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  • Falk, Joel
    et al.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Grimm, Alejandro
    Ohman, Marcus
    Systematic Evaluation of the Fate of Phosphorus in Fluidized Bed Combustion of Biomass and Sewage Sludge2020Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 3984-3995Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive knowledge concerning the behavior of phosphorus (P) during combustion is necessary to enable more efficient recovery of P from combustion ashes for agricultural purposes. To this end, parameters that influence the distribution and speciation of P in combustion ashes are important because they may influence which ash fractions are suitable for P recovery. This study aims to determine the fate of P as a result of fuel ash composition and chemical association in the fuel during fluidized bed combustion by a systemic review of previous work. The synthesis was performed by comparing scanning electron microscopy–energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction chemical analyses of bed ash, fly ash particles, and deposits from fluidized bed combustion of different blends of P-poor (logging residues or wheat straw) and P-rich (sewage sludge, dried distiller’s grain with solubles, or phosphoric acid) fuels and additives. The blends were produced to have a similar ash composition but with a different P source. The distribution of P among ash fractions indicated that P is mainly found in the coarse ash fractions (bed and cyclone ash), irrespective of fuel ash composition or chemical association in the fuel. The chemical speciation of P in coarse ash fractions differed between biomass blends containing sewage sludge compared to blends with phosphoric acid or dried distiller’s grain with solubles. Phosphates in the ash from the two sewage sludge blends included predominantly Ca with minor inclusion of other cations. In contrast, ashes from the blends with phosphoric acid or dried distiller’s grain with solubles contained phosphates with a significant amount of K, Ca, and Mg. The difference in phosphate speciation could not solely be explained by the combustion conditions and the elemental composition of the ash fractions. These results show that it is necessary to consider the chemical association of P in the fuel to predict the type of phosphates that will form in fluidized bed combustion ashes.

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  • Calderon, Robert H.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Red LEDs leave plants singing the blues2020Ingår i: Physiologia Plantarum: An International Journal for Plant Biology, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 169, nr 1, s. 7-9Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Avdelningen för fysioterapi.
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Assessing the youth-friendliness of youth clinics in northern Sweden: a survey analyzing the perspective of the youth2020Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 20, nr 1, artikel-id 346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sweden has nearly 300 youth clinics that have been offering services since the 1970s. However, no evaluation has been done to assess their youth-friendliness. This study aims to assess: i) to what extent youth clinics are perceived as youth-friendly by the young people using them; and ii) if the level of youth friendliness is equally perceived across different sociodemographic groups of users.

    Methods: The four northernmost counties of Sweden were included in the study. Of the total identified 22 youth clinics, 20 participated by giving out questionnaires to the youth after their visits to the respective youth clinics. In total 1110 youth participated in the study and answered questions according to the World Health Organization’s criteria of accessibility, equity, respect, privacy and confidentiality, no judgement, and quality. Means and frequencies were calculated, and t-test and ANOVA were used to compare means by sociodemographic variables.

    Results: Participants perceived the youth clinics as very youth friendly across the measured domains, with scores as high as 4.8 and 4.9 (of a maximum of 5). Youth clinics were perceived in a similar way regardless of gender, but other sociodemographic factors influenced some of the domains, especially ethnic background.

    Conclusions: The perception of youth friendliness in youth clinics was very high. Nonetheless, younger users; users who did not categorize themselves as either heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual; users with trans-experiences; and users with non-Swedish backgrounds gave youth clinics lower scores for certain domains.

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  • Alberione, Maria Pia
    et al.
    Moeller, Rebecca
    Kirui, Jared
    Ginkel, Corinne
    Doepke, Mandy
    Stroeh, Luisa J.
    Machtens, Jan-Philipp
    Pietschmann, Thomas
    Gerold, Gisa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Avdelningen för virologi. Institute for Experimental Virology, TWINCORE, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, a joint venture between the Medical School Hannover and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Hannover, Germany.
    Single-nucleotide variants in human CD81 influence hepatitis C virus infection of hepatoma cells2020Ingår i: Medical Microbiology and Immmunology, ISSN 0300-8584, E-ISSN 1432-1831Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An estimated number of 71 million people are living with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection worldwide and 400,000 annual deaths are related to the infection. HCV entry into the hepatocytes is complex and involves several host factors. The tetraspanin human CD81 (hCD81) is one of the four essential entry factors and is composed of one large extracellular loop, one small extracellular loop, four transmembrane domains, one intracellular loop and two intracellular tails. The large extracellular loop interacts with the E2 glycoprotein of HCV. Regions outside the large extracellular loop (backbone) of hCD81 have a critical role in post-binding entry steps and determine susceptibility of hepatocytes to HCV. Here, we investigated the effect of five non-synonymous single-nucleotide variants in the backbone of hCD81 on HCV susceptibility. We generated cell lines that stably express the hCD81 variants and infected the cells using HCV pseudoparticles and cell culture-derived HCV. Our results show that all the tested hCD81 variants support HCV pseudoparticle entry with similar efficiency as wild-type hCD81. In contrast, variants A54V, V211M and M220I are less supportive to cell culture-derived HCV infection. This altered susceptibility is HCV genotype dependent and specifically affected the cell entry step. Our findings identify three hCD81 genetic variants that are impaired in their function as HCV host factors for specific viral genotypes. This study provides additional evidence that genetic host variation contributes to inter-individual differences in HCV infection and outcome.

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  • Klaus, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Vachon, Dominic
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Challenges of predicting gas transfer velocity from wind measurements over global lakes2020Ingår i: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 82, nr 3, artikel-id 53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating air-water gas transfer velocities (k) is integral to understand biogeochemical and ecological processes in aquatic systems. In lakes, k is commonly predicted using wind-based empirical models, however, their predictive performance under conditions that differ from their original calibration remains largely unassessed. Here, we collected 2222 published k estimates derived from various methods in 46 globally distributed lakes to (1) evaluate the predictions of a selection of six available wind-speed based k models for lakes and (2) explore and develop new empirical models to predict k over global lakes. We found that selected k models generally performed poorly in predicting k in lakes. Model predictions were more accurate than simply assuming a mean k in only 2-39% of all lakes, however, we could not identify with confidence the specific conditions in which some models outperformed others. We developed new wind-based models in which additional variables describing the spatial coverage of k estimates and the lake size and shape had a significant effect on the wind speed-k relationship. Although these new models did not fit the global dataset significantly better than previous k models, they generate overall less biased predictions for global lakes. We further provide explicit estimates of prediction errors that integrate methodological and lake-specific uncertainties. Our results highlight the potential limits when using wind-based models to predict k across lakes and urge scientists to properly account for prediction errors, or measure k directly in the field whenever possible.

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  • Lindgren, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Ek, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Delaktighet och inflytande i förskolan: Vilka reella möjligheter har barn att göra sin röst hörd?2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här examensarbetet var syftet att utforska hur några förskollärare uppfattar begreppen delaktighet och inflytande i förskolans verksamhet och hur de arbetar med detta i praktiken. I studien fokuseras maktstrukturer och normerande praktiker som råder i förskolan och hur dessa kan ha en negativ inverkan på barns möjligheter att göra sin röst hörd och få ett reellt inflytande över sin vardag. Studien belyser hur dessa maktstrukturer och dominerande diskurser kan rubbas genom att inta ett barnperspektiv. För detta syfte genomfördes den kvalitativa studien på tre olika avdelningar och förskolor och med barn mellan 1–5 år där både intervju av en förskollärare och observation av en samlingssituation genomfördes. Resultatet pekar på att förskollärares förhållningssätt, de normerande praktikerna påverkar barnens möjligheter till delaktighet och inflytande samt att yttre faktorer som personalbortfall, tidspress och stora barngrupper utgör hinder för att utföra det demokratiska uppdraget som framhålls i förskolans läroplan. En övergripande slutsats som kan dras utifrån arbetet är att barns delaktighet generellt är inskränkt.

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  • Cunningham, Thomas J.
    et al.
    Fisher, Elizabeth
    Fratta, Pietro
    Gilthorpe, Jonathan D
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    DNA Editing for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Leading Off First Base2020Ingår i: The CRISPR Journal, ISSN 2573-1599, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 75-77Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene therapy in a mouse model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) illustrates the rapid deployment of base editing in therapeutic modeling of neurodegenerative disease.

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  • Nieckarz, Marta
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; Present address: Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden, Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kaczor, Patrycja
    Jaworska, Karolina
    Raczkowska, Adrianna
    Brzostek, Katarzyna
    Urease Expression in Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica Strains of Bio-Serotypes 2/O:9 and 1B/O:8 Is Differentially Regulated by the OmpR Regulator2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 11, artikel-id 607Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Yersinia enterocolitica exhibits a dual lifestyle, existing as both a saprophyte and a pathogen colonizing different niches within a host organism. OmpR has been recognized as a regulator that controls the expression of genes involved in many different cellular processes and the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Here, we have examined the influence of OmpR and varying temperature (26 degrees C vs. 37 degrees C) on the cytoplasmic proteome of Y. enterocolitica Ye9N (bio-serotype 2/O:9, low pathogenicity). Differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis indicated that OmpR affects the cellular abundance of a number of proteins including subunits of urease, an enzyme that plays a significant role in acid tolerance and the pathogenicity of Y. enterocolitica. The impact of OmpR on the expression of urease under different growth conditions was studied in more detail by comparing urease activity and the transcription of ure genes in Y. enterocolitica strains Ye9N and Ye8N (highly pathogenic bio-serotype 1B/O:8). Urease expression was higher in strain Ye9N than in Ye8N and in cells grown at 26 degrees C compared to 37 degrees C. However, low pH, high osmolarity and the presence of urea did not have a clear effect on urease expression in either strain. Further analysis showed that OmpR participates in the positive regulation of three transcriptional units encoding the multi-subunit urease (ureABC, ureEF, and ureGD) in strain Ye9N, but this was not the case in strain Ye8N. Binding of OmpR to the ureABC and ureEF promoter regions was confirmed using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, suggesting that this factor plays a direct role in regulating the transcription of these operons. In addition, we determined that OmpR modulates the expression of a ureR-like gene encoding a putative regulator of the ure gene cluster, but in the opposite manner, i.e., positively in Ye9N and negatively in Ye8N. These findings provide some novel insights into the function of OmpR in adaptation strategies of Y. enterocolitica.

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  • Karlsson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Likheter mellan CT-P13 och infliximab: En litteraturstudie2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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  • Egelkraut, Dagmar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Barthelemy, Hélène
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Reindeer trampling promotes vegetation changes in tundra heathlands: Results from a simulation experiment2020Ingår i: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 476-486Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Herbivores exert strong influences on vegetation through activities such as trampling, defoliation, and fertilization. The combined effect of these activities on plant performance may cause dramatic vegetation shifts. Because herbivore pressures and the relative importance of their different activities are not equally distributed across the landscape, it is important to understand their isolated effect. One example of an herbivore‐induced vegetation shift is the reindeer‐driven transition from a subarctic tundra vegetation dominated by dwarf shrubs into a more productive, graminoid‐dominated state. Here, we asked how each of the grazing activities by reindeer separately and combined shape vegetation composition.

    Location: Nordreisa, Norway.

    Methods: We used a field experiment over six summers to study the separate and interacting effects of reindeer trampling, defoliation, addition of faeces and removal of moss on tundra heath vegetation, and to identify which of these factors were most important in driving the plant community towards a graminoid‐dominated state.

    Results: The combination of all treatments resulted in the strongest changes in vegetation, but trampling was the single most important factor altering the vegetation composition by reducing the abundance of both evergreen and deciduous dwarf shrubs. In contrast to what was expected, none of our treatments, separate or combined, resulted in an increased abundance of graminoids in 5 years, although such rapid vegetation changes have been observed in the field in similar environmental conditions.

    Conclusions: Trampling is the key process by which reindeer influence the abundance of functional groups, but only many processes combined result in strong changes in community composition. Moreover, additional factors not included in this experiment, such as urine, may be important in causing a state shift to a graminoid‐dominated community.

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  • Boniolo, Manuel
    et al.
    Shylin, Sergii, I
    Chernev, Petko
    Cheah, Mun Hon
    Heizmann, Philipp A.
    Huang, Ping
    Salhi, Nessima
    Hossain, Kamal
    Thapper, Anders
    Lundberg, Marcus
    Messinger, Johannes
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Spin transition in a ferrous chloride complex supported by a pentapyridine ligand2020Ingår i: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 56, nr 18, s. 2703-2706Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferrous chloride complexes [FeIILxCl] commonly attain a high-spin state independently of the supporting ligand(s) and temperature. Herein, we present the first report of a complete spin crossover with T1/2 = 80 K in [FeII(Py5OH)Cl]+ (Py5OH = pyridine-2,6-diylbis[di(pyridin-2-yl)methanol]). Both spin forms of the complex are analyzed by X-ray spectroscopy and DFT calculations.

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  • Elvin, Nicklas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Nilsson, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Barriärer för digital transformation: En kvalitativ fallstudie i försäkringsbranschen2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The entry of information technology into our homes and workplaces has changed our way of life. Technologies such as the Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence are increasingly being used by companies today as means to create new smart services. Digital transformation is happening here and now across many industries. A digital transformation involves a major change in the company and its business model with the aim of creating value. Due to the extensive nature of the digital transformation, there are good incentives to thoroughly investigate existing barriers before a change work can begin. Many studies have been conducted aimed at examining barriers to digital development in, for example, the production industry, but few studies have been conducted aimed at examining barriers within the service sector. This study aims to investigate the barriers that can hamper a digital transformation of an insurance company. In order to answer this research question, a case study was conducted with five semi-structured interviews with informants at an insurance company. The results show that several different barriers exist, most of which can be linked to technical, environmental, organizational and cultural barriers.

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    Barriärer för digital transformation: En kvalitativ fallstudie i försäkringsbranschen
  • Vinje, Vegard
    et al.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Mardal, Kent-Andre
    Rognes, Marie E.
    Stoverud, Karen-Helene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Intracranial pressure elevation alters CSF clearance pathways2020Ingår i: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, ISSN 2045-8118, E-ISSN 2045-8118, Vol. 17, nr 1, artikel-id 29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Infusion testing is a common procedure to determine whether shunting will be beneficial in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus. The method has a well-developed theoretical foundation and corresponding mathematical models that describe the CSF circulation from the choroid plexus to the arachnoid granulations. Here, we investigate to what extent the proposed glymphatic or paravascular pathway (or similar pathways) modifies the results of the traditional mathematical models.

    Methods: We used a compartment model to estimate pressure in the subarachnoid space and the paravascular spaces. For the arachnoid granulations, the cribriform plate and the glymphatic circulation, resistances were calculated and used to estimate pressure and flow before and during an infusion test. Finally, different variations to the model were tested to evaluate the sensitivity of selected parameters.

    Results: At baseline intracranial pressure (ICP), we found a very small paravascular flow directed into the subarachnoid space, while 60% of the fluid left through the arachnoid granulations and 40% left through the cribriform plate. However, during the infusion, 80% of the fluid left through the arachnoid granulations, 20% through the cribriform plate and flow in the PVS was stagnant. Resistance through the glymphatic system was computed to be 2.73 mmHg/(mL/min), considerably lower than other fluid pathways, giving non-realistic ICP during infusion if combined with a lymphatic drainage route.

    Conclusions: The relative distribution of CSF flow to different clearance pathways depends on ICP, with the arachnoid granulations as the main contributor to outflow. As such, ICP increase is an important factor that should be addressed when determining the pathways of injected substances in the subarachnoid space. Our results suggest that the glymphatic resistance is too high to allow for pressure driven flow by arterial pulsations and at the same time too small to allow for a direct drainage route from PVS to cervical lymphatics.

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  • Kröger, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Ledin, Oskar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    HÄLSOFRÄMJANDE FRITIDSHEM: En kvalitativ studie om fritidshems olika förutsättningar för ett hälsofrämjande arbete2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett hälsofrämjande arbete inom fritidshemmet betonar elevernas möjligheter att stimulera sina fysiska och psykiska behov. Studiens syfte har varit att bidra med ökad förståelse kring hur olika fritidshem arbetar gällande det hälsofrämjande arbetet. Fritidshemmens olika förutsättningar för ett sådant arbete vill vi även undersöka. Studiens grund har utgått från fritidslärarnas egna kunskaper och perspektiv på hälsoarbetets betydelse. Åtta kvalitativa intervjuer har lagt grunden till studiens resultat. Dessa intervjuer har transkriberats för sedan analyseras med hjälp av en kvalitativ tematisk innehållsanalys. Resultatet analyserades och jämfördes med relevant litteratur samt ramfaktorteorin, som även är studiens teoretiska utgångspunkt. Studiens slutsats är att de verksamma lärarna på fritidshemmen besitter en förståelse för hur viktigt hälsoarbetet är. Det finns dock en stor variation mellan fritidshemmens eftersom förutsättningarna för ett hälsofrämjande arbete ser olika ut. De flesta fritidshemmen har inga tydliga riktlinjer för ett fullgott hälsoarbete vilket öppnar upp för de verksamma fritidslärarnas egna tolkningar gällande detta.

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  • Hansson, Elvira
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Ljungqvist, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    ”DET BYGGER PÅ RELATIONER ANNARS ÄR MAN CHANSLÖS”: En kvalitativ studie om hur fritidspersonalen förhåller sig till elever med utmanande beteende2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Elever med utmanande beteende är inget ovanligt att stöta på inom skolans värld och det är sannolikt något som all fritidspersonal är bekant med. Denna studies syfte var att öka kunskap om hur den verksamma personalen i fritidshemmet förhåller sig till de elever som de menar har ett utmanande beteende och relationsskapandets betydelse i mötet med dessa elever. Studiens fokus vilade på hur fritidspersonalen tolkade begreppet elever med utmanade beteende samt vad fritidspersonalen har för kunskap och erfarenheter inom ämnet. Vidare har fokus legat på vilken vikt relationsskapandet har, samt hur konfliktartade situationer hanteras med dessa elever. Studien har utgått från åtta kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med yrkesverksam personal på fritidshem. Intervjuerna transkriberades samt analyserades med hjälp av analysmetoden tematisk analys. Studiens teoretiska utgångspunkter har varit det sociokulturella och relationella perspektivet. Studiens slutsats är att fritidspersonalen har erfarenhet av elever de anser har ett utmanande beteende, att relationer är viktigt i mötet med dessa elever samt att lågaffektivt bemötande är en strategi samtliga informanter delvis använder.

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  • Gholizadeh Khoshdel, Sakeneh
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. 196912230684.
    Effekten av arbetsterapeuters åtgärder för patienter med schizofrenisjukdom: En systematisk litteraturöversikt2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Schizofreni är den vanligaste diagnosen bland alla psykossjukdomar och är en av de tio mest funktionshindrande sjukdomarna i världen. Individer med schizofreni har ofta funktionshinder så som kontaktskygghet och en benägenhet att isolera sig i sin egen värld. Sjukdomen orsakar viss oförmåga att delta i vardagliga aktiviteter och därför har arbetsterapeuten en stor och betydelsefull roll i arbetet med patientgruppen. Syftet med studien var att beskriva effekten av arbetsterapeuters åtgärder för patienter med schizofrenisjukdom. En systematisk litteraturöversikt valdes som metod. Artiklar hämtades från databaserna Cinahl, Pubmed och Psychinfo.  Åtta kvantitativa originalartiklar som publicerades mellan 2009 och 2019 har granskats, analyserats och sammanställts i fyra kategorier.  För kategorin Arbetsterapiprogram som lär ut nya strategier framkommer att den har god effekt på att förbättra exekutiva funktioner, självskattning av problemlösnings- och prioriteringsförmåga i utförandet av vardagliga göromål, individens autonomi och självständighet i ADL, funktionell kapacitet, kognitiva funktioner samt reducering av schizofrenisymtom. Kategorin Insatser med kreativa aktiviteter visade förbättringar avseende positiva schizofrenisymtom (hallucinationer, vanföreställningar, bisarrt beteende och tankestörningar) men även negativa schizofrenisymtom (affektlöshet, minskad talbarhet, apati och avsaknad av livslust) hos patienten. Insatser med musik och dans visade förbättrad uppmärksamhet, tankehastighet, minnesfunktioner, flyt och spontanitet i de exekutiva funktionerna såsom självständighet i vardagliga aktiviteter och egen problemlösning. Kategorin Arbetsterapi utifrån självvalda aktiviteter visade förbättringar av negativa och positiva symtom, minskad misstänksamhet samt förbättrade psykosociala funktioner. En viktig slutsats utifrån resultatet är att ett systematiskt och tidigt insatt arbetsterapiprogram samt interventioner med självvalda, kreativa aktiviteter med individen i fokus stärker självständighet och förbättrar utförandet av vardagliga aktiviteter hos personer med schizofreni. Det råder ett behov av fortsatt forskning som undersöker effekten av arbetsterapeutiska interventioner för personer med schizofreni. Ytterligare utvecklingsområden för arbetsterapeuters interventioner för personer med schizofreni är även av intresse i dagens utvecklade samhälle.

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  • Vega, Daniel Movilla
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Arkitekthögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Housing and Revolution: From the Dom-Kommuna to the Transitional Type of Experimental House (1926-30)2020Ingår i: Architectural Histories, E-ISSN 2050-5833, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the USSR, against the backdrop of political change and social instability in the 1920s, the issue of housing for the masses was addressed by the Association of Contemporary Architects (OSA), under the leadership of Moisey Ginzburg. Their mission was not only to provide a solution to the lack of accommodation in the major cities of the country, but to redefine housing as a framework suited to a society transitioning towards a fully socialised life. The response was developed in three stages of design research, over a period of five years. The initial conceptual phase was formally presented by members of the OSA at the 1926 Comradely Competition, and focused on the housing question, with specific designs for communal houses. The second stage revolved around the scientific and methodological research of the Stroykom, developed in parallel with the designs for the new communal living units. The final stage took material form in six specific buildings, known as transitional-type experimental houses. One of these, the Narkomfin, gained worldwide recognition as a modern prototype of Soviet avant-garde housing, and has been widely researched as a result. However, to date no study has approached all three phases with equal scrutiny and methodology. This article offers a detailed account of the OSA's experimental design strategies for collective workers' housing between 1926 and 1930 under Ginzburg's leadership by examining original sources, as well as analysing and restoring the individual projects at each stage. It provides a new interpretation of the famous Narkomfin House and ideas on the first Soviet avant-garde housing project by reconstructing the complex research context in which the building, in tandem with other projects, was developed.

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  • Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    Friman, Eva
    Mogren, Anna
    Palmer, Henrietta
    Sund, Per
    Carstedt, Göran
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Robertsson, Barbro
    Rodhe, Håkan
    Svärd, Linn
    Evaluation of integration of sustainable development in higher education in Sweden2020Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, ISSN 1467-6370, E-ISSN 1758-6739Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Since 2006, higher education institutions (HEIs) in Sweden, should according to the Higher Education Act, promote sustainable development (SD). In 2016, the Swedish Government asked the Swedish higher education authority to evaluate how this study is proceeding. The authority chose to focus on education. This paper aims to produce a report on this evaluation.

    Design/methodology/approach: All 47 HEIs in Sweden were asked to write a self-evaluation report based on certain evaluation criteria. A panel was appointed consisting of academics and representatives for students and working life. The panel wrote an evaluation of each HEI, a report on general findings and recommendations, and gave an overall judgement of each HEI in two classes as follows: the HEI has well-developed processes for integration of SD in education or the HEI needs to develop their processes.

    Findings: Overall, a mixed picture developed. Most HEIs could give examples of programmes or courses where SD was integrated. However, less than half of the HEIs had overarching goals for integration of SD in education or had a systematic follow-up of these goals. Even fewer worked specifically with pedagogy and didactics, teaching and learning methods and environments, sustainability competences or other characters of education for SD. Overall, only 12 out of 47 got a higher judgement.

    Originality/value: This is a unique study in which all HEIs in a country are evaluated. This provides unique possibilities for identifying success factors and barriers. The importance of the leadership of the HEIs became clear.

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  • Wang, Yi-Ming
    et al.
    Yang, Qi
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.
    Xu, Hui
    Liu, Yan-Jing
    Yang, Hai-Ling
    Physiological and transcriptomic analysis provide novel insight into cobalt stress responses in willow2020Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 2308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cobalt (Co) is an essential component of several enzymes and coenzymes in living organisms. Excess Co is highly toxic to plants. The knowledge of molecular response mechanisms to cobalt stress in plants is still limited, especially in woody plants. The responses of weeping willow (Salix babylonica) seedlings to Co stress were studied using morphological and physiochemical measurements and RNA-seq analysis. The physiological and biochemical indexes such as growth rate, the content of chlorophyll and soluble sugar, photosynthesis and peroxidase activity were all changed in willow seedlings under Co stress. The metal ion concentrations in willow including Cu, Zn and Mg were disturbed due to excess Co. Of 2002 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 1165 were root-specific DEGs and 837 were stem and leaf-specific DEGs. Further analysis of DEGs showed there were multiple complex cascades in the response network at the transcriptome level under Co stress. Detailed elucidation of responses to oxidative stress, phytohormone signaling-related genes and transcription factors (TFs), and detoxification of excess cellular Co ion indicated the various defense mechanisms in plants respond to cobalt stress. Our findings provide new and comprehensive insights into the plant tolerance to excess Co stress.

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  • Smiljic, Dragan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Beliefs about medicines among Swedish patients with stroke: A questionnaire study2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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  • Fält, Linn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Khater, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Khater, Eléna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    "Kommunikation är nyckeln": En flerfallsstudie om småföretagares sociala mediestrategier på Instagram2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world where digitalisation is growing at a rapid speed and social media is a part of our everyday life, companies have started to adapt to this new way of communicating with their consumers and market their brand. Throughout the years Instagram has grown from a photo-sharing platform to a marketing tool. The aim of this study was to examine how smaller companies form social media strategies on Instagram using the provided tools. We conducted a qualitative analysis by interviewing companies and observing their presence on Instagram, using The Social Strategy Cone framework. From our results and analysis we have found communication with the target group and marketing to be the driving forces for these companies’ social media strategies on said platform. Based on these findings we further discussed three main factors for other companies to include in their social media strategies. These three factors are target group, communication and monitoring. There are various ambiguities in this area that still need to be explored. This is due to social media constantly changing. However, our hope is that our study can be used as a basis for further research on social media strategies.

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    Khater, Khater, Falt
  • Holmberg, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Fenomenografisk analys av engelsklärares upplevelser: Engelsklärares arbete med digitala verktyg2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to get a better understanding of English teachers’ experiences regarding their work with digital aids and tools with a focus on language management programs. The data consists of semi-structured interviews conducted with teachers of English in Sweden. By analysing the material with a phenomenographic method the major findings show that all teachers observed a need concerning the introductions of digital programs for their students. They all experienced difficulties regarding the rules and regulations during tests and described the test situations as ‘unreal’. Their student’s motivation and their ability to adapt practices to each individual student is seen as something positive. The teachers do however believe that the digital tools also could affect the students negatively by offering too much help or other distractions. The majority of the teachers feel ‘competent enough’ but some experience discomfort when dealing with certain digital situations. No one of the participating teachers has received any training or instructions in working with digital tools and programs, but all report that every problem gets solved among colleagues.

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    Cecilia Holmberg examensarbete
  • Shirdel, Mona
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Anderson, Fredrick
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Myte, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Rutegård, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM).
    Blomqvist, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM).
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Gylling, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Body composition measured by computed tomography is associated with colorectal cancer survival, also in early-stage disease2020Ingår i: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cachexia and sarcopenia are associated with poor survival after colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. Computed tomography (CT) can be used to measure aspects of cachexia including sarcopenia, myosteatosis and the amount of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to relate CT-based body composition variables with survival outcomes in CRC. Material and methods: In this population-based, retrospective cohort study, CT scans of 974 patients with pathological stages I-IV CRCs, collected at or very near diagnosis (years 2000-2016), were used to measure cross-sectional fat and muscle tissue areas. Body composition variables based on these measurements were assessed in relation to tumor stage and site and cancer-specific survival in stages I-III CRC (n = 728) using Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier estimators. Results: Sarcopenia was associated with decreased cancer-specific survival, especially in patients with stages I-II tumors. The hazard ratio (HR) for the lowest versus highest tertile of skeletal muscle index (SMI) was 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-2.58 for all stages, and HR 2.22; 95% CI 1.06-4.68, for stages I-II. Myosteatosis was also associated with decreased cancer-specific survival [(HR 2.03; 95% CI 1.20-3.34 for the lowest versus the highest tertile of skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMR)]. SMI and SMR were lower in patients with right-sided CRC, independent of age and sex. No adipose tissue measurement was significantly associated with cancer-specific survival. Conclusion: In concordance with previous studies, sarcopenia and myosteatosis were associated with decreased cancer-specific survival. The strong association between sarcopenia and poor cancer-specific survival in early-stage disease could have clinical implications for personalizing therapy decisions, including nutritional support.

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  • Ignatov, Dmitriy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Durand, Sylvain
    Cahoon, Laty
    Sandberg, Stefanie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Liu, Xijia
    Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.
    Ryden, Patrik
    Freitag, Nancy
    Condon, Ciaran
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    An mRNA-mRNA Interaction Couples Expression of a Virulence Factor and Its Chaperone in Listeria monocytogenes2020Ingår i: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 30, nr 12, s. 4027-+Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial pathogens often employ RNA regulatory elements located in the 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) to control gene expression. Using a comparative structural analysis, we examine the structure of 5' UTRs at a global scale in the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes under different conditions. In addition to discovering an RNA thermoswitch and detecting simultaneous interaction of ribosomes and small RNAs with mRNA, we identify structural changes in the 5' UTR of an mRNA encoding the post-translocation chaperone PrsA2 during infection conditions. We demonstrate that the 5' UTR of the prsA2 mRNA base pairs with the 3' UTR of the full-length hly mRNA encoding listeriolysin O, thus preventing RNase J1-mediated degradation of the prsA2 transcript. Mutants lacking the hly-prsA2 interaction exhibit reduced virulence properties. This work highlights an additional level of RNA regulation, where the mRNA encoding a chaperone is stabilized by the mRNA encoding its substrate.

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  • Schmedes, Clare M
    et al.
    Grover, Steven P
    Hisada, Yohei M
    Goeijenbier, Marco
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Nilsson, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Thunberg, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Mackman, Nigel
    Connolly-Andersen, Anne-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Increased circulating extracellular vesicle tissue factor activity during orthohantavirus infection is associated with intravascular coagulation.2019Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, artikel-id jiz597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Puumala (PUUV) orthohantavirus causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). HFRS patients have an activated coagulation system with increased risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of the study was to determine if circulating extracellular vesicle tissue factor (EVTF) activity levels associates with DIC and VTE (grouped as intravascular coagulation) in HFRS patients.

    METHODS: Longitudinal samples were collected from 88 HFRS patients. Patients were stratified into groups of those with intravascular coagulation (n=27) and those who did not (n=61). We measured levels of circulating EVTF activity, fibrinogen, activated partial prothrombin time, prothrombin time international normalized ratio, D-dimer, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and platelets.

    RESULTS: Plasma EVTF activity was transiently increased during HFRS. Levels of EVTF activity significantly associated with plasma tPA and PAI-1, suggesting endothelial cells as a potential source. Patients with intravascular coagulation had significantly higher peak EVTF activity levels compared to those who did not. The peak EVTF activity value predicting intravascular coagulation was 0.51 ng/L with 63% sensitivity and 61% specificity with AUC 0.63 (95% CI 0.51 - 0.76), p-value 0.046.

    CONCLUSIONS: Increased circulating EVTF activity during HFRS is associated with intravascular coagulation.

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  • Wikström, Evelina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Diskurser om hälsa på Instagram2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of digital technology and social media has changed how people live and today we are dependent on digital technology. The function of social media in society is therefore very important to study. Research must be adapted to society's new conditions and it is this study's ambition to do so. One of the biggest platforms for social media today is Instagram and this platform is behind a large part of the stress that exists around health today. This stress is based on the pursuit of unreachable ideals. There is also research linking young people's deteriorating mental health to Instagram and there is related research that indicates that young women are the worst affected. This study focuses on five of the most popular health-related hashtags where content related to health is published every day. The purpose of this study is to identify and investigate selected popular material from Instagram, discourses on health and whether these discourses reproduce or depart from hegemonic standards of health in relation to appearance, body image and mental health. The study uses multimodal critical discourse analysis as method to analyse the forty-five posts that were published within the five hashtags. This method makes it possible to analyse text and images in relation to each other and to examine if there are hidden norms and structures that can show discourses in the posts. The results revealed several discourses on health. A clear pattern in the material was the reproduction of beauty ideals. The material from the study provides various tools for the audience that they can then use to try to reach these ideals. The study shows that Instagram's function in society in relation to health is primarily about reproducing the beauty ideal hidden behind the concept of health, which contributes to an increased stress around being healthy in society. As our society evolves towards relying more on digital technology, this form of informatics research is very important.

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  • Cripps, Helen
    et al.
    Singh, Abhay
    Mejtoft, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Salo, Jari
    The use of Twitter for innovation in business markets2020Ingår i: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this research is to investigate the use of Twitter in business as a medium for knowledge sharing and to crowdsource information to support innovation and enhance business relationships in the context of business-to-business (B2B) marketing. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a combination of methodologies for gathering data in 52 face-to-face interviews across five countries and the downloaded posts from each of the interviewees' Twitter accounts. The tweets were analysed using structural topic modelling (STM), and then compared to the interview data. This method enabled triangulation between stated use of Twitter and respondent's actual tweets. Findings The research confirmed that individuals used Twitter as a source of information, ideas, promotion and innovation within their industry. Twitter facilitates building relevant business relationships through the exchange of new, expert and high-quality information within like-minded communities in real time, between companies and with their suppliers, customers and also their peers. Research limitations/implications - As this study covered five countries, further comparative research on the use of Twitter in the B2B context is called for. Further investigation of the formalisation of social media strategies and return on investment for social media marketing efforts is also warranted. Practical implications - This research highlights the business relationship building capacity of Twitter as it enables customer and peer conversations that eventually support the development of product and service innovations. Twitter has the capacity for marketers to informand engage customers and peers in their networks on wider topics thereby building the brand of the individual users and their companies simultaneously. Originality/value This study focuses on interactions at the individual level illustrating that Twitter is used for both customer and peer interactions that can lead to the sourcing of ideas, knowledge and ultimately innovation. The study is novel in its methodological approach of combining structured interviews and text mining that found the topics of the interviewees' tweets aligned with their interview responses.

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  • Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Josefsson, Karin
    Hoglind, Sten
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Associations between physical activity and core affects within and across days: a daily diary study2020Ingår i: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate (a) if daily physical activity at the within-person level is related to four different core affects the same evening, (b) if core affects in the evening predict physical activity the following day, and (c) if physical activity predicts core affects the following day. Design: A total of 166 university students were asked to complete the affect and physical activity measures once a day (in the evening), for seven days. Bivariate unconditional latent curve model analyses with structured residuals were performed to investigate the relations within days and across days between the core affects and physical activity. Main outcome measures: Core affects and physical activity. Results: Physical activity had positive within-day associations with pleasant-activated and pleasant-deactivated core affects and a negative within-day association with unpleasant-deactivated affective responses. There were, however, no statistically significant relations between core affects and physical activity across days. Conclusion: These results highlight that the measurement interval might be an important factor that influences the association between core affects and physical activity behaviors.

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  • Sundqvist, Maja K.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; The Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, The Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sanders, Nathan J.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lindén, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Metcalfe, Daniel B.
    Newman, Gregory S.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wardle, David A.
    Classen, Aimee T.
    Responses of tundra plant community carbon flux to experimental warming, dominant species removal and elevation2020Ingår i: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rising temperatures can influence ecosystem processes both directly and indirectly, through effects on plant species and communities. An improved understanding of direct versus indirect effects of warming on ecosystem processes is needed for robust predictions of the impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics.To explore potential direct and indirect effects of warming on C dynamics in arctic tundra heath, we established a warming (open top chambers) and dominant plant species (Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup) removal experiment at a high and low elevation site. We measured the individual and interactive effects of warming, dominant species removal and elevation on plant species cover, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), temperature, soil moisture and instantaneous net ecosystem CO2 exchange.We hypothesized that ecosystems would be stronger CO2 sinks at the low elevation site, and that warming and species removal would weaken the CO2 sink because warming should increase ecosystem respiration (ER) and species removal should reduce gross primary productivity (GPP). Furthermore, we hypothesized that warming and species removal would have the greatest impact on processes at the high elevation where site temperature should be most limiting and dominant species may buffer the overall community to environmental stress more compared to the low elevation site where plants are more likely to compete with the dominant species.The instantaneous CO2 flux, which reflected a weak CO2 sink, was similar at both elevations. Neither experimental warming nor dominant species removal significantly changed GPP or instantaneous net ecosystem CO2 exchange even though species removal significantly reduced ER, NDVI and LAI.Our results show that even the loss of dominant plant species may not result in significant landscape‐scale responses of net ecosystem CO2 exchange to warming. They also show that NDVI and LAI may be limited in their ability to predict changes in GPP in these tundra heaths systems. Our study highlights the need for more detailed vegetation analyses and ground‐truthed measurements in order to accurately predict direct and indirect impacts of climatic change on ecosystem C dynamics.

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  • Mattsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Kindblom, Jenny M.
    Norman, Elisabeth
    Rane, Anders
    Naumburg, Estelle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Improved infrastructure and support needed for paediatric clinical trials in Sweden2020Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim There is a lack of authorised medicines for paediatric patients and improved drug development is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the need for infrastructure and support for paediatric clinical trials in Sweden. Methods A web-based survey was sent to doctors and nurses involved in the care of neonates, children and adolescents assessing the current situation and future needs for paediatric clinical trials in Sweden. Questions regarding premises, competence, organisation, support for paediatric clinical trials and Good Clinical Practice Training were addressed. Results In total, 137 individuals responded to the survey (109 doctors and 28 nurses). Overall, 61% of the respondents had previous experience of paediatric clinical trials. Some respondents had access to trial units, but only 34% had used the trial unit for support. Half of the responders were interested in recurrent paediatric Good Clinical Practice training. Doctors responded that clinical work often had to be prioritised and emphasised the need for research time. Conclusion This study clearly shows the commitment for clinical trials among doctors and nurses involved in paediatric care in Sweden, but also that administrative, logistic and economic support in a sustainable setting and an expanded national collaboration are needed.

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  • Fors, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gärling, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The Bigger the Better? Business Size and Small-Business Owners’ Subjective Well-Being2020Ingår i: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Business growth is often portrayed as an important outcome for small-business owners. Few empirical studies have however examined whether there is a positive relationship between business size and different dimensions of small-business owners’ subjective well-being. In a large cross-sectional sample (n = 1089) of small-business owners from Sweden, we investigate the relationship between business size and the two main components of subjective well-being, life satisfaction and emotional well-being. By means of structural equation modelling, we determine the importance of business size for subjective well-being by focusing on potential advantages (financial satisfaction) and disadvantages (time pressure) related to business size. The results show that there is no overall relationship between business size and life satisfaction, but a weak negative relationship between business size and emotional well-being. However, in a subsequent mediation analyses we find that these findings largely can be explained by the fact that financial satisfaction and time pressure relate to subjective well-being in opposite directions and thus cancel each other out. The results of the mediation analysis also reveal differences across the two components of subjective well-being. We here find that financial satisfaction is more important for small-business owners’ life satisfaction while time pressure is more important for their emotional well-being.

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  • Holmes, Robin B.
    et al.
    Negus, Ian S.
    Wiltshire, Sophie J.
    Thorne, Gareth C.
    Young, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Creation of an anthropomorphic CT head phantom for verification of image segmentation2020Ingår i: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Many methods are available to segment structural magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain into different tissue types. These have generally been developed for research purposes but there is some clinical use in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia. The potential exists for computed tomography (CT) segmentation to be used in place of MRI segmentation, but this will require a method to verify the accuracy of CT processing, particularly if algorithms developed for MR are used, as MR has notably greater tissue contrast. Methods To investigate these issues we have created a three-dimensional (3D) printed brain with realistic Hounsfield unit (HU) values based on tissue maps segmented directly from an individual T1 MRI scan of a normal subject. Several T1 MRI scans of normal subjects from the ADNI database were segmented using SPM12 and used to create stereolithography files of different tissues for 3D printing. The attenuation properties of several material blends were investigated, and three suitable formulations were used to print an object expected to have realistic geometry and attenuation properties. A skull was simulated by coating the object with plaster of Paris impregnated bandages. Using two CT scanners, the realism of the phantom was assessed by the measurement of HU values, SPM12 segmentation and comparison with the source data used to create the phantom. Results Realistic relative HU values were measured although a subtraction of 60 was required to obtain equivalence with the expected values (gray matter 32.9-35.8 phantom, 29.9-34.2 literature). Segmentation of images acquired at different kVps/mAs showed excellent agreement with the source data (Dice Similarity Coefficient 0.79 for gray matter). The performance of two scanners with two segmentation methods was compared, with the scanners found to have similar performance and with one segmentation method clearly superior to the other. Conclusion The ability to use 3D printing to create a realistic (in terms of geometry and attenuation properties) head phantom has been demonstrated and used in an initial assessment of CT segmentation accuracy using freely available software developed for MRI.

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  • Hernandez, Sara B.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Dorr, Tobias
    Waldor, Matthew K.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Modulation of Peptidoglycan Synthesis by Recycled Cell Wall Tetrapeptides2020Ingår i: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 31, nr 4, artikel-id 107578Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacterial cell wall is made of peptidoglycan (PG), a polymer that is essential for the maintenance of cell shape and survival. During growth, bacteria remodel their PG, releasing fragments that are predominantly reinternalized and recycled. Here, we show that Vibrio cholerae recycles PG fragments modified with non-canonical D-amino acids (NCDAA), which lead to the accumulation of cytosolic PG tetrapeptides. We demonstrate that the accumulation of recycled tetrapeptides has two regulatory consequences for the cell wall: reduction of D,D-cross-linkage and reduction of PG synthesis. We further demonstrate that L,D-carboxypeptidases from five different species show a preferential activity for substrates containing canonical (D-alanine) versus non-canonical (D-methionine) D-amino acids, suggesting that the accumulation of intracellular tetrapeptides in NCDAA-rich environments is widespread. Collectively, this work reveals a regulatory role of NCDAA linking PG recycling and synthesis to promote optimal cell wall assembly and composition in the stationary phase.

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  • Broglia, Laura
    et al.
    Lécrivain, Anne-Laure
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Renault, Thibaud T.
    Hahnke, Karin
    Ahmed-Begrich, Rina
    Le Rhun, Anais
    Charpentier, Emmanuelle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    An RNA-seq based comparative approach reveals the transcriptome-wide interplay between 3 '-to-5 ' exoRNases and RNase Y2020Ingår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 1587Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA degradation is an essential process that allows bacteria to control gene expression and adapt to various environmental conditions. It is usually initiated by endoribonucleases (endoRNases), which produce intermediate fragments that are subsequently degraded by exoribonucleases (exoRNases). However, global studies of the coordinated action of these enzymes are lacking. Here, we compare the targetome of endoRNase Y with the targetomes of 3-to-5 ' exoRNases from Streptococcus pyogenes, namely, PNPase, YhaM, and RNase R. We observe that RNase Y preferentially cleaves after guanosine, generating substrate RNAs for the 3 '-to-5 ' exoRNases. We demonstrate that RNase Y processing is followed by trimming of the newly generated 3 ' ends by PNPase and YhaM. Conversely, the RNA 5 ' ends produced by RNase Y are rarely further trimmed. Our strategy enables the identification of processing events that are otherwise undetectable. Importantly, this approach allows investigation of the intricate interplay between endo- and exoRNases on a genome-wide scale.

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  • Andegras, Ronja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Amelie, Näslund
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Influencers användning av sociala plattformar: En netnografisk studie om hur influencers använder Instagram för att påverka sina följare.2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines influencers usage of the social media platform Instagram and how their usage can affect the receiver of their content. The purpose of this study is therefore to observe how influencers are using the platform in order to influence their followers. This study is based on the question: how are the influencers using the social media platform Instagram in order to influence their followers? With the help of the Source Credibility Model, we have been able to value influencers credibility and usage during the netnographic method approach. The original Source Credibility Model consists of three factors: expertise, trustworthiness and attractiveness which helps to evaluate a source credibility. By doing this, we have been able to adapt and adjust this model to a new research area. Our analysis therefore reveals a fourth factor of this model - networking. This factor consists of two under categories: technical and social interaction. The study discovered that an influencer reaches attractivity with adjusting his or her visual content and by using functions on the social platform. The influencers collaborations and advertisement on the social platform shows on which level of expertise they achieve. Furthermore, the followers experience of the influencers content is evaluating the influencers credibility. To be able to evaluate these three factors, the influencer needs to interact with technical aspects such as social platforms and functions, but also to interact socially by giving personality and create engagement for the followers. The study also discovered a difference between male and female influencer usage of the platform, which gives their influence different impacts. This study therefore contributes the field of interest with a new model that can be used in order to examine influencer usage on different social platforms.

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    Influencers användning av sociala plattformar
  • Ögren Nätfalk, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Johannes, Nigisti
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Ekologisk hållbarhet vid inköp och hantering av IT: En kvalitativ studie om privata aktörers inställningar och påverkansmöjligheter2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As society progresses towards more digitalization companies can now use technology to increase their productivity. Use of digital tools help companies to stay competitive but at the same time affects the natural environment in a negative way. The aspect of sustainable manufacturing, usage and disposal of IT-products have not always been prioritized. In order to meet the Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda companies have to be willing to let the ecological sustainability permeate every process in the company, including IT.

    The aim of this study is to highlight what prevents companies from focusing more on ecologically sustainable IT and what strategic measures can be undertaken to achieve ecological sustainability. The study has been based on the research fields of circular economy, green IT, resistance/motivation to ecological sustainability and strategic sustainability. We collected data through semi-structured interviews with employees in decision-making roles regarding the purchase of IT in companies where IT is not a part of the core business.

    To bring clarity about how the companies operate on a strategic level when it comes to IT we created an analytic framework based on frameworks of ecologically sustainable strategies that Borland et al. (2016) designed. The results of the study shows that some companies are going in the right direction by making strategic choices when purchasing, using and disposing IT. Meanwhile other companies choose to focus on how they could take responsibility for their climate footprint in their core business. One of the reasons why the companies disregard the processes outside their core business is because they lack knowledge about how they should require more sustainable IT equipment. Therefore, IT is not prioritized when talking about the company’s ecological sustainability. Even though the result of this study shows that companies are taking steps towards a more ecologically sustainable future, it is obvious that more has to be done.

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    Ekologisk hållbarhet vid inköp och hantering av IT
  • Disputation: 2020-05-29 13:00 Zoom
    Johansson, Nelly
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Haspel, Lin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Kan en självkörande bil vara en etisk agent?2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate important prerequisites for how self-driving cars should/can be programmed from an ethical point of view and to examine how individuals reason about how self-driving cars should act in situations where accidents are inevitable. Artificial intelligence is generally a major area where ethics and morals are important factors to relate to. As the area is so wide, a demarcation has been made for self-driving cars, with the aim of being able to generate increased understanding of the wider context. To answer the question "Can a self-driving car be an ethical agent?" a qualitative method approach has been used. Based on moral-philosophical theories, ethically difficult scenarios have been constructed that respondents have had to take a position on and motivate their positions in the form of semi-structured interviews. The result of the study shows that as different individuals reason differently about what is actually an ethical right act in different situations, it is difficult to determine how a car should act to be classified as an ethical agent. It also turns out that one and the same individual in different situations has different moral-philosophical theories as a starting point because of different influencing factors. This in turn shows that ethical positions are extremely situated, which contributes to an enormous complexity of the phenomenon.

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    Kan en självkörande bil vara en etisk agent?
  • Sandström, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Interaktiv datavisualisering på mobila enheter2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Data is an incredibly resourceful commodity these days, but it has to be analyzed before it becomes really valuable. Visualizations add a layer of abstraction, making the data more presentable and easier to analyze – a much needed tool with the emergence of Big Data. Recent developments and innovations in mobile devices has led to a shift in how we do our work-related and everyday computing, creating challenges for data visualization designers. More research is needed on data visualizations for mobile devices – especially when dealing with large datasets. By developing a prototype and conducting usability tests this study set out to test different interactive charts on a mobile device and find potential problems and give recommendations on how to avoid them. The results showed that overviews, detailed views, and over-cluttering were common problem areas, which coincides with related research. Although the ability to intelligible display large amounts of data differed between the charts, the users of this study were able to accurately finish the tasks asked of them with the help of interactive elements such as zoom, panning and filtering. While some issues were reported, like the sensitivity of the zoom function and panning, the overall results were good and interaction proved to be a vital tool in the user’s ability to accurately read the data.

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  • Gómez-Gener, Lluís
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Stream Biofilm and Ecosystem Research Laboratory, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, GR A0 412 (Bâtiment GR), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Lupon, Anna
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Drought alters the biogeochemistry of boreal stream networks2020Ingår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 1795Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drought is a global phenomenon, with widespread implications for freshwater ecosystems. While droughts receive much attention at lower latitudes, their effects on northern river networks remain unstudied. We combine a reach-scale manipulation experiment, observations during the extreme 2018 drought, and historical monitoring data to examine the impact of drought in northern boreal streams. Increased water residence time during drought promoted reductions in aerobic metabolism and increased concentrations of reduced solutes in both stream and hyporheic water. Likewise, data during the 2018 drought revealed widespread hypoxic conditions and shifts towards anaerobic metabolism, especially in headwaters. Finally, long-term data confirmed that past summer droughts have led to similar metabolic alterations. Our results highlight the potential for drought to promote biogeochemical shifts that trigger poor water quality conditions in boreal streams. Given projected increases in hydrological extremes at northern latitudes, the consequences of drought for the health of running waters warrant attention. High latitude droughts are increasing, but their effects on freshwater systems are poorly understood. Here the authors investigate Sweden's most severe drought in the last century and show that these dry conditions induce hypoxia and elevated methane production from streams.

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  • Pålsson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Hansson, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Pragmatiska språksvårigheter: Hur speciallärare arbetar med och skapar relation till elever i pragmatiska språksvårigheter2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore some specialist needs teachers' experiences regarding teaching students with pragmatic language difficulties. The teachers' own stories form the basis of the study and were collected by using semi-structured interviews. Seven special needs teachers working in primary school participated in the study.

    To clarify the focus of the study our questions were: What challenges do special needs teachers face when teaching students with pragmatic language difficulties regarding communication and collaboration? What teaching methods do some special needs teachers use to support students in pragmatic language difficulties? How do some special needs teachers experience their own competence in creating relationships with students in pragmatic language difficulties? How do special needs teachers support classroom teachers in working with students who have pragmatic language difficulties? Results: Several of the interviewed special needs teachers considered it important to have a good relationship with the pupils in order to be able to teach them pragmatic and communicative skills. They also meant that the best way to practice language and communication was in authentic social interactions. Good cooperation with parents and colleagues was also regarded as important.

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    Pragmatiska språksvårigheter
  • Sicilia, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    KNOWLEDGE COPRODUCTION IN DISCOGS MUSIC DATABASE: A study of the motivations behind a crowdsourced online discography2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Discogs  is  a crowdsourced  online  discography  that  has  become  one  the  largest music databases   and   marketplace   used   by   collectors   and   enthusiasts. To   learn   about   what motivates Discogs community users to contribute, the answers provided by the respondents(n=135)   to an   online   survey with   Likert-scaled   items   measuring different types   of motivations  and  some  open-ended  questions were analysed.  The  results  suggested that Discogs contributors are primarily driven by altruistic reasons (intrinsic motivation) followed by  pragmatism  (extrinsic  motivation).   While  sellers  contributed to  the  database mostly  to sell in the Marketplace, they were equally motivated by intrinsic factors, with similar rates to respondents who  did  not  have  economic  interests  in  the  website. Open-ended  questions indicated  that  conflicts  with  other  users  could  decrease  the  motivation  to  contribute.  In addition,   respondents   revealed   that during   their   trajectory   ascontributors,   intrinsic motivation increased over time. Also, experience and expertise were the reasons why some contributors had roles recognised by other members in the Discogs community

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  • Kinnari, Jasmine
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tysk, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    THE MODERATING ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FLEXIBILITY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CYBER VICTIMIZATION AND ANXIETY IN SWEDISH YOUTH2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att bli utsatt för nätmobbning är ett nytt fenomen som fortsätter att öka för varje år, och trots att intresset för forskning har växt, så vet man fortfarande lite om sätt att minska utfallet av nätmobbning på mental hälsa. Den här studien syftade till att undersöka huruvida psykologisk flexibilitet kan agera som en moderator på relationen mellan nätmobbning och ångest hos svenska ungdomar. Kön användes som kontrollvariabel. Deltagarna rekryterades på Facebook och data samlades in via ett onlineformulär som innehöll kön, ålder, Adolescent Cyber-Victimization Scale, Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth, och Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children. Antalet deltagare var 102 svenska ungdomar (kvinnor, N = 74, män, N = 28) i åldern 16 till 25 år (M = 20,34, SD = 2,88). En multipel linjär regression visade att psykologisk flexibilitet och nätmobbning signifikant predicerade ångest. Resultaten för psykologisk flexibilitet som en moderator på relationen mellan nätmobbning och ångest, och för kön som prediktor av ångest, var icke-signifikanta. Resultaten bidrar med en ökad förståelse för vilken roll psykologisk flexibilitet har i mental hälsa hos unga, men fortsatt forskning behövs på psykologisk flexibilitet som en moderator. Framtida forskning borde fokusera på mer kliniska grupper med ökad urvalsstorlek och lägga till ett bredare genusperspektiv.

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  • Lewis, Trevor
    et al.
    Zeisig, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Gaida, Jamie E.
    Does glucocorticoid exposure explain the association between metabolic dysfunction and tendinopathy?2020Ingår i: Endocrine Connections, ISSN 2049-3614, E-ISSN 2049-3614, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. R36-R46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While metabolic health is acknowledged to affect connective tissue structure and function, the mechanisms are unclear. Glucocorticoids are present in almost every cell type throughout the body and control key physiological processes such as energy homeostasis, stress response, inflammatory and immune processes, and cardiovascular function. Glucocorticoid excess manifests as visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. As these metabolic states are also associated with tendinopathy and tendon rupture, it may be that glucocorticoids excess is the link between metabolic health and tendinopathy. Objective: To synthesise current knowledge linking glucocorticoid exposure to tendon structure and function. Methods: Narrative literature review. Results: We provide an overview of endogenous glucocorticoid production, regulation, and signalling. Next we review the impact that oral glucocorticoid has on risk of tendon rupture and the effect that injected glucocorticoid has on resolution of symptoms. Then we highlight the clinical and mechanistic overlap between tendinopathy and glucocorticoid excess in the areas of visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In these areas, we highlight the role of glucocorticoids and how these hormones might underpin the connection between metabolic health and tendon dysfunction. Conclusions: There are several plausible pathways through which glucocorticoids might mediate the connection between metabolic health and tendinopathy.

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  • Steib, Celine A.
    et al.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    Witthoft, Cornelia M.
    Diet and nutrient status of legume consumers in Sweden: a descriptive cross-sectional study2020Ingår i: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikel-id 27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Legumes are nutrient-dense foods and can be an environmentally sustainable alternative to meat consumption. Data on legume intake are scarce and data on legume consumption in Sweden are lacking. This study investigated dietary intake and dietary patterns, together with iron, vitamin D, and folate status, in relation to legume consumption in Sweden. Methods Cross-sectional dietary and biomarker data (n 1760) from the 2011 Riksmaten national survey were analyzed. All legume foods (including soy) were identified from 4-day dietary records and ferritin, folate, and vitamin D status in a subgroup (n 280). Participants were classified into non-consumers and quartiles of legume intake. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to uncover dietary patterns associated with legume intake. Partial Least Square (PLS) regression was used to identify variables associated with variations in legume consumption. Results Legumes were consumed by 44% of the population, with mean (SD) intake of 138 (84) g/d in the highest and 11 (5) g/d in the lowest quartiles. Among consumers, 6% reported being vegetarian, compared with 0.9% among non-consumers. Legume consumers drank less alcohol, but had higher intakes of energy, dietary fiber, folate, thiamin, and several minerals, and more often met recommended intake levels for folate and fiber, critical nutrients in Sweden. Biomarker status did not differ with legume intake. PCA revealed multiple loadings on legumes that generally reflected healthier eating habits for legume-consuming women. PLS revealed that vegetarianism was most influential for high legume intake. Other influential variables were high fruit, tea, nut, and seed intakes. High intake of meat, sodas, fast foods, and sweet foods, together with omnivorism, were influential for low legume intake. The associations were similar for men and women. Conclusions This study supports dietary recommendations on inclusion of legumes in a healthy diet. Greater focus on assessment of legume intake is necessary to explore the population-wide health effects of legumes as sustainable meat alternatives, and to reinforce national nutritional guidelines.

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  • Angulo, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi.
    Åberg, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi.
    INTERVENTIONER FOKUSERADE PÅ MOTORISK FUNKTION FÖR PERSONER MED STROKE: En litteraturstudie med systematik2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stroke är ett samlingsnamn för hjärnblödning och hjärninfarkt. Stroke kan ge upphov till flera olika funktionsnedsättningar. Det krävs ofta tidig rehabilitering och den pågår vanligen efter hemgång från sjukhuset. Syftet med studien var att beskriva interventioner, där arbetsterapi nämns, fokuserade på motorisk funktion upp till två år efter insjuknande i stroke, dess effekter och var interventionerna genomförts. En litteraturstudie valdes som metod och litteratursökningen gjordes i databaserna Cinahl, Pubmed, AMED och PsycInfo. Tio artiklar analyserades med hjälp av en analysmodell av Friberg (2016). Resultatet visade flest interventioner för arm-och handfunktion. Majoriteten av studierna genomfördes på rehabiliteringssjukhus. Slutsatsen som drogs vara att de flesta utförs på rehabiliteringssjukhus och få eller inga artiklar berör strokerehabilitering i hemmet och i slutenvård. Därför skulle det behövas mer forskning om rehabilitering som sker i hemmiljö och på sjukhus.

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    fulltext
  • Hernández, Alison
    et al.
    Center for the Study of Equity and Governance in Health Systems (CEGSS), 11 calle 0-48 Zona 10, Edificio Diamond, oficina 504, Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala..
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Jerez, Fernando
    Center for the Study of Equity and Governance in Health Systems (CEGSS), 11 calle 0-48 Zona 10, Edificio Diamond, oficina 504, Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala..
    Hernandez-Rodriguez, Francisco
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Flores, Walter
    Center for the Study of Equity and Governance in Health Systems (CEGSS), 11 calle 0-48 Zona 10, Edificio Diamond, oficina 504, Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala..
    Building collective power in citizen-led initiatives for health accountability in Guatemala: the role of networks2020Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 20, nr 1, artikel-id 416Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Citizen-led accountability initiatives are a critical strategy for redressing the causes of health inequalities and promoting better health system governance. A growing body of evidence points to the need for putting power relations at the forefront of understanding and operationalizing citizen-led accountability, rather than technical tools and best practices. In this study, we apply a network lens to the question of how initiatives build collective power to redress health system failures affecting marginalized communities in three municipalities in Guatemala.

    Methods: Network mapping and interpretive discussions were used to examine relational qualities of citizen-led initiatives’ networks and explore the resources they offer for mobilizing action and influencing health accountability. Participants in the municipal-level initiatives responded to a social network analysis questionnaire focused on their ties of communication and collaboration with other initiative participants and their interactions with authorities regarding health system problems. Discussions with participants about the maps generated enriched our view of what the ties represented and their history of collective action and also provided space for planning action to strengthen their networks.

    Results: Our findings indicate that network qualities like cohesiveness and centralization reflected the initiative participants’ agency in adapting to their sociopolitical context, and participants’ social positions were a key resource in providing connection to a broad base of support for mobilizing collective action to document health service deficiencies and advocate for solutions. Their legitimacy as “representatives of the people” enabled them to engage with authorities from a bolstered position of power, and their iterative interactions with authorities further contributed to develop their advocacy capabilities and resulted in accountability gains.

    Conclusions: Our study provided evidence to counter the tendency to underestimate the assets and capabilities that marginalized citizens have for building power, and affirmed the idea that best-fit, with-the-grain approaches are well-suited for highly unequal settings characterized by weak governance. Efforts to support and understand change processes in citizen-led initiatives should include focus on adaptive network building to enable contextually-embedded approaches that leverage the collective power of the users of health services and grassroots leaders on the frontlines of accountability.

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  • Sjödin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kost- och måltidsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Idrottshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Sehlstedt, EwaCarin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kost- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Svensson, Michael B.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Avdelningen för idrottsmedicin.
    Burén, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kost- och måltidsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Idrottshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Muscle Fatigue in Healthy, Young, Normal-Weight Women: A Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial2020Ingår i: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 12, nr 4, artikel-id 955Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ketogenic low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets are increasingly popular in broad sections of the population. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a non-energy-restricted ketogenic LCHF diet on muscle fatigue in healthy, young, and normal-weight women. Twenty-four women were randomly allocated to a 4-week ketogenic LCHF diet followed by a 4-week control diet (a National Food Agency recommended diet), or the reverse sequence due to the crossover design. Treatment periods were separated by a 15 week washout period. Seventeen women completed the study and were included in the analyses. Treatment effects were evaluated using mixed models. The ketogenic LCHF diet had no effect on grip strength or time to fatigue, measured with handgrip test (day 24–26). However, cycling time to fatigue decreased with almost two minutes (−1.85 min 95% CI:[−2.30;−1.40]; p < 0.001) during incremental cycling (day 25–27), accommodated with higher ratings of perceived exertion using the Borg scale (p < 0.01). Participants’ own diary notes revealed experiences of muscle fatigue during daily life activities, as well as during exercise. We conclude that in young and healthy women, a ketogenic LCHF diet has an unfavorable effect on muscle fatigue and might affect perceived exertion during daily life activities.

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  • Nyström, Monica E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Medical Management Centre, SOLIID, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strehlenert, Helena
    Advancing Health Services Collaborative and Partnership Research: Comment on "Experience of Health Leadership in Partnering with University-Based Researchers in Canada – A Call to 'Re-imagine' Research"2020Ingår i: International Journal of Health Policy and Management, ISSN 2322-5939, E-ISSN 2322-5939Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Bowen et al highlight the trend towards partnership research to address the complex challenges currently facing healthcare systems and organizations world-wide. They focus on important strategic actors in partner organizations and their experiences, views and advice for sustainable collaboration, within a Canadian context. The authors call for a multi-system change to provide better conditions for research partnerships. They highlight needs to re-imagine research, to move beyond an ‘acute care’ and clinical focus in research, to re-think research funding, and to improve the academic preparation for research partnerships. In this commentary we provide input to the discussion on practical guidance for those involved in research partnerships based on our partnership experiences from ten research projects conducted within the Swedish healthcare system since 2007. We also highlight areas that need attention in future research in order to learn from approaches used for collaborative and partnership research.

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  • Nzayisenga, Jean Claude
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Autotrophic and heterotrophic culture of Nordic microalgae in wastewater for lipid production2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that society’s main means for producing energy, the combustion of fossil fuels, is unsustainable and contributes to global warming. Microalgae have high potential for the production of biodiesel and energy source that can at least partially replace fossil fuels. In addition, microalgae are a valuable resource for cleaning up the wastewater that developed societies produce on a daily basis. The research presented in this thesis covers how various growth conditions affect the production of lipids – potential energy source – in Nordic microalgae species, and how these species can benefit municipal wastewater treatment.

    The research presented in Paper 1 demonstrated that the combination of Fourier-Transform IR (FTIR) and Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCRALS) is a powerful tool for monitoring changes in the biochemical composition (lipids, carbohydrates and proteins) of microalgae grown under different conditions. Experiments showed that Chlorella sp. isolated from Umeå was able to grow under heterotrophic conditions using glycerol as a carbon source and, more importantly, demonstrated high lipid content. The substantial accumulation of lipids observed in Chlorella sp. corresponded to a decrease in carbohydrate content. Paper 2 covered the key metabolites associated with the observed high lipid content under heterotrophic conditions. The low carbohydrate content observed under these growth conditions may be linked to low levels of the metabolites involved in gluconeogenesis. Conversely, the increase in lipid content may be associated with an increase in fatty acid metabolites and/or certain amino acids. The research presented in Paper 3 showed that microalgae grown under high light intensity (300 μE m−2 s−1 ) have higher lipid contents than microalgae grown under low light intensities (50 and 100 μE m−2 s−1). The increase in lipid content under high light intensity conditions corresponded with a decrease in protein content. The research described in paper 4 demonstrated that among various Nordic strains, Desmodesmus sp. is the best candidate for biomass and lipid production under heterotrophic conditions with glycerol as the carbon source. Furthermore, the research covered in Papers 1, 3 and 4 demonstrated that the increase in lipid content under certain growth conditions corresponded to better biodiesel quality based on fatty acid composition. The experiments described in Papers 1,3 and 4 also showed that microalgae were able to remove most of nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater, and thus, could be beneficial to municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    In summary, we showed that coupling FTIR to MCR-ALS is useful for evaluating changes in the biochemical composition of microalgae. Nordic microalgae were able to produce high amounts of lipids, which showed a favorable fatty acid profile in terms of biodiesel quality, under certain growth conditions. Subsequent analyses provided insight into which metabolites were responsible for the observed changes in lipid accumulation. We also showed that Nordic microalgae can contribute to wastewater treatment.

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  • Tesfamhret, Yobel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. 1993.
    EnergikarEnergikartläggning av en utbildningsbyggnad samt utredning av energibesparande åtgärder: tläggning av en utbildningsbyggnad samt utredning av energibesparande åtgärder: Mapping the energy consumption of an educational building and investigation of energy saving measures2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 300 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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