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  • Eriksson Nyberg, Theodor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Nilsson, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Praktiskt styrnings- och integreringsarbete: En kvalitativ studie om hur chefer integrerar och styr inhyrd personal från bemanningsföretag2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This thesis touches on the questions of the integration and management by leaders, of employees employed via a staffing agency in Sweden. Staffing agencies has become more popular every year and the challenges from the employee-side and the staffing agencies are well documented. The perspective this thesis tries to understand is what do leaders of companies that hire employees from staffing agencies do to increase the effectiveness of their management and improve the integration of these workers to their companies? We asked six different bosses and team-leaders in major Swedish businesses what their tactics looked like by doing an semi-structured interview.  Our conclusion is that that we have noticed that the majority of our respondents have a similar strategy for integrating their workers. Most of them had one cookie-cutter approach that all new workers were put into that helped the workers to socialize with the other new and older employees and learn the skills needed for the job. Generally mentorship was the most common, but some companies also made the employees take a few days of general knowledge of the company before they started working. Common strategies to include the workers into the companies were: Seasonal holiday snacks and lunches, company trips and dinners, sports activities, parties and open houses. The same clothing of all the employees was also thought to be an important part of the integration as to not create different in-teams.

    Management of the individuals were not different from the rest of the employees in the company for all participating companies. The manufacturing businesses relied on Handlingsstyrning (Action Control) where they limited the human factor. The staff from the agency also increased the possibility to have a rotating scheme where the staff could swap work-tasks to make them more varied. Feedback and straightforwardness was also the most popular leader-traits with the respondents and these were thought to be important. Workplace meetings and continuous development meetings were also present in all companies and the meetings mostly brought up performance and goal-setting. Generally the company goals were set from the top-down, and leaders were tasked to relay these goals to all employees. five out of six companies did not use individual goals for employees from staffing agencies, but relied on the willingness to be employed by the company for motivation. The biggest common difference was the ability to take part in the yearly company bonus, from which the employees ‘’rented’’ in were not included.

  • Eriksson, Lucas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Andersson, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Incumbent firms towards successfully innovating the business model: Applying strategic entrepreneurship with business model innovation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Business model and Business model innovation are highly crucial aspects for incumbent firms in today’s very fast paced and dynamic environment. In this thesis, we seek to integrate strategic entrepreneurship theory with business model innovation. By doing so, we show how entrepreneurship, strategy and business models all lies squarely at the intersection of innovation and change. Most of the research on business models have been in the context of startups. In this study, we, however, decide to explore the context of incumbent firms and how they explore and exploit opportunities to innovate their business model. 

    This study contributes to a better understanding of how incumbent firms innovate their business models. It does this by answering three fundamental questions; 

    - How does the incumbent firm explore and exploit opportunities to innovate their business model? 

    - What are the drivers for innovating the incumbent firms business model? 

    - How does the decision-making process look like during the business model innovation processes in the incumbent firm? 

    To answer these questions, we have conducted a thorough literature review of the business model literature, business model innovation literature, as well as strategic entrepreneurship literature. By doing this, we highlight the most relevant aspects of these three concepts and theories, also providing the reader with a historical development of the concepts. To further build on towards answering our research questions we compliment the three central concepts with supporting theories of strategic management and innovation theory. We have answered these questions by conducting a qualitative study that is mainly explorative. Interviewing four incumbent firms that act in different industries; Banking Co, Technology Co, Productivity Co, and Software Co. Moreover, we interviewed two experts that together have over 70 years of experience in leading and consulting incumbent firms through different significant market changes. Thus, the six interviews together with internal and external organizational documents, triangulation has been used to produce the empirical results and analysis of this study. 

    With the empirical findings, we contribute to a comprehensive picture of how incumbent firms can efficiently adopt strategic entrepreneurship together with their business model innovation process. By doing so incumbent firms can find an optimal balance between opportunity-seeking and advantage-seeking behavior. Our findings show that incumbent firms today have a culture and structure that does not optimally promote business model innovation. The empirical findings provide two different viewpoints; one from the incumbent firm showing the current process and culture. The other viewpoint shows how the experts describe the incumbent firms and how they should change. Thus, these two different perspectives provide two different realities that we connect back to the theoretical frameworks. Moreover, this thesis contributes by showing that strategic entrepreneurship and business model innovation needs to be combined for incumbent firms to succeed in today’s fast-paced and dynamic environment.

  • Sofi, Backman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    A model for predicting robot dresspack damage2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Forsberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Junghagen, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Motivators of the Next Great Generation: A quantitative study conducted on Millennials employed in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that the new generation called Millennials are being needy, disloyal and narcissistic, and need more attention than previous generations. This is an issue for organizations and managers considering that employed Millennials have higher turnover intention, thus will not stay for as long as prior generations which further contributes to large costs for the companies. Consequently, managers will have an advantage of understanding what is motivating Millennials in order to facilitate for the workforce to perform to the highest extent whilst being employed for the company. As a result, the purpose of this thesis was to examine if previous conducted studies regarding motivation and Millennials were applicable to employed Millennials in Sweden. Furthermore, we wanted to more specifically examine if job satisfaction, work-life balance, organizational commitment and feedback were of importance since those factors has been argued to be highly influential regarding what is motivating this new workforce. Motivation can further be divided into intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, where the former can be described as the drive that comes from within whilst the latter describes that the drive is the result from external factors. Our research question was as a result: Do job satisfaction, work-life balance, organizational commitment, and feedback have an effect on intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation among Millennials working in Sweden?

    To answer the research question and fulfil the purpose of our thesis, we conducted a quantitative study by publishing a questionnaire online in order to reach Millennials working in Sweden since most previous studies conducted has been more focused on a qualitative nature within Anglo-Saxon countries. When analysing our results from the survey we could conclude that organizational commitment had a significant positive effect on both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, whilst work-life balance had a significant negative effect and unfavourable feedback had a significant positive effect on the sample ́s extrinsic motivation.

    To conclude, the theoretical contribution of this study has been to further provide knowledge regarding Millennials and more specifically employed Millennials in Sweden. Lastly, since we both are students enrolled in the Master’s program in Management, our focus has been on managerial considerations and has therefore contributed to results that can be of advantage to managers and organizations regarding how they can both motivate their new workforce in addition to obtain greater knowledge of understanding them and their needs.

  • Gustafsson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Replikering av hedgefonder: Ett rimligt investeringsalternativ?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker huruvida avkastningen från hedgefonder kan replikeras med ett relativt okomplicerat tillvägagångssätt, och finner att det till en viss grad är möjligt. Med hjälp av terminskontrakt samt en ETF, används en rolling window regression över perioderna 1999–2017 och 2004–2017. Investeringsfaktorerna är valda för att representera ett brett spektrum av risker som hedgefonder kan tänkas vara exponerade mot: aktie-, ränte-, råvaru-, valuta- och volatilitetsrisk. Både värdeviktade (från Dow Jones Credit Suisse) samt likaviktade (från Barclay Hedge) hedgefondindex nyttjas parallellt, vilket ej förekommit i tidigare studier inom området.

    En 18-månaders estimeringsperiod skapar kloner som generellt är bättre än själva hedgefondindexen, vilket skiljer sig från liknande studier. Olikheter i exempelvis dataperioder samt nyanserade skillnader i metodologi bör ses som de primära förklaringarna till detta, men det kan också (ofrånkomligen) bero på sporadiska utfall. Bland tidigare forskning som fokuserat på ett investerarvänligt tillvägagångssätt har ej volatilitets- eller småbolagsindex inkluderats, vilket denna studie gör med fördelaktiga resultat. VIX och Russell 2000 adderar en ny dimension till kloningen, där högre riskjusterad avkastning samt de attraktiva statistiska egenheterna (hög) kurtosis och positiv skevhet kan erhållas – vilket avviker från de ursprungliga hedgefondindexen vars distributioner av värden präglas av hög kurtosis men negativ skevhet.

    Resultaten indikerar att kloner, som ett lågkostnadsalternativ med bättre likviditet och transparens än de dynamisk hedgefondstrategier som dessa skapades för att emulera, kan vara ett tänkbart alternativ till diversifiering för en investeringsportfölj. Att addera fler potentiella faktorer och därefter skräddarsy valet av ingående tillgångar för regressionsmodellen, skulle dessutom sannolikt leda till en förbättring vid replikeringen av många hedgefondstrategier.

