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  • Forsman, Tove
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Levréus, Lovisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Låter du dig påverkas?: En kvantitativ studie om negativ elektronisk word of mouth och dess påverkan på bokningsintentionen av hotell2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den digitala utvecklingen har förändrat hur vi letar efter information, inspireras och kommunicerar med varandra. Fenomenet Word-of-Mouth (WOM) har även den fått en ny betydelse och slagkraft i och med den teknologiska utvecklingen. Den nya teknologin har öppnat upp för nya möjligheter för människor att enklare kommunicera och interagera med varandra och därmed banat vägen för den elektroniska varianten av WOM, nämligen elektronisk Word-of-Mouth (eWOM).

    Det identifierade forskningsgapet för studien är hur negativ eWOM, via sociala medier, påverkar konsumentens bokningsintentioner av hotell. eWOM på sociala medier är ett aktuellt fenomen som får större och större vikt då konsumenter idag tenderar att lyssna mer på eWOM från vänner och familj än traditionell marknadsföring.

    Studiens forskningsfråga har formulerats “Hur påverkar negativ eWOM via sociala medier konsumentens bokningsintention av hotell?” och baseras på det forskningsgap som identifierats. Målet med denna studie är att minska det teoretiska forskningsgapet som identifierats och samtidigt bidra med värdefull och användbar information till företag inom hotellbranschen.

    I studien används en kvantitativ metod där en webbaserad enkätundersökning ligger till grund för insamlandet av data. Sedermera kommer studien även använda sig av ett deduktivt angreppssätt där teori ligger till grund för hypotesgenereringen. Vidare kommer studien ha en positivistisk kunskapsteoretisk inriktning samt en ontologisk inriktning i form av objektivism.

    Ett teorikapitel har utformats där bland annat två nyckelteorier och en modell har identifierats: Parasuraman et al’s (1988) fem dimensioner av tjänstekvalité, Engel et al’s (1968) beslutsprocess och Erkan & Evans (2016) IACM-modell. Vi har utifrån dessa skapat en konceptuell modell som illustrerar hur variablerna är sammanlänkade.

    Den webbaserad enkätundersökning genomfördes på målpopulationen kvinnor och män, 18 år och äldre som använder sig av sociala medier i dess informationssökande och som någon gång har bott på hotell. Data samlades in genom ett snöbolls- och självvalsurval där antalet respondenter som genomförde enkätundersökningen var 302 stycken inklusive ett bortfall på 4 personer.  Statistiska test har gjorts i form av Cronbach’s Alpha, Chi-två test samt korrelationstest för att analysera den insamlade datan.

    Resultatet i denna studie visar att konsumentens attityd mot eWOM samt dess generella förväntningar på hotell har en påverkan på om man väljer att ta till sig av negativa kommentarer som skrivs på sociala medier eller inte. Vidare har vi funnit ett statistiskt signifikant samband som säger att om konsumenten väljer att ta till sig av negativa kommentarer som skrivs via sociala medier om hotell så tenderar personen i fråga att inte skapa sig en bokningsintention därefter.

    Slutligen förs en diskussion kring samhälleliga och etiska aspekter där berörda ämnen är sociala medier och teknologins påverkan på mänskligheten, källkritik samt den etiska aspekten med att skapa incitament för att få fler respondenter i enkätundersökningen. 

  • Dahlqvist, Erica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Undersökning av parametrar som kan öka mobiliteten av arsenik i grundvatten efter jordtvätt i Gudarp.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After soil washing in the former wood preservation industry, the concentration of As (arsenic) have increased in the groundwater. The purpose of this study was to investigate different parameters that could increase the mobility of As in the groundwater. The impact the soil wash has on the soil and it is effect on mobility will also be consider. This study will also show how As, Cu and Cr changes over time, however, the focus will be on As when the soil washing have been controlled by the As concentration. Soil and groundwater samples have been collected. Through filtration Fe (iron), Al (aluminium) and TOC (Total organic carbon) together with As have been analysed to determine a possible relation. Redox potential and As specification have also been analysed. As occur probably dissolved in the groundwater or together with DOC (Dissolved organic carbon). No link between colloids and complexes with Fe and Al together with As was found through filtration. Redox potential has no impact since the water was well oxygenated and As occurred as As(V). As and Cu follow the same time trend, while different for Cr. It is clear that the concentration of As increased in the groundwater after soil washing and that soil excavating have not the same problem with increased levels. The ground structure is changed and the clay mineral with adsorption surface is removed with soil washing. This could explain the increase of As in the groundwater. 

  • Kaddori, Bashar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kabelförläggning i mark2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis work was carried out at the consulting company WSP Group- Stockholm, with the purpose of identifying and finding installation methods that facilitate the placement of cables today and in the future. The thesis focuses only on regional and local grids but with elements of main grids in major cities. This degree project is based on information gathering from standards EBR KJ41: 15 cabling max 145 kV, SS-EN 424 14 37 and Stockholm City Technical Manual and the differences between them. As a supplement to the standards, different manuals were used by different companies and also past thesis work.

    Answers to main question and subquery are based on interviews with various actors in the industry such as grid owners, consultants, and entrepreneurs.

     The interviews revealed that pipes are used primarily not to protect cables, but to pass through a road. Pipes Installation lead to deterioration of heat dissipation in cables, which means that the temperature of the cable rises and, in the worst case, shortens the life of cable. Walking up the cable wiring area is not possible because it is crowded in the ground and requires a lot of space.

    Bentonite filling is not a good method because there is no data on what can happen with the bentonite after 5 years or 20 years. It would be difficult to access the cables and repair them because the bentonite must be flushed out. If the bentonite is stiff, it can be difficult to access the cable. It turned out that excavation is the only method used in metropolitan areas because other methods can cause damage to existing wires lying in the ground. The most common cable damages are digging in cables, it is very easy to access the ground cables at the installation work.

    In order to expand the network in the future, cables with larger wires can be placed to cover future needs. In areas where you know that the network does not need to be strengthened, pipes can be placed to facilitate maintenance work in the future.

    The city needs to be clear about where the future constructions will be and develop a plan and stick to it. The city must also be responsible for its land and not let anyone else take care of the network.

    Management owners need to be better at co-ordinating and acting quickly to come up with details on where to co-ordinate to avoid bottleneck and disturbing landowners several times.

    It seems that tunnels will be a way to go in the future. Tunnels is an expensive infrastructure and if several actors choose to collaborate, the costs of tunnel construction can be divided between different actors. OPI channelization is also another type of solution and it is very good if several players can also collaborate

  • Public defence: 2017-12-14 13:15 MA121, Umeå
    Ibidunmoye, Olumuyiwa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Performance anomaly detection and resolution for autonomous clouds2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental properties of cloud computing such as resource sharing and on-demand self-servicing is driving a growing adoption of the cloud for hosting both legacy and new application services. A consequence of this growth is that the increasing scale and complexity of the underlying cloud infrastructure as well as the fluctuating service workloads is inducing performance incidents at a higher frequency than ever before with far-reaching impact on revenue, reliability, and reputation. Hence, effectively managing performance incidents with emphasis on timely detection, diagnosis and resolution has thus become a necessity rather than luxury. While other aspects of cloud management such as monitoring and resource management are experiencing greater automation, automated management of performance incidents remains a major concern.

    Given the volume of operational data produced by cloud datacenters and services, this thesis focus on how data analytics techniques can be used in the aspect of cloud performance management. In particular, this work investigates techniques and models for automated performance anomaly detection and prevention in cloud environments. To familiarize with developments in the research area, we present the outcome of an extensive survey of existing research contributions addressing various aspects of performance problem management in diverse systems domains. We discuss the design and evaluation of analytics models and algorithms for detecting performance anomalies in real-time behaviour of cloud datacenter resources and hosted services at different resolutions. We also discuss the design of a semi-supervised machine learning approach for mitigating performance degradation by actively driving quality of service from undesirable states to a desired target state via incremental capacity optimization. The research methods used in this thesis include experiments on real virtualized testbeds to evaluate aspects of proposed techniques while other aspects are evaluated using performance traces from real-world datacenters.

    Insights and outcomes from this thesis can be used by both cloud and service operators to enhance the automation of performance problem detection, diagnosis and resolution. They also have the potential to spur further research in the area while being applicable in related domains such as Internet of Things (IoT), industrial sensors as well as in edge and mobile clouds.

  • Du, Tiantian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Agami, Amro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Examining young users’ security perceptions of mobile banking: A qualitative study on users’ insights about mobile banking.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The advancement of mobile technology and banking services enabled users to use the mobile banking for a variety of tasks with their smartphones, bringing increased flexibility and value-added services to the customers. However, users still have still concerns regarding the security of mobile banking services. The lack of knowledge of the user about different security threats and mechanisms to improve their security represent a major opportunity for hackers and cyberattacks. Despite the fact that the younger students are more knowledgeable about technologies yet awareness is still a concern. Perceived security in the context of young users has not been examined before, although it is considered important in building customer trust. Therefore, this thesis aims to form a good understanding of this topic.

    On analyzing prior research, the subjects of trust and perceived security in mobile banking is approached by the literature review and an exploratory study that was conducted through qualitative semi-structured interviews. The information collected was carefully analyzed with proper tools. After analyzing the information an analysis of the literature findings and study finds was presented.

    This thesis examined and revealed that perceived security in mobile banking is important for young users. However, it was noticed that users would not leave the service due to their reliance on the bank assurances to cover their security losses, which means that most of the mobile banking young users trust their bank and technology given the security threats. In addition, this study revealed that the majority of users are unaware of security threats surrounding the mobile banking environment. It was found also that the most important mechanism for the user is authentication mechanisms.

    This thesis provides a general understanding of the security in mobile banking. It highlights that perceived security is a complex concept and is affected by various factors such as device, information quality, user experience and type of network connections. These factors should be carefully considered by users when using the technology. In conclusion, this thesis also implies banks to communicate effectively security information to users in order to avoid mobile banking users’ errors.

  • Holmbom, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brymer, Eric
    Schweitzer, Robert D.
    Transformations through proximity flying: a phenomenological investigation2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, 1831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants' perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity.

  • Ahmeti, Artan
    et al.
    Henein, Michael Y.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Molecular & Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St George University London.
    Ibrahimi, Pranvera
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Clinic of Cardiology, University Clinical Centre of Kosova.
    Elezi, Shpend
    Haliti, Edmond
    Poniku, Afrim
    Batalli, Arlind
    Bajraktari, Gani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Clinic of Cardiology, University Clinical Centre of Kosova; Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina.
    Quality of life questionnaire predicts poor exercise capacity only in HFpEF and not in HFrEF2017In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 17, 268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) is the most widely used measure of quality of life (QoL) in HF patients. This prospective study aimed to assess the relationship between QoL and exercise capacity in HF patients.

    Methods: The study subjects were 118 consecutive patients with chronic HF (62 +/- 10 years, 57 females, in NYHA I-III). Patients answered a MLHFQ questionnaire in the same day of complete clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic assessment. They also underwent a 5 min walk test (6-MWT), in the same day, which grouped them into; Group I: <= 300 m and Group II: > 300 m. In addition, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), divided them into: Group A, with preserved EF (HFpEF) and Group B with reduced EF (HFrEF).

    Results: The mean MLHFQ total scale score was 48 (+/- 17). The total scale, and the physical and emotional functional MLHFQ scores did not differ between HFpEF and HFpEF. Group I patients were older (p = 0.003), had higher NYHA functional class (p = 0.002), faster baseline heart rate (p = 0.006), higher prevalence of smoking (p = 0.015), higher global, physical and emotional MLHFQ scores (p < 0.001, for all), larger left atrial (LA) diameter (p = 0.001), shorter LV filling time (p = 0.027), higher E/e' ratio (0.02), shorter isovolumic relaxation time (p = 0.028), lower septal a' (p = 0.019) and s' (p = 0.023), compared to Group II. Independent predictors of 6-MWT distance for the group as a whole were increased MLHFQ total score (p = 0.005), older age (p = 0.035), and diabetes (p = 0.045), in HFpEF were total MLHFQ (p = 0.007) and diabetes (p = 0.045) but in HFrEF were only LA enlargement (p = 0.005) and age (p = 0.013. A total MLHFQ score of 48.5 had a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 63% (AUC on ROC analysis of 72%) for limited exercise performance in HF patients.

    Conclusions: Quality of life, assessment by MLHFQ, is the best correlate of exercise capacity measured by 6-MWT, particularly in HFpEF patients. Despite worse ejection fraction in HFrEF, signs of raised LA pressure independently determine exercise capacity in these patients.

  • Monroe, Melanie J.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Biological Sciences and the IRMACS center for interdisciplinary research, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby , BC, Canada.
    Bokma, Folmer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Does density-dependent diversification mirror ecological competitive exclusion?2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 10, e0184814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Density-dependence is a term used in ecology to describe processes such as birth and death rates that are regulated by the number of individuals in a population. Evolutionary biologists have borrowed the term to describe decreasing rates of species accumulation, suggesting that speciation and extinction rates depend on the total number of species in a clade. If this analogy with ecological density-dependence holds, diversification of clades is restricted because species compete for limited resources. We hypothesize that such competition should not only affect numbers of species, but also prevent species from being phenotypically similar. Here, we present a method to detect whether competitive interactions between species have ordered phenotypic traits on a phylogeny, assuming that competition prevents related species from having identical trait values. We use the method to analyze clades of birds and mammals, with body size as the phenotypic trait. We find no sign that competition has prevented species from having the same body size. Thus, since body size is a key ecological trait and competition does not seem to be responsible for differences in body size between species, we conclude that the diversification slowdown that is prevalent in these clades is unlikely due to the ecological interference implied by the term density dependence.

  • Amadu, Abubakari
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Al Samarai, Alexandre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Swedish Sustainability Trend: Empirical analysis on the volatility effect of sustainable news on Swedish oil companies using GARCH 1.12017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the investment attractiveness of oil and gas stocks (registered on Nasdaq Stockholm) in face of the increasing campaigns for the adoption of clean energy. The findings can help in the formulation of relevant policy implications on the campaign for a cleaner environment

    Design/Methodology/Approach

    The authors assume positivism and objectivity as the philosophical aspects for the purpose of this study. Following these initial considerations, the nature of the study was adopted as quantitative. This follows a longitudinal design and a deductive approach, basing the paper on previous literature in the areas of environmental sustainability, market efficiency, financial news items and their effect on stock volatility in order to test own hypothesis.   

    Theory

    Following the methodological assumptions and the adoption of a deductive approach, relevant theory was selected to address the focus of previous research on which the research gaps and purpose are based. It also plays a role in introducing the reader to the relevant theories which will aid comprehension of further sections of this paper. Theories surrounding market efficiency, risk and return, the oil and gas industry and sustainability have all been mentioned. 

    Findings

    In order to fulfil the purpose of the study, the authors studied whether the volatility of oil and gas stocks are affected by clean energy related news. The empirical results suggest that the volatility of oil and gas stocks decline whenever news of clean energy is introduced, implying clean energy news cause lower volatility. To this end, oil and gas stocks are better off whenever clean energy/sustainability news are introduced into the market. 

    Analysis

    The empirical results seem to point to the fact that oil and gas firms may be benefiting from the investment they have made within the last two decades towards the issue of doing business in a more sustainable and socially responsible manner. It is therefore possible that investors get to reward them whenever news relating to sustainability and clean energy are announced.

    Conclusions 

    This thesis confirms the attractiveness of oil and gas stocks notwithstanding the increasing campaigns and initiatives aimed at promoting the adoption of clean energy. 

    Research limitations

    The research was limited in terms of setting since it only covered Sweden and therefore cannot answer questions regarding the overall attractiveness of oil and gas stocks across the globe.

  • Piston, Dominik
    et al.
    Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia
    Bansal, Vikas
    Gargano, Daniela
    Yao, Zhi
    Szabadkai, Gyorgy
    Odell, Mark
    Puno, M. Rhyan
    Björkblom, Benny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Maple-Grodem, Jodi
    Breuer, Peter
    Kaut, Oliver
    Larsen, Jan Petter
    Bonn, Stefan
    Moller, Simon Geir
    Wuellner, Ullrich
    Schapira, Anthony H. V.
    Gegg, Matthew E.
    DJ-1 is a redox sensitive adapter protein for high molecular weight complexes involved in regulation of catecholamine homeostasis2017In: Human Molecular Genetics, ISSN 0964-6906, E-ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 26, no 20, 4028-4041 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DJ-1 is an oxidation sensitive protein encoded by the PARK7 gene. Mutations in PARK7 are a rare cause of familial recessive Parkinson's disease (PD), but growing evidence suggests involvement of DJ-1 in idiopathic PD. The key clinical features of PD, rigidity and bradykinesia, result from neurotransmitter imbalance, particularly the catecholamines dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline. We report in human brain and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines that DJ-1 predominantly forms high molecular weight (HMW) complexes that included RNA metabolism proteins hnRNPA1 and PABP1 and the glycolysis enzyme GAPDH. In cell culture models the oxidation status of DJ-1 determined the specific complex composition. RNA sequencing indicated that oxidative changes to DJ-1 were concomitant with changes in mRNA transcripts mainly involved in catecholamine metabolism. Importantly, loss of DJ-1 function upon knock down (KD) or expression of the PD associated form L166P resulted in the absence of HMW DJ-1 complexes. In the KD model, the absence of DJ-1 complexes was accompanied by impairment in catecholamine homeostasis, with significant increases in intracellular DA and noraderenaline levels. These changes in catecholamines could be rescued by re-expression of DJ-1. This catecholamine imbalance may contribute to the particular vulnerability of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons to neurodegeneration in PARK7-related PD. Notably, oxidised DJ-1 was significantly decreased in idiopathic PD brain, suggesting altered complex function may also play a role in the more common sporadic form of the disease.

  • Olofsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ohlsson, K. E. Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Östin, Ronny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Measurement of the environmental temperature using the sol-air thermometer2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 132, 357-362 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat flow measurement with a heat flow meter is a standardized method (ISO 9869-1) to estimate thermal transmittance (U-value) of a building element. The heat flow meter is a thin plate mounted on top of the surface of the element, and measures the heat flux q through the plate. The measured q is the product of the difference in temperatures between exterior and interior environment, and the U-value. The heat transferred from the element is based on the radiant and the convective heat transfer.

    ISO 9869-1 specifies that the environment temperature Te “is a notional temperature" and it "cannot be measured directly” (section A.3.1). The air temperature Ta is proposed as a reasonable approximation for the indoor environment, while overcast conditions and absence of significant solar radiation are specified conditions for replacing Te with Ta for the exterior environment.

    The sol-air thermometer (SAT) measures the sol-air temperature Tsa, i.e. the equivalent temperature of the convective and the radiative environment. In the absence of solar radiation, Te = Tsa. SAT is a sensor consisting of a thin flat solid plate, of high thermal conductivity. The front side of the sensor is exposed to the environment, whose Tsa is to be measured, and the backside is thermally insulated. The temperature of the SAT-plate equals Tsa.

    In this work we propose introduction of the measured Te in the existing standard (ISO 9869-1). The method for measurement of Tsa, using the SAT, has been demonstrated experimentally for different periods, without solar radiation present and under stable climatic conditions.

  • Gustavsson, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Möjligheten att göra avvikelser från Arbetstidslagen med centrala kollektivavtal.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Måredh, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Vem bär ansvaret för arbetsmiljön? Om den rättsliga regleringen av arbetsmiljöansvaret vid uthyrning och entreprenad.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Malakellis, Mary
    et al.
    Hoare, Erin
    Sanigorski, Andrew
    Crooks, Nicholas
    Allender, Steven
    Nichols, Melanie
    Swinburn, Boyd
    Chikwendu, Cal
    Kelly, Paul M.
    Petersen, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Millar, Lynne
    School-based systems change for obesity prevention in adolescents: outcomes of the Australian Capital Territory "It's Your Move!'2017In: Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, ISSN 1326-0200, E-ISSN 1753-6405, Vol. 41, no 5, 490-496 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The Australian Capital Territory It's Your Move!' (ACT-IYM) was a three-year (2012-2014) systems intervention to prevent obesity among adolescents. Methods: The ACT-IYM project involved three intervention schools and three comparison schools and targeted secondary students aged 12-16 years. The intervention consisted of multiple initiatives at individual, community, and school policy level to support healthier nutrition and physical activity. Intervention school-specific objectives related to increasing active transport, increasing time spent physically active at school, and supporting mental wellbeing. Data were collected in 2012 and 2014 from 656 students. Anthropometric data were objectively measured and behavioural data self-reported. Results: Proportions of overweight or obesity were similar over time within the intervention (24.5% baseline and 22.8% follow-up) and comparison groups (31.8% baseline and 30.6% follow-up). Within schools, two of three the intervention schools showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of overweight and obesity (p<0.05). Conclusions: There was some evidence of effectiveness of the systems approach to preventing obesity among adolescents. Implications for public health: The incorporation of systems thinking has been touted as the next stage in obesity prevention and public health more broadly. These findings demonstrate that the use of systems methods can be effective on a small scale.

  • Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Neural activations associated with feedback and retrieval success2017In: npj Science of Learning, E-ISSN 2056-7936, Vol. 2, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is substantial behavioral evidence for a phenomenon commonly called “the testing effect”, i.e. superior memory performance after repeated testing compared to re-study of to-be-learned materials. However, considerably less is known about the underlying neuro-cognitive processes that are involved in the initial testing phase and thus underlies the actual testing effect. Here, we investigated functional brain activity related to test-enhanced learning with feedback. Subjects learned foreign vocabulary across three consecutive tests with correct-answer feedback. Functional brain-activity responses were analyzed in relation to retrieval and feedback events, respectively. Results revealed up-regulated activity in fronto-striatal regions during the first successful retrieval, followed by a marked reduction in activity as a function of improved learning. Whereas feedback improved behavioral performance across consecutive tests, feedback had a negligable role after the first successful retrieval for functional brain-activity modulations. It is suggested that the beneficial effects of test-enhanced learning is regulated by feedback-induced updating of memory representations, mediated via the striatum, that might underlie the stabilization of memory commonly seen in behavioral studies of the testing effect.

  • Sartor, O.
    et al.
    Heinrich, D.
    Mariados, N.
    Mendez Vidal, M. J.
    Keizman, D.
    Thellenberg Karlsson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Peer, A.
    Procopio, G.
    Frank, S. J.
    Pulkkanen, K.
    Rosenbaum, E.
    Severi, S.
    Trigo Perez, J. M.
    Wagner, V.
    Li, R.
    Nordquist, L. T.
    Re-treatment with radium-223: first experience from an international, open-label, phase I/II study in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases2017In: Annals of Oncology, ISSN 0923-7534, E-ISSN 1569-8041, Vol. 28, no 10, 2464-2471 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Six radium-223 injections at 4-week intervals is indicated for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases. However, patients usually develop disease progression after initial treatment. This prospective phase I/II study assessed re-treatment safety and efficacy of up to six additional radium-223 injections. Patients and methods: Patients had castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases and six initial radium-223 injections with no on-treatment bone progression; all had subsequent radiologic or clinical progression. Concomitant agents were allowed at investigator discretion, excluding chemotherapy and initiation of new abiraterone or enzalutamide. The primary endpoint was safety; additional exploratory endpoints included time to radiographic bone progression, time to total alkaline phosphatase and prostate-specific antigen progression, radiographic progression-free survival, overall survival, time to first symptomatic skeletal event (SSE), SSE-free survival, and time to pain progression. Results: Among 44 patients, 29 (66%) received all six re-treatment injections. Median time from end of initial radium-223 treatment was 6 months. Forty-one (93%) reported >= 1 treatment-emergent adverse event. No grade 4-5 hematologic treatment-emergent adverse events occurred. Only one (2%) patient had radiographic bone progression; eight (18%) had radiographic soft tissue tumor progression (three lymph node and five visceral metastases). Median times to total alkaline phosphatase and prostate-specific antigen progression were not reached and 2.2 months, respectively. Median radiographic progression-free survival was 9.9 months (12.8-month maximum follow-up). Five (11%) patients died and eight (18%) experienced first SSEs. Median overall survival, time to first SSE, and SSE-free survival were not reached. Five (14%) of 36 evaluable patients (baseline worst pain score <= 7) had pain progression. After 2 years of follow-up, 28 (64%) patients died, and the median overall survival was 24.4 months. Conclusions: Re-treatment with a second course of six radium-223 injections after disease progression is well tolerated, with minimal hematologic toxicity and low radiographic bone progression rates in this small study with limited follow-up. Favorable safety and early effects on disease progression indicate that radium-223 re-treatment is feasible and warrants further evaluation in larger prospective trials.

  • Lyxell, Adrian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Rydin, Karl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Spel på touchscreen - ett läromedel för framtiden?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive whiteboards are a more commonly occuring way of teaching. The use of technology in classrooms has been discussed for decades and many studies have been made. The use of teaching games on interactive whiteboards are relatively new compared to other technologies and therefore isn't as explored as other technologies. The purpose of this study is to look closer at the use of teaching games on interactive whiteboards and see what the pros and cons with the technology are. We answered these questions by organizing two focus-groups were kids around the age of 10 to 12 got to explore a teaching game on an interactive whiteboard. We analyzed the data that we acquired and tried to draw parallels to existing research around usability and pedagogy.

  • Wang, Tao
    et al.
    Moon, Jee-Young
    Wu, Yiqun
    Amos, Christopher I.
    Hung, Rayjean J.
    Tardon, Adonina
    Andrew, Angeline
    Chen, Chu
    Christiani, David C.
    Albanes, Demetrios
    van der Heijdendr, Erik H. F. M.
    Duell, Eric
    Rennert, Gadi
    Goodman, Gary
    Liu, Geoffrey
    Mckay, James D.
    Yuan, Jian-Min
    Field, John K.
    Manjer, Jonas
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Kiemeney, Lambertus A.
    Le Marchand, Loic
    Teare, M. Dawn
    Schabath, Matthew B.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Aldrich, Melinda C.
    Davies, Michael
    Johansson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Tsao, Ming-Sound
    Caporaso, Neil
    Lazarus, Philip
    Lam, Stephen
    Bojesen, Stig E.
    Arnold, Susanne
    Wu, Xifeng
    Zong, Xuchen
    Hong, Yun-Chul
    Ho, Gloria Y. F.
    Pleiotropy of genetic variants on obesity and smoking phenotypes: Results from the Oncoarray Project of The International Lung Cancer Consortium2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 9, e0185660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity and cigarette smoking are correlated through complex relationships. Common genetic causes may contribute to these correlations. In this study, we selected 241 loci potentially associated with body mass index (BMI) based on the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium data and calculated a BMI genetic risk score (BMI-GRS) for 17,037 individuals of European descent from the Oncoarray Project of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). Smokers had a significantly higher BMI-GRS than never-smokers (p = 0.016 and 0.010 before and after adjustment for BMI, respectively). The BMI-GRS was also positively correlated with pack-years of smoking (p<0.001) in smokers. Based on causal network inference analyses, seven and five of 241 SNPs were classified to pleiotropic models for BMI/smoking status and BMI/pack-years, respectively. Among them, three and four SNPs associated with smoking status and pack-years (p<0.05), respectively, were followed up in the ever-smoking data of the Tobacco, Alcohol and Genetics (TAG) consortium. Among these seven candidate SNPs, one SNP (rs11030104, BDNF) achieved statistical significance after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, and three suggestive SNPs (rs13021737, TMEM18; rs11583200, ELAVL4; and rs6990042, SGCZ) achieved a nominal statistical significance. Our results suggest that there is a common genetic component between BMI and smoking, and pleiotropy analysis can be useful to identify novel genetic loci of complex phenotypes.

  • van Krieken, Pim P.
    et al.
    Dicker, Andrea
    Eriksson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Herrera, Pedro L.
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Berggren, Per-Olof
    Ilegems, Erwin
    Kinetics of functional beta cell mass decay in a diphtheria toxin receptor mouse model of diabetes2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 12440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional beta cell mass is an essential biomarker for the diagnosis and staging of diabetes. It has however proven technically challenging to study this parameter during diabetes progression. Here we have detailed the kinetics of the rapid decline in functional beta cell mass in the RIP-DTR mouse, a model of hyperglycemia resulting from diphtheria toxin induced beta cell ablation. A novel combination of imaging modalities was employed to study the pattern of beta cell destruction. Optical projection tomography of the pancreas and longitudinal in vivo confocal microscopy of islets transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye allowed to investigate kinetics and tomographic location of beta cell mass decay in individual islets as well as at the entire islet population level. The correlation between beta cell mass and function was determined by complementary in vivo and ex vivo characterizations, demonstrating that beta cell function and glucose tolerance were impaired within the first two days following treatment when more than 50% of beta cell mass was remaining. Our results illustrate the importance of acquiring quantitative functional and morphological parameters to assess the functional status of the endocrine pancreas.

  • Fridriksson, Jon Örn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Folkvaljon, Yasin
    Lundström, Karl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Robinson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Urology, Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Stefan
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Long-term adverse effects after retropubic and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: Nationwide, population-based study2017In: Journal of Surgical Oncology, ISSN 0022-4790, E-ISSN 1096-9098, Vol. 116, no 4, 500-506 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives: Surgery for prostate cancer is associated with adverse effects. We studied long-term risk of adverse effects after retropubic (RRP) and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).

    Methods: In the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden, men who had undergone radical prostatectomy (RP) between 2004 and 2014 were identified. Diagnoses and procedures indicating adverse postoperative effects were retrieved from the National Patient Register. Relative risk (RR) of adverse effects after RARP versus RRP was calculated in multivariable analyses adjusting for year of surgery, hospital surgical volume, T stage, Gleason grade, PSA level at diagnosis, patient age, comorbidity, and educational level.

    Results: A total of 11 212 men underwent RRP and 8500 RARP. Risk of anastomotic stricture was lower after RARP than RRP, RR for diagnoses 0.51 (95%CI = 0.42-0.63) and RR for procedures 0.46 (95%CI = 0.38-0.55). Risk of inguinal hernia was similar after RARP and RRP but risk of incisional hernia was higher after RARP, RR for diagnoses 1.48 (95%CI = 1.01-2.16), and RR for procedures 1.52 (95%CI = 1.02-2.26).

    Conclusions: The postoperative risk profile for RARP and RRP was quite similar. However, risk of anastomotic stricture was lower and risk of incisional hernia higher after RARP.

  • Bjurström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Saklig grund för uppsägning på grund av sjukdom. Praxis i Arbetsdomstolen sedan införandet av rehabkedjan.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Andersson, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Svenska modellen efter Lavaldomen.: Partsautonomin och begränsningar av stridsrätten som medel för att förhindra lönedumpning vid utstationering av arbetskraft.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Marsja, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attention capture by sudden and unexpected changes: a multisensory perspective2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus for this thesis was cross-modal attention capture by sudden and unexpected sounds and vibrations, known as deviants, presented in a stream the same to-be-ignored stimulus. More specifically, the thesis takes a multisensory perspective and examines the possible similarities and differences in how deviant vibrations and sounds affect visual task performance (Study I), and whether the deviant and standard stimuli have to be presented within the same modality to capture attention away from visual tasks (Study II). Furthermore, by presenting spatial deviants (changing the source of the stimuli from one side of the body to the other) in audiotactile (bimodal), tactile, and auditory to-be-ignored, it explores whether bimodal stimuli are more salient compared to unimodal (Study III). In addition, Study III tested the claims that short-term memory is domain-specific.

    In line with previous research, Study I found that both auditory and tactile deviants captured attention away from the visual task. However, the temporal dynamics between the two modalities seem to differ. That is, it seems like practice causes the effect of vibratory deviants to reduce, whereas this is not the case for auditory deviants. This suggests that there are central mechanisms (detection of the change) and sensory-specific mechanisms.

    Study II found that the deviant and standard stimuli must be presented within the same modality. If attention capture by deviants is produced by a mismatch within a neural model predicting upcoming stimuli, the neural model is likely built on stimuli within each modality separately.

    The results of Study III revealed that spatial and verbal short-term memory are negatively affected by a spatial change in to-be-ignored sequences, but only when the change is within a bimodal sequence. These results can be taken as evidence for a unitary account of short-term memory (verbal and spatial information stored in the same storage) and that bimodal stimuli may be integrated into a unitary percept that make any change in the stream more salient. 

  • Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Conventional and new ways of governing forest threats: a study of stakeholder coherence in Sweden2017In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a framework for analyzing stakeholder coherence horizontally and vertically, the present study examined the governance of forest threats in Sweden. Opinions of forest risk governance in stakeholder groups with and without a connection to private forestry were compared (n = 2496) and the opinions were analyzed in relation to current governance practices. More specifically, forest threat appraisals, trust in the Swedish Forest Agency (SFA), and the acceptability of forest risk policy measures directed at private forest owners were assessed. Results revealed an overall coherence between different stakeholders in this context. However, the groups differed in, for example, the acceptability of the hypothetical regulative measure aiming to reduce damages threatening the forest long-term (e.g., climate change). Furthermore, an extensive use of advice for a fee may challenge particularly the internal, but also the external, legitimacy of forest risk governance. The forest owner stakeholder group showed lower threat appraisals when evaluating threat to one’s own forest rather than to the Swedish forest, except regarding browsing by animals. Regulations were not disapproved of in any of the stakeholder groups, although the forest owner group generally displayed higher acceptability of encouraging measures compared to the general public. Trust in the SFA was furthermore confirmed as an important driver of policy acceptability, and higher threat appraisals of novel threats, such as climate change and fire, resulted in a higher acceptability of measures less central or new in this context. The value of analyzing stakeholder coherence for natural resource management and governance is discussed.

  • Ibidunmoye, Olumuyiwa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lakew, Ewnetu Bayuh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Elmroth, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A Black-box Approach for Detecting Systems Anomalies in Virtualized Environments2017In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Cloud and Autonomic Computing (ICCAC 2017), IEEE, 2017, 22-33 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtualization technologies allow cloud providers to optimize server utilization and cost by co-locating services in as few servers as possible. Studies have shown how applications in multi-tenant environments are susceptible to systems anomalies such as abnormal resource usage due to performance interference. Effective detection of such anomalies requires techniques that can adapt autonomously with dynamic service workloads, require limited instrumentation to cope with diverse applications services, and infer relationship between anomalies non-intrusively to avoid "alarm fatigue" due to scale. We propose a black-box framework that includes an unsupervised prediction-based mechanism for automated anomaly detection in multi-dimensional resource behaviour of datacenter nodes and a graph-theoretic technique for ranking anomalous nodes across the datacenter. The proposed framework is evaluated using resource traces of over 100 virtual machines obtained from a production cluster as well as traces obtained from an experimental testbed under realistic service composition. The technique achieve average normalized root mean squared forecast error and R^2 of (0.92, 0.07) across hosts servers and (0.70, 0.39) across virtual machines. Also, the average detection rate is 88% while explaining 62% of SLA violations with an average lead-time of 6 time-points when the testbed is actively perturbed under three contention scenarios. 

  • Ibidunmoye, Olumuyiwa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Ali-Reza, Rezaie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Elmroth, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Adaptive Anomaly Detection in Performance Metric Streams2017In: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, ISSN 1932-4537, E-ISSN 1932-4537, Vol. 14, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous detection of performance anomalies such as service degradations has become critical in cloud and Internet services due to impact on quality of service and end-user experience. However, the volume and fast changing behaviour of metric streams have rendered it a challenging task. Many diagnosis frameworks often rely on thresholding with stationarity or normality assumption, or on complex models requiring extensive offline training. Such techniques are known to be prone to spurious false-alarms in online settings as metric streams undergo rapid contextual changes from known baselines. Hence, we propose two unsupervised incremental techniques following a two-step strategy. First, we estimate an underlying temporal property of the stream via adaptive learning and, then we apply statistically robust control charts to recognize deviations. We evaluated our techniques by replaying over 40 time-series streams from the Yahoo! Webscope S5 datasets as well as 4 other traces of real web service QoS and ISP traffic measurements. Our methods achieve high detection accuracy and few false-alarms, and better performance in general compared to an open-source package for time-series anomaly detection.

  • Borén, Eleonora
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Off-gassing from thermally treated lignocellulosic biomass2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Off-gassing of hazardous compounds is, together with self-heating and dust explosions, the main safety hazards within large-scale biomass storage and handling. Formation of CO, CO2, and VOCs with concurrent O2 depletion can occur to hazardous levels in enclosed stored forest products. Several incidents of CO poisoning and suffocation of oxygen depletion have resulted in fatalities and injuries during cargo vessel discharge of forest products and in conjunction with wood pellet storage rooms and silos. Technologies for torrefaction and steam explosion for thermal treatment of biomass are under development and approaching commercialization, but their off-gassing behavior is essentially unknown.

    The overall objective of this thesis was to provide answers to one main question: “What is the off-gassing behaviour of thermally treated lignocellulosic biomass during storage?”. This was achieved by experimental studies and detailed analysis of off-gassing compounds sampled under realistic conditions, with special emphasis on the VOCs.

    Presented results show that off-gassing behavior is influenced by numerous factors, in the following ways. CO, CO2 and CH4 off-gassing levels from torrefied and stream-exploded biomass and pellets, and accompanying O2 depletion, are comparable to or lower than corresponding from untreated biomass. The treatments also cause major compositional shifts in VOCs; emissions of terpenes and native aldehydes decline, but levels of volatile cell wall degradation products (notably furans and aromatics) increase. The severity of the thermal treatment is also important; increases in torrefaction severity increase CO off-gassing from torrefied pine to levels comparable to emissions from conventional pellets, and increase O2 depletion for both torrefied chips and pellets. Both treatment temperature and duration also influence degradation rates and VOC composition. The product cooling technique is influential too; water spraying in addition to heat exchange increased CO2 and VOCs off-gassing from torrefied pine chips, as well as O2 depletion. Moreover, the composition of emitted gases co-varied with pellets’ moisture content; pellets of more severely treated material retained less moisture, regardless of their pre-conditioning moisture content. However, no co-variance was found between off-gassing and pelletization settings, the resulting pellet quality, or storage time of torrefied chips before pelletization. Pelletization of steam-exploded bark increased subsequent VOC off-gassing, and induced compositional shifts relative to emissions from unpelletized steam-exploded material. In addition, CO, CO2 and CH4 off-gassing, and O2 depletion, were positively correlated with the storage temperature of torrefied softwood. Similarly, CO and CH4 emissions from steam-exploded softwood increased with increases in storage temperature, and VOC off-gassing from both torrefied and steam-exploded softwood was more affected by storage temperature than by treatment severity. Levels of CO, CO2 and CH4 increased, while levels of O2 and most VOCs decreased, during storage of both torrefied and steam-exploded softwood.CO, CO2 and O2 levels were more affected by storage time than by treatment severity. Levels of VOCs were not significantly decreased or altered by nitrogen purging of storage spaces of steam-exploded or torrefied softwood, or controlled headspace gas exchange (intermittent ventilation) during storage of steam-exploded bark.

    In conclusion, rates of off-gassing of CO and CO2 from thermally treated biomass, and associated O2 depletion, are comparable to or lower than corresponding rates for untreated biomass. Thermal treatment induces shifts in both concentrations and profiles of VOCs. It is believed that the knowledge and insights gained provide refined foundations for future research and safe implementation of thermally treated fuels as energy carriers in renewable energy process chains.

  • Ramstad, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Ion escape from Mars: measurements in the present to understand the past2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Present-day Mars is a cold and dry planet with a thin CO2-dominated atmosphere comprising only a few ­­­mbar pressure at low altitudes. However, the Martian surface is marked with valley networks, hydrated mineral clays, carbonates and the remains of deltas and meandering rivers, i.e. traces of an active hydrological cycle present early in the planet's geological history. A strong greenhouse effect, and thus a thicker atmosphere, would have been required to sustain a sufficiently warm environment, particularly under the weaker luminosity of the early Sun. The fate of this early atmosphere is currently unknown.

    While several mechanisms can remove atmospheric mass over time, a prominent hypothesis suggests that the lack of an intrinsic Earth-like global magnetic dipole has allowed the solar wind to erode the early Martian atmosphere by imparting energy to the planet's ionosphere which subsequently flows out as ion escape, over time depleting the greenhouse gasses and collapsing the ancient hydrological cycle. Previous studies have found insignificant ion escape rates under present-day conditions, however, the young Sun emitted significantly stronger solar wind and photoionizing radiation flux compared to the present. The geological record establishes the time of collapse of the hydrological cycle, estimated to have occurred in the mid-late Hesperian period (~3.3 billion years ago) at latest. To constrain the amount of atmosphere lost through ion escape since, we use the extensive database of ion flux measurements from the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) particles package on the Mars Express orbiter (2004-present) to quantify the ion escape rate dependence on upstream solar wind and solar radiation conditions.

    The Martian ion escape rate is shown to be insensitive to solar wind parameters with a weak inverse dependence on solar wind dynamic pressure, and linearly dependent on solar ionizing photon flux, indicating efficient screening of the bulk ionosphere by the induced magnetic fields. The impact of an extreme coronal mass ejection is studied and found to have no significant effect on the ion escape rate. Instead, intense solar wind is shown to only increase the escaping energy flux, i.e. total power of escaping ions, without increasing the rate by accelerating already escaping ions. The orientation of the strongest magnetized crustal fields are shown to modulate the ion escape rate, though to have no significant time-averaged effect. We also study the influence of solar wind and solar radiation on the major Martian plasma boundaries and discuss factors that might limit the ion escape rate, including solar wind-ion escape coupling, which is found to be ≲1% and decreasing with increased solar wind dynamic pressure. The significant escape rate dependencies found are extrapolated back in time, considering the evolution of solar wind and ionizing radiation, and shown to account for only 4.8 ± 1.1 mbar equivalent surface pressure loss since the time of collapse of the Martian hydrosphere in the Hesperian, with ~6 mbar as an upper estimate. Extended to the late Noachian period (3.9 billion years ago), the found dependencies can only account for ≲10 mbar removed through ion escape, an insignificant amount compared to the ≳1 bar surface pressure required to sustain a warm climate on early Mars.

  • Lindblom, Ina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Känslans patriark: sensibilitet och känslopraktiker i Carl Christoffer Gjörwells familj och vänskapskrets, ca 1790-18102017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a study of how the culture of sensibility was expressed in the everyday practices and social relations of the Gjörwell family. Headed by publicist, publisher and royal librarian Carl Christoffer Gjörwell (1731-1811), the Gjörwell family served as the centre of a wide circle of friends in late 18th-century Stockholm. Gjörwell has been regarded as one of the first Swedish representatives of 18th-century sensibility as well as an archetype of the Swedish cult of friendship. Due to his effusive emotional expressiveness and passionate friendships with other men, Gjörwell has largely been derided as effeminate by researchers from the 19th century onwards.

    Using theoretical perspectives from the field of the history of emotions (more concretely the perspectives of William Reddy, Barbara Rosenwein and Monique Scheer) this study centres on the emotional practices of the Gjörwell family, especially taking aspects of gender, class, sexuality and power into account. Gjörwell’s vast collection of family and friendship correspondence forms the empirical basis of this study.

    This study shows that the Gjörwell family and circle of friends in many ways could be regarded as an emotional community in which primarily emotions of happiness and joy are expressed. Furthermore, this study shows how the exercise of power could form part in the creation of an emotional community, as Gjörwell makes constant attempts to influence the way family members and friends manage their emotions, strongly dissuading them from the expression of melancholy.

    Although he has been viewed as effeminate by posterity, Gjörwell in fact regards himself as manly. This is due to his ability to remain joyful through adversities which testifies to his strong, and therefore manly, nervous organisation. This study thus further illustrates how a marked shift in masculine gender norms took place between the 18th and 19th centuries.

    This study also shows how expression of tender emotion could be a way of reinforcing personal status. This was due to the close association made between sensibility and virtue, in itself a central concept during this era. As Gjörwell is denied recognition in his professional life, the expression of tender emotion – and thus of virtue – becomes an important aspect of his personal life. 

  • Renström, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    The involvement of the TNF-alpha system in skeletal muscle in response to marked overuse2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Painful conditions having the origin within the musculoskeletal system is a common cause for people to seek medical care. Between 20-40% of all visits to the primal care in Sweden are coupled to pain from the musculoskeletal system. Muscle pain and impaired muscle function can be caused by muscles being repetitively overused and/or via heavy load. Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue which can undergo changes in order to fulfill what is best for optimal function. However, if the load is too heavy, morphological changes including necrosis, as well as pain can occur. The extension of the skeletal muscle is the tendon. Tendinopathy refers to illness and pain of the tendon. The peritendinous tissue is of importance in the features related to tendon pain. Common tendons/origins being afflicted by tendinopathy/pain are the Achilles tendon and the extensor origin at the elbow region.    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine that is involved in several biological processes. It is well-known for its involvement in the immune system and is an important target for inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. It is not known to what extent the TNF-alpha system is involved in the process of muscle inflammation and damage due to overuse.

       Studies were conducted on rabbit and human tissue, tissues that either had undergone an excessive loading activity or tissue that was removed with surgery due to painful conditions. The tissues were evaluated via staining for morphology, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence.

       Unilateral experimental overuse of rabbit muscle (soleus muscle) led to morphological changes in the soleus muscle tissue bilaterally. The longer the experiment extended, the more was the tissue affected. This included infiltration of white blood cells in the tissue (myositis) and abnormal muscle fiber appearances. TNF-alpha mRNA was seen in white blood cells, in muscle fibers interpreted to be in a reparative stage and in white blood cells that had infiltrated into necrotic muscle fibers.  There was an upregulation in expressions of TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1) and TNF receptor type 2 (TNFR2) in muscles that were markedly overused, with expressions in white blood cells, fibroblasts, blood vessel walls and muscle fibers. Immunoreactions for the receptors were seen in nerve fascicles of markedly overused muscles but only occasionally in normal muscles. The upregulations were seen for both experimental and contralateral sides. Overall the two receptors showed somewhat different expression patterns. Tendinopathy is associated with an increase in blood flow and infiltration of white blood cells in the tissue adjacent to the tendon. It is called the peritendinous tissue and is also richly innervated. The white blood cells and the blood vessels walls in this tissue were showing immunoreaction for TNFR1 and TNFR2. Two types of nerve fascicles were found in this tissue, one normally appearing when staining for nerve markers and one type with signs of axonal loss. The latter had clearly strong immunoreactions for TNFR1 and TNFR2.

       The findings suggest that the TNF-alpha system is involved in both myopathies occurring due to overuse and in features in the peritendinous tissue in the tendinopathy situation. TNF-alpha and its receptors seem to be involved in degeneration but also in regeneration and healing of the tissue. The findings also suggest that TNF-alpha has effects on nerves showing axonal loss. The changes in the TNF-alpha system were seen both on the experimental side and contralaterally.

  • Lindström, Niclas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Automatisk bollskjutare för innebandyträning2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project is to design, develop and evaluate an automatic ball throwing machine for floorball practice. The functions for the machine are automatic aim, shoot with different speeds, ball passing and chip pass. The machine will also supply floorball balls automatically from a storage. This report covers the design of the storage with automatically provider, build a protective frame, design and programming for the pass and the chip pass and overlook possibility to have an automatic detection for the goal. Similar products already exist in other sports like football, tennis and baseball.

    For throwing the ball the machine uses 2 motors that rotate two wheels. The distance between the wheels enable the ball too pass through but just by so much so the wheels get in contact with the ball and can accelerate it. The project has been done in the Umeå University’s facilities with access to workshop and school programs and computers. The system is controlled by a Raspberry PI model 3 and the programing is done in Codesys.

     The tests that were made achieved the requirements and will be seen as successful. The test and evaluations have also been done in the schools facilities. Ideas and inspirations have come from other similar products for other purposes such as tennis, baseball and football. The tests have been evaluated for possible changes and improvements. The project is a first prototype and its purpose is to find functions and possibilities and not build a product. 

  • Lindgren, Andrée
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Transportera torra biofibrer i en luftström: Genom praktiska försök och mätningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sliperiet at Konstnärligt campus runs a project called +Project. + Project is runned together with a couple of partners and sponsors. One of the cases with the project is to further improve the biofibres by using the fibers as a filler for 3D-printing. Biofibres today have a very low degree of refinement, when the biofibres that’s a residual product from different industries goes to waste or combustion. 3D-printing works so that a filler material, in this case biofibres, is applied to a surface together with a binder and thus can construct structures. Biofibres are something that is easy to access and from some industries it’s a residual product. One of the problems of transporting biofibres in an air stream is that the biofibres tends to get tangled up in each other and grow larger. This is not desirable if you want a smooth mixing of air and biofibres in the air stream so the binder can be applied to the biofibres as good as possible. In this work, an investigation has been made of existing techniques and ranking of their suitability for the project. The ranking showed that a pipe system with an air stream, generated by a leaf blower would be the most suitable fit. A prototype was drafted through SolidWorks and then manufactured. The prototype was manufactured in plastic from a fire safety perspective. The prototype got a portioning system consisting of a bucket and a funnel that was supposed to bring down the material in the transport pipe and air flow. The prototypes feeding system did not work as planned. Instead of the biofibres dropping into the bucket and further down the feed tube, it threw up the material. The test runs were instead made directly through the air intake on the leaf blower and it was found out that the pipe system worked satisfactorily at low flows of material, higher flows of material was unable to investigate when the portioning system wasn’t working satisfactory.

  • Khoshnood, Behzad
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Dacklin, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Grabbe, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    A proteomics approach to identify targets of the ubiquitin-like molecule Urm1 in Drosophila melanogaster2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 9, e0185611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By covalently conjugating to target proteins, ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) act as important regulators of target protein localization and activity, thereby playing a critical role in the orchestration of cellular biology. The most ancient and one of the least studied UBLs is Urm1, a dual-function protein that in parallel to performing similar functions as its prokaryotic ancestors in tRNA modification, also has adopted the capacity to conjugate to cellular proteins analogous to ubiquitin and other UBL modifiers. In order to increase the understanding of Urm1 and its role in multicellular organisms, we have used affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry to identify putative targets of Urm1 conjugation (urmylation) at three developmental stages of the Drosophila melanogaster lifecycle. Altogether we have recovered 79 Urm1-interacting proteins in Drosophila, which include the already established Urm1 binding partners Prx5 and Uba4, together with 77 candidate urmylation targets that are completely novel in the fly. Among these, the majority was exclusively identified during either embryogenesis, larval stages or in adult flies. We further present biochemical evidence that four of these proteins are covalently conjugated by Urm1, whereas the fifth verified Urm1-binding protein appears to interact with Urm1 via non-covalent means. Besides recapitulating the previously established roles of Urm1 in tRNA modification and during oxidative stress, functional clustering of the newly identified Urm1-associated proteins further positions Urm1 in protein networks that control other types of cellular stress, such as immunological threats and DNA damage. In addition, the functional characteristics of several of the candidate targets strongly match the phenotypes displayed by Urm1(n123) null animals, including embryonic lethality, reduced fertility and shortened lifespan. In conclusion, this identification of candidate targets of urmylation significantly increases the knowledge of Urm1 and presents an excellent starting point for unravelling the role of Urm1 in the context of a complex living organism.

  • Engberg, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Finns det hopp för kretslopp?: En idéanalys om Sveriges arbete mot en cirkulärekonomi2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens samhälle bygger på ett kapitalistiskt system utefter en så kallad linjär ekonomi där resurser utvinns, produkter produceras, för att sedan konsumeras och slängas. Detta system har genererat en ekonomisk tillväxt på bekostnad av vår miljö. För att skapa ett hållbart system som inte medför farliga utsläpp och andra miljöproblem har Sverige tillsammans med andra länder påbörjat ett arbete mot ett hållbart samhällsekonomiskt system, en cirkulär ekonomi. I och med den stora samhällsomställning som den cirkulära ekonomin innebär är det relevant att studera vilken miljöpolitik detta samhällsekonomiska system förmedlar. Studien använder ideologierna degrowth, ecological modernization och ecomodernism utifrån en idéanalys i syfte att analysera de bakomliggande miljöideologiska antaganden som den svenska staten förmedlar i och med omställningen mot en cirkulär ekonomi. Studiens visar att Sveriges cirkulära ekonomi kan identifieras med ideologin ecological modernization som anser att det ekonomiska system vi har  dag behöver inkludera en miljöfaktor för att nå ett grönare samhälle som inte skadar miljön. Tidigare forskning visat på att Sverige sedan en tid tillbaka redan bedriver en miljöpolitik enligt ideologin ecological modernization. Detta tyder på att ecological modernization tagit fäste i Sveriges miljöpolitik.

  • Elfving, Agnes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Föreningsfostran och tävlingsfostran: En studie av demokratiskolning i idrottsrörelsen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I statens folkrörelsepolitik tillskrivs folkrörelserna, där idrottsrörelsen är en av de största, ett viktigt uppdrag som demokratiskola. I rapporten Vem håller i klubban? från Centrum för idrottsforskning konstateras dock att få unga personer är engagerade i idrottsföreningarnas demokratiska processer. Det går att identifiera en möjlig konflikt mellan samhällets intresse för föreningsfostran och idrottsrörelsens intresse för tävlingsfostran, vilken skulle kunna förklara det låga deltagandet bland unga i idrottsföreningarnas demokratiska processer.  Syftet med den här uppsatsen är dels att undersöka hur demokratiskolningen fungerar i idrottsrörelsen, dels att undersöka spänningen mellan tävlingsfostran och föreningsfostran. Detta undersöks genom en fallstudie där orienteringsidrotten är vald som fall. De metoder som används är kvalitativa intervjuer med unga orienterare, samt en kvantitativ innehållsanalys av Svenska orienteringsförbundets officiella organ Skogssport. I intervjuerna med de unga orienterarna framträder bilden av en orienteringsrörelse som inte inkluderar unga personer i de demokratiska processerna i någon större utsträckning. Den kvantitativa innehållsanalysen av Skogssport tyder på att det är tävlingsfostransidealet som dominerar i orienteringsförbundet när det handlar om ungdomar. Demokratifrågor verkar vara av mindre vikt. Intervjuerna med de unga orienterarna pekar på samma resultat – tävlingsfostran är viktigt och centralt. Det verkar finnas en konflikt mellan föreningsfostran och tävlingsfostran – att inte delta i de demokratiska processerna föreningen motiveras gärna med att det tar tid från egen träning och elitsatsning.

  • Wilms, Torben
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Khan, Gulfaraz
    Coates, Philip J
    Sgaramella, Nicola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. Masaryk Mem Canc Inst, RECAMO, Zluty Kopec 7, Brno, Czech Republic; Univ Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMRS1162, 27 Rue Juliette Dodu, Paris, France .
    Hassani, Asma
    Philip, Pretty S
    Norberg Spaak, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Califano, Luigi
    Colella, Giuseppe
    Olofsson, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Loizou, Christos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Franco, Renato
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    No evidence for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus in squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 9, e0184201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) comprises a large group of cancers in the oral cavity and nasopharyngeal area that typically arise in older males in association with alcohol/tobacco usage. Within the oral cavity, the mobile tongue is the most common site for tumour development. The incidence of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is increasing in younger people, which has been suggested to associate with a viral aetiology. Two common human oncogenic viruses, human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are known causes of certain types of SCCHN, namely the oropharynx and nasopharynx, respectively. EBV infects most adults worldwide through oral transmission and establishes a latent infection, with sporadic productive viral replication and release of virus in the oral cavity throughout life. In view of the prevalence of EBV in the oral cavity and recent data indicating that it infects tongue epithelial cells and establishes latency, we examined 98 cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue and 15 cases of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma for the presence of EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs), EBV DNA and an EBV-encoded protein, EBNA-1. A commercially available in situ hybridisation kit targeting EBER transcripts (EBER-ISH) showed a positive signal in the cytoplasm and/or nuclei of tumour cells in 43% of TSCCs. However, application of control probes and RNase A digestion using in-house developed EBER-ISH showed identical EBER staining patterns, indicating non-specific signals. PCR analysis of the BamH1 W repeat sequences did not identify EBV genomes in tumour samples. Immunohistochemistry for EBNA-1 was also negative. These data exclude EBV as a potential player in TSCC in both old and young patients and highlight the importance of appropriate controls for EBER-ISH in investigating EBV in human diseases.

  • Nylén, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Exploring Ways of Visualizing Functional Connectivity2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Functional connectivity is a field within neuroscience where measurements of co-activation between brain regions are used to test various hypotheses or explore how the brain activates depending on a given situation or task. After analysis, the underlying data in the field consists of a n by n adjacency matrix where each cell represents a correlation value between two regions in the brain. Depending on the research question the number of regions and matrices incorporated varies and new visualizations are needed in order to portray them. In this thesis the design of an interactive web based visualization tool for functional connectivity was explored through an iterative design process. The design of the tool was based on existing guidelines, interviews and best practices in data visualization as well as an analysis of current visualization solutions used in functional connectivity. The final concept and prototype uses a network plot for functional connectivity called the connectogram as well as a grouped bar graph to provide an intuitive and accessible way of comparing functional connectivity data by interacting with and highlighting networks and specific network data through direct manipulation. Results of qualitative evaluations of a prototype using data from a concurrent scientific project is presented. The prototype was found to be useful, engaging, easily perceivable and offered an easy and quick way of exploring data sets.

  • Nyberg, John-Levi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Lightning Impulse Breakdown Tests: Triggered Spark Gap Analysis2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project was made by student from UmeåUniversity and a request from the universityETH in Zürich, Switzerland. In this research project the electrical strengthof different natural gases and mixtures was investigated, and the aim was to finda gas or gas mixture with a natural origin or strongly attaching gases that couldreplace SF6 (Sulfur Hexafluoride). The gases were tested with breakdown experiments,one of those test was called lightning impulse breakdown test. The mainpart of this project was to investigate triggered spark gaps, which could be used inlightning impulse breakdown test. These spark gaps were made in a previous thesis,but have proved to not be reliable, therefore an investigation was needed. In thelab, a breakdown test setup, made up of a rectifying circuit and a transformer, wasused. In this project voltages up to 140kV were used. The two main parts of theproject were the spark gap unit and circuit analyzing and the spark gap characterization.These two parts contained test to see if the spark gap worked as it shouldor if there were any problems with it. The results from the tests showed that therewere problems with the spark gap, but these problems could be corrected or avoidedthrough controls of the spark gap before use.

  • Fordell, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Virtual Reality for Enriched Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients with Spatial Neglect: Diagnostics and the Rehabilitation Effect on Spatial Attention and Neuronal Activity2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Approximately a third of all stroke patients develop spatial neglect, a debilitating symptom associated with poor outcome. Spatial neglect is clinically defined as a deficit in processing and responding to stimuli presented on the contralesional side of the body, or the space surrounding that side of the body. The heterogenetic, multi-sensory nature of the symptoms renders it difficult to diagnose and treat; therefor effective methods for screening and intervention for neglect are needed. Virtual reality (VR) is a method of brain–computer interaction that involves realtime simulation of an environment, scenario or activity that allows for user interaction and targets multiple senses. We hypothesize that VR can facilitate identification of spatial neglect in stroke patients and that training with this interface will improve patient’s functional outcome, through stimulation to neuronal networks including those controlling attention.

    Objective: The objective was to construct and validate a computerized test battery for spatial neglect and to investigate its usability in stroke patients. Also to design and develop a VR rehabilitation method for spatial neglect and to evaluate its effects on spatial attention and on neuronal activity in the brain.

    Method: We designed, developed and evaluated a new concept for assessment (VR-DiSTRO®) and training (RehAtt®) of spatial attention, using VR technology. The hardware consisted of a PC, monitor, 3D-glasses and a force feedback device to control the tasks (i.e., a robotic pen). The software enabled targets to be moved, rotated and manipulated in the 3D environment using the robotic pen. RehAtt® made it possible to combine intense visual scanning training, multi-sensory stimulation (i.e., audio, visual, tactile) and sensory-motor activation of the contralesional arm. In a first study on 31 stroke patients we performed a construct validation of VR-DiSTRO® against Rivermead Behavioural Test Battery (BIT) and investigated the usability. In a second study, 15 subjects with chronic spatial neglect (symptoms >6 month) had self-training, 3 x 1 hour for 5 weeks using RehAtt®. Outcome were measured by changes in neglect tests and in Cathrine Bergego Scale (CBS). Training-related changes in neuronal activity of the brain was studied using fMRI during task and in resting state.

    Results: VR-DiSTRO® correctly identified all patients with neglect. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 82% for VR-DiSTRO® compared to BIT. Usability was high and no side-effects were noted. Using repeated measurement analysis, improvements due to the RehAtt® intervention were found for Baking tray task (p < 0.001), Star cancellation test (p = 0.006) and Extinction test (p = 0.05). Improvements were also seen in the Posner task as fewer missed targets (p = 0.024). Improvement in activities of daily living (CBS) was shown immediately after training (p < 0.01) and patients still reported improvement at 6 months follow-up. Trainingrelated changes in neuronal activity were seen as an increased task-evoked brain activity in prefrontal and temporal cortex, mainly outside the attention network but in related cortical areas. During resting state, changes in network connectivity were seen after intervention with RehAtt® in the Dorsal Attention Network (DAN) and interhemispheric connectivity.

    Conclusion: VR-DiSTRO® identified visuospatial neglect in stroke patients quickly and with a high accuracy. RehAtt® training improved in spatial attention in chronic neglect with transfer to functions in daily living. Increased neuronal brain activity was found in and between attention networks and related brain structures. This could represent a compensatory effect in addition to sign of a restorative effect from the RehAtt training. The results obtained in this study are promising, encourage further development of the methods and merit for further studies.

  • Billing, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Saklig grund för uppsägning på grund av sjukdom - en utredning av gällande rätt med utgångspunkt i lagen (1982) om anställningsskydd.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sengoma, Jean Paul Semasaka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology. University of Rwanda College of Medicine and Health Sciences School of Public Health, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Nzayirambaho, Manasse
    Munyanshongore, Cyprien
    Edvardsson, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology. Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Mogren, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Prevalence of pregnancy-related complications and course of labour of surviving women who gave birth in selected health facilities in Rwanda: a health facility-based, cross-sectional study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 7, e015015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study estimated health facility-based prevalence for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, postpartum haemorrhage and caesarean section (CS) due to prolonged labour/dystocia. The background characteristics of Rwandan pregnant women, the course of labour and the level of healthcare were investigated in relation to pregnancy and delivery outcomes. Methods: This is health facility-based study and data were collected in 2014-2015 through structured interviews and medical records (n=817) in Kigali and Northern Province, Rwanda. Frequencies and prevalence were used to describe participants' background factors, labour and deliveryrelated characteristics. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models were performed for different background factors and pregnancy/delivery outcomes. Results: Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, postpartum haemorrhage and CS due to prolonged labour/dystocia represented 1%, 2.7% and 5.4% of all participants, respectively. In total, 56.4% of the participants were transferred from facilities with low levels to those with higher levels of healthcare, and the majority were transferred from health centres to district hospitals, with CS as the main reason for transfer. Participants who arrived at the health facility with cervical dilation grade of <= 3 cm spent more hours in maternity ward than those who arrived with cervical dilatation grade of <= 4 cm. Risk factors for CS due to prolonged labour or dystocia were poor households, nulliparity and residence far from health facility. Conclusions: The estimated health facility-based prevalence of pregnancy-related complications was relatively low in this sample from Rwanda. CS was the main reason for the transfer of pregnant women from health centres to district hospitals. Upgrading the capacity of health centres in the management of pregnant women in Rwanda may improve maternal and fetal health.

  • Martins, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Arbetsgivarens rätt att kräva religiös neutralitet och arbetstagarens skydd mot diskriminering på grund av religion.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Arnetz, Bengt B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Family Medicine, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Michigan, USA; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lewalski, Philip
    Arnetz, Judy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Family Medicine, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Michigan, USA; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Breejen, Karen
    Przyklenk, Karin
    Examining self-reported and biological stress and near misses among Emergency Medicine residents: a single-centre cross-sectional assessment in the USA2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 8, e016479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between perceived and biological stress and near misses among Emergency Medicine residents.

    Design: Self-rated stress and stress biomarkers were assessed in residents in Emergency Medicine before and after a day shift. The supervising physicians and residents reported numbers of near misses.

    Setting: The study took place in the Emergency Department of a large trauma 1 centre, located in Detroit, USA. Participants Residents in Emergency Medicine volunteered to participate. The sample consisted of 32 residents, with complete data on 28 subjects. Residents' supervising physicians assessed the clinical performance of each resident.

    Primary and secondary outcome measures: Participants' preshift and postshift stress, biological stress (salivary cortisol, plasma interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), residents' and supervisors' reports of near misses, number of critically ill and patients with trauma seen during the shift.

    Results: Residents' self-reported stress increased from an average preshift level of 2.79 of 10 (SD 1.81) to a postshift level of 5.82 (2.13) (p<0.001). Residents cared for an average of 2.32 (1.52) critically ill patients and 0.68 (1.06) patients with trauma. Residents reported a total of 7 near misses, compared with 11 reported by the supervising physicians. After controlling for baseline work-related exhaustion, residents that cared for more patients with trauma and had higher levels of TNF-a reported a higher frequency of near misses (R-2=0.72; p=0.001). Residents' preshift ratings of how stressful they expected the shift to be were related to the supervising physicians' ratings of residents' near misses during the shift.

    Conclusion: Residents' own ratings of near misses were associated with residents' TNF-alpha, a biomarker of systemic inflammation and the number of patients with trauma seen during the shift. In contrast, supervisor reports on residents' near misses were related only to the residents' preshift expectations of how stressful the shift would be.

  • Lönnerholm, Erica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Yttrandefrihet och lojalitetsplikt i offentlig anställning.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Åström, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Granström, Görel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Den svenska regleringen av hatmotiverade brott: i linje med internationella normer?2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, 285-301 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Ulander-Wänman, Carin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    The Swedish Model and challenges on the labour market: can a competence insurance scheme be one solution?2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, 273-283 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Nilsson Rådeström, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Handlingsoffentlighet och sekretess i universitetets utbildningsverksamhet2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, 261-271 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Naarttijärvi, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Rättsstatlighet och algoritmiska svarta lådor2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, 245-259 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Mannelqvist, Ruth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Asplund, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Enqvist, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Rättssäkerhet i välfärden: tre exempel från rättsvetenskaplig forskning2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, 235-244 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Lyrenäs, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Sidenhag, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    En granskning av elevers rättssäkerhet vid vissa beslut enligt skollagen2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, 221-233 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)