • Sichone, Tawonga
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Social Workers on Child Protection, in Conflict with Community Norms and Values: A Case Study of a Community Based-Organisation in Malawi2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focused on highlighting challenges faced by social workers in child protection, the similarities, and differences in child protection values between the two parties and how social workers are perceived. This was with the problem that social workers face difficulties or clashes with the local community and specifically on cultural and traditional elements, although some surprising factors emerged as the study progressed. The study was qualitative with purposive sampling and used individual interviews for social workers and group interviews for community members in data collection. In general, the study involved both deductive and inductive approaches of research. In terms of specific qualitative data analysis, it involved phenomenology. Theories used in the study are the systems theory, utilitarianism, cultural universalism, and relativism. The findings indicated that social workers face challenges including Lack of Adequate Resources; differences of how families raise children; blame on the Social Worker; priority  differences between culture, tradition and social work; spiritual and religious beliefs as a barrier; children and/or parents/guardians do not report due to shame and clients complained about procedures by social workers. It concluded that the major problem was the manner of approach and interaction between the community and social worker and that if the social workers follow cultural procedures and include community members more with the aid of adequate resources in some areas. In such, social work practice could be made better and this could pave a way for new related studies.

     

     

  • Söderström, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Niemi, Amanda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nilsson, Isabelle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Medias avtryck i socialtjänstens arbete: En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares upplevelse av medierapportering om socialtjänsten2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Media har en förmåga att nå ut och skapa reaktioner hos allmänheten, både positiva och negativa. Socialtjänstens beslutsfattande uppdrag tenderar att skapa starka känslor bland människor och stora rubriker i media. Baserat på medias inflytande över samhället syftar studien till att undersöka hur socialsekreterare kan uppleva medierapportering om socialtjänsten, samt hur de kan påverkas av denna. Studiens genomförande bestod av kvalitativa intervjuer med fem socialsekreterare yrkesverksamma inom socialtjänstens olika enheter vars klientel utgörs av barn, ungdomar och deras familjer. Valet av målgrupp baserades på vad tidigare forskning visat är ett omskrivet fält i media. Materialet analyserades sedan utifrån teoretiska perspektiv om professionen och medias makt. Resultatet visade att de intervjuade socialsekreterarna upplevde medierapportering som övervägande negativ, där socialtjänsten många gånger framställs göra ett antingen för litet eller för stort ingripande i människors liv. Intervjupersonerna saknade positiv rapportering i media om deras arbete, men menade att medias kritiska granskningar av myndigheter är viktiga för att maktmissbruk inte ska förekomma samt för att förändringar ska kunna ske. Medierapportering ansågs även ha en större påverkan i den professionella yrkesutövningen än för de intervjuade socialsekreterarna personligen, i form av bland annat klienters förutfattade meningar om socialtjänsten och socialsekreterare som profession. En av studiens övergripande slutsatser var att media besitter en stor makt att påverka hur människor ser på myndigheter, vilket därigenom kan ta sig uttryck i ett försvårat arbete för socialsekreterare. En ytterst central del var även den ambivalens som infunnit sig hos intervjupersonerna, bland annat avseende de positiva och negativa följder som kan komma av medierapportering.

  • Englund, Klara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Fredriksson Isaksson, Ebba
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    "Det har nog format mig som människa mer än vad jag tror": En kvalitativ intervjustudie om biologiska barns upplevelser av att växa upp med föräldrar som familjehem2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En placering sker för att ett barn är i behov av att låna en familj för att få en trygg uppväxt och i detta kan det finnas biologiska barn. Vad händer med dem? Tidigare forskning presenterar en brist på uppmärksamhet åt de biologiska barnen från både forskare och yrkesaktiva. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka biologiska barns upplevelser i att ha haft föräldrar som varit familjehem under deras uppväxt men även hur de ser på den egna kontakten med socialtjänsten. I en kvalitativ intervjustudie har vi sökt svar hos fem olika personer som idag är mellan 21-47 år men som under sin uppväxt hade föräldrar som var familjehem. Vi har genomfört semistrukturerade intervjuer och analyserat resultatet med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Studien bekräftar en brist av uppmärksamhet från socialtjänsten gentemot de biologiska barnen som den tidigare forskningen visat. Det framkommer även att intervjupersonerna har olika upplevelser men gemensamt har de tagit med sig positiva erfarenheter av detta. Resultatet av denna studie är att olika upplevelser kan ge samma erfarenhet.

  • Carlsson, Felicia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Mohamed, Bile
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Arbetet med hemlöshet i Sverige: En kvalitativ studie kring ideella och kommunala verksamheters samverkan mot hemlöshet.2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har som syfte undersöka hur representanter från socialtjänsten och ideella verksamheter upplever arbetet med hemlösa. Studien är utformad med en kvalitativ ansats där sex stycken semi-strukturerade intervjuer har genomförts varav en intervju genomfördes med två socialsekreterare samtidigt. De som har deltagit i studien är socialarbetare som i sitt arbete kommer i direkt klientkontakt med hemlösa och hemlöshet. Av de totalt sju studiedeltagarna så är tre stycken ideella aktörer och fyra stycken aktiva inom socialtjänsten. Studien visar på hur ideella verksamheter täcker de luckor som uppstår i arbetet mot hemlöshet, luckor som socialtjänsten på grund av sina utgångskriterier inte kommer åt. Studiedeltagarna redovisar i denna studie via sina intervjuer vilka olika insatser som finns och hur socialarbetare uppfattar arbetet kring det sociala problemet hemlöshet. Vart dom upplever att arbetet brister samt hur samverkan mellan ideella verksamheter och sociatjänsten kompletterar arbetet mot en minskad hemlöshet i framtiden. 

  • Johansson, Elias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap.
    Aviv, Richard I.
    Fox, Allan J.
    Atherosclerotic ICA stenosis coinciding with ICA asymmetry associated with Circle of Willis variations can mimic near-occlusion2019Ingår i: Neuroradiology, ISSN 0028-3940, E-ISSN 1432-1920Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Differentiating carotid near-occlusion (tight atherosclerotic stenosis causing distal artery size reduction) from conventional stenosis is the first step when grading carotid stenoses with NASCET method. The internal carotid artery (ICA) can be asymmetrically associated with Circle of Willis variations. When such ICA asymmetry coincides with stenosis, it may mimic near-occlusion. We studied ICA anatomical variant prevalence in 4042 consecutive CTA exams from all indications, 53 excluded due to carotid occlusion, 814 with any >= 50% steno-occlusive disease intra- or extracranially, 3228 without. Of the 3989 included cases, 568 (14%) had ICA asymmetry, of which 335 (59%) were from associated with Circle of Willis variations. Of 3228 patients without >= 50% stenosis or other steno-occlusive disease intra- and extracranially; 257 (8.0%) demonstrated ICA asymmetry associated with Circle of Willis variations, equally common among sexes and age unrelated and most frequently attributed to an ipsilateral A1 hypoplasia/aplasia, less often attributed to large contralateral posterior communicating artery. As ICA asymmetry associated with Circle of Willis variations are common, caution should be exercised diagnosing near-occlusion on asymmetry alone.

  • Inzunza, Miguel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    European police recruits' views on ideal personal characteristics of a police officer2019Ingår i: Policing & society, ISSN 1043-9463, E-ISSN 1477-2728Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As societies are becoming more heterogeneous and complex, the role of the police is becoming more demanding. To fulfil this role, police officers need several widely recognised skills and personal qualities, but less is known about how they are valued by police recruits. Thus, we have examined views of police recruits in six European countries on three competencies or characteristics of known importance for police work: knowledge, leadership, and the ability to form good relations with citizens. We have also explored variations in views of recruits in different organisations and changes in their views during their training. For these purposes, we used survey data collected in the RECPOL project. Since the data were collected from different populations and at different times, the analysis is based on measurement invariance methodology, and one of the aims was to highlight the importance of rigorous appraisal of the quality and comparability of similar survey data using such methods. The results reveal both differences and similarities in views of recruits in the surveyed countries and changes during training. Police culture appears to be a significant factor, as more items in the applied instrument could be validly used in comparisons of recruits in organisations with similar police traditions. The results also showed interesting contrasts, e.g. new recruits in Sweden rated good relations with citizens more highly than recruits in organisations with a more military history, but this pattern changed during training, presumably due to influences of the recruitment process, training and culture within the organisations.

  • Bränberg, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Häggström, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Moström, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Problembaserat lärande på en dag: en flygande start på konstruktionsuppgiften2019Ingår i: 7:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, Luleå, 27-28 november, 2019, 2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det kan vara svårt att uppnå det nationella målet som rör helhetssyn, och att analysera och utvärdera olika tekniska lösningar. I ett försök att uppnå detta har vi använt oss av endags-PBL som en introduktion till en konstruktionsuppgift. Införandet innebar en planeringsdag, genomförande av PBL-dagen samt utvärdering. PBL-dagen har genomförts under fyra år. Resultaten från utvärderingen visar att studenterna kommit längre i arbetet med att utforma och analyser sina tekniska lösningar än tidigare. Slutsatsen är att endags-PBL är en arbetsform som lämpar sig väl för ingengörsutbildningar.

  • Gu, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM).
    Aviv, Richard, I
    Fox, Allan J.
    Johansson, Elias
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Symptomatic carotid near-occlusion causes a high risk of recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke2019Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, ISSN 0340-5354, E-ISSN 1432-1459Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess the risk of recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic near-occlusion with and without full collapse.

    Methods: Included were consecutive patients eligible for revascularization, grouped into symptomatic conventional ≥ 50% carotid stenosis (n = 266), near-occlusion without full collapse (n = 57) and near-occlusion with full collapse (n = 42). The risk of preoperative recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke was analyzed, or, for cases not revascularized within 90 days, 90-day risk was analyzed.

    Results: The risk of a preoperative recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke or ipsilateral retinal artery occlusion was 15% (95% CI 9–20%) for conventional ≥ 50% stenosis, 22% (95% CI 6–38%) among near-occlusion without full collapse and 30% (95% CI 16–44%) among near-occlusion with full collapse (p = 0.01, log rank test). In multivariate analysis, near-occlusion with full collapse had a higher risk of recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke (adjusted HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3–5.3) and near-occlusion without full collapse tended to have a higher risk (adjusted HR 2.0, 95% CI 0.9–4.5) than conventional ≥ 50% stenosis. Only 24% of near-occlusion with full collapse underwent revascularization, common causes for abstaining were misdiagnosis as occlusion (31%), deemed surgically unfeasible (21%) and low perceived benefit (10%).

    Conclusions: Symptomatic carotid near-occlusion has a high short-term risk of recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke, especially near-occlusion with full collapse.

  • Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Use of in vitro fertilization-ethical issues2019Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is an ethical analysis based on both facts and values. In in vitro fertilization (IVF), there is an intricate interaction between rapid scientific development and changing societal values. In most countries, the ethical discussion is no longer on whether or not IVF in itself is ethically justifiable. Therefore, in this review, I discuss other ethical aspects that have emerged since IVF was first introduced, such as upper age limits, 'ownership' of gametes and embryos, IVF in single women and same-sex couples, preimplantatory genetic testing, social egg freezing, commercialization, public funding, and prioritization of IVF. Despite secularization, since religion still plays an important role in regulation and practices of IVF in many countries, positions on IVF among the world religions are summarized. Decision-making concerning IVF cannot be based only on clinical and economic considerations; these cannot be disentangled from ethical principles. Many concerns regarding the costs, effects, and safety of IVF subtly transcend into more complex questions about what it means to society to bear and give birth to children.

  • Nyström, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    The Social Studies Subjects and Interdisciplinarity2019Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 3, s. 24-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the ways in which the term tvärvetenskaplig is conceptualized within the social studies subjects (geography, religious education, civics, and history) in Swedish upper secondary school. The term tvärvetenskaplig is generally translated as interdisciplinary. Through a comparative analysis of syllabi (ämnesplaner), subject didactic textbooks, and schoolbooks, existing descriptions of the term are identified. These descriptions are in turn analyzed using theoretical perspectives on interdisciplinarity. The article agrees with the viewpoint that interdisciplinarity is a form of progressive discourse. Moreover, the analysis employs Heinz Heckhausen’s typology of interdisciplinarity, which differentiates between indiscriminate, pseudo, auxiliary, composite, supplementary, and unifying interdisciplinarity. It is concluded that different subjects ascribe different understandings of interdisciplinarity to the concept of tvärvetenskaplighet.

  • Carlén, Simon
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Identifying Sources and Ecological Risks of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Polluted Fiber Enriched Sediments from the Bothnian Sea2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • Kastenbom, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Falsen, Alexandra
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Larsson, Pernilla
    Sunnegårdh-Grönberg, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Davidson, Thomas
    Costs and health-related quality of life in relation to caries2019Ingår i: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikel-id 187Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dental caries remains a common and expensive disease for both society and affected individuals. Furthermore, caries often affect individuals’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Health economic evaluations are needed to understand how to efficiently distribute dental care resources. This study aims to evaluate treatment costs and QALY weights for caries active and inactive adult individuals, and to test whether the generic instrument EQ-5D-5 L can distinguish differences in this population.

    Methods: A total of 1200 randomly selected individuals from dental clinics in Västerbotten County, Sweden, were invited to participate. Of these, 79 caries active and 179 caries inactive patients agreed to participate (response rate of 21.7%). Inclusion criteria were participants between 20 and 65 years old and same caries risk group categorization in two consecutive check-ups between 2014 and 2017.

    Results: Treatment costs showed to be twice as high in the caries active group compared to the caries inactive group and were three times higher in the caries active age group 20–29 compared to the caries inactive age group 20–29. Differences between the groups was found for number of intact teeth according to age groups. In the EQ-5D-5 L instrument, more problems relating to the dimension anxiety/depression was seen in the caries active group. QALY weights showed tendencies (non-significant) to be lower in the caries active group.

    Conclusions: These findings highlight the need for efficient treatments and prevention strategies as well as adequate money allocation within dentistry. However, further research is needed to assess appropriate instruments for health economic evaluations.

  • Östman, Sofi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Hristova, Ivanka
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Environmental archaeological analysis of samples from Dronningens gate, Trondheim, Sør-Trøndelag2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Östman, Sofi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Hristova, Ivanka
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Miljöarkeologisk analys av prover från Gerdalsmon, ett område med boplatslämningar och fångstgropar. Raä 47:1 (L1935:5140), 113:1 (L1935:5299) och 246 (L1934:3281), Själevad socken, Örnsköldsviks kommun, Ångermanland2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Östman, Sofi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Pollenlaboratoriet, Umeå.
    Pollenanalys av två gravhögar och makrofossilanalys av innehållet i ett kärl från en av högarna.: Projekt Halmstad-trafo, Rygge kommune, Østfold. ID48968-8, ID48968-92019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Hristova, Ivanka
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Macrofossil analysis of the site Lyngdal kirkegård, Lyngdal kommune, ID 1572422019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Jarstad, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. Department of Government, UppsalaUniversity, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Segall, Sandra
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Grasping the empirical realities of peace in post-war northern Mitrovica2019Ingår i: Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal, ISSN 2380-2014, Vol. 4, nr 2-3, s. 239-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While previous research has focused on the conflicts and division in Mitrovica, Kosovo, the present article explores how peace and conflict are intertwined in the post-war city by focusing on sites where communities live side by side in an otherwise segregated city. A key finding is that the most conflictual residential areas in northern Mitrovica also are places where what we call peace acts, peace issues and peace perceptions are found. Our research suggests that even in spaces in the city where a history of violence is entrenched, the situation can seldom be reduced to be seen only as purely conflictual; rather, these ‘hotspots’ often prove to be spaces where reproduction of peace – however quotidian – also occurs at the same time. This points us to the complexity of the realities of peace, where remnants of war and potential for a co-existing peace often overlap and are sometimes intrinsically intertwined.

  • Hristova, Ivanka
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Macrofossil analysis of one sample from the site Raä Visingsö 217, Jönköping, Småland2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Eriksson, Martina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Meddelande av delbeslut i lantmäteriförrättning. En studie av delbeslut i lantmäteriförrättning i förhållande till förvaltningslagen och dess krav på rättssäkerhet.2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • Elgebrant Rekstad, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för estetiska ämnen i lärarutbildningen.
    Bilder av Bild: En studie om hur bildlärares ämnesföreställningar påverkar val av kursinnehåll vid kursplanering och likvärdigheten i utbildningen i gymnasieskolans bild- och formkurser.1919Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    SammanfattningSom vikarierande bildlärare i gymnasieskolan har jag mött skiftande ämnesföreställningar och övertagit kursplaneringar med betydande skillnader både i kursinnehåll och i följ-samhet till Skolverkets centrala kursinnehåll. Utifrån dessa gjorda erfarenheter har syftet med denna studie varit att undersöka hur bildlärares ämnesföreställningar påverkar kursinnehåll och kursplanering och att därmed belysa frågan om hur bildämnet lever upp till Skolverkets syfte och mål och i förlängningen skollagens §9 om en likvärdig skola. Begrepp och teorier som har använts i studien har utgått ifrån Michael Foucault teorier om diskursers dominans och makt. Studiens metod har varit mixad där kvalitativa metoderna har använts för att hitta, förstå och formulera indikatorer för olika ämnesföreställningar i bildämnet och kvantitativa metoder för att analysera och söka samband mellan bildlärarnas ämnesföreställningar, val av kursinnehåll i kursplaneringar och Skolverkets centrala kursinnehåll. Studiens resultat har visat att bildlärare vars ämnesvärdering är intrinsikal och som delar Skolverkets ämnesföreställning gör val av kursinnehåll i sin kursplanering med stark koppling till både sin egen ämnesföreställning och Skolverkets centrala innehåll medan bildlärare vars ämnesvärdering är instrumentell och som inte delar Skolverkets ämnesföreställning antingen delvis eller helt frångår Skolverkets centrala kursinnehåll. Studien har visat tendenser på en olikvärdig bild- och formutbildning kopplat till bildlärares ämnesföreställning även om slutsatser om likvärdigheten i bild- och formutbildning i gymnasieskolan generellt inte låter sig göras, då underlaget i studien har varit för litet och inte tillräckligt representativt.

     

  • Eriksson, Klara
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    EXPONERING AV LÅGFREKVENTA MAGNETFÄLT I VARDAGEN2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of magnetic fields has increased significantly during the last hundred years due to technology development and increased consumption of electricity. Sweden follows recommended maximum values from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), which are to prevent acute effects and are generally not exceeded in the environment. For long-term effects, such as increased cancer risk, today's knowledge is not sufficient to establish any limit values. The study aims to determine the variation of daily exposure of low-frequency magnetic fields in individuals with different occupations and living environments. Measurements of low-frequency magnetic fields were performed with an EMDEX-meter to get a 24-hour magnetic field exposure for ten test subjects. Measurement with an SMPS-meter was performed to measure magnetic fields at some common objects in the home environment that emit low frequency magnetic fields. The average value for exposure of low-frequency magnetic fields for 24-hours varied between 0.03–0.10 µT, exposure in the home environment varied between 0.00–0.17 µT, working environment varied between 0.02–0.27 µT, night environment varied between 0.00–0.09 µT. The daily mean values from the measurements are at what can be regarded as a normal exposure 0.01–0.20 µT. The average value that was picked up from home-, joband night-environment can be considered as normal exposure level. Based on the increased presence of electronics and magnetic fields and the lack of knowledge in the research on health effects, it may be interesting to discuss the introduction of further new technology, limit values, safety and supervision.

  • Wang, Jianfeng
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Zhou, Zhiyong
    Department of Statistics, Zhejiang University City College, China.
    Yu, Jun
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Error bounds of block sparse signal recovery based on q-ratio block constrained minimal singular values2019Ingår i: EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, ISSN 1687-6172, E-ISSN 1687-6180, Vol. 57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce the q-ratio block constrained minimal singular values (BCMSV) as a new measure of measurement matrix in compressive sensing of block sparse/compressive signals and present an algorithm for computing this new measure. Both the mixed ℓ2/ℓq and the mixed ℓ2/ℓ1 norms of the reconstruction errors for stable and robust recovery using block basis pursuit (BBP), the block Dantzig selector (BDS), and the group lasso in terms of the q-ratio BCMSV are investigated. We establish a sufficient condition based on the q-ratio block sparsity for the exact recovery from the noise-free BBP and developed a convex-concave procedure to solve the corresponding non-convex problem in the condition. Furthermore, we prove that for sub-Gaussian random matrices, the q-ratio BCMSV is bounded away from zero with high probability when the number of measurements is reasonably large. Numerical experiments are implemented to illustrate the theoretical results. In addition, we demonstrate that the q-ratio BCMSV-based error bounds are tighter than the block-restricted isotropic constant-based bounds.

  • Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Sense of self among persons with advanced dementia2019Ingår i: Alzheimer's Disease / [ed] Thomas Wisniewski, Codon Publications , 2019, s. 205-221Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: As humans, we have a sense of self, and at best, we are proud of ourabilities and feel respected by other persons. Persons with dementia have beenregarded losing their self. Quantitative research has shown that this is true, whilequalitative research has shown that parts of self are severely affected while otherparts remain even among persons with advanced dementia. These persons sometimeskeep feeling "still the same" as before getting dementia. Their memory deficitshelp as does support from other persons. The theory of three aspects of self bythe psychologists Rom Harré and Steven Sabat are presented, that is, the feelingthat we are, who we are, and who we are together with other persons. Based onempirical research, suggestions will be given about how by promoting experiencesof at-homeness, dignity, and being oneself related to others we can helppersons with advanced dementia experience themselves as valuable persons

  • Baxter, Rebecca
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Björk, Sabine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Lood, Qarin
    Department of Health and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Centre for Ageing and Health – AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    lluminating Meanings of Thriving for Persons Living in Nursing Homes2019Ingår i: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives: Thriving has been described as a multidimensional concept that can be used to explore place-related well-being; however, there has been limited research into the meaning of thriving in aged care. This study aimed to illuminate meanings of thriving as narrated by persons living in nursing homes.

    Research Design and Methods: Narrative interviews were conducted with 21 persons residing in a rural Australian nursing home. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and interpreted using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach.

    Results: Meanings of thriving could be understood as: Striving toward acceptance of being in a nursing home while maintaining a positive outlook; Feeling supported and cared for while maintaining a sense of independence; Balancing opportunities for solitude and company while living with others; and, Feeling a sense of home while residing in an institutional environment. The meanings of thriving, as presented through the interpretive lens of Gaston Bachelard’s “Poetics of Space,” encompassed having access to literal, metaphorical, and symbolic doors, as well as having the freedom to open, close, and use these doors however the person wishes.

    Discussion: Exploring meanings of thriving in nursing homes could contribute towards understanding and implementing positive life-world constructs in research and practice. These findings could be used to inform and enhance person-centered care practices by maximizing opportunities for persons residing in nursing homes to have options and choices, and the agency to make decisions where possible, in relation to their everyday care and living environment.

  • Campbell, Ian A.
    et al.
    Lundow, Per-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Hyperscaling Violation in Ising Spin Glasses2019Ingår i: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 21, nr 10, artikel-id 978Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to the standard scaling rules relating critical exponents at second order transitions, hyperscaling rules involve the dimension of the model. It is well known that in canonical Ising models hyperscaling rules are modified above the upper critical dimension. It was shown by M. Schwartz in 1991 that hyperscaling can also break down in Ising systems with quenched random interactions; Random Field Ising models, which are in this class, have been intensively studied. Here, numerical Ising Spin Glass data relating the scaling of the normalized Binder cumulant to that of the reduced correlation length are presented for dimensions 3, 4, 5, and 7. Hyperscaling is clearly violated in dimensions 3 and 4, as well as above the upper critical dimension D=6. Estimates are obtained for the "violation of hyperscaling exponent" values in the various models.

  • Bjornestad, Elin Eb
    et al.
    Kirurgisk serviceklinikk, Klinikkoverlege, Helse Bergen HF, Norway.
    Haney, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    An obstetric anaesthetist: A key to successful conversion of epidural analgesia to surgical anaesthesia for caesarean delivery?2019Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • Burwall, Anton
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Tvärkraft i betongbalkar med hänsyn till stora hål2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är ofta nödvändigt att göra håltagningar i bärande konstruktionsdelar för exempelvis fönster, dörrar eller installationer. Om håltagningen är tillräckligt liten, behöver hålen nödvändigtvis inte beaktas vid dimensioneringen av konstruktionen. Däremot om hålet blir för stort kan kraftspelet i konstruktionen förändras och innebära rejäla reduktioner av bärförmågan. Om så är fallet måste hänsyn tas till det i dimensioneringen av konstruktionen.

    Syftet med detta arbete var att redovisa en dimensioneringsmetod för betongbalkar påverkade av stora hål. Detta gjordes genom att upprätta en dimensioneringsanvisning som beskriver beräkningsprocessen. Syftet var vidare att illustrera beräkningsmetoden och ge en bättre förståelse av teorin. Detta gjordes genom att tillämpa beräkningsmetoden i ett konkret beräkningsexempel.

    Resultatet av arbetet utgörs av en lathund (lättöverskådlig manual), som utvecklades utifrån befintligt underlag, samt ett reellt problem som löstes med hjälp av utvecklad dimensioneringsmetod. Lathunden redogör en lämplig beräkningsgång för dimensionering av betongbalkar med stort hål. Lösningen till problemet omfattar armeringsdimensionering för att möjliggöra kraftöverföring i en väggbalk med hänsyn till ett stort dörrhål.

    Efter genomfört arbete dras slutsatsen att arbetet uppfyller syftet att redovisa och illustrera en dimensioneringsmetod för betongbalkar påverkade av stora hål. Huruvida den dimensioneringsmetod som presenteras är den mest optimala är dock diskutabelt.

  • Nilsson, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Gender Performativity and Motherhood in Coraline1980Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Coraline by Neil Gaiman has several characters who in many ways break gender norms. The main protagonist of the novel, Coraline, acts more in accordance with masculine gender norms, and the mother figures are mothers who do not fully conform to the traditional mother role. The purpose of this study is to look at how Coraline and the mother figures perform their gender, and in which ways this breaks with or aligns with traditional gender norms. The analytical approach is based on Judith Butler’s theory of gender performativity, and on masculine and feminine gender schemas defined by John Stephens. For the analysis of motherhood, gender performativity has also been used, and works by Adrienne Rich and Einat Natalie Palkovich. This study shows that the protagonists challenge traditional gender role norms of masculinity and femininity, whereof motherhood is part. The study also shows that there is a lack of female role models for the young protagonist, and that acting according to masculine gender norms is desirable and necessary in the novel. But for the mothers, breaking gender norms is undesirable, dangerous, and even punished. A conclusion of the study is that even though Coraline appears to be a feminist novel, the underlying message is not entirely so.

  • Demiroglu, Osman Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Saarinen, Jarkko
    Oulun yliopisto, Oulu, Finland; University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    The last resort?: Ski tourism and climate change in Arctic Sweden2019Ingår i: Journal of Tourism Futures, ISSN 2055-5911, E-ISSN 2055-592XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the external and internal factors that support or challenge a possible transformation of Arctic Sweden into a major ski destination under a changing climate. Design/methodology/approach – The paper questions future availability of the physical and the human factors that foster ski tourism development in Arctic Sweden and suggests a comparative case study in relation to the already existing large resort-based ski destinations in Arctic Finland. Findings – Preliminary documentary analysis shows that the governmental and the industrial discourses over the past decade have acknowledged a competitive edge for Sweden and its northernmost regions in particular and may even propose a structural shift for ski tourism in the near future agenda. The visualisations based on natural snow projections presented in this paper confirm this comparative advantage but other technical and socioeconomic development factors are further discussed, in relation to Arctic Finland. Research limitations/implications – Future research agenda is suggested to cover, first, assessment of natural and technical snow reliability of existing and all potential ski areas in Sweden and within its competitive set extending to all the Nordics and the Alps, then, incorporation of adaptive capacities of the suppliers but especially the likely substitution tendencies of the consumers, and finally, evaluation of the overall situation in terms of the regional development needs. Social implications – It is apparent that land use conflicts will arise in case of large ski resort-based destination development in Arctic Sweden, especially around the environmentally protected areas, which are not only already important attractions for nature-based tourism but also traditional livelihoods for the Sami. Originality/value – This is the first paper to discuss a potential regional and structural shift of ski tourism in Sweden.

  • Åkerman, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Objektive Lesbarkeitsuntersuchungen oder sinnlose Formeln?: Eine Untersuchung von drei Methoden fürs Entscheiden der Lesbarkeit, appliziert auf zwei literarische Werke2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete undersöks två etablerade och en experimentell metod för bestämmande av läsbarheten hos texter. Metoderna undersöks genom att de appliceras på två litterära verk: Atemschaukel av Herta Müller och Berühre mich. Nicht. av Laura Kneidl. Metoderna som undersöks är läsbarhetsformeln Flesch-Reading-Ease (meningslängd och ordlängd) och ordfrekvens (hur vanliga orden är). Dessa båda läsbarhetsundersökningar är väletablerade och har använts flitigt. I detta arbete testas även en ny möjlig läsbarhetsfaktor: Upprepningar av ord, där upprepningar av innehållsord räknas. Resultaten av analyserna enligt de olika metoderna sammanställs och jämförs för att besvara två frågor:

    1. Vilket verk förefaller mest lättläst enligt de två etablerade läsbarhetsundersökningarna?

    2. Samvarierar mängden upprepningar med resultaten från de andra två läsbarhetsundersökningarna?

    Resultaten ger en något splittrad bild: Atemschaukel är enligt Flesch-Reading-Ease det mest lättlästa verket, medan ordfrekvensen visar på motsatt förhållande: Berühre mich. Nicht. har de genomsnittligt vanligare orden. Huruvida upprepning av ord har ett samband med läsbarheten är svårt att avgöra baserat enbart på resultaten i denna undersökning. Användandet av språkliga stilfaktorer för eventuellt att läsbarhetstest inte lämpar sig för undersökning av skönlitterära texter.