  • Niemi, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Reverse stress testing approaches based on multivariate normality2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reverse stress testing is a way of finding a combination of market risk factors, called a scenario, that leads to a specific loss for e.g. a portfolio. A market risk factor can for example be a stock return. In this project, we use reverse stress tests to find a scenario that would make a clearing house insolvent in case of a clearing house member default. When a member defaults, the clearing house must cover for the member's positions. If the clearing house's resource pool is not enough for this purpose, the clearing house defaults as well. To find out when this happens is of interest for regulatory purposes, as the default of a clearing house might lead to severe negative effects on the financial market. Cinnober's currently used method, SPS, uses a bisection-like iterative algorithm to find the scenario which makes the clearing house insolvent. The scenario found by SPS is restricted to be a multiple of a predefined scenario, which is clearly a limitation in the consideration of possible scenarios. To investigate the possibility of finding scenarios without this restriction, two other reverse stress tests were implemented and compared to SPS. The first test, PCA/G-S, assumes multivariate normal distribution of the profits and losses of the assets in the defaulting member's portfolio. PCA/G-S yields scenarios of asset profits and losses, for which the portfolio return is the specified loss - the clearing house resource pool. The second test, called RF, assumes multivariate normal distribution of the risk factors affecting the prices of the assets in the portfolio. RF outputs a scenario of market risk factors causing the portfolio loss to be the specified loss. The assets in the portfolio were restricted to stocks, European stock options and stock futures.

    PCA/G-S was shown to imply negative asset prices, as the assumption of multinormality does not consider that the loss can never be greater than the asset price itself. Negative prices appeared more frequently for options than for futures and stocks. Furthermore, the scenarios found by PCA/G-S were in terms of profits and losses, and were generally only convertible to risk factors if the portfolio only consisted of stocks. The advantage compared to SPS, however, was that PCA/G-S was numerically faster.

    As the results of the RF method are risk factor scenarios, no conversion problems appear. Moreover, it cannot yield negative asset prices, which is advantageous compared to PCA/G-S. However, the RF method was slower than SPS, and especially slow for options.

    All the multivariate normal distribution assumptions, for the profits and losses as well as the risk factors, were rejected by multinormality tests. Thus, the assumptions for PCA/G-S and RF were not consistent with reality. Nonetheless, the tests indeed provide scenarios where the resource pool is depleted.

  • Johansson, Sanny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Lovisa, Nordström
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Den moderna säljprocessen: En kvalitativ studie av B2B-säljprocessen inom livsmedelsbranschen i norr2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Säljprocessen har länge ansetts vara en sekventiell process, vilket innebär att säljaren utför en rad aktiviteter i en bestämd ordning för att nå en försäljning. Idag har dock säljprocessen blivit mer dynamisk, aktiviteterna kan ske i olika ordning och alla aktiviteter behöver inte genomföras. Detta eftersom säljaren idag anpassar säljprocessen allt mer efter kund och situation. Det dynamiska synsättet på försäljningen blir extra viktigt i situationer där företag säljer till andra företag, eftersom denna typ av försäljning ofta är mer komplex med många olika behov och människor att möta.

    När det kommer till själva aktiviteterna i säljprocessen så har även de genomgått en förändring. Tidigare har det varit stort fokus på själva försäljningen, priset och kostnaden. Idag har detta fokus skiftat mot relationen till kunden och att skapa värde för denne. I och med denna förändring kommer långsiktiga ekonomiska fördelar att uppdagas, även om det på kort sikt kan vara kostsamt.

    Det finns ett behov av att konceptualisera säljprocessen i en modell som reflekterar dynamiken som kommer med försäljning mot företag idag. Befintliga teorier om säljprocessen återger inte heller den kundorienterade försäljningen med relationer och värdeskapande. Utifrån dessa aspekter är det därför av intresse för denna studie att undersöka säljprocessen mellan företag.

    Denna studie ämnar svara på problemformuleringen:Vilka är de centrala aktiviteterna i B2B-säljprocessen?

    Studien grundar sig i två modeller över säljprocessen (Åge, 2011, s. 1579; Moncrief & Marshall, 2005, s. 18). Dessa modeller presenterar säljprocessen som dynamisk genom att de båda har delar som ska balanseras och alterneras för att anpassa sig till kunden och situationen. Modellerna har även ett fokus på relationer och värdeskapande mot kund, vilket reflekterar dagens säljmiljö. För att fördjupa kunskapen av B2B-säljprocessen har ytterligare teorier inom personlig försäljning inkluderats, bland annat har Relationship selling (Arli et al., 2017, s. 14) och Value-based selling (Teho et al., 2012, s. 176) tagits med.

    Resultatet som är baserat på semi-strukturerade intervjuer visar att planering är det första steget i säljprocessen mellan företag. Detta innebär att säljprocessen är sekventiell till viss del, vilket strider mot den initiala uppfattningen. Efter detta steg visar dock resultaten av denna studie att säljprocessen är dynamisk och ett antal aktiviteter som ingår i denna dynamik har identifierats.

    Avslutningsvis bidrar studien till en reviderad modell av Den moderna säljprocessen. Denna modell kan bistå företag med rekommendationer över hur de ska strukturera sin säljprocess och vilka aktiviteter som bör inkluderas i den. Dessutom kan studien bidra till forskningen genom att ge en fördjupad kunskap av hur säljprocessen ser ut idag.

  • Lingwall, Kim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Åtgärd för minskad genomloppstid: Förmontering av kranspetsutrustning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vimek AB is a producer of forestry machinery located in Vindeln, Västerbotten. Their productionis divided in two sections, one preassembly group where standard components are beingassembled and put in stock, and one final assembly group who assembles all parts to a completemachine.By moving elements of assembly from the final assembly section to preassembly section Vimekwant to reduce the throughput time of the Vimek 610 SE forwarder. There is a selection of fivedifferent crane tip tools that comes with the Vimek 610 SE forwarder, where “tilt grapple withbrake linkage” is the most common choice by far.The goal for this project is to the move crane tip equipment “tilt grapple with brake linkage” fromfinal assembly section to preassembly section. A decision basis was formed through interviews,test mountings and a continual dialog with the assemble staff. The best way for Vimek to do thisis by designing a work station containing a mounting fixture. The fixture is constructed andassembled in Vimeks facilities. A new assembling procedure of the crane tip equipment starts totake shape.With the support of Vimeks assembling staff and competent personnel within quality a newconcept of assemble instructions is presented. Standardization, continual improvement andquality control has been the core of this new concept.This project resulted in a new work station for the preassembling section and a reducedthrougput time for the Vimek 610 SE forwarder. The key to this project has been a successfulcollaboration with Vimeks competent assemble staff and designers.

  • Lehtinen, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Kvist, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    GENDER, INDEPENDENCE AND RISK PREFERENCE: A quantitative study of listed Swedish companies2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internal auditing is the auditing performed by companies themselves. Previous research has put forth the idea that female chairmen in audit committees increase the internal auditing. In this study, we examine how levels of risk preference within internal auditing are influenced by the gender of the chairman in an audit committee. We also examine how the independence of a chairman affect internal auditing.

    We propose two hypothesizes, where the first one considers if the risk preference is affected by the gender of an audit committee chairman. The second hypothesis is stated to further question if the risk preference is affected by the independence of an audit committee chairman. The study is based on 697 observations retrieved from financial reports between the years of 2005-2013. Risk preference is measured as the proportion of audit fees that are under the direct control of an audit committee. Gender is measured through binary variables based on legal gender. Our moderating variable Independence is binary based on full independence. By using regression analysis, we find an association between gender and internal auditing, but we find a weak positive association between lower ratio of non-audit costs and independence. This act as an indication that an independent chairmen lead to an increased internal auditing.

  • Lindblom, Tim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Hajek, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Utdelningsförändringar: Signal om lönsamhet?: En kvantitativ studie om samband mellan förändrad utdelning och framtida lönsamhet.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utdelning har sedan tidigt 1600-tal använts av företag som ett verktyg att ge dessinvesterare avkastning för deras investering, vilket än idag är utdelningens huvudsakligafunktion. Vedertagna teorier har dock ifrågasatt företagsledningars motiv till att betalautdelningar, och menar att de kan användas som ett verktyg att signalera om företagetsframtid, något som till viss del fått stöd i tidigare forskning. Däremot har tidigare studierej varit eniga gällande de slutsatser som framtagits, trots att deras undersökningsmetodvarit densamma. Somliga studier har alltså kommit fram till att utdelningar skickarsignaler om ett företags kortsiktigt framtida lönsamhet, upp till ett års tid, medan andrastudier ej funnit något samband alls. De tidigare studier som presenterats är utfördamestadels utfört på de geografiska marknaderna Nordamerika och Östra delar av Asien,i länder som USA, Japan och Sydkorea. Problemområdet har däremot ej tidigare studeratsi det svenska eller nordiska förhållanden, där ägarkoncentration och utdelningsfrekvenstenderar att vara annorlunda. Från denna bakgrund har följande problemformuleringtagits fram:

    Finns det ett samband mellan en förändring av utdelning per aktie och framtidalönsamhet, bland företag listade på svenska aktiemarknaden?

    Den här studien är baserad på en regressionsanalys av ett datamaterial inhämtat från OMXStockholm. För att undersöka sambandet mellan förändrad utdelningsnivå och framtidalönsamhet på den svenska marknaden. Om utdelningsförändringar har ettinformationsvärde gällande lönsamhet är detta i högsta grad intressant ur investeraressynvinkel. Detta medför att utdelning kan ha en betydande roll i beslutsfattandet kringpotentiella investeringar. Vidare har författarna antagit en deduktiv forskningsansatsbaserat på en kvantitativ studie där 183 företag undersökts i upp till femton år, vilketbildat grunden studiens datamaterial som behandlades vidare i Microsoft Excel, där ävenberäkningar av studiens deskriptiva statistik utfördes. Därefter genomfördes statistiskatester i programmet Stata.

    Resultatet i denna studien visade att en ökad utdelning, på kort sikt tenderar att följas aven ökad lönsamhet, för att två år efter utdelningsförändringen övergå till en negativlönsamhetsförändring. De negativa utdelningsförändringarna var däremot barasignifikanta på ett års sikt, där de följs av en minskad lönsamhet. Att ett företag initieraren utdelning, har dock inget signifikant samband med framtida lönsamheten. När dedäremot upphör att ge utdelning, så finns ett svagt samband på ett års sikt med enminskande lönsamhet. Detta innebär att studien funnit stöd för signalteorin sompresenteras i studien, och att utdelningsförändringar skickar signaler som kan minskainformationsasymmetrin mellan investerare och företagsledning.

  • Saari, Vilma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Rudholm, Sam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Capital Structure of Banks in EU: Does Size Matter?: A Quantitative Study of the Determinants of Banks’ Capital Structure2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The way the banks carry out their operations is determined by the size of the bank and by the banking regulation. In order to perform these operations, banks need to decide whether the operations are going to be financed with equity, debt or a with a mix of both. The mix of equity and debt financing is known as capital structure, and the previous literature on banks’ capital structures suggests that the size of the bank may affect the relation between leverage and the factors of leverage: profitability, size, growth, risk, collateral, and the bank’s dividend payments. This study examines whether the relation between leverage and the factors of leverage is depended on the size of the bank. In addition to this, the banking regulation has changed since the last studied on banks’ capital structures have been conducted, which means that the relation between the new regulatory requirements and capital structure needs to be investigated. The primary purpose of this study is to examine whether leverage and the factors of leverage are dependent on the size of the listed banks headquartered in one of the member countries of European Union between the years 2009 and 2017. In order to study this, data of the banks is gathered from the Eikon database. Another purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of the relationship between the capital structure in banks and the regulatory requirements.

     

    The theories on capital structure such as the, MM propositions, trade-off theory, and pecking-order theory are used to explain the variables of this study and the relation between the capital structure and regulatory capital. Previous literature of the banks’ capital structures and of the relation between size and the banks’ operations were studied in order to come up with the research questions. This study takes a deductive research approach and utilizes the quantitative research strategy. The data is analyzed by conducting regressions analysis for panel data in order to determine the relations studied.

     

    Conclusions about whether the bank size determines the relation between leverage and its factors, and of the nature of the relation between capital structure and regulatory capital will be drawn. This study finds that the bank size determines the relation between leverage and the factors of leverage. Further, the relation between capital structure and regulatory capital is found to be strong. Under the new regulation, the capital structure theories do not apply at all for the small banks. These theories do not apply either when the banks, small or large, are close to meeting their regulatory capital requirements.  For larger banks meeting their capital requirements, the larger the banks get, the more of their leverage can be explained by the classic capital structure theories. 

  • Stattin, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Costs and benefits of increased regulation: Empirical evidence on effects of Basel III capital ratios on Scandinavian banks2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the financial crisis, there have been calls for increased regulation of the banking industry. The Basel Accord took immediate action and introduced the third version of their Basel framework shortly after the crisis hit, increasing demands on bank capital and liquidity. The banking industry responded with a report claiming that the costs of the Basel III regulation would be high. This as banks would face increased cost of capital due to them being required to hold more expensive capital, as opposed to cheaper debt. This increase in the cost of capital would end up on the lenders bill as banks increase their lending spreads, eventually resulting in a reduction of economywide lending growth, a mechanism that later has been supported by several studies. While the theoretical impact of regulation has been widely discussed, little work has been done on an empirical level. There is thus a need for empirical evidence on what happens to banks following increased regulatory standards.Given this background, the study aims to answer the following question:“What effects have the increased capital ratios of Basel III had on Swedish, Danish and Finnish banks’ lending growth, cost of capital and default risk?”Through a quantitative study using paired T-tests as well as regression analysis, the study finds that increased capital ratios does indeed lead to lower lending growth. The extent to which is however smaller than anticipated by most other studies. Increased capital ratios were also shown to have a positive effect on banks in that it reduced their cost of capital. This shows that there are two counteracting forces on banks cost of capital following increases in capital ratios. One where cost of capital increases due to increased cost of financing, and one where cost of capital decreases as bank risk and investor expectations are lowered. The study also finds empirical evidence that the Basel risk-weighted capital ratios does not help reduce bank risk. Instead, banks reduce their risk by increasing their total capital to assets ratio. This implies that the Basel capital ratios only work through a secondary effect of banks increasing their capital to assets ratio following a regulatory tightening.The main contributions of the study are showing that regulators need to be mindful when implementing new regulation, as there are negative effects on economies lending growth. Additionally, the fact that lower bank risk results in lower cost of capital is a fact that has been mostly ignored by scholars in the field, something this study may be able to change. Lastly, the inability of the risk-based capital ratios to reduce bank risk is significant in that it puts into question whether the Basel Accord are able to produce a reliable framework for minimizing risk in the banking industry.

  • Törnqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Forss, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Automated accounting in accounting firms: A qualitative study on impacts and attitudes2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The technology development within the accounting field has grown tremendously during the last years and generated great impacts to the accounting firms and led to an enormous change in how accounting consultants conducting their daily tasks. The continuous development has now entered a new phase, where automation of accounting processes is now perceived as the current major trend and it will affect the profession even more. Automated accounting may bring both positive and negative impacts to the accounting firms and their consultants, but many threats may also come to light where questions have arisen about the need of accounting consultants if the procedures are automatic. Studies on automation in various fields have been conducted over the years, but the impacts of automated accounting on accounting firm and their accounting consultants have been neglected in previous research. Moreover, since the consultants are affected as well, their attitude toward such changes and corresponding impacts are of interest to understand their stance to these changes. Thereof, the interest in how accounting firms and their consultant will be affected resulted in these two research questions:

    1) What are the potential impacts of automated accounting for accounting firms and their accounting consultants?

    2) What are the accounting consultants’ attitudes towards automated accounting?

    The purpose of this thesis is to extend the current knowledge of the potential effects and explain the phenomena of automation in the context of accounting firms and their consultants. The aim is also to extend the knowledge of the accounting consultants’ attitude towards automated accounting and what they perceive as threats and opportunities. This thesis answers the research question by a qualitative method where empirical data has been collected from interviews with accounting consultants from different accounting firms in Umeå.

    The findings from the empirical data shows that automated accounting may lead to a decreased need of accounting consultants if the accounting firms do not extend or diversify their services. Moreover, advisory and analytical services will dominate the industry because automation will lead to more financial misstatements, which drives the need of analytical services. To comply with these changes, the future accounting consultant needs to possess more technical knowledge. The accounting consultant assistant will most probably be replaced by IT-consultants and in the long term, all consultants will be salespersons rather than accounting consultant. Regarding the attitude, the majority of the accounting consultants are positive towards automated accounting and their impacts, even though some tend to show a negative attitude to certain impacts.

  • Wannberg, Stella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Olsson, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Att integrera etik i influencer marketing: en process för framgångsrikt arbete med influencer marketing ur ett etiskt perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utforskar hur de etiska problem och dilemman som finns i marknadsföringsmetoden influencer marketing kan arbetas med på ett bättre sätt. Detta görs utifrån perspektivet av hur byråer aktiva inom influencer marketing kan integrera arbetet med etik i influencer marketing för att på så sätt skapa bättre förutsättningar att minimera och lösa de etiska problem och dilemman som finns med arbetet. Motivet bakom detta är att influencer marketing som metod är en kombination av betald- och förtjänad media, involverar arbete från flera kommunikationsdiscipliner och i stor utsträckning saknar generella etiska arbetsmetoder. Detta skapar i sin tur en grund för etiska problem och dilemman att gro. Det är upp till byråer aktiva inom influencer marketing att ta upp kampen med de etiska aspekterna då de som skapare av strategierna till arbetsmetoder och i många fall även materialet i sig, står som ansvarig för de etiska aspekterna av metoden. Detta anser de olika kommunikationsdisciplinerna – såsom reklam och PR – är komplext, då det i dagsläget saknas bra praktiska tillvägagångssätt som inte påverkar metodens kvalitet.

    Den process som integrerar etik i arbetet med influencer marketing vilket presenteras i denna studie bemöter denna problematik genom att argumentera varför byråer ska arbeta med att integrera etik i arbetet med influencer marketing. Vidare förklarar denna process hur arbetet ska utföras samtidigt som den mer konkret benämner vad som ska göras. Sammanfattningsvis handlar detta om att arbetet med influencer marketing går att ses som en process bestående av sex steg, där det etiska arbetet ska integreras i respektive steg.

    Det etiska arbetet är baserat på vetenskaplig teori om hur etik arbetas med på ett framgångsrikt sätt och integreras därefter in i processen för influencer marketing. För att uppnå ett kvalitativt resultat så bör arbetet med både influencer marketing och etik ses som iterativt. Detta då det ibland kan behövas tas flera steg bakåt i processen. För att således ta sig framåt i processen behöver byråer aktiva inom influencer marketing både arbeta med etik och influencer marketing. Slutligen skapar denna integration ett bättre sätt att arbeta med influencer marketing och ett resultat som är gynnsamt för såväl kund som samhälle.

  • Arestav, Amanda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Åström, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bridging the digital and physical worlds: The deployment of augmented reality in a retail setting – a case study on IKEA2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Developments in digital marketing are putting pressure on companies to keep up in the rapidly changing market environment. To do so, companies must take proactive steps in identifying new strategies to optimize their customers’ experiences in a digital era of increasing customer demands for online solutions. Among the most promising technological developments is the growth of Augmented Reality (AR) applications. While the future of augmented reality is relatively unknown, its unique attributes of bridging the digital and physical world have gotten investors excited. Yet, the knowledge of how to utilize AR’s unique attributes in marketing strategies is still limited, and the discussion on how to get the restless new generation to accept this emerging technology is accelerating.

    Within the retail industry, IKEA is considered a pioneer in deploying augmented reality in their customer experience. This project is a case study on IKEA’s implementation of augmented reality, a source of inspiration for future deployment strategies. The research data consists of interviews with respondents from both IKEA and IKEA’s innovation lab SPACE10, representing the industry practitioners, and two focus groups representing the low- and high-involvements customer perspectives. Supported by both theoretical and case study findings, this study develops a conceptual framework for AR deployment within the retail industry.

    The framework highlights the main elements to consider for an effective deployment of AR within a retail context. Firstly, companies should identify which customer values the AR program aims to provide, evaluate whether or not the AR technology is more effective than traditional methods for the intended value creation and thereafter design the program objectives accordingly. Secondly, the deployment stage consists of three entangled dimensions that are intertwined with a customer feedback loop. The three dimensions represent AR deployment success factors, and they are: (1) User experience (2) Utilizing unique attributes and (3) Strategy coherence.

  • Agorelius, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Ek, Anna
    Immateriella tillgångars inverkan på ett företags finansiering: En studie på onoterade svenska företag2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att samhällsekonomin har blivit mer kunskapsbaserad har ett företags immateriella tillgångar fått en allt mer betydelsefull roll. Immateriella tillgångar medför dock flera aspekter av osäkerhet, bland annat hur äganderätten ska bestämmas, hur ett tillförlitligt värde ska beräknas samt vilka kriterier som ska gälla för att få ta upp den till redovisning. Svårigheten och komplexiteten detta innebär har gjort att företagens finansiella rapporter har i vissa avseenden tappat sin relevans, exempelvis användbarheten kopplat till externa parters beslutsfattande. Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan ett företags tillgångsstruktur och den skuldränta företaget betalar till kreditgivare för sina lån, men även hur tillgångsstrukturen påverkar företagens finansieringsmöjligheter.

    Vetenskapliga utgångspunkter för vår studie är en ontologisk verklighetssyn, en positivistisk vetenskapssyn, en deduktiv forskningsansats samt en kvantitativ metod där hypotesprövning är i fokus. Undersökningen är uppbyggd utifrån ett företagsperspektiv då det är framförallt företag vi vänder oss till. Baserat på studiens teoretiska ramverk tog vi fram två hypoteser att undersöka under en femårsperiod. Studiens huvudhypotes syftar till att undersöka sambandet mellan immateriella tillgångar och skuldränta medan bihypotesen fokuserar på sambandet mellan immateriella tillgångar och företagens andel lån. Vi testade dessa hypoteser genom två olika undersökningar, först genom en totalundersökning då vi undersökte om existensen av upptagna immateriella tillgångar hade någon inverkan på responsvariablerna, och sedan genom en klusterundersökning då vi undersökte hur mängden immateriella tillgångar inverkar på responsvariablerna.

    Resultatet från studiens huvudhypotes visar att det finns ett positivt samband mellan existensen av upptagna immateriella tillgångar och skuldräntan, det innebär att om företaget har upptagna immateriella tillgångar får de betala en högre skuldränta. Detta kan bero på att immateriella tillgångar är osäkrare och därmed vill långivare ha en högre ränta som kompensation. Däremot är sambandet mellan andel upptagna immateriella tillgångar och skuldränta negativt samt har låga och varierande förklaringsgrader mellan åren. Detta kan bero på att de finansiella rapporterna har tappat i relevans och att kreditgivare lägger större vikt vid kvalitativa aspekter, vilka inte syns i balansräkning och som vår studie därmed inte fångar upp. Gällande resultaten från bihypotesen så kan vi inte uttala oss om sambandet mellan existensen av upptagna immateriella tillgångar och företagens andel lån. Däremot ser vi ett svagt och något instabilt positivt samband mellan andel upptagna immateriella tillgångar och andel lån, vilket kan bero på att företag med mycket immateriella värden har fler investeringstillfällen och därmed kräver mer extern finansiering för att kunna ta tillvara på dessa och vara konkurrenskraftiga.

    Studien är upprättad utifrån etiska aspekter samt har överlag en god reliabilitet och validitet. Förslag på vidare forskning är framförallt att genomföra studien genom en kvalitativ metod för att få en djupare förståelse för kreditgivningens kvalitativa del vilket skulle komplettera denna studie. Praktiska rekommendationer till företag är att fortsätta kämpa för sina värdefulla immateriella tillgångar för att uppnå en mer jämställd kreditgivningsprocess vilket går i linje med världens kunskapsbaserade ekonomi.

  • Algers, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Stereo Camera Calibration Accuracy in Real-time Car Angles Estimation for Vision Driver Assistance and Autonomous Driving2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive safety company Veoneer are producers of high end driver visual assistance systems, but the knowledge about the absolute accuracy of their dynamic calibration algorithms that estimate the vehicle’s orientation is limited.

    In this thesis, a novel measurement system is proposed to be used in gathering reference data of a vehicle’s orientation as it is in motion, more specifically the pitch and roll angle of the vehicle. Focus has been to estimate how the uncertainty of the measurement system is affected by errors introduced during its construction, and to evaluate its potential in being a viable tool in gathering reference data for algorithm performance evaluation.

    The system consisted of three laser distance sensors mounted on the body of the vehicle, and a range of data acquisition sequences with different perturbations were performed by driving along a stretch of road in Linköping with weights loaded in the vehicle. The reference data were compared to camera system data where the bias of the calculated angles were estimated, along with the dynamic behaviour of the camera system algorithms. The experimental results showed that the accuracy of the system exceeded 0.1 degrees for both pitch and roll, but no conclusions about the bias of the algorithms could be drawn as there were systematic errors present in the measurements.

  • Werle, Nicolas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Lehtonen, Liina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Hedging Your Bets: The Prospects of Cryptocurrency Use in Online Gambling: A Mixed-Methods Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since its initial inception, cryptocurrency has hit the world with both intrigue and skepticism. It was acting as an alternative form of currency that people could use that required no regulative authority to back it. As such, people had the option to make purchases in anonymous manners, leading to what most would consider unethical behaviours, and ultimately resulted in cryptocurrency gaining a poor reputation. However, specific trends in society have helped cryptocurrency growth to continue. A societal loss of trust in the traditional banking system and the positive perception towards the blockchain technology, which is a peer-to-peer system that cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, operate on are two such trends. Furthermore, recent years have witnessed exponential increases in the prices of cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin. This has led to widespread stories of people getting rich through cryptocurrency ownership, having been “wise-enough” to buy in on the cryptocurrency trend early enough to reap in the rewards of such as decision. And as a result, leading to more people wanting to be the next big success story and buying in on the cryptocurrency trend. This growing trend has also gained the attention of several multi-national companies, such as Expedia, Subway and Microsoft, who have begun accepting cryptocurrency as a form of payment. Even though specific cases have seen this strategy implemented successfully, the volatility of cryptocurrency still poses a risk that has hindered the ability of cryptocurrency to become a widespread payment option.

     

    Given the current trend surrounding cryptocurrency, this thesis serves the purpose is to investigate another alternative option for cryptocurrency use. That option being the potential for cryptocurrency to be used as an alternative payment option in the online gambling industry. Where it has been used as a payment option in other areas, it would be interesting to identify whether there is potential for the cryptocurrency to be adopted and used in this particular industry as well. In order to investigate this phenomenon from both the consumer and industry point-of-views, this thesis used a mixed-methods study, which consisted of a qualitative study and quantitative study. Our qualitative study focused on the industry side of the phenomena. To carry it out, we conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with managers of a large online gambling company in order to gain deeper knowledge on their perspectives regarding their perceptions towards how cryptocurrency adoption would affect the online gambling industry. Based on the information gained from the interviews, specific themes were identified and further analyzed through a thematic analysis. Those themes included blockchain in online gambling, holding cryptocurrency, regulation and the reputation of cryptocurrency. Our results indicated that managers did not believe the industry was ready to adopt cryptocurrency due to specific regulatory factors, but that it had future potential, mainly regarding its association to blockchain. Our quantitative study focused on interpreting the perceptions of online gamblers regarding cryptocurrency use in online gambling. Specifically, identifying what would motivate them to use cryptocurrency in online gambling and if they were willing to accept it as a payment option. Based on the results obtained through a survey we distributed, we used linear regression to identify if online gamblers were willing to accept cryptocurrency. The resulting outcome was a moderate level of rejection towards cryptocurrency acceptance. The linear regression model also allowed us to interpret which predictor variables held the greatest level of importance towards predicting cryptocurrency acceptance. Those specific variables included cryptocurrency anonymity, usability, ownership, and belief in the future of cryptocurrency.

     

    When comparing the results from both studies through triangulation, we were able to conclude that both consumers and the industry were not ready to fully accept cryptocurrency usage in online gambling. However, both sides indicated positive outlooks towards its future potential as a payment method.

  • Norman, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Erfarenhetsåterföring inom Peab Sverige AB i Umeå2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    If the construction industry's processes should evolve as much as it grows and as the investment will grow, they need to spread knowledge to others. In a company, systematic experience feedback should work as a method to develop and increase profitability of the company. It is an important part in this project.

    The purpose of the project is to support Peab Sverige AB to be able to find what deficiencies the company has in its work with experience feedback in order to become a more successful company in the future.

     

    The project resulted in an explanation of how Peab Sverige AB in Umeå worked with experience feedback, and on other companies in the construction industry, where they spread experiences through meetings and some via a database they use. They also get help from other employees. Peab Sverige AB in Umeå value knowledge highly and therefor it is very important to work with experience feedback inside the company. The shortcomings that Peab Sverige AB in Umeå has in the field of experience retrieval is that it is not easy to access experience, the management is found unattended in the subject, there is prestige in not spreading bad experiences at the company, protocols from projects is difficult to access and there is too little time for analysis between different projects. In the future, employees want the experience to improve after projects, where a specific database can help. Study visits to similar projects, better getting new employees, creating greater commitment to experience feedback and more meetings, are going to help Peab Sverige AB in Umeå in their work with experience feedback.

     

    A better drive and commitment to experience feedback within Peab Sverige AB in Umeå. This will lead to more people getting acquainted with earlier experiences, which is developing the company. Better processes, less workload, better work environment and more money for the company will be the gain in this. The company´s management will need to allocate more time and focus to the correct implementation of the proposed measures.

  • Jansson, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Identifiering och sanering av byggmaterialet asbest2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Each year, the number of deaths caused by the cancerous substance asbestos increases, even though it was banned in Sweden in 1982. The risk of exposure from materials containing asbestos to the workers in the building trade continues to be high. The most exposed categories are demolition and repair workers. The amount of asbestos still remaining in Swedish buildings is estimated to be around 400 000 tons, which continues to put the construction workers at risk. In addition to the remaining asbestos, there is an ongoing generational renewal in the building trade. The older generation with experience and knowledge on the substance is being replaced with a new and enthusiastic generation whose knowledge on dangerous substance of asbestos is lacking.

     

    Sweden was the first country in the world to ban asbestos. At present, there are laws and regulations on how asbestos should be correctly handled and disposed of. To be able decontaminate buildings of asbestos commercially, the personnel must have completed specific educational programs. An asbestos decontamination consist of several advanced stages and is a time consuming process. There are strict demands on equipment, barriers and waste management in order to avoid exposure to asbestos. The dispersal of asbestos dust would affect surrounding categories of workers.

     

    Despite the laws and regulations, there are still inadequacies in the handling of asbestos. To investigate the scope of the deficiencies, current asbestos decontamination procedures at Läroverket 1 in Umeå will be observed and compared to the theoretical decontamination procedure.

     

    The decontamination procedure performed at Läroverket 1 was meticulously and correctly performed according to the theory. It required extensive equipment, knowledge and carefulness to avoid dispersing asbestos dust to surrounding areas and personnel categories. No deficiencies of note could be identified during the decontamination procedure, but there are other other parts of the asbestos handling which could be improved. The investigations which were undertaken to prove the existence of asbestos were insufficient. Places which contained asbestos were missed altogether, and places which were deemed to not contain asbestos during testing were subsequently found to contain asbestos. This is a large deficiency which can not be allowed, since the investigation before decontamination is crucial to ensure that no workers are exposed to asbestos during construction. The methods used for decontamination are obsolete, which is true for large parts of Sweden. In comparison to e.g. UK, where research efforts have resulted in better decontamination procedures, the levels of exposure to asbestos dust are significantly higher in Sweden. The choice of decontamination method is something that needs to be seriously considered in order to improve the working environment for decontamination crews and other personnel categories.

     

    The personnel performed the decontamination according to applicable Swedish law and regulation, but the investigations performed to determine areas containing asbestos and choice of decontamination methods are inadequate. To remedy this, higher demands must be placed on the safe working environment of the personnel. 

  • Helgesen, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    KL-trä enligt balkteori: En undersökning av beräkningsmetoden från ”KL-trähandbok” utgiven av Svenskt trä (2017)2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Martinsons calculates stresses in CLT by using Finite Element Analysis. This tool can solve complex problems but it is time-consuming to verify results and to build the model, therefore less complex problems concerning verification of CLT with beam theory could prove to be more efficient. A book named “KL-trähandbok” published by “Svenskt trä” presents a chapter on verification of CLT with beam theory. Martinsons aims to learn more about this theory. By using an Excel-tool created by the student based on the equations from this theory numerical results can be analysed. At the same time further research was performed with the aim to get a better understanding of the theory.

     

    To get an understanding of how the different variables affects an CLT element, some more specific examples were implemented in the excel-tool. The results from Excel can be used to verify parts of the theory. Some equations were difficult to implement in a practical example and was e.g. restricted to describe only a three-layer board.

     

    Some parts of the theory are lacking detailed explanations which gave room for discussion, however further research is needed to get a better understanding.

     

    In conclusion it can be said that the work done in this bachelor’s degree of structural engineering resulted in an Excel-tool that can verify and show how different variables changes the characteristics fore CLT elements according to beam theory, but with limitations. Further conclusion is that some of the additional theory and discussion of the theory from “KL-trähandbok” may contribute to a better understanding of the theory.

  • Beyer, Klas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Radon och grundläggningsmetoder: Att utforma allmänna föreskrifter2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radon is a radioactive gas that occurs everywhere in the ground. Radongas canenter buildings through domestic water and building materials, but the main re-ason for high radon levels in the indoor air is ground radon entering through theconcrete slab. The decay product of Radon (radon daughters) can attach to dustand other matter that we inhale. It then decomposes in our lungs and emits alfaradiation that can damage DNA cells and lead to lung cancer. It is therefore im-portant to design the slab in a way that prevents radon from entering the building.When planning a building, the building planner adds general regulations on thedrawings, a kind of advice and instructions that should be followed by involved con-struction partners. On Sweco’s internal network, there is an aid that will help thebuilding planner to set up general regulations. With a few quick clicks the buildingplanner can develop general regulations for thermal insulation or geo-investigation,etc. Today however, there are no general regulations regarding radon on Swecosinternal network. This work aims at establishing valid regulations for planningconcrete slabs with consideration to radon.The focus on this project has primarily been about creating a broad knowledge ofthe subject and then identify the most essential factors to include when the generalregulations are to be formulated. There is no general way to design a slab leakageof radon gas because one has to adapt radon solutions to each specific project. Itis very difficult to design general regulations since there are no general solutions.The result of this project is two regulations. One solution for designing a slab onsoil with normal levels of radon and another one for slabs on soil with high levelsof radon.Proposed regulation for foundation on normal radon soil.The entrepreneur is responsible for ensuring that appropriate radon preventionmeasures are taken to the extent that the limit value 200 Bq/m3is not exceeded.Cut-outs and possible imperfections are sealed with alkali-resistant elastic joint orequivalent.Proposed regulations for foundation on high radon soil.The entrepreneur is responsible for making the foundation air and diffusion resi-stant to the extent that the limit value 200 Bq/m3is not exceeded. Cut-outs andpossible imperfections are sealed with alkali-resistant elastic joint or equivalent.

  • Öhman, Lilja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Muskelaktiveringsmönster i quadriceps i relation till dynamisk valgus vid ett drop-landingtest.: – En studie gjord på kvinnliga fotbollsspelare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Both biomechanical and neuromuscular factors affect the risk of suffering an ACL rupture among female soccer players. Unbalanced muscle activation around the knee has been found to affect the joint stability. The aim of this study was therefor to investigate the muscle activation in vastus medialis and vastus lateralis in relation to dynamic valgus among female soccer players. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Finnish company Fibrux OY, who has developed a portable sEMG testing equipment. The participants consisted of 15 female soccer players who were tested with sEMG electrodes on vastus medialis and vastus lateralis during a drop-landingtest that was filmed to enable 2D analysis of valgus angle. The results show a tendency to correlation between the activation ratio and valgus(r=0,51) (p>0,05), and between activation delay in vastus medialis and valgus (r=0,32) (p>0,05). But both correlations lack significance. The results could be explained by that there might be other muscles around the knee at that affects the joint stability even more than vastus lateralis and medialis do. Future studies should be conducted with larger sample size and focus on prospective epidemiological research because that is the only study design that reveals what variables can be associated with the risk of suffering a knee injury.

     

  • Wedin, Isabella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Larsson, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Effekter av fysisk aktivitet på upplevd stress och välmående.: En interventionsstudie genomförd på fysiskt inaktiva med måttlig till hög grad av stress2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today’s society it has increasingly become common to experience a high degree of negative stress. Despite the fact that physical activity has many health benefits, for example when it comes to reduce perceived stress, individuals feeling stressed does not prioritize physical activity. Being physically inactive in combination with a high degree of negative stress can lead to a variety of psychological diagnoses and physical problems. Physical activity does not only give rise to a better health, but also a higher sense of wellbeing and life quality.  Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate if 100 minutes of group training per week during 5 weeks had an effect on perceived life stress, well-being and physical fitness in physically inactive individuals with moderate to high perceived stress. Participants: 30 participants (24 women, 5 men and 1 intergender) between the ages of 2040 years participated in the study. The participants were randomized into two groups, an intervention group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). They did not engage in any physical activity and estimated themselves as moderately (total sum>14) to highly stressed (total sum>27) on PSS-10. Method: The participants filled in got to answer a questionnaire related to perceived life stress (PSS-10), a questionnaire about well-being (VS) and performed a submaximal bicycle ergometer test (EB-test). After a 5 week intervention period the questionnaires were distributed again and the bicycle ergometer test was performed. The intervention group participated in 100 minutes of group based circuit training per week while the control group was requested to continue to live as before. Results: Significant differences were found in the intervention group pre- and post test results for PSS-10 (p=0,0001) and VS (p<0,0001). No differences between the intervention group and the control group were found on regarding any parameters. Conclusion: 100 minutes of group training per week, under specific circumstances, seems to have an effect on perceived stress and well-being on previously inactive individuals with moderate to high stress. A single cause that lead to a reduction in stress and higher well-being can not be determined.

  • Hägglund, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Nyman, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Muskulär profilering av underkroppen hos manliga amatörklättrare.: En undersökning av styrka och power i nedre extremiteter hos klättrare på avancerad och moderat nivå2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rock climbing performed on overhanging surfaces is becoming more common and requires more advanced use of the lower body. Since previous research has mostly examined upper body strength there is a need for a muscular profiling of the lower body of climbers, which was the purpose of this study. The study sought to investigate whether differences in strength and power in the lower extremities can be related to climbing performance in male climbers. The participants were 10 male amateur climbers divided into two groups based on athletes-specific performance level. Group 1 (n=6) where categorized as advanced climbers and group 2 (n=4) as moderate. An isokinetic strength test and two different jump tests were performed by all study participants. After statistical analysis, there were no significant differences (p= 0,05) between the groups in relative strength in the quadriceps, relative strength in hamstrings, H/Q-ratio, jump height at SJ or jump height at CMJ. The group with more advanced climbers performed significantly higher at CMJ versus SJ (p = 0.013). The conclusions of this study are that climbers have relatively low results when measuring H/Q-ratio at 90°/s (group 1: 51% vs. group 2: 53,9%), 210°/s (59,4% vs. 57,9%) and height at vertical jump tests (SJ: 32,1cm vs. 31,7cm; CMJ: 35,8 cm vs. 33,9 cm) and that jump technique seems to be a contributing factor in climbing performance.

     

  • Hedman, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    ÄR EXCENTRISK TRÄNING EN EFFEKTIV METOD FÖR ATT UTVECKLA HOPPHÖJD, MUSKELSTYRKA ELLER EFFEKTUTVECKLING FÖR TRÄNADE OCH SKADEFRIA INDIVIDER?: En översiktsartikel2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this review 17 randomized control studies were reviewed that had examined the effects of eccentric training regarding jump height, strength and power for trained and non-injured individuals. The purpose of the review was to answer the following two questions at issue; 1) “Is eccentric training an efficient method to enhance jump height, strength or power for trained and non-injured individuals?” 2) “If so, how should that training regime be designed?”. Most of the included studies could not distinguish any significant changes because of eccentric training. Only six out of 17 studies could show acute as well as short term significant improvements in jump height, strength and power. The relevance of these findings is questioned since effect size has not been reported in all the included studies. The variety between the different interventions in each study also makes it difficult to compare the results between one study and another. In conclusion, the reviewed studies failed to show that eccentric training is an effective method to enhance jump height, strength and power for trained and non-injured individuals.

  • Hellgren, Alfred
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karlsson, Benjamin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    En hälsosam arbetsplats?: En studie om avdelningschefers perspektiv på friskvårdsarbetet i Skellefteå kommun2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Friskvård inom företag och dess effekter är väldokumenterat inom forskningen, och organisationer har under de senaste åren satsat mycket pengar på att upprätthålla friskvårdsarbetet. Ett universellt argument verkar vara att detta gör att lönsamheten i verksamheten ökar. I denna studie undersöktes hur friskvården ser ut i en kommunal verksamhet sett ur ett diskursanalytiskt och självstyrningsperspektiv. Detta var intressant eftersom den kommunala verksamheten styrs av politiska riktlinjer, samtidigt som den är skattefinansierad. En ytterligare anledning att studera detta var att kommunal sektor generellt sett hade fler sjukskrivningar än privat sektor. Mer specifikt syftade studien till att förstå hur avdelningschefer uppfattar friskvård i den egna verksamheten, hur processer ser ut för chefers arbete med detta, samt hur de skulle vilja att den framtida utvecklingen ser ut. Detta åstadkoms genom kvalitativa intervjuer med nio kommunala avdelningschefer. Några viktiga resultat var att organisationen använde friskvårdsförmåner för att locka och behålla medarbetare, samt för att respondenterna uppfattade en extern press från samhället att ta ett visst ansvar över sina medarbetares hälsa. Hur cheferna arbetade med att motivera sina anställda var något av en balansgång. De flesta tyckte det var viktigt att motivera och skapa goda förutsättningar för medarbetarna, medan de ansåg att det inte var möjligt att styra dem för mycket eftersom friskvården bedrivs på fritiden. Därför var ett av utvecklingsförslagen som uppkom att integrera friskvården på arbetstid. På detta sätt skulle cheferna få bättre kontroll och kunna ställa högre krav på sina medarbetare att faktiskt använda sig av friskvårdsförmånerna.

  • Andersson, Oskar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hiekkanen, William
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Är lågutbildade föräldrar mer engagerade inom ishockey än högutbildade?: Bakgrund, engagemang och intresse hos ishockeyföräldrar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This quantitative study was done within the research field of sports pedagogy, and in cooperation with the Swedish Ice Hockey Association (SIHA). The study was about the parents of young hockey players, and it focused on the parents' sporting backgrounds as well as their commitment to and interest in ice hockey. Data was collected with the help of a questionnaire (n=134) among 5 ice hockey clubs in the north of Sweden. The results show that the majority of the parents did not have a background in ice hockey themselves, and those who had such a background were all male. The results also show other differences between female and male parents in terms of commitment to and interest in ice hockey. There were also results that showed a relationship between the parents’ educational background and their levels of commitment to ice hockey. The study also contains a discussion about its possible contribution regarding knowledge about the parents of young hockey players and suggestions for future research.

  • Moberg, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Creating nanopatterned polymer films for use in light-emitting electrochemical cells2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal nanoimprint lithography (T-NIL) is a cheap and fast technique to produce nanopatterns in polymeric materials. It creates these patterns by pressing a stamp down into a polymer film that has been heated above its glass transition temperature. These nanopatterned polymer films can be used in a wide variety of scientific fields, not the least the organic semiconductor industry. There the nanopatterned films have, among else, been used to improve the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC), which is similar in structure to an OLED, also uses polymer films in their device structure but the light emitting layer also contains an electrolyte. However, it has not been shown if nanopatterns can improve LECs as well or if it is even possible to make an imprint in their polymer films that are mixed with an electrolyte.

    This thesis shows that T-NIL can be used to imprint nanopatterns in films made of poly(ethylene oxide) and the conjugated polymer Super Yellow. The best nanopatterns were produced by setting the imprint parameters to  85 °C, 10 bar, 1800 s for poly(ethylene oxide) and 115 °C, 20 bar, 1800 s for Super Yellow. Imprints were also performed on polystyrene but no nanopatterns could be produced. This was most likely because the stamp could not handle the high temperature that is required to make a nanopattern in polystyrene.

    The best imprint parameters of Super Yellow were then used to produce a pattern in a film made of Super Yellow mixed with the salt tetrahexylammonium tetrafluoroborate (THABF4) in order to be able to produce one imprinted and one reference LEC. The imprinted LEC had a luminosity of 139 cd/m2, an improvement of 20% compared to the reference’s 115 cd/m2 when operated under identical conditions.  The forward direction and the angular dependent electroluminescence spectrum of the imprinted LEC clearly showed an effect not observed in the reference.

    These findings show that the polymer films used in a LEC can be imprinted with a nanopattern by using T-NIL. The imprinted films can be used to create functional LECs that show different behavior and a higher luminosity compared to a non-imprinted reference. If these results can be repeated it might be the starting point of a brighter future.

  • Edin, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Outcome regression methods in causal inference: The difference LASSO and selection of effect modifiers2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In causal inference, a central aim of covariate selection is to provide a subset of covariates, that is sufficient for confounding adjustment. One approach for this is to construct a subset of covariates associated with the outcome. This is sometimes referred to as the outcome approach, which is the subject for this thesis. Apart from confounding, there may exist effect modification. This occurs when a treatment has different effect on the outcome, among different subgroups, defined by effect modifiers.

    We describe how the outcome approach implemented by regression models, can be used for estimating the ATE, and how sufficient subsets of covariates may be constructed for these models. We also describe a novel method, called the difference LASSO, which results in identification of effect modifiers, rather than determination of sufficient subsets. The method is defined by an algorithm where, in the first step, an incorrectly specified model is fitted. We investigate the bias, arising from this misspecification, analytically and numerically for OLS.

    The difference LASSO is also compared with a regression estimator. The comparison is done in a simulation study, where the identification of effect modifiers is evaluated. This is done by analyzing the proportion of times a selection procedure results in a set of covariates including only the effect modifiers, or a set where the effect modifiers are included as a subset.

    The results show that the difference LASSO works relatively well for identification of effect modifiers. Among four designs, a set containing only the true effect modifiers were selected in at least 83:2%. The corresponding result for the regression estimator was 27:9%. However, the difference LASSO builds on biased estimation. Therefore, the method is not plausible for interpretation of treatment effects.

  • Ecker, Kreske
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Improved estimation of the ATT from longitudinal data2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our goal is to improve the estimation of the average treatment effect among treated (ATT) from longitudinal data. When the ATT is estimated at one time point (or separately at each), outcome-regression (OR), inverse probability weighting and doubly robust estimators can be used. These methods involve estimating the relationships that the covariates have with the outcome and/or propensity score, in different regression models. Assuming these relationships do not vary drastically between close-by time points, we can improve estimation by also using information from neighboring points.

    We use local regression to smooth the coefficient estimates in the outcome- and propensity score-model over time. Our simulation study shows that when the true coefficients are constant over time, the performance of all estimators is improved by smoothing. Especially in terms of precision, the improvement is greater the more the coefficient estimates are smoothed. We also evaluate the OR-estimator in more complex scenarios where the true regression coefficients vary linearly and non-linearly over time. Here we find that larger degrees of smoothing have a negative effect on the estimators’ accuracy, but continue to improve their precision. This is especially prominent in the non-linear scenario.

     

  • Brännström, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    A Comparison of Three Methods of Estimation Applied to Contaminated Circular Data2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the performance of the Maximum Likelihood estimator (MLE), estimators based on spacings called Generalized Maximum Spacing estimators (GSEs), and the One Step Minimum Hellinger Distance estimator (OSMHD), on data originating from a circular distribution. 

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the different estimators’ performance on directional data. More specifically, we compare the estimators’ ability to estimate parameters of the von Mises distribution, which is determined by a location parameter and a scale parameter. For this study, we only look at the scenario in which one of the parameters is unknown. The main part of the study is concerned with estimating the parameters under the condition, in which the data contain outliers, but a small part is also dedicated to estimation at the true model. 

    When estimating the location parameter under contaminated conditions, the results indicate that some versions of the GSEs tend to outperform the other estimators. It should be noted that these seemingly more robust estimators appear comparatively less optimal at the true model, but this is a tradeoff that must be made on a case by case basis. Under the same contaminated conditions, all included estimators appear to have seemingly greater difficulties estimating the scale parameter. However, for this case, some of the GSEs are able to handle the contamination a bit better than the rest. In addition, there might exist other versions of GSEs, not included in this study, which perform better. 

  • Malmquist, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olovsson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Föräldrars ishockeyhabitus och deras barns deltagande: Vilka ges möjlighet att spela ishockey2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rooted and centered within a Bourdieu-inspired understanding of how the habitus and social class of parents affects childrens’ sports choices, this paper contributes to a greater appreciation of how social capital and social background impact a family’s ability to practice the sport of ice-hockey. Historically, there has been a significant amount of research investigating the reasons for- and rates of- dropout from sports participation, but few attempts has been undertaken to study athletes who begin and continue to actively play a certain sport. Through the creation of an index which measures different variables, this paper introduces the concept of an ice-hockey habitus. This habitus was used to compare the education, occupations, economic wealth and other demographic parameters of parents of ice-hockey-playing children. With that in mind, the aim of this paper was to investigate what characterizes ice-hockey playing childrens’ parents. The results were found through looking at the above-mentioned demographics in relation to previous research, and, briefly, the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Additionally, a further aim is to document the demographics of the parents of continual-participation among young ice-hockey players. To do so, a quantitative research method was utilized, through which a web-based questionnaire was formed and used as foundation for the gathering of the empirical data. The total amount of responses amounted to n=576, from four disparate cities within a geographical distribution from south to north. The findings showed that there was a correlation between families with ice-hockey playing children and highly educated parents (in some areas more than double the Swedish average) and economic wealth (as more than four out of five families earns equal to- or higher than the Swedish average). The findings also showed that for the ice-hockey habitus, level of education did not affect mothers’ index level. For the fathers’ index, the amount of highly educated fathers decreased as the ice-hockey habitus increased. A further correlation found was that as ice-hockey habitus increased, so did the amount of families with higher economic wealth.

  • Lindgren, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Martinez, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Motivationsfaktorer till fortsatt ishockeyutövande: En kvalitativ studie om Tre Kronors Hockeyskola och övergången till vanlig föreningshockey2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ceylan, Kamile
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    PROVTAGNINGSTJÄNST: Ett pilotprojekt mellan Apoteket AB och Min Doktor2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Söderholm, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Omprövning av tillstånd för vattenverksamhet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sjöström, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Axlar och upphängning till bromsvagn: Avsedd för klimatiska tester av fordon2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project is one part of four in the preliminary study of the Bromsvagn project. The Bromsvagn project is intended to create a testing equipment in the form of a trailer. Our ultimate task is to test long-lasting loads of vehicles in full operation. In this thesis the design of axels and suspension will take place at the concept level. The construction takes place in the program CATIA V5, based on the manufacturing conditions provided by BAE Systems Hägglunds AB. Some components will be consumed during the life of the trailer, to which relevant subcontractors of standard components will be linked. On selected parts of the model, strength will be calculated by hand calculations and FEM-analyzes in this part of the CATIA V5 program. The modeling work considers the influence of two parallel examinations in the same project. These two degree projects deals with the design of the chassis and the design of the hydraulic system. The conclusion is that this design has the potential to cope with the intended task. The calculations indicate that the modeled parts will manage their theoretical powers without major problems. However, some calculations are recommended in future projects.

  • Sedholm, Oscar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    En levande skola: En fallstudie av organisationskultur i relation till socialt arbete i en svensk högstadieskola2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a qualitative case study of organizational culture, as percieved by school personnel in relation to the school’s work with social goals. Six participants from a swedish upper secondary school – ranging from teachers to school counselor, were interviewed about their backgrounds, their experiences within the school and their views on values education. These interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis where four themes emerged from codes and categories. The themes were: Staff Ideals, Stress Time & Priorities, Live-apart Culture, and Hidden Curriculum. The themes describe how the individual habitus’ of staff members meets the organizational culture of the school, where groups and individuals enter into social conflict with each other to forward their own point of view over work procedures and the organizational culture of the school. The result is indicative of how a burdened leadership structure combined with mostly selfgoverning work teams can result in a weak school cohesion, hampering work with social goals as well as resulting in a level of organizational inertia. This is connected to elements of a live-apart culture, where personnel mostly tend to their own “territories”. From this, the school climate is described as ranging from good to “so-so” by participants, with the risk of social problems hidden amongst students.

  • Gunnarsson, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Åkerberg, Olivia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sociala medier-stalkning: den normaliserade övervakningen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitaliseringen är djupt rotat i det svenska samhället och idag ser vi att majoriteten av svenskarna använder internet och sociala medier i stor utsträckning (IIS, 2017). Sociala medier-stalkning (SM-stalkning) är det relativt nya fenomenet som innebär att hämta information om andra människor via sociala plattformar som Facebook eller Instagram. Tidigare forskning har fokuserat på nära, redan etablerade relationer. Denna uppsats ämnar undersöka sociala medier-stalkning i relation till nya och potentiella relationer genom att besvara frågorna om vilken utsträckning detta beteende sker, hur det varierar mellan olika grupper och vilka faktorer som kan förklara beteendet. Med en kvantitativ utgångspunkt formulerades en webbenkät som skickades ut via Facebook. Resultatet analyserades sedan i tre fokusområden i multipla linjära regressionsmodeller samt medelvärdestabeller. Resultatet visade att sociala medier stalkning är ett vanligt beteende men att det skiljer sig i vilken utsträckning det genomförs. De gruppskillnader som hittades i studien var att kvinnor gör beteendet mer än män, studenter gör beteendet mer än heltidsarbetare och yngre SM-stalkar mer än äldre. Efter att ha konstanthållt för samtliga fokusområden (sociodemografi, personlighetsdrag och ensamhet) visade det sig att resultatet som var signifikant i våra regressionsmodeller, pekar på att de förklaringsfaktorer till varför människor SM-stalkar var; viktighet av att bli omtyckt samt användning av den information som uppkommer vid SM-stalkning. Vi argumenterar för att detta handlar om kontroll respektive konformitet inom ramarna för människors fundamentala behov av att tillhöra sociala relationer och grupper.

  • Bylund, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Elnätsautomation i distibutionsnätet: Feldetektering och fjärrstyrning som metoder att förbättre leveranssäkerheten i elnätet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att öka leveranskvaliteten i sina elnät är något som varje nätbolag strävar mot. En metod att göra detta kan vara att utrusta nätstationer i mellanspänningsnätet med feldetektering och fjärrstyrning för snabbare felsökning och sektionering vid fel. I denna studie har dessa möjligheter utretts och även de potentiella vinsterna i kortare avbrottstider mätt i indikatorn SAIDI. Studien har resulterat i ett förslag för fortsatt investering i feldetektering och fjärrstyrning i Umeå Energis elnät. Den metod som använts är att beräkna SAIDI för det värsta felscenariot för varje matande linje som tittats på, både med och utan elnätsautomation. Det förslag som tagits fram har utgått ifrån de enskilda matningarna förutsättningar vad gäller kundantal, antal nätstationer och nättopologi och har sedan jämförts med två standardalternativ, med detektering i samtliga nätstationer samt detektering i mitten av linjen. Resultatet visar att det förslag som lämnats till Umeå Energi har potential att sänka det summerade SAIDI-värdet vid värsta felscenario från 37 minuter till 10 minuter i de matningar som undersökts. Detta till en kostnad av mindre än två miljoner kronor, eller en kostnad per potentiellt minskad SAIDI-minut på ca. 70 000 kr. Studien har tittat på 16 matande linjer med totalt ca. 17 000 kunder. 

  • Andersson, Ellinor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Varmin, Mayah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    ”…MEN ALLA I KLASSEN TYCKER ATT SPÖKBOLL ÄR JÄTTEROLIGT”: Lärares upplevelser av pojkars maskulinitetsskapande på idrottslektionen och hur det tar sig uttryck2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna intervjustudie har som syfte att undersöka lärares uppfattning om hur maskulinitet formas och tar sig uttryck hos högstadiepojkar under idrottslektionen. Studien grundar sig på fyra semistrukturerade intervjuer med lärare som undervisar högstadieelever i ämnet idrott och hälsa. Uppsatsen har tagit sin teoretiska utgångspunkt både i tidigare forskning på området men också i begrepp såsom könsroller, hegemonisk maskulinitet samt identitet och identitetsskapande. Under uppsatsens gång har det identifierats tre teman; ungdomars identitetsutveckling, normer och maskulinitet och maskulinitetens dominans på idrottslektionen. Maskulinitet formas i samspel med ungdomarnas identitetsutveckling och samhällets rådande normer. Under idrottslektioner tar sig maskulinitet uttryck bland annat genom att pojkar tar större plats [genom att höras och synas mer], genom en hårdare jargong pojkar sinsemellan, samt genom vilka aktiviteter som förknippas med manlighet. Maskulinitet tar sig också uttryck genom att ungdomar agerar i enlighet med rådande normer och genom att reagera mot de som avviker från dem. Detta bidrar också till att föreställningar kring maskulinitet befästs och fortsätter att reproduceras.

  • Hasselberg, Aurora
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ett webbaserat program i mindfulness och medkänsla: Effekter på stress och tidsperspektiv i en grupp unga vuxna2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to evaluate effects of a web-based mindfulness and compassion program (MMSU: mindfulness and compassion for emerging adults) on perceived stress and time perspectives. Of 93 emerging adults between 18-25 years, 84 were identified as stressed and randomly distributed to MMSU or waiting list (VL). In total, 35 participants (15 in the intevention group, 20 in the control group) completed the follow-up of Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale Revised (CAMS–R), Self–compassion Scale short form (SCS–SF), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS–14), and Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory short version (S–ZTPI). The intervention group conducted daily 15-minutes exercices in mindfulness and compassion that lasted for two weeks. The hypothesis was that MMSU compared to VL would increase mindfulness levels and self-compassion, as well as decreased levels of percevied stress, self-coldness and deviation from a balanced time perspective profile.  The result of the group (MMSU, VL) X time (pre, post) declared on interactions for self-compassion, self-coldness, percevied stress and present hedonistic. Strong effect size (Cohens´d) for increased self-compassion dppc2=1.00, and medium effect size for decreased self-coldness dppc2=–0.65, reduced perceived stress dppc2=–0.67 and medium effect size on improvement of present hedonistic dppc2=0.61 were found. The program in mindfulness and compassion increased participants self-compassion and reduced their levels of perceived stress significantly. Mindfulness levels and time perspective did not significantly improve. We propose additional studies that follow up the results to continue studying the program´s effectivness. 

  • Karlsson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    El hombre blanco de piel negra: Los ideales y estructuras coloniales en Herencia de bindendee de Trifonia Melibea Obono Ntutumu Obono2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi bor i en postkolonial värld men de gamla strukturerna är fortfarande närmarande, speciellt på kontinenter som Afrika och i länder som Ekvatorial Guinea, en tidigare spansk koloni i Afrika. Syftet med vår studie är att analysera de koloniala idealen i romanen Herencia de bindendee av Trifonia Melibea Obono Ntutunu Obono med fokus på rasismen och hur författareb beskriver den postkoloniala situationen i Ekvatorial Afrika. Vi belyser exempel på karaktärer, föremål och handlingar som fungerar som tecken på mindrevärde och överlägsenhet enligt teorier av Frantz Fanon och Homi K. Bhabha. Dessutom presenterar vi några exemplel på kritik av de ideal och stereotyper som förekommer i romanen och som de nämnda teorierna inte förklarar fullt ut. Slutsatsen är att romanen visar på värld troden den koloniala epoken och en värld av uppror. 

  • Hermansson, Astrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundin, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    “Jag kan inte se det som ämnets kärna”: En kvalitativ undersökning om hur lärare realiserar undervisning i kroppsideal2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ämnet idrott och hälsa har genom åren ifrågasatts och det har diskuterats huruvida ämnet egentligen är ett bildningsämne. Kroppsideal är sedan år 2011 en explicit uttalad del av ämnesplanen (Skolverket, 2011) vilket tydliggör att ämnet består av både färdigheter i och kunskaper om. Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur lärare i idrott och hälsa undervisar om kroppsideal och hur ett sådant undervisningsinnehåll kan förverkligas genom olika undervisningsmetoder. Fem semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med lärare som undervisar på gymnasieskolor i Umeå eller Sundsvalls kommun. Analysmetoden fenomenografi användes för att tolka den insamlade empirin. Resultatet visade att den vanligaste undervisningsmetoden var klassdiskussioner och att ämnet examinerades muntligt antingen genom diskussioner eller gruppresentationer eller skriftligt genom reflektionsuppgