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  • Disputation: 2018-12-07 13:00 Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå
    Bay, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Being physically active as an adult with congenital heart disease2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to advances in medical and surgical care adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) is a growing and aging population, that now outnumbers the children with CHD. In general, adults with CHD have reduced aerobic exercise capacity and nearly half of the patients do not reach current recommendations on physical activity. It is known that a low level of physical activity is associated with an increased risk for acquired cardiovascular disease. Studies has shown that adults with CHD are at the same, or even higher risk as the general population, for developing acquired cardiovascular disease.

    Aim: The overall aim was to explore physical activity in adults with CHD with respect to associated factors, exercise self-efficacy and their own experiences.

    Methods: This thesis is based on four papers. Paper I included 471 adults with CHD from three tertiary care centres in Sweden. The participants completed questionnaires measuring patient reported outcomes (e.g. SF-12) including physical activity level. Paper II was based on data from 79 adults with CHD from two tertiary care centers in Sweden and 42 matched controls. All participants completed questionnaires on exercise self-efficacy and quality of life, wore an activity monitor during four consecutive days and performed muscle endurance tests. Paper I and II were of cross-sectional design and analyses were done using logistic regression. In paper III and IV data were collected through structured interviews for 14 participants. They were asked about their experiences of being physically active (paper III), what they considered as physical activities, and their experiences of enablers and barriers to physical activity (paper IV). Qualitative content analysis was used in papers III and IV.

    Results: Physical activity level (paper I) and exercise self-efficacy (paper II) were strongly associated with age where those over 40 years had a lower level of physical activity and lower exercise self-efficacy. Further, in paper I, it appeared that patient reported outcomes from SF-12 were strongly associated with physical activity level. In paper II, exercise self-efficacy was associated with performance in a muscle endurance tests. Paper III revealed an overall theme – It´s like balancing on a slackline that illustrates how adults with CHD described themselves in relation to physical activity. This overall theme consisted of four themes: (1) Being an adventurer – enjoying the challenges of physical activity; (2) Being a realist – adapting to physical ability; (3) Being a non-doer – lacking prerequisites for physical activity and (4) Being an outsider – feeling excluded depending on physical ability. In paper IV, the analysis revealed a description of what adults with CHD consider to be physical activity and considered as enablers and barriers for physical activity. Four categories appeared; physical aspects, psychological aspects, psychosocial aspects and environmental aspects. In the psychosocial aspect, social support and encouragement in childhood to be physically active and no restrictions from e.g. parents, teachers and health care increased physical activity in adulthood.

    Conclusions: Age, social support and accepting physical limitations seem to have an important impact regarding physical activity level and exercise self-efficacy. In contrast, the complexity of CHD and other medical factors appear to be of less importance for adults with CHD in relation to physical activity. In order to support adults with CHD to increase their physical activity and reach their full potential, it is important to explore and consider the various aspects that may affect physical activity in this population.

  • Disputation: 2018-12-07 09:15 N430, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå
    Johansson, Alexandra C.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Optical Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) based on optical frequency combs is an excellent spectroscopic tool as it provides broadband molecular spectra with high spectral resolution and an absolutely calibrated frequency scale. Moreover, the equidistant comb mode structure enables efficient coupling of the comb to enhancement cavities, yielding high detection sensitivity. This thesis focuses on further advances in comb-based FTS to improve its performance and extend its capabilities for broadband precision spectroscopy, particularly in terms of i) spectral resolution, ii) accuracy and precision of molecular parameters as well as concentrations retrieved from fitting models to spectra, and iii) species selectivity.

    To improve the spectral resolution we developed a new methodology to acquire and analyze comb-based FTS signals that yields spectra with a resolution limited by the comb linewidth rather than the optical path difference of the FTS, referred to as the sub-nominal resolution method. This method enables measurements of narrow features, e.g. low-pressure absorption spectra and modes of enhancement cavities, with frequency scale accuracy and precision provided by the comb. Using the technique we measured low-pressure spectra of the entire 3ν13 carbon dioxide (CO2) band at 1575 nm with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio and precision to observe collision narrowing of the absorption lineshape, which was for the first time with a comb-based spectroscopic technique. This allowed retrieval of spectral line parameters for this CO2 band using the speed-dependent Voigt profile.

    Using the sub-nominal resolution method, we measured the transmission modes of a Fabry-Perot cavity over 15 THz of bandwidth with kHz resolution and characterized the cavity modes in terms of their center frequency, linewidth, and amplitude. From the mode center frequencies, we retrieved the group delay dispersion of cavity mirror coatings and intracavity gas with an unprecedented combination of spectral bandwidth and resolution. By measuring both the mode broadening and frequency shift simultaneously we performed broadband cavity-enhanced complex refractive index spectroscopy (CE-CRIS), which allows for simultaneous and calibration-free assessment of the absorption and dispersion spectra of intracavity gas. In this first demonstration we measured the absorption and dispersion spectra of three combination bands of CO2 in the 1525 to 1620 nm range.

    Another comb-based FTS technique is noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS), which combines phase modulation and cavity-enhancement to obtain broadband and highly sensitive absorption spectra. In this thesis we improved the NICE-OFCS technique in terms of stability, sensitivity and modeling of the NICE-OFCS signal. We implemented a model of the NICE-OFCS signal with multiline fitting for assessment of gas concentration. We also identified the optimum operating conditions of the NICE-OFCS systems for accurate gas concentration assessment.

    Finally, to improve the species selectivity we combined comb-based FTS with the Faraday rotation spectroscopy (FRS) technique. In this first demonstration of optical frequency comb Faraday rotation spectroscopy (OFC-FRS), we measured background and interference-free spectra of the entire Q- and R-branches of the fundamental vibrational band of nitric oxide at 5.3 μm showing good agreement with the theoretical model.

  • Sjöberg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Framställning av energisignaturer för byggnader i Umeå kommun2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna nå de energimål som sätts upp inför framtiden måste Umeå kommun aktivt jobba för att ständigt förbättra nuvarande energiläge. För att uppnå målet ingår Umeå kommun i ett EU-projekt som heter E-lighthouse, där de jobbar mot energieffektivisering.

    Syftet är att göra en kartläggning av energisignaturer i Umeå kommuns västra driftområde. För att i det projektet analysera vad som kan hjälpa Umeå kommuns fastighetsavdelning när det kommer till optimering av drift och energianvändning i deras byggnader.

    En litteraturstudie har genomförts för att skapa grundläggande kunskap inom området av energisignaturer. För att efter kartläggning analysera teorier och aspekter som kommit fram. Detta ska resultera i något som kan vara av intresse för Umeå kommuns fastighetsavdelning.

    Resultatet visade att i framtagningen av energisignaturer kan det vara bra att dela upp dag och natt värden. I syfte av att få en överblick över hur en byggnad beter sig värmetekniskt vid olika tidpunkter på dygnet.

    I slutet av projektet gjordes en framtagning av ett intervall som visar var energianvändningen bör ligga för en byggnad i en energisignatur. Detta kan vara ett verktyg att använda i vidare energioptimering.

  • Hallén, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Comminution control using reinforcement learning: Comparing control strategies for size reduction in mineral processing2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In mineral processing the grinding comminution process is an integral part since it is often the bottleneck of the concentrating process, thus small improvements may lead to large savings. By implementing a Reinforcement Learning controller this thesis aims to investigate if it is possible to control the grinding process more efficiently compared to traditional control strategies. Based on a calibrated plant simulation we compare existing control strategies with Proximal Policy Optimization and show possible increase in profitability under certain conditions.

  • Karlsson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    BILINGUALISM AND INHIBITORY CONTROL: The relationship between hours of speaking a second language and inhibition2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens globaliserade värld har förmågan att tala fler än ett språk, även känt somtvåspråkighet, blivit mer vanligt än någonsin. Det finns forskning som tyder på att det finnsskillnader under språkbearbetningen som bidrar till den omdebatterade ‟tvåspråkigas fördel‟på inhibitorisk kontroll. Ord som återkallas under talproduktionen anta genomgå enkonsolideringsprocess som gör att orden blir mer tillgängliga för framtida framplockning. Närdet finns en association mellan ord uppstår en tävlan mellan de båda under talproduktionen;en tävlan som löses av en inhibitorisk kontroll. Hypotesen som testats i den härundersökningen var att större antal timmar av talat andraspråk (L2) skulle associeras medbättre prestation på tre olika inhibitionstest; Flanker task, Stroop task och Simon task, närålder och flytande intelligens kontrollerades för. Den här undersökningen innehöll 241deltagare mellan åldrarna 50-75 år. Resultaten var inte i linje med hypotesen; det fanns ensignifikant positiv association mellan timmar av talat andraspråk (L2) och inhiberingskostnadpå Stroop testet. Alternativa överväganden angående resultaten presenteras i diskussionen.

    Nyckelord: Tvåspråkighet, Inhibition, framplockning av minnen.

  • Boateng, Vanessa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hälsoskyddstillsyn på bostäder som hyrs ut till nyanlända2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to map the municipalities’ public health supervision regarding apartments which is rent to persons who have a residence permit (previous asylum seekers). Municipalities were selected by using statistics over numbers of residence permit which were obtained from the Swedish Migration Agency. To find out how the municipalities works with supervision on this type of apartments, a survey was sent to the concerned municipalities. The result of the study was that 8 of 64 municipalities operate supervision on this type of apartments. To operate this kind of public health supervision the municipalities can e.g. use The Public Health Agency of Sweden’s supervisory guidance as a tool. Even though there are supervisory guidance, which can be used to operate public health supervision, there were municipalities who considered it insufficient.Which may be due to the fact that The Public Health Agency of Sweden does not have a specific supervisory guidance for apartments which is rent to persons who have a residence permit (previous asylum seekers). To make public health supervision on this type of apartments more efficient, the municipalities should cooperate with stakeholders e.g. Social Services Department and the Swedish Migration Agency to easily find this type of apartments. To make the supervision more effective, one can look after the good examples like the eight municipalities, among other things like send out letter with a prebooked date and the aim of the supervision to the real estate owner, operate supervision in project form, using checklist when operating supervision.

  • Bernulf, Jonna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Utvärdering av kalkbehandlad sulfidjord i Ersmark, Umeå2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Acid sulfate soils cover a relatively large area of Sweden, especially the coast along Gulf of Botnia. As these soils in contact with oxygen they start to oxidize and the sulphide is converted to sulphate, leading to a strong acidification. Today, these acid sulfate soils often end up on landfills, which is not a sustainable solution as it is both costly and there is a risk of leakage. A company based in Umea has developed a method for neutralizing acid sulphate soil with hope that it can be reused as plant soil, by adding sand and calcium as well as organic matter. At present, the process is only half-finished as the organic matter is not yet added. This study determined how the treatment worked so far, how much sulphide and neutralizing potential remains in the soil, as well as a number of metals and nutrients commonly and preferably found in plant soil. The treated sulfide soil was compared with a plant soil nearby, along with comparison of data from four different studies elsewhere on sulphide soil and results from samples taken before the sulphide soil was treated. Results show that pH value was higher than before the treatment and total sulfur content had decreased, but is still twice as high compared to the plant soil. Sulphide is still found in the soil, but also a fair amount of calcium carbonate, which shows that the reaction is not completed but that the soil has the potential to be further neutralized. Metal content in the treated sulfide soil is similar to the plant soil. The humus content is at 1.3 % and lower than recommended. Depending on area of use the humus content has to increase, more or less. Based on the results of the analyzes, the treated soil cannot be used as plant soil at the present time. This because of the organic matter that has not yet been added, and that there is still sulphide left in the soil.

  • Sukhin, V. S.
    et al.
    Danyliuk, S. V.
    Sukhina, O. N.
    Zadnepryanniy, A. V.
    Lindquist, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Hermelin, H.
    Tarján, M.
    The investigation of PD-L1 expression as a prognostic marker for uterine sarcoma2018Ingår i: Морфологія, ISSN 1997-9665, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 62-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The uterine sarcoma is a rare tumor with the unpredictable, aggressive clinical behavior. Medical science relies on the development of reliable tumor markers, on the basis of which the optimal treatment program can be chosen, and will be also possible to make a prognosis. The hyperexpression of PD-L1 in many cases correlates with unfavorable prognosis of the disease and is an important prognostic biomarker for some types of tumors: melanoma, kidney cancer, non-small cell lung cancer. The role of PD-L1 expression, as a tumor marker in sarcoma, remains unclear. Objective. The investigation of PD-L1 expression as a prognostic tumor marker for uterine sarcoma.

    Methods: There have been selected 30 uterine sarcoma patients stage I-II (T1-2NxM0), for immunohistochemistry analyze of PD-L1 expression. Depending on the morphological tumor types all the patients were distributed: leiomyosarcoma (LMS) - 20.0%, endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) - 46.7%, undifferentiated sarcoma (HC) - 33.3%.

    Results: Our results showed that 73.3 % of patients with uterine sarcoma exhibited low expression level of PD-L1. The moderate level and overexpression of PD-L1 were observed in undifferentiated and endometrial stromal sarcoma - 13.3 and 6.7 %, respectively. At further follow-up of patients with PD-L1 expression, the relapse of the disease was detected in 50.0 % of cases.

    Conclusion: The PD-L1 expression in tumor tissue, regardless of its level, is considered to be an unfavorable prognostic factor for uterine sarcoma patients. In case of moderate expression level of PD-L1, so as at its overexpression, the tumor progression was detected in 83.3% of uterine sarcoma patients.

  • Sukhin, V. S.
    et al.
    Danyliuk, S. V.
    Sukhina, O. M.
    Sadniprjaniy, O. V.
    Lindquist, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Hermelin, H.
    Tarján, M.
    Expression of mmp-9 as a prognostic factor of uterine sarcoma2018Ingår i: Reports of morphology, ISSN 1818-1295, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 21-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Uterine sarcoma is a highly aggressive mesenchymal neoplasm with an extremely unfavorable prognosis. Up today there are still relevant issues concerning search for clinical-morphological and biomolecular criteria for prognosis relapse-free survival of uterine sarcoma patients. It is well-known, the increase of the expression level of MMP-9 in primary tumor or metastatic foci correlates with a low differentiation of tumor cells, high ability for invasiveness, high metastatic activity, and shortened life expectancy. It’s still unknown, whether it is possible to consider the expression of MMP-9 in uterine sarcoma cells as a convincing prognostic factor. For many types of epithelial malignant neoplasms, high metastatic rate is associated with an increase level of MMP-9 both in plasma and in tumor tissue. The purpose of this study is to investigate the features of MMP-9 expression in uterine sarcoma cells for development of the model for individual prediction of the disease course. The study of the surgical material of selected 54 cases of uterine sarcoma of stage I-II (according to FIGO criteria) with a known prognosis of the disease, which were distributed depending on the morphological type done: leiomyosarcoma (LMS) – 18 cases, endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) - 22 cases, undifferentiated sarcoma (US) – 14 (according to the classification of tumors of the uterus of the WHO). For histological examination, pieces of tissue were cut from different parts of the tumor nodes – central, peripheral, parts of the adjacent intact tissue of myometrium (total of 6-8 bits). The tumor cell phenotype was determined using low molecular weight cytokeratins (Cytokeratin PAN, AE1 / AE3), smooth muscle actin (Smooth Muscle Actin, 1A4), myogenin (Myogenin (F5D)), CD 10 and vimentin (Vimentin, V9). The histochemical label was evaluated in two parameters: the degree of prevalence and intensity of coloration. To assess the color intensity, a qualitative scale was used: 0 – no reaction, 1+ – weak cytoplasmic coloration to 30.0% of tumor cells, 2+ – moderate reaction, 30.0 to 60.0% of stained cells, 3+ – pronounced cytoplasmic reaction in 60,0-100,0% of tumor cells. Statistical processing of the data was performed using the “STATISTICA 10.0” program package. The conducted study has showed, the negative (0) and weak (1+) expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were observed in the most part of ESS and only partially in US. Despite the stage of the disease, with such a status of MMP-9, there was observed no signs of relapsed disease. The moderate (2+) and high (3+) expression of MMP-9 was detected in 44.5 % of uterine sarcoma, in the most part in LMS patients. However, if in LMS cases the progressive disease was observed only in one third of them (4 of 12 cases), in case of ESS and US, in all the patients with such tumors status there was observed relapsed disease. Such a reaction may be indicative for invasive and metastatic potential of ESS and US and cause of the hematogenous metastases.

  • Disputation: 2018-12-04 09:00 Betula, Byggnad 6M, Umeå
    Rawcliffe, Denise F. R.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    The regulation of incorrect splicing of ISCU in hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients suffering from hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML) can be found in the northern Swedish counties of Ångermanland and Västerbotten. HML is a rare autosomal recessive disease where patients display a low tolerance to exercise at an early age. Exercise can trigger symptoms such as palpitations, tachycardia, muscle cramps and dyspnoea. Extensive exercise or strict diets can result in myoglobinuria and life-threatening levels of lactic acid. The disease is caused by a nonsense G > C mutation (c.418 + 328G < C) in the last intron of the iron-sulphur (FeS) cluster assembly gene (ISCU), resulting in nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of the transcript due to incorrect splicing. The ISCU protein is involved in the assembly of FeS clusters, which are essential cofactors for a wide range of proteins. Patient muscles display decreased levels of several FeS cluster proteins: mitochondrial aconitase in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and Complex I, II (succinate dehydrogenase [SDH]) and III in the electron transport chain (ETC). The incorrect splicing of ISCU occurs to the highest extent in HML patient skeletal muscle, restricting the loss of ISCU protein to muscles, thereby preventing a more severe phenotype.

    We found that the incorrect splicing occurs to the highest extent in slow-fibre muscle, which may be caused by the serine/arginine-rich splicing factor (SRSF3) as it is expressed at higher levels in slow-fibre muscle compared to other muscles, and since it is able to activate the incorrect splicing of ISCU. Following muscle, there is a gradual decrease of the incorrect splicing in heart, brain, liver and kidney, which is negatively correlated with the levels of the splicing inhibitor polypyrimidine-tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1). Overexpression of PTBP1 in HML patient myoblasts resulted in a drastic decrease in the incorrect splicing, while a PTBP1 knockdown had the opposite effect. Our results suggest that PTBP1 acts as a dominant inhibitor of the incorrect splicing and is likely the main cause for the tissue-specific splicing of ISCU in HML. We also identified RBM39 and MBNL1 as activators of the incorrect splicing of ISCU, which, together with the low levels of PTBP1, could explain the high levels of incorrect splicing in muscle.

    Since almost 95% of all human gene transcripts are alternatively spliced, it is not surprising that a wide range of diseases are caused by mutations that affect splicing. Further knowledge of the function of splicing, such as tissue-specific splicing, can provide vital information for the development of therapies for diseases caused by splicing.

  • Hagner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Recurrent Neural Networks for End-to-End Speech Recognition: A comparison of gated units in an acoustic model2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    End-to-end speech recognition is the problem of mapping raw audio signal all the way to text. In doing so the process is not explicitly divided into modules. e.g. [signal → phoneme, phoneme → word]. Recurrentneural networks equipped with specialised temporal based loss functions have recently demonstrated breakthrough results for the end-to-end problem.In this thesis we evaluate a number of neural network architectures for end-to-end learning. LSTM (Long Short Term Memory) is a specialised gated recurrent unit that preserves a signal within a neura lnetwork over period of time. GRU (Gated recurrent Unit) is a recently discovered refinement of LSTM with still unknown performance characteristics. It is reported that different architectures works better or worse depending on the problem at hand. We explore these characteristics for the end-to-end speech recognition problem. Specifically we evaluate various networks on the LibriSpeech corpus. All the audio is read in English by people from different parts of the world. The audio files are excerpts sourced from audio books. The LibriSpeech corpus is divided into both noisy and clean audio. The noisy audio is considered to be more challenging. This corpus is pre-segmented and thus contain ready sub sets for testing. These include both noisy and clean audio and we will evaluate the end-to-end models on both sets. The findings of our experiments shows that GRU can not perform on the same level as LSTM variants. Especially not when trained on noisy data where the GRU network stop improving after only a small part of the allotted training time.

  • Lippman, Sheri A.
    et al.
    Leddy, Anna M.
    Neilands, Torsten B.
    Ahern, Jennifer
    MacPhail, Catherine
    Wagner, Ryan G.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Peacock, Dean
    Twine, Rhian
    Goin, Dana E.
    Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier
    Selin, Amanda
    Tollman, Stephen M.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Pettifor, Audrey
    Village community mobilization is associated with reduced HIV incidence in young South African women participating in the HPTN 068 study cohort2018Ingår i: Journal of the International AIDS Society, ISSN 1758-2652, E-ISSN 1758-2652, Vol. 21, nr S7, artikel-id e25182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in South Africa bear a disproportionate burden of HIV. Community mobilization (CM), defined as community members taking collective action to achieve a common goal related to health, equity and rights, has been associated with increased HIV testing and condom use and has been called a ‘critical enabler’ for addressing the HIV epidemic. However, limited research has examined whether CM is associated with HIV incidence among AGYW.

    Methods: We examine the association of CM with incident HIV among AGYW (ages 13 to 21) enrolled in the HPTN 068 cohort in the Agincourt Health and socio‐Demographic Surveillance System, South Africa. This analysis includes 2292 participants residing in 26 villages where cross‐sectional, population‐based surveys were conducted to measure CM among 18‐ to 35‐year‐old residents in 2012 and 2014. HPTN 068 participants completed up to five annual visits that included an HIV test (2011 to 2016). Household‐level data were collected from AGYW parents/guardians and census data is updated annually. Mean village‐level CM scores were created using a validated community mobilization measure with seven components (social cohesion, social control, critical consciousness, shared concerns, organizations and networks, leadership and collective action). We used pooled generalized estimating equation regression with a Poisson distribution to estimate risk ratios (RR) for the association of village‐level CM score and CM components with incident HIV infection, accounting for village‐level clustering and adjusting for key covariates.

    Results: There were 194 incident infections over the follow‐up period. For every additional standard deviation of village‐level CM there was 12% lower HIV incidence (RR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.79, 0.98) after adjusting for individual, household and community characteristics. CM components associated with lower HIV incidence included critical consciousness (RR: 0.88; CI: 0.79, 0.97) and leadership (RR: 0.87; CI: 0.79, 0.95); while not statistically significant, social cohesion (RR: 0.91; CI: 0.81, 1.01), shared concerns (RR: 0.90; CI: 0.81, 1.00), and organizations and networks (RR: 0.91; CI: 0.79, 1.03) may also play a protective role.

    Conclusions: These results suggest that having strong community social resources will reduce AGYW's risk of HIV acquisition. Work to mobilize communities, focusing on building social cohesion, shared concerns, critical consciousness, and effective and accountable leadership, can fortify prevention programming for AGYW.

  • Rozman Grinberg, Inna
    et al.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Sahlin, Margareta
    Crona, Mikael
    Berggren, Gustav
    Hofer, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    A glutaredoxin domain fused to the radical-generating subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) functions as an efficient RNR reductant2018Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 293, nr 41, s. 15889-15900Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) consists of a catalytic subunit (NrdA) and a radical-generating subunit (NrdB) that together catalyze reduction of ribonucleotides to their corresponding deoxyribonucleotides. NrdB from the firmicute Facklamia ignava is a unique fusion protein with N-terminal add-ons of a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain followed by an ATP-binding domain, the ATP cone. Grx, usually encoded separately from the RNR operon, is a known RNR reductant. We show that the fused Grx domain functions as an efficient reductant of the F. ignava class I RNR via the common dithiol mechanism and, interestingly, also via a monothiol mechanism, although less efficiently. To our knowledge, a Grx that uses both of these two reaction mechanisms has not previously been observed with a native substrate. The ATP cone is in most RNRs an N-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit. It is an allosteric on/off switch promoting ribonucleotide reduction in the presence of ATP and inhibiting RNR activity in the presence of dATP. We found that dATP bound to the ATP cone of F. ignava NrdB promotes formation of tetramers that cannot form active complexes with NrdA. The ATP cone bound two dATP molecules but only one ATP molecule. F. ignava NrdB contains the recently identified radical-generating cofactor MnIII/MnIV. We show that NrdA from F. ignava can form a catalytically competent RNR with the MnIII/MnIV-containing NrdB from the flavobacterium Leeuwenhoekiella blandensis. In conclusion, F. ignava NrdB is fused with a Grx functioning as an RNR reductant and an ATP cone serving as an on/off switch.

  • Eriksson, Rebecca
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Legionella i kyltorn: Enkätundersökning gällande kommuners och länsstyrelsers tillsyn på kyltorn och behovet av ökad prioritering2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    If cooling towers are poorly maintained there is a risk of microbial growth such as Legionella which in turn might spread via aerosols and infect humans. This may lead to an outbreak of legionnaires’ disease. The purpose of this study was to highlight the risks of Legionella and cooling towers along with investigating the legal responsibility of businesses and supervision authorities in this regard. The study also investigated whether business should be obligated to register their cooling towers at supervising authorities. The study was partly based on a survey which was sent to Sweden’s 290 municipalities and 21 county administration boards to investigate their knowledge regarding Legionella and cooling towers and if they had inventoried which of their facilities that uses cooling towers. The results of the survey showed that 16% of the municipalities and none of the county administration board had inventoried which of their facilities that uses cooling towers. Half of the municipalities do not have any knowledge if any of their facilities uses cooling towers. Moreover, 45% of the municipalities and 30% of the county administration boards consider that business should register their cooling towers. The results showed that many of Sweden’s municipalities and county administration boards have shortcomings in their knowledge and supervision. Legislation and priorities need to be assessed and regulatory guidance from the Public Health Agency of Sweden is necessary for future progress.

  • Biedenbach, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Boström, Gert-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    A data-driven lab in the context of open data: opportunities and challenges for a sustainable business model2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The report investigates theoretical and practical perspectives on sustainable business models in the context of open data. The main purposes of this report are (1) to investigate the opportunities and challenges for establishing a regional data-driven lab in the context of open data, and (2) to explore the possibility of developing a sustainable business model for a data-driven lab in Umeå (Västerbotten). The report examines conceptualizations of open data that initially emerged in the public sector and highlights the requirements open data are expected to comply with. The report identifies several types and categories of open data, which can be used to provide a variety of benefits for the public and private sectors, stimulate data-driven innovation, and enhance public value. In addition, the report acknowledges the barriers to the publishing and re-use of open data. The review of contextual conditions includes prominent examples of international, regional, and national initiatives for stimulating practical activities and policy-making in the context of open data. Furthermore, the report addresses different theoretical perspectives on how to conceptualize business models, ranging from presenting a company’s organization and its strategic view to emphasizing the elements required for creating, delivering, and capturing value in a specific context. The report elaborates upon the capacities of sustainable business models to achieve long-term success through business model innovation and to address environmental and social challenges while sustaining economic performance. Furthermore, the report emphasizes the importance of considering a complex ecosystem engaging diverse stakeholder groups and the open data lifecycle for developing a successful business model in the context of open data. The report reviews the business models used in the open data industry and discusses the important practical considerations for a data-driven lab. Overall, the report emphasizes the critical importance of creating the conditions that will enable the valuable resource of open data to be exploited and prioritizing the establishment of a regional data-driven lab by considering its potential to stimulate data-driven innovation and increase public value for society.

  • Ching, Rosanna C.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Kingham, Paul J.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Schwann cell-like differentiated adipose stem cells promote neurite outgrowth via secreted exosomes and RNA transfer2018Ingår i: Stem Cell Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 1757-6512, Vol. 9, artikel-id 266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adipose derived stem cells can be stimulated to produce a growth factor rich secretome which enhances axon regeneration. In this study we investigated the importance of exosomes, extracellular vesicles released by many different cell types, including stem cells and endogenous nervous system Schwann cells (SCs), on neurite outgrowth.

    Methods: Adipose derived stem cells were differentiated towards a Schwann cell-like phenotype (dADSCs) by in vitro stimulation with a mix of factors (basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet derived growth factor-AA, neuregulin-1 and forskolin). Using a precipitation and low-speed centrifugation protocol the extracellular vesicles were isolated from the medium of the stem cells cultures and also from primary SCs. The conditioned media or concentrated vesicles were applied to neurons in vitro and computerised image analysis was used to assess neurite outgrowth. Total RNA was purified from the extracellular vesicles and investigated using qRT-PCR.

    Results: Application of exosomes derived from SCs significantly enhanced in vitro neurite outgrowth and this was replicated by the exosomes from dADSCs. qRT-PCR demonstrated that the exosomes contained mRNAs and miRNAs known to play a role in nerve regeneration and these molecules were up-regulated by the Schwann cell differentiation protocol. Transfer of fluorescently tagged exosomal RNA to neurons was detected and destruction of the RNA by UV-irradiation significantly reduced the dADSCs exosome effects on neurite outgrowth. In contrast, this process had no significant effect on the SCs-derived exosomes.

    Conclusions: In summary, this work suggests that stem cell-derived exosomes might be a useful adjunct to other novel therapeutic interventions in nerve repair.

  • Rodríguez, Maria Angels
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Parkkonen, Kimmo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Li, Zhenlin
    Domellöf, Fatima Pedrosa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    The Cytoskeleton in the Extraocular Muscles of Desmin Knockout Mice2018Ingår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, nr 12, s. 4847-4855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of absence of desmin on the extraocular muscles (EOMs) with focus on the structure and composition of the cytoskeleton.

    Methods: The distribution of synemin, syncoilin, plectin, nestin, and dystrophin was evaluated on cross and longitudinal sections of EOMs and limb muscles from 1-year-old desmin knockout mice (desmin−/−) by immunofluorescence. General morphology was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin while mitochondrial content and distribution were evaluated by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and modified Gomori trichrome stainings.

    Results: The muscle fibers of the EOMs in desmin−/− mice were remarkably well preserved in contrast to those in the severely affected soleus and the slightly affected gastrocnemius muscles. There were no signs of muscular pathology in the EOMs and all cytoskeletal proteins studied showed a correct location at sarcolemma and Z-discs. However, an increase of SDH staining and mitochondrial aggregates under the sarcolemma was detected.

    Conclusions: The structure of the EOMs was well preserved in the absence of desmin. We suggest that desmin is not necessary for correct synemin, syncoilin, plectin, and dystrophin location on the cytoskeleton of EOMs. However, it is needed to maintain an appropriate mitochondrial distribution in both EOMs and limb muscles.

  • Sandvig, Axel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap. Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Arnell, Kai
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Analysis of Codman microcerebrospinal fluid shunt2018Ingår i: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 8, nr 10, artikel-id e01002Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Ventriculo-peritoneal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt is the most common method of treating pediatric hydrocephalus. The Codman microadjustable valve (CMAV) is a CSF shunt constructed for children. The objective of the study was (a) to analyze complications after insertion of a CMAV shunt in hydrocephalic children, (b)to analyze complications after replacing a CMAV by an adult-type Codman Hakim adjustable valve shunt (CHAV), and to (c) analyze the in vitro characteristics of the CMAV shunt and correlate the findings with the clinical performance of the shunt.

    Methods: A retrospective study analyzed a cohort of hydrocephalic children who had received a CMAV shunt and later replaced by a CHAV shunt. We report on the complications that resulted from replacing the CMAV with the CHAV. We tested six CMAV shunts with or without an antisiphon device (ASD) in which opening pressure, resistance, sensitivity to abdominal pressure, ASD position dependency, and function were determined. The test results were correlated with the clinical performance of the shunt in the retrospective study.

    Results: Thirty-seven children (19 boys, 18 girls) were identified. Within the first month after shunt placement, a total of 10 patients (27%) developed complications including infections, hygromas, and shunt dysfunction. Shunt survival varied from 1week to 145 months. Over the 10-year follow-up period, 13 children had their shunts replaced, six of them with a CHAV without any further complications. A bench test of the CMAV was done to test whether the opening pressure was in agreement with the manufacturer's specifications. Our results were generally in agreement with specifications stated by the manufacturer.

    Conclusion: Replacing a CMAV with a CHAV was well tolerated by the patients. Bench test results were generally in agreement with manufacturers specifications. Replacing a CMAV with a CHAV in pediatric hydrocephalus patients can be accomplished safely.

  • Chahlafi, Zahra
    et al.
    Alvarez, Laura
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Berenguer, José
    The role of conserved proteins DrpA and DrpB in nitrate respiration of Thermus thermophilus2018Ingår i: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 20, nr 10, s. 3851-3861Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many Thermus thermophilus strains, nitrate respiration is encoded in mobile genetic regions, along with regulatory circuits that modulate its expression based on anoxia and nitrate presence. The oxygen‐responsive system has been identified as the product of the dnrST (dnr) operon located immediately upstream of the nar operon (narCGHJIKT), which encodes the nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrate/nitrite transporters. In contrast, the nature of the nitrate sensory system is not known. Here, we analyse the putative nitrate‐sensing role of the bicistronic drp operon (drpAB) present downstream of the nar operon in most denitrifying Thermus spp. Expression of drp was found to depend on the master regulator DnrT, whereas the absence of DrpA or DrpB increased the expression of both DnrS and DnrT and, concomitantly, of the NR. Absence of both proteins made expression from the dnr and nar operons independent of nitrate. Polyclonal antisera allowed us to identify DrpA as a periplasmic protein and DrpB as a membrane protein, with capacity to bind to the cytoplasmic membrane. Here, we propose a role for DrpA/DrpB as nitrate sensors during denitrification.

  • Albin, Irgens
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Det Stora Vilddjuret och Yogan: En religionshistorisk studie av Aleister Crowleys yoga och hans påverkan på sentida efterföljare i Sverige2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen behandlar den brittiske tänkaren Aleister Crowley, hans tolkning avyoga, och hans tankars påverkan på moderna efterföljare av hans religion i Sverige.Uppsatsen behandlar frågorna om hur Crowleys syn på yoga utvecklats och hur denkan ses i svenska efterföljares tankar idag. Uppsatsen använder sig av litteraturstudierav Crowleys verk, samt intervjuer med medlemmar i ordern Ordo Templi OrientisSverige. Uppsatsen utmynnar i att Crowleys tankar om yoga kan ses i sin historiskakontext påverkad av bland annat orientalism och religionism, och att Crowleys tankarfortsätter påverka moderna utövare av yoga inom O.T.O.

  • Håkansson, Susanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Roxbo, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Optimal fördelning av anställningsformer på SJ: Ett planeringsprogram baserat på villkorsprogrammering och kända schemakäggningsproblem2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 300 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    A big challenge for many companies, road haulers business among others, is how to make a schedule for all employees. Scheduling problems handles a big number of constraints which also increase the complexity of the problem.

     

    It is important to SJ that all train departures are staffed. SJ offers both permanent and temporary employments but during recruitment in connection to the summer they only hire temporary employees. It often happens that SJ hires a larger number of workers than needed, and as a consequence of this some of the employees does not get to work the number of hours the wishes and they might turn to other employers. Temporary employments can result in uncertainty for SJ as they can choose when to work. Due to this, SJ now wants to examine the possibility to hire permanent employees during the summer and they also want to examine how the distribution of employments should look like for different stations and time periods.

     

    Important constraints for scheduling and planning have been identified and formulated, and these have formed the basis to the optimization problem that is indented to be solved. A scheduling tool, EAPS, has been developed and with help from this minimal staff set and employment arrangements for boarders can be identified. EAPS ensure that each worker is free every other weekend, that no worker is assigned more shifts than allowed for the analyzed period and that they do not work more shifts in a row than allowed. EAPS ensure that all departures are covered by boarders at the same time as the number of workers are minimized.

  • Öhlund, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Modelling of a solar project network for time improvement2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is written for the Finnish company Wärtsilä and looks into the project processes of an EPC solar project and an EPC Engine power plant project to find similarities, by looking into both qualitative and quantitative aspects. This is done so that Wärtsilä may use the information gained from the engine power plant projects to further their solar projects by cutting down the total project time. These comparisons are done by collecting data from interviews and from constructing a project network for both projects, which is then remade into a linear program, solved, and then evaluated by sensitivity analysis and looking into the critical paths and slack times of both networks. This data is then used to present a recommendation to Wärtsilä on which activities should be prioritised when trying to improve the project time. These recommendations include looking into container usage, the installation process of posts and photovoltaic panels, as well as allocation of manpower for civil work.

  • Eriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Kristoffersson, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Skärmönstergenerering för 2D-cutting stock problem: Råmaterialsoptimering med fyra olika optimeringsmodeller för Olofsfors AB2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 300 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Olofsfors AB beställer idag stålplåtar, remsor och stänger av stålleveran- törer för sin produktion av skop- och vägstål samt skogsband. Stålremsorna för produktion av skop- och vägstål beställs i dimensioner som är redo att skä- ras endimensionellt och vidarebehandlas till skopstålsdetaljer i fabriken. För att effektivisera produktionen i form av ekonomibesparingar och minskning av spill har Olofsfors AB köpt en ny maskin som kan behandla större plåtar och skära ut mindre remsor från dessa och de kan således göra ekonomiska besparingar tack vare billigare inköp.

    Företaget vill hitta en metod som minimerar spill av material vilket ska leda till ekonomiska besparingar. Syftet med projektet är att utveckla ett program som Olofsfors AB kan använda sig av i den dagliga verksamheten för att optimera materialanvändningen.

    Problemet att skära ut mindre bitar ur ett större råmaterial är vanligt i industrier och kallas Cutting stock problem. Vi har använt oss av en redan utvecklad modell bestående av en modifierad branch & bound-algoritm för att hitta möjliga mönster som kan skäras ut ur råmaterialet, implementerat den i MATLAB® samt förbättrat den. Vidare har det använts fyra olika optimeringsmodeller vilka lett till olika heltalsprogram som samtliga lösts med den inbyggda MATLAB®-metoden intlinprog, vilken använder sig av branch & bound som lösningsmetod.

    Resultatet gav ett för användaren lättanvänt program som ger förslag på en optimal dimension bland en mängd möjliga dimensioner på ett råmate- rial, utifrån årsvolym och dimensioner för remsor eller stänger. Föreslagen dimension är den dimension som resulterar i så låg materialförbrukning som möjligt. Utöver detta kan Olofsfors AB använda detta program för att hitta vilka mönster som ska skäras ut givet efterfrågan, samt använda utdata från programmet för att reda ut kapacitetsgräns i restbitslager och finna vilka lagerartiklar som är särskilt lämpliga att producera från restbitar.

  • Gavelin, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Från fjäll till stad: En studie om bemanningsproblematiken av polisens ingripandeverksamhet i glesbygd2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Polismyndigheten är en myndighet vars syfte är att hantera, utreda och förebygga brottslighet i Sverige. Myndigheten är indelad i sju regioner med tillhörande polisområden och lokalpolisområden. Södra Lappland i polisområde Västerbotten är ett lokalpolisområde som utgör ett geografiskt stort område karaktäriserat av glesbygd och långa avstånd. Antalet polisiära händelser som inträffar i området är begränsat, personaltätheten är på sina håll låg och mycket arbetstid spenderas på transporter. Detta leder till en konflikt mellan servicegrad till allmänheten, kostnad/resursfördelning och arbetsmiljö.

    Syftet med studien är därför att studera förbättringsmöjligheter för polisens bemanning av ingripandeverksamheten i Södra Lappland genom att studera och jämföra ett antal olika bemanningsscenarier. Scenarierna utvärderades utifrån sannolikheten att kunna hantera prio 1, prio 2 och prio 3-ärenden som kommer till polisens kännedom genom allmänheten inom olika tidsgränser med den valda bemanningen. Dessutom gjordes en jämförelse med ett norskt förslag på utryckningstider för norsk polis. För att studera problemet skapades en modell som simulerar händelser utifrån inhämtad statistik och beräknar tidsåtgången för patruller att hantera ärendena utifrån de förutbestämda scenarierna. Scenarierna har analyserats och vägts mot varandra för att slutligen rendera i slutsatser om förbättringsmöjligheter i det framtida arbetet med planering av bemanningen i lokalpolisområde Södra Lappland.

    Studien visar att ärendefrekvensen av ärenden som kommer till polisens kännedom genom allmänheten i de olika kommunerna i Södra Lappland tenderar att följa kommunernas respektive befolkningsmängd. Fördelningen av ärendena ser ungefär likadan ut oavsett om de studeras utifrån dagskift, kvällsskift, nattskift, helgtid eller utifrån prioritet. Resultatet visar också att det är fördelaktigt att ha patruller i både det östra och det västra området för att öka sannolikheten till kortare utryckningstider. Lycksele, Storuman och Vilhelmina är strategiska orter för bemanningsplaneringen av ingripandeverksamheten genom sin geografiska placering samt att de utgör orterna med störst befolkning och ärendeinflöde. Av de studerade scenarierna är de sannolika utryckningstiderna mest fördelaktiga när en patrull utgår från Lycksele, Vilhelmina och Storuman då 45% av ärendena förväntas kunna hanteras inom trettio minuter och 83% inom en timme. Det är även det scenario som ligger närmast de föreslagna utryckningstiderna i det norska förslaget. Resultatet kräver relativt mycket personal i förhållande till ärendefrekvensen varpå en översyn bör göras som ett nästa steg i syfte att skapa kreativa lösningar av bemanningsproblemet för att nå en väl avvägd praktisk lösning mellan servicegrad, arbetsmiljö och praktisk genomförbarhet.

  • Disputation: 2018-12-07 09:00 Sal D, byggnad 1D, Tandläkarhögskolan, Umeå
    Isehed, Catrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Folktandvården Gävleborg AB, Region Gävleborg.
    Peri-implantitis: treatment and effects of enamel matrix derivative2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological complications affecting osseointegrated dental implants are a growing treatment problem in clinical practice. Since the number of implant carriers has increased in recent decades, this is an urgent topic in dentistry. Peri-implantitis, inflammatory degradation of the implant-supporting jawbone, affects approximately 20% of all implant carriers and approximately 10% of all implants.

    Implant surfaces are colonised by microbes that may cause an inflammatory process in the soft tissue around the implant. In some sensitive individuals, the inflammatory response leads to disturbed jawbone remodelling, with increased recruitment and activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, which could ultimately lead to implant loss. The corresponding degradation of the bone supporting the teeth is denoted as periodontitis. The current view is that factors such as proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins, produced by leukocytes and cells of mesenchymal origin in the inflamed connective tissue, are responsible for local osteoclast recruitment and activation. Pro-inflammatory factors and tissue degradation products will leak into the exudate in the peri-implant sulci and the gingival pockets around the teeth. Analysis of the exudate could be of use for predicting and monitoring peri-implantitis, as well as identifying new targets for treatment.

    The standard treatment for peri-implantitis is surgery in combination with mechanical cleaning of the implant surface and optimisation of oral hygiene, with the goal of achieving infection control and pocket reduction. This treatment has a moderate effect on healing of the peri-implantitis lesion around the dental implant. The use of adjunctive bone grafts, membranes and antimicrobials has thus far not been shown to achieve a more successful outcome. Adjunctive treatment with enamel matrix derivative (EMD) during regenerative periodontal surgery contributes to wound healing and increased tissue support, but the adjunctive effect of EMD during surgical treatment of peri-implantitis remains unknown.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the outcome of a regenerative surgical treatment approach with and without adjunctive EMD treatment from the short- and long-term perspectives and to increase our knowledge of microbial flora and biomarkers in the peri-implant sulci before and after treatment. Furthermore, an additional aim of this work was to investigate whether EMD could directly affect osteoclast formation and activity.

    We performed a randomised controlled clinical trial of a surgical intervention for peri-implantitis with and without EMD. In multivariate modelling, an increased marginal bone level at the implant site 12 months after surgery was significantly associated with EMD, the number of osseous walls in the peri-implant bone defect and a gram-positive/aerobic microbial flora, whereas a reduced bone level was associated with a gram-negative/anaerobic microbial flora and the presence of bleeding and pus, with a cross-validated predictive capacity (Q2) of 36.4%. Similar trends were observed for bone level, pocket depth, plaque, pus and bleeding, but these associations were statistically non-significant in the univariate analysis. Five years after treatment, no significant differences in bone level changes were observed between groups, but fewer implants were lost to follow-up due to reinfections in the EMD-treated group.

    We used mass spectrometry to analyse the protein content in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) before and up to 12 months after treatment. The total protein amount and diversity displayed decreasing trends 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Multivariate analysis of the PICF protein content revealed two major groups, cluster 2 and cluster 3, of which cluster 2 was associated with an increased risk of implant loss. EMD treatment was associated with cluster 3, which was in turn associated with increased implant survival.

    To test whether EMD affects osteoclast formation or bone resorption, we added purified EMD to RANKL-stimulated mouse bone marrow macrophage cultures in plastic dishes and counted the number of osteoclasts. We also cultured the cells on bone slices and measured the secretion of TRAP5b and the release of CTX-1 into the culture medium as biomarkers of osteoclast numbers and bone resorption, respectively, but no effect of EMD was observed.

    In conclusion, adjunctive EMD during surgical treatment of peri-implantitis changed the microbial flora to a less pathogenic microbiota, and similar changes in the inflammatory protein profile of PICF were observed; these effects were associated with implant survival. However, the trend toward a positive healing response after EMD treatment was not associated with a significant radiographic bone gain in this study and needs to be further explored. In addition, our finding that EMD did not affect osteoclast formation or bone resorption in vitro indicates that the effect of EMD on bone regeneration, as seen in periodontitis treatment, does not seem to depend on a direct inhibitory effect on osteoclast formation or bone resorption.

  • Disputation: 2018-11-30 09:00 Betula, målpunkt L, by 6M, plan 0, Umeå
    Toppe, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    End stage renal disease in type 1 diabetes: time trends and risk factors2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Sweden has a high incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the incidence is increasing worldwide. The incidence is now twice as high as when the registration of childhood onset T1D in Sweden started in 1977. One of the major risk factors for developing late complications such as renal failure (ESRD) is duration of T1D. With a disease onset early in life this could lead to young patients with serious complications. It is therefore of interest to follow these patients to see how the risk for complications develops over time. In the first study, time trends in onset of ESRD due to diabetes (type 1 and 2) and other causes of kidney failure were studied as well as the age at onset of ESRD. To follow up on this, the aim of the second study was to look at cumulative incidence in ESRD and analyse possible time trends and gender differences in a younger diabetes population with known T1D duration. An earlier study had shown a low incidence of ESRD and now 8 more years of follow up could be added. Besides genetics, metabolic control is a factor with strong impact on the future risk of complications. The social environment of the child and adolescent with diabetes influence the understanding and management of the disease and hence the blood glucose control. Social vulnerability and/or low education imposes even more stress on the individual which could negatively influence disease management. The aim of the third study was therefore to study the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on the risk of developing ESRD in the young diabetes population. The aim of the fourth study was to analyse time trends in the treatment choices once the patients develop ESRD, the survival and cause of death in treatment and how it has developed over time.

    Study population: In all studies, data from the Swedish Renal Register (SRR) were used. The data on the T1D patients with onset before the age of 15, used in studies II-IV, came from the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register (SCDR).  In study II we also retrieved data from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) and the Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS). All registers have national coverage. The diabetes registers were linked to the SRR to find the patients who had developed ESRD. In study III we used the linkage between the SCDR, the SRR and Longitudinal integration database for health insurance and labour market studies (LISA).

    Results: Even though the incidence of ESRD in Sweden remained stable, the incidence of ESRD due to T1D decreased over the studied years, 1991-2010. We did not see a concurrent change for T2D. The age when the T1D patients developed ESRD had increased by 3 years and this was not seen in patients with other causes of ESRD. For patients in the SCDR the increase in age was almost 6 years. The cumulative incidence of ERSD in Sweden due to T1D is still low, 5.6% at a maximum follow up of 38 years (median 23). The incidence of ESRD is decreasing when comparing onset of T1D in the 1970´s and 80´s to onset in the 90´s, even when adjusting for T1D duration. Once they had developed ESRD, the survival in renal replacement therapy (RRT) had also improved over the years. The longest survival was seen after receiving a kidney transplant which about 50% of the patients do.

    When analysing social risk factors for development of ESRD we found that the educational level of both parents, but especially the mothers, affected the child’s risk of developing ESRD. The strongest association of education however was seen in the T1D patients own education. There was also an increased risk of developing ESRD if any or both of the parents had received income support.

    Conclusion: The incidence of ESRD due to T1D is decreasing in Sweden and the age at onset of ESRD has increased by at least 3 years. There was a significant decrease in development of ESRD over time. The patients have a longer survival once in RRT today and many of them are transplanted, further improving their survival. Growing up in families with a lower SES increases the risk of later developing ESRD, a finding worthy of recognition in the clinical setting.

  • Disputation: 2018-11-30 10:00 N450, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå
    Hausmaninger, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Mid- and near-infrared NICE-OHMS: techniques for ultra-sensitive detection of molecules in gas phase2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Brusimmun kavitetsförstärkt optisk-heterodyndetekterad molekylärspektroskopi (eng.Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry, NICE-OHMS) är en teknik för ultrakänslig detektion av molekylär absorption och dispersion. NICE-OHMS-tekniken kombinerar kavitetsförstärkning (eng. CE) med frekvensmodulering (FM); emedan den första väsentligt ökar den effektiva interaktionslängden mellan ljuset och analyten vilket ökar teknikens känslighet, tar den senare bort inkopplingen av 1/f-brus och gör signalerna bakgrundsfria. Kombinationen av CE och FM ger också tekniken en immunitet mot amplitudstörning som orsakas av jitter hos laserljusets frekvens i förhållande till kavitetsresonansfrekvenserna. Alla dessa egenskaper gör tekniken lämplig för ultrakänslig spårgasdetektering i och under ppt (eng. parts-per-trillion) - området. Syftet med denna avhandling är att förbättra prestandan hos NICE-OHMS-tekniken och att öka dess tillämpningspotential.

    Avhandlingen kan delas in i tre delar: Inom den första utvecklades en mid-infraröd (MIR)-NICE-OHMS instrumentering. Vid en första realisering påvisades en aldrig tidigare uppnådd vitt-brus-ekvivalent absorptionsgräns för Dopplerbreddad (Db) detektering i MIR området på 3 × 10-9 cm-1Hz-1/2. Detta förbättrades därefter till 2,4 x 10-10 cm-1Hz-1/2, vilket möjliggör detektering av metan och dess två huvudsakliga isotopologer (CH3D och 13CH4) vid deras naturliga förekomst. Inom det andra området utfördes vidareutveckling av ett existerande NICE-OHMS-system verksamt i det när-infraröda (NIR) området. Detta resulterade i en förbättrad långtidsstabilitet och en brus-ekvivalent absorptionsgräns för Db detektion på 2,3 × 10-14 cm-1 mätt över 200 s. Inom den tredje utvecklades modeller och teoretiska beskrivningar av NICE-OHMS under starka absorptionsförhållanden och från metan under hög laserintensitet. Det var experimentellt verifierat att modellerna möjliggör en mer noggrann utvärdering av NICE-OHMS-signalerunder ett stort antal förhållanden.

  • Disputation: 2018-11-30 13:00 HumlabX, Umeå Arts Campus
    Kuenen, Stoffel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Designhögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Aesthetics of being together2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Design deals with matters of aesthetics. Historically, aesthetics in industrial design refers to the designed artifact: aesthetics of objects. When designed artifacts include digital technologies, aesthetics in design refers to what happens between people and artifacts as well: aesthetics of interaction. Now that these artifacts increasingly mediate our social lives, what aesthetics in design quite obviously also refers to, is what happens between people.

    This dissertation proposes an aesthetic of being together, as a necessary addition to current notions of aesthetics in interaction design practice, when it engages with digital systems that are part of people’s social life. It does not answer the question what Aesthetics is in general, instead it examines the work that particular notions of aesthetics do in interaction design practice.

    The practice based design research assembled in this dissertation starts from current notions of aesthetics in interaction design to explore the social experiences that mediated interactions between groups of people offer. What I found, through designing digital systems, is that current notions of aesthetics in interaction design are not conducive to addressing the kind of social experience people have with such systems. On the contrary, current notions actually inhibit interaction design to approach any experiences that cannot in the first place be conceived of as useful in terms of instrumental task performance. Yet, being social is hardly like performing a task or using other people in that sense.

    An aesthetic of being together is a proposition of a different fundament for interaction design practice. In addition to referring to properties of things and qualities of interacting with things, it refers to the kind of relations that come to expression between people interacting with each other with these things. Consequently, interaction design needs to resolve basic issues in what it considers and brings to expression, i.e. people’s relations with things and people at the same time. This requires (re-) considering what the designed thing is, what interaction is about and what the role of design is in bringing those to expression.

    My work contributes to the field of interaction design research an example of how, through practice, fundamental issues can be addressed. By orienting one set of concepts, ways of working and objectives into a different design situation, tensions built up that exposed foundational issues with that frame of reference, while pointing to the different fundaments needed to enable design practice to engage such situations.

    The results of the practical experimentation led to the articulation of a series of structural mechanisms of mediating systems.  These mechanisms provide material handles for interaction designers on how experiences of being present with others take shape. They configure the relations of artifacts and people in different ways than current notions of aesthetics afford. This theoretical investigation is then synthesised in the form of a new logic of expression for interaction design practice: an aesthetic of being together.

  • Disputation: 2018-11-30 13:00 Sal B, 9 tr, byggnad 1D, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå
    Lampa, Ewa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Pain and disability in the jaw and neck regions after whiplash trauma: a short- and long-term perspective2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Whiplash trauma, a hyperextension-flexion trauma to the neck that is often related to a car accident, affects tens of thousands in Sweden every year. A significant proportion will develop long-term symptoms including neck pain and dysfunction – this is embraced as Whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Some individuals also develop pain and dysfunction in the orofacial region that is denoted as Temporomandibular disorder (TMD). TMD is common in the population with a prevalence of about 10% but the relation to whiplash trauma is still unclear. The limited number of prospective studies on TMD after whiplash trauma show diverging results, but it has been suggested that TMD develops over time and not in close proximity to the trauma. Prospective studies are needed to determine the course of jaw pain and disability after whiplash trauma.

    The general aim of this thesis was to evaluate the presence and course of pain and disability in the jaw and neck regions at the acute and chronic stages after whiplash trauma.

    This prospective cohort study included at baseline 176 cases with a recent whiplash trauma, and 116 age and gender matched controls without a history of neck trauma that were recruited from the general population. The cases had visited the emergency department at Umeå university hospital, Sweden, with neck pain within 72 hours following a car accident and had been diagnosed with neck distortion by a physician. The cases were examined within one month after the trauma (December 2010 to January 2016) and at a 2-year followup (December 2012 to January 2018). All participants completed questionnaires regarding pain and disability in the jaw and neck regions, physical symptoms (pain and non-pain items), and depression. At baseline, 80 of the cases and 80 of the controls also completed a 5-minute chewing capacity test. At the 2- year follow-up, 119 cases (68%) and 104 controls (90%) were re-examined with the same questionnaires.

    Compared to controls, within one month after a whiplash trauma cases reported significantly more pain in the jaw and neck regions with a positive correlation between the intensity of pain in these regions (Paper I). In the acute stage after trauma, cases, compared to controls, showed a reduced chewing capacity, and this was related to the severity of neck disability (Paper II). For cases, jaw and neck pain correlated positively to each other, to non-specific physical symptoms, and to depression at both the acute (Paper III) and chronic stages (Paper IV). About one third (34%) of the cases reported orofacial pain at baseline, and for a majority of these, the pain persisted at the 2-year follow-up (Paper IV).

    The presence of orofacial pain early after a whiplash trauma indicates involvement of central sensitization and spread of pain between the jaw and neck regions. The positive correlations between pain in the jaw and neck regions, and to psychosocial factors, underline the integration of these regions and the importance of a biopsychosocial perspective. The impaired jaw function shortly after a neck trauma further underlines the close sensorimotor relationship between the trigeminal and cervical regions. The finding that orofacial pain is common shortly after whiplash trauma, and often persists into the chronic stage, indicates that assessment in the acute stage should include both the neck and jaw regions. From this, it follows that multidisciplinary teams that entail both medical professions and dentists specialised in orofacial pain can be beneficial in the early assessment after whiplash trauma.

  • Disputation: 2018-11-30 09:00 E04, R-1, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, byggnad 6E, Umeå
    Ling, Agnes
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Immune cell infiltration and prognosis in colorectal cancer2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is globally the second most common form of cancer among women, and third in men. It is also one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in high-income countries. Surgical resection is the basis for curative therapy but still almost half of the patients die from metastatic disease. It is therefore imperative to strive on in the search for more efficient strategies to improve patient survival. The success scores for accurate prediction of patient prognosis remain discouraging and novel markers to identify high-risk patients are called for.

    The tumour immune response has proven critical to prognosis in CRC. A high amount of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes have in studies been found to significantly improve patient outcome. The opposite has been seen in patients with sparsely infiltrated tumours. Findings in this area have driven forth the design of the Immunoscore® system, which may be implemented in clinic as a complement to the TNM staging system. Ongoing research is also focusing on which immune evading mechanisms CRC might deploy in order to progress and metastasize.

    Aim: To study immune cell infiltration in relation to prognosis in CRC. More specifically the aim has been to investigate the prognostic importance of different subsets of immune cells infiltrating the tumour, not only according to quantity but also to intratumoural subsite (tumour invasive front, tumour centre and within the tumour epithelium). The tumour immune response was also evaluated in different molecular subgroups of CRC. Another part of this thesis concerns possible molecular mechanisms involved in tumour immune escape in CRC.

    Methods: CRC cases in the Colorectal Cancer in Umeå Study (CRUMS) were evaluated using immunohistochemistry, gene expression analyses as well as methylation analyses. Cytokine and chemokine expression was evaluated in CRC tumour tissues and one CRC cell line (Caco2) and derivatives using semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Methylation was analysed using methylation-specific pyrosequencing.

    Results: We found high quantities of both cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) as well as of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to associate with a better patient outcome. The infiltration of CTLs within the tumour epithelium provided the strongest prognostic information, whilst Tregs withheld the strongest association to prognosis at the tumour invasive front and tumour centre. We could further show that a high Th1 lymphocyte infiltration was strongly associated with a better prognosis in patients with CRC, independently of intratumoural subsite. Another finding was that the extent of Th1 infiltration and patient outcome differed in different molecular subgroups of CRC. We also found down-regulation of TAP1, a protein involved in antigen presentation by MHC class I, to be significantly associated with low infiltration of various subtypes of immune cells. Down-regulation of TAP1 was also correlated to poor prognosis in patients with early stages of CRC. Furthermore, we found TAP1 expression to be inversely correlated with methylation at sites close to the TAP1 promoter region.

    Conclusion: Tumour infiltrating T lymphocytes have a significant positive impact on prognosis in CRC patients. Different subsets of T lymphocytes vary in their dependency on intratumoural subsite, in to what extent they exert their prognostic influence. We moreover found varying Th1 lymphocyte infiltration rates as well as prognostic impact thereof, in different molecular subgroups of CRC. Our results also show down-regulation of TAP1 to be a mechanism of tumour immune escape in CRC. Further findings suggest methylation of the TAP1 gene to be a putative mechanism for TAP1 down-regulation.

  • Disputation: 2018-11-30 10:00 Hörsal E, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Lind Pantzare, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Dimensions of validity: studies of the Swedish national tests in mathematics2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose for the Swedish national tests was from the beginning to provide exemplary assessments in a subject and support teachers when interpreting the syllabus. Today, their main purpose is to provide an important basis for teachers when grading their students. Although the results from tests do not entirely decides a student’s grade, they are to be taken into special account in the grading process. Given the increasing importance and raise of the stakes, quality issues in terms of validity and reliability is attracting greater attention. The main purpose of this thesis is to examine evidence demonstrating the validity for the Swedish national tests in upper secondary school mathematics and thereby identify potential threats to validity that may affect the interpretations of the test results and lead to invalid conclusions. The validation is made in relation to the purpose that the national tests should support fair and equal assessment and grading. More specifically, the focus was to investigate how differences connected to digital tools, different scorers and the standard setting process affect the results, and also investigate if subscores can be used when interpreting the results. A model visualized as a chain containing links associated with various aspects of validity, ranging from administration and scoring to interpretation and decision-making, is used as a framework for the validation.

    The thesis consists of four empirical studies presented in the form of papers and an introduction with summaries of the papers. Different parts of the validation chain are examined in the studies. The focus of the first study is the administration and impact of using advanced calculators when answering test items. These calculators are able to solve equations algebraically and therefore reduce the risk of a student making mistakes. Since the use of such calculators is allowed but not required and since they are quite expensive, there is an obvious threat to validity since the national tests are supposed to be fair and equal for all test takers. The results show that the advanced calculators were not used to a great extent and it was mainly those students who were high-achieving in mathematics that benefited the most. Therefore the conclusion was that the calculators did not affect the results.

    The second study was an inter-rater reliability study. In Sweden, teachers are responsible for scoring their own students’ national tests, without any training, monitoring or moderation. Therefore it was interesting to investigate the reliability of the scoring since there is a potential risk of bias against one’s own students. The analyses showed that the agreement between different raters, analyzed with percent-agreement and kappa, is rather high but some items have lower agreement. In general, items with several correct answers or items where different solution strategies are available are more difficult to score reliably.

    The cut scores set by a judgmental Angoff standard setting, the method used to define the cut scores for the national tests in mathematics, was in study three compared with a statistical linking procedure using an anchor test design in order to investigate if the cut scores for two test forms were equally demanding. The results indicate that there were no large differences between the test forms. However, one of the test taker groups was rather small which restricts the power of the analysis. The national tests do not include any anchor items and the study highlights the challenges of introducing equating, that is comparing the difficulty of different test forms, on a regular basis.

    In study four, the focus was on subscores and whether there was any value in reporting them in addition to the total score. The syllabus in mathematics has been competence-based since 2011 and the items in the national tests are categorized in relation to these competencies. The test grades are only connected to the total score via the cut scores but the result for each student is consolidated in a result profile based on those competencies. The subscore analysis shows that none of the subscores have added value and the tests would have to be up to four times longer in order to achieve any significant value.

    In conclusion, the studies indicate that several of the potential threats do not appear to be significant and the evidence suggests that the interpretations made and decisions taken have the potential to be valid. However, there is a need for further studies. In particular, there is a need to develop a procedure for equating that can be implemented on a regular basis.

  • Yoluk, Özge
    et al.
    KTH, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lindahl, Erik
    KTH, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Science for Life Laboratory; Theoretical and Computational Biophysics, Department of Theoretical Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Conformational Gating Dynamics in the GluCl Anion-Selective Chloride Channel2015Ingår i: ACS Chemical Neuroscience, ISSN 1948-7193, E-ISSN 1948-7193, Vol. 6, nr 8, s. 1459-1467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cys-loop receptors are central to propagation of signals in the nervous system. The gating of the membrane-spanning pore is triggered by structural rearrangements in the agonist-binding site, located some so A away from the pore. A sequential conformational change, propagating from the ligand-binding site to the pore, has been proposed to govern gating in all Cys-loop receptors. Here, we identify structural and dynamic components of the conformational gating in the eukaryotic glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with and without the L-glutamate agonist bound. A significant increase in pore opening and accompanying hydration is observed in the presence of glutamate. Potential of mean force calculations reveal that the barrier for ion passage drops from 15 kcal/mol to 5-10 kcal/mol with the agonist bound. This appears to be explained by agonist binding that leads to significant changes in the intersubunit hydrogen-bonding pattern, which induce a slight tilt of the extracellular domain relative to the transmembrane domain in the simulations. This rearrangement is subtle, but correspond to the direction of the quaternary twist observed as a key difference between open and closed X-ray structures. While the full reversible gating is still a much slower process, the observed structural dynamics sheds new light on the early stages of how the agonist influences the extracellular domain, how the extracellular domain interacts with the transmembrane domain, and how changes in the transmembrane domain alter the free energy of ion passage.

  • Kimanius, Dari
    et al.
    Pettersson, Ingrid
    Schluckebier, Gerd
    Lindahl, Erik
    Andersson, Magnus
    Department of Theoretical Physics and Swedish e-Science Research Center, Science for Life Laboratory, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Solna, Sweden.
    SAXS-Guided Metadynamics2015Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, ISSN 1549-9618, E-ISSN 1549-9626, Vol. 11, nr 7, s. 3491-3498Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) methodology enables structural characterization of biological macromolecules in solution. However, because SAXS provides low-dimensional information, several potential structural configurations can reproduce the experimental scattering profile, which severely complicates the structural refinement process. Here, we present a bias-exchange metadynamics refinement protocol that incorporates SAXS data as collective variables and therefore tags all possible configurations with their corresponding free energies, which allows identification of a unique structural solution. The method has been implemented in PLUMED and combined with the GROMACS simulation package, and as a proof of principle, we explore the Trp-cage protein folding landscape.

  • Grønberg, Christina
    et al.
    Sitsel, Oleg
    Lindahl, Erik
    Gourdon, Pontus
    Andersson, Magnus
    Theoretical Physics and Swedish e-Science Research Center, Science for Life Laboratory, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Solna, Sweden.
    Membrane Anchoring and Ion-Entry Dynamics in P-type ATPase Copper Transport2016Ingår i: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 111, nr 11, s. 2417-2429Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cu+-specific P-type ATPase membrane protein transporters regulate cellular copper levels. The lack of crystal structures in Cu+-binding states has limited our understanding of how ion entry and binding are achieved. Here, we characterize the molecular basis of Cu+ entry using molecular-dynamics simulations, structural modeling, and in vitro and in vivo functional assays. Protein structural rearrangements resulting in the exposure of positive charges to bulk solvent rather than to lipid phosphates indicate a direct molecular role of the putative docking platform in Cu+ delivery. Mutational analyses and simulations in the presence and absence of Cu+ predict that the ion-entry path involves two ion-binding sites: one transient Met148-Cys382 site and one intramembranous site formed by trigonal coordination to Cys384, Asn689, and Met717. The results reconcile earlier biochemical and x-ray absorption data and provide a molecular understanding of ion entry in Cu+-transporting P-type ATPases.

  • Figuero, Andrés
    et al.
    Rodriguez, Alvaro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Sande, Jose
    Peña, Enrique
    Rabuñal, Juan R.
    Field measurements of angular motions of a vessel at berth: Inertial device application2018Ingår i: Control Engineering and Applied Informatics, ISSN 1454-8658, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 79-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study and characterization of the oscillations of a moored vessel has a major importance in port operational efficiency, not only in the design of mooring and anchoring systems, but also in order to prevent the movement of the cargo, minimize ship and dock damage and optimizing the operations which have to take place while the ship is moored.The dynamic behavior of a vessel moored in waves has been mathematically described and interactions between ships and environmental loads such as waves, wind, currents and ice are commonly tested for different docks and mooring systems in scale models. However, field data studies of the behavior moored ships have not been properly addressed so far.This paper proposes a novel application of Inertial Measurement Units to estimate the angular movements (roll, pitch and yaw) of a moored vessel. The proposed technique has been validated in laboratory conditions and the behavior of the ship Urania Mella in the Outer Port of Punta Langosteira (A Coruña, Spain), has been analyzed, obtaining very promising results.

  • Linden, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Heijl, Anders
    Jóhannesson, Gauti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM).
    Aspberg, Johan
    Andersson Geimer, Sabina
    Bengtsson, Boel
    Initial intraocular pressure reduction by mono‐ versus multi‐therapy in patients with open‐angle glaucoma: results from the Glaucoma Intensive Treatment Study2018Ingår i: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 96, nr 6, s. 567-572Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To study newly diagnosed glaucoma patients given mono‐ or multi‐therapy regarding differences in initial intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, target IOP levels reached and influence of untreated baseline IOP on IOP reduction.

    Methods: Patients newly diagnosed with manifest primary open‐angle glaucoma and included in the Glaucoma Intensive Treatment Study (GITS) were randomized to immediate intensive treatment with any of three different IOP‐lowering substances supplied in two bottles plus 360° laser trabeculoplasty or to conventional stepwise treatment starting with a single‐drug. Intraocular pressure reduction was analysed 1 month after initiation of treatment.

    Results: One hundred eighteen patients (143 eyes) received mono‐therapy and 122 patients (152 eyes) multi‐therapy. Median baseline IOP was 24.0 (min: 9.7, max: 56.0) mmHg in mono‐therapy eyes and 24.0 (min: 12.3, max: 48.5) mmHg in multi‐therapy eyes (p = 0.56). After 1 month in the two groups, respectively, values for median IOP reduction were 6.3 (range: −5.3–31.0) and 11.0 (range: 0.7–34.5) mmHg, and for mean relative decline 26.8 (range: −32.0–55.4) and 46.0 (range: 4.6–81.6) % (p = 0.000). A larger proportion of the multi‐therapy patients reached each target IOP level (p = 0.000). The higher the baseline IOP, the larger the observed pressure reduction, considering both absolute and relative figures. The effect was more pronounced in eyes with multi‐therapy than in those with mono‐therapy (p = 0.000). For every mmHg higher IOP at baseline, the IOP was reduced by an additional 0.56 (mono‐therapy) or 0.84 (multi‐therapy) mmHg.

    Conclusion: Intensive treatment led to considerably greater IOP reduction than mono‐therapy. Among patients with IOP ≥30 mmHg at diagnosis an IOP of <16 was reached in 2/3 of those with multi‐therapy but in none with mono‐therapy. The IOP reduction was highly dependent on the untreated IOP level.

  • Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hariz, Marwan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap. Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, University College of London, Institute of Neurology, London, UK.
    The paper that wrote itself – A ghost story2018Ingår i: Movement Disorders, ISSN 0885-3185, E-ISSN 1531-8257, Vol. 33, nr 9, s. 1509-1510Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • Enetjärn, Albin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Temporal och spatial variation för pH och relaterade parametrar i Bastuån, Jämtland2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic emissions of acidifying substances, mainly sulfur dioxide, during the second half of the 20th century caused a widespread acidification of many European freshwater environments. Even relatively remote areas, such as inland northern Sweden, experienced reduced pH-values, much due to low buffering capacity in the environment. Extensive liming has taken place in Sweden over the past fifty years to counteract negative effects on limnic ecosystems. Despite a general increase in pH over the last decades, problems with acidification still occur. However, this can be hard to separate from natural acidity due to a large landscape variability. This study aims at describing the temporal and spatial variation of pH and pH-related parameters in Bastuån, a 46 km2 watershed in Jämtland, Sweden, which is being investigated for future liming measures. Existing water chemistry data sets were analyzed and extended with an additional field study, sampling the twelve largest tributaries to Bastuån. Results show that pronounced high and low pH values has become increasingly rare while the average is basically unchanged between 1999 and 2017. Low pH is mainly associated with high discharge during snowmelt or rain events. Anthropogenic SO42- concentrations seems to contribute relatively little to pH-depressions while organic acids plays a more important role. Large water chemical variations in the tributaries indicate that several different biological and physical properties within the watershed regulates pH. However, any credible function that can predict pH using such properties remains to be found.

  • Alakpa, Enateri V.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Saeed, Anwer
    Chung, Peter
    Riehle, Mathis O.
    Gadegaard, Nikolaj
    Dalby, Matthew J.
    Cusack, Maggie
    The Prismatic Topography of Pinctada maxima Shell Retains Stem Cell Multipotency and Plasticity In Vitro2018Ingår i: Advanced Biosystems, ISSN 2366-7478, Vol. 2, nr 6, artikel-id 1800012Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The shell of the bivalve mollusc Pinctada maxima is composed of the calcium carbonate polymorphs calcite and aragonite (nacre). Mother-of-pearl, or nacre, induces vertebrate cells to undergo osteogenesis and has good osteointegrative qualities in vivo. The calcite counterpart, however, is less researched in terms of the response of vertebrate cells. This study shows that isolation of calcite surface topography from the inherent chemistry allows viable long-term culture of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Self-renewal is evident from the increased gene expression of the self-renewal markers CD63, CD166, and CD271 indicating that cells cultured on the calcite topography maintain their stem cell phenotype. MSCs also retain their multipotency and can undergo successful differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes. When directed to adipogenesis, MSCs cultured on prism replicas are more amenable to differentiation than MSCs cultured on tissue culture polystyrene indicating a higher degree of plasticity in MSCs growing on calcite P. maxima prismatic topography. The study highlights the potential of the calcite topography of P. maxima as a biomimetic design for supporting expansion of MSC populations in vitro, which is of fundamental importance if it meets the demands for autologous MSCs for therapeutic use.

  • Bajraktari, Gani
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Kardiologi. Heart Centre, Umeå.
    Pugliese, Nicola Riccardo
    D'Agostino, Andreina
    Rosa, Gian Marco
    Ibrahimi, Pranvera
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Heart Centre, Umeå.
    Perçuku, Luan
    Miccoli, Mario
    Galeotti, Gian Giacomo
    Fabiani, Iacopo
    Pedrinelli, Roberto
    Henein, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Kardiologi. Heart Centre, Umeå.
    Dini, Frank L.
    Echo- and B-Type Natriuretic Peptide-Guided Follow-Up versus Symptom-Guided Follow-Up: Comparison of the Outcome in Ambulatory Heart Failure Patients2018Ingår i: Cardiology Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-8016, E-ISSN 2090-0597, artikel-id 3139861Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent European Society of Cardiology and American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Guidelines did not recommend biomarker-guided therapy in the management of heart failure (HF) patients. Combination of echo- and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) may be an alternative approach in guiding ambulatory HF management. Our aim was to determine whether a therapy guided by echo markers of left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP), lung ultrasound (LUS) assessment of B-lines, and BNP improves outcomes of HF patients. Consecutive outpatients with LV ejection fraction (EF) <= 50% have been prospectively enrolled. In Group I (n=224), follow-up was guided by echo and BNP with the goal of achieving E-wave deceleration time (EDT) >= 150 ms, tissue Doppler index E/e' < 13, B-line numbers < 15, and BNP <= 125 pg/ml or decrease > 30%; in Group II (n=293), follow-up was clinically guided, while the remaining 277 patients (Group III) did not receive any dedicated follow-up. At 60 months, survival was 88% in Group I compared to 75% in Group II and 54% in Group III (chi(2) 53.5; p<0.0001). Survival curves exhibited statistically significant differences using Mantel-Cox analysis. The number needed to treat to spare one death was 7.9 (Group I versus Group II) and 3.8 (Group I versus Group III). At multivariate Cox regression analyses, major predictors of all-cause mortality were follow-up E/e' (HR: 1.05; p=0.0038) and BNP > 125 pg/ml or decrease <= 30% (HR: 4.90; p=0.0054), while BNP > 125 pg/ml or decrease <= 30% and B-line numbers >= 15 were associated with the combined end point of death and HF hospitalization. Evidence-based HF treatment guided by serum biomarkers and ultrasound with the goal of reducing elevated BNP and LVFP, and resolving pulmonary congestion was associated with better clinical outcomes and can be valuable in guiding ambulatory HF management.

  • Hakopuro, Janina
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Svecismer i sverigefinskan: En kvantitativ undersökning om ett urval av svenska ord som används i finska språket i Sverige2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how people of varying ages, generations and genders use a selection of Swedish words that occurs in the Finnish language that is spoken in Sweden. The informants examined are originated from Finland or has at least one parent from Finland and speaks Finnish. In order to answer the aim and research questions for this study a quantitative method has been used and a survey with 277 replies has been accomplished. The result of the study shows that the Sweden Finns are using the investigated Sweden Finnish words. Some variations occurred due to age, generation and gender but despite these variations the words are overall used to a greater degree in relative to the investigated aspects.

  • Lindholm, Mark
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Aung, Kyaw Min
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Role of OmpA1 and OmpA2 in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Aggregatibacter aphrophilus serum resistance2019Ingår i: Journal of Oral Microbiology, ISSN 2000-2297, E-ISSN 2000-2297, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 1536192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Aggregatibacter aphrophilus belong to the HACEK group of fastidious Gram-negative organisms, a recognized cause of infective endocarditis. A. actinomycetemcomitans is also implicated in aggressive forms of periodontitis. We demonstrated that A. aphrophilus strains, as A. actinomycetemcomitans are ubiquitously serum resistant. Both species encode two Outer membrane protein A paralogues, here denoted OmpA1 and OmpA2. As their respective pangenomes contain several OmpA1 and OmpA2 alleles, they represent potential genotypic markers. A naturally competent strain of A. actinomycetemcomitans and A. aphrophilus, respectively were used to elucidate if OmpA1 and OmpA2 contribute to serum resistance. Whereas OmpA1 was critical for survival of A. actinomycetemcomitans D7SS in 50% normal human serum (NHS), serum resistant ompA1 mutants were fortuitously obtained, expressing enhanced levels of OmpA2. Similarly, OmpA1 rather than OmpA2 was a major contributor to serum resistance of A. aphrophilus HK83. Far-Western blot revealed that OmpA1AA, OmpA2AA, and OmpA1AP can bind to C4-binding protein, an inhibitor of classical and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) complement activation. Indeed, ompA1 mutants were susceptible to these pathways, but also to alternative complement activation. This may at least partly reflect a compromised outer membrane integrity but is also consistent with alternative mechanisms involved in OmpA-mediated serum resistance.

  • Rawcliffe, Denise F. R.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Österman, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Nordin, Angelica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Holmberg, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    PTBP1 acts as a dominant repressor of the aberrant tissue-specific splicing of ISCU in hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis2018Ingår i: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine, ISSN 2324-9269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by an intron mutation in the iron-sulfur cluster assembly (ISCU) gene. The mutation results in aberrant splicing, where part of the intron is retained in the final mRNA transcript, giving rise to a truncated nonfunctional ISCU protein. Using an ISCU mini-gene system, we have previously shown that PTBP1 can act as a repressor of the mis-splicing of ISCU, where overexpression of PTBP1 resulted in a decrease of the incorrect splicing. In this study, we wanted to, in more detail, analyze the role of PTBP1 in the regulation of endogenous ISCU mis-splicing.

    Methods: Overexpression and knockdown of PTBP1 was performed in myoblasts from two HML patients and a healthy control. Quantification of ISCU mis-splicing was done by qRTPCR. Biotinylated ISCU RNA, representing wildtype and mutant intron sequence, was used in a pull-down assay with nuclear extracts from myoblasts. Levels of PTBP1 in human cell lines and mice tissues were analyzed by qRTPCR and western blot.

    Results: PTBP1 overexpression in HML patient myoblasts resulted in a substantial decrease of ISCU mis-splicing while knockdown of PTBP1 resulted in a drastic increase. The effect could be observed in both patient and control myoblasts. We could also show that PTBP1 interacts with both the mutant and wild-type ISCU intron sequence, but with a higher affinity to the mutant sequence. Furthermore, low levels of PTBP1 among examined mouse tissues correlated with high levels of incorrect splicing of ISCU.

    Conclusion: Our results show that PTBP1 acts as a dominant repressor of ISCU mis-splicing. We also show an inverse correlation between the levels of PTBP1 and ISCU mis-splicing, suggesting that the high level of mis-splicing in the skeletal muscle is primarily due to the low levels of PTBP1.

  • Seidegård, Jacob
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    RÄDSLAN FÖR ATT FÖRLORA ARBETET: Jämförande studie mellan Sverige, Danmark och Polen2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how different risk factors on the labour market affect an individuals’ perceived unemployment risk and how this perceived risk is affected depending on what country you work in. By comparing countries, a difference can be made on, depending on the countries labour policies and the state of their welfare, how they are affecting your perceived unemployment risk. The countries used in this study are Sweden, Denmark and Poland and the risk factors used are, gender, education level, competence and trade unions. The data for this study is taken from ISSPs surveys and the analysis method used is a bivariate and a multiple regression analysis. The result from the study show that there are differences between the countries perceived unemployment risk and how the risk factors affect this. But, because a lot of the results are non-significant, a general conclusion can’t be done because there is no certainty that the results exist outside of this study. But one thing is certain, that this is a much more complex field were general conclusions are hard to make and that the risk factors needs more and thorough studying and how the individuals perceived unemployment risk affects their mental health.

  • Sjödin, Tord
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    A Short and Unified Proof of Kummer's Test2018Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Kummer’s test from 1835 states that the positive series ∑n=1an is convergent if and only if there is a sequence {Bn}1 of positive numbers such that Bn·an/an+1Bn+1 ≥ 1, for all sufficiently large n. We present an exact analysis and a short and unified proof of Kummer’s test. The test has been applied to differential equations and studied in mathematical philosophy.

  • Gümüscü, Ahmet
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Khoo, Evelyn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Social work and the management of complexity in Swedish child welfare services2018Ingår i: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper elucidates how Swedish child welfare social workers manage complexity co-occuring in the families with which they work and the organisational contexts of practice. Focus groups were held with social workers in three municipalities in Sweden who described work processes generally and in response to a fictitious vignette. The vignette was constructed as a complex family situation to explore how social workers approach complexity when faced with a family with complex needs. Findings showed that social workers are challenged in their everyday work where they are aware of the many needs in a family. They focus on immediate conditions for children while recognising that some problems are less amenable to being solved. However they try to manage complexities related to families as well as the structural conditions of work by sorting, prioritising and oscillating between a child focus and a family service orientation. This paper serves as a necessary reminder of the complexity of social work in the broader area of child welfare and raises further questions about the use of comparative typologies to explain social work practices.

  • Dam Roadley-Battin, Nikolaj
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Designhögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Educational VR: An exploration of educational VR for professional users2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores Virtual Reality (VR) as a digital medium for teaching in a professional context. In collaboration with ABB, a pioneering technology leader, the thesis questions whether VR could be the future medium for training ABB service personnel. 

    The research discusses how you can design for VR, by drawing parallels to traditional mediums; Moreover, the research covers insights into the ABB education and VR explorations. 

    Three experience prototypes were designed as the final concept. These experience prototypes aim to highlight educational use cases through VR, covering collaborative work, safety guidelines and various utilities. The goal of the final experience prototypes is to engage potential users and designers in a dialog concerning VR as an educational medium of the future.

  • Pruchnicka, Joanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Designhögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    A BETTER WAY TO LIVE WITH A CHRONIC CONDITION: Envisioning transition kit for women living with endometriosis2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This project explores the question of how to support women living with endometriosis in the transition into live with a chronic condition while maintaining the best possible quality of life.

    Design process was planned out and exercises in four steps - preparations and background research (outlining well-being perspective, desk research, research online via social media), design research (multiple surveys, interviews, reflections online, co-creation sessions, probing, interviews following probing with co-creation sessions, ideation sessions, analysis), explorations (creation of directions, analysis, initial concepts creation, feedback, synthesis, design proposal, feedback and evaluation sessions, design improvements) and final design proposal. Activities were aiming to repeatedly

    open up the scope of the project and then through the analysis of each phase narrow it down again following diamond shape.

    One important aspect of the process was to engage women living with endometriosis as well as their loved ones throughout the whole process and design together instead of designing for them. Of course, experts were consulted as well to make sure project is following standards of medical care, but the primary focus on the users was important since the product was shaped rather as a lifestyle change facilitator as well as data collection tool rather than a strictly medical solution.

    The outcome of the project is a flexible system VEA serving as a transition kit for women diagnosed with endometriosis, but also early detection screening tool and awareness platform for those who haven’t been diagnosed yet. Even though this might seem complicated I’ll try to explain why only this kind of a multifaceted approach can fully support women in their journey toward their best possible quality of life.

    VEA allows users to access Habit Nooks supporting them in introducing changes while guided by experts and supported by the community.

    Physical tracker allowing to track symptoms together with the Data Dashboard allow users to explore data patterns and make informed decisions. The system gives also an opportunity to get in touch with experts via calls or structured long-term programs.

    Beside the design proposal project was closed with a series of reflection touching on the bias in a medical field and how it might affect healthcare design, as well as designer’s experience of working on a project with a personal relevance. 

  • Kuklo, Piotr
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Designhögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    The future of podcasting: Envisioning an audio stories community for listeners and creators, where they connect through similar interests and share inspiring content.2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This project explores the future of podcasting as a digital audio media format for stories. As podcasts continue to grow in popularity the medium becomes more and more influential amongst all age groups. Unfortunately, existing solutions do not give enough attention to all possible aspects of the medium. Podcasts carry an untapped potential as they are often treated similarly to music files. This project consists of a platform, Cast3, with two separate products directed to listeners and creators of audio stories. The platform gives users a possibility to connect with similar minded people around specific topics through clubs.

    Inspiration and Method

    To understand the needs of listeners and creators of the stories, I immersed myself with the storytelling world and conducted a thorough research with conversations with both users groups, opportunities evaluations and concepts testing. The insights gathered during the research brought the conclusion that both listeners and creators tend to want more involvement and have stronger community gathered around audio stories. That is why the project’s goal is to form an audio story community for listeners and creators, where they connect through similar interests and share inspiring content.

    Result

    The final outcome of the project consists of a platform Cast3 that has 2 separate products directed to listeners and creators of audio stories. The platform gives users a possibility to connect with similar minded people around specific topics through clubs. The clubs are the spaces where listeners can exchange information, discover new content through a word of mouth and bond with the creators through live shows. The creators’ needs are supported through specialised tools that help to record stories and help to learn more about the listeners. The users of the platform can interact with audio stories through a redefined media format called freecasting. The new format improves a listening experience and respond to presently existing needs of listeners as well as creators.

  • Kennedy, André
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Designhögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Finance for all: Envisioning inclusive financial systems2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the more pressing long-term concerns for parents of children with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), such as autism, is financial management (Abbott & Marriott, 2012). Few of these people ever manage to attain a level of financial literacy that allows them to become fully independent. Value, in it’s current form, is just too abstract for many (Cheak-Zamora, et al. 2017). This problem is augmented by our financial institutions, who have neglected to offer these groups any form of accessible financial products, rendering any aspirations of becoming “financially independent” by these groups, as unattainable. This is detrimental to their well-being and sense of self. (Abbott & Marriott, 2012).

    With this in light, this thesis will firstly highlight the obstacles faced by these groups in achieving financial independence, secondly, it will present a new paradigm through which to look at value. A paradigm that understands that money isn’t about a number, but rather the complex social interactions that that govern our liberties as members of society. Finally, this thesis will present an example of a new breed of fiancial system, Olive. Making use of emerging distributed technologies, Olive presents a system that enables us to produce products that recognises the spectrum of needs and abilities our community contains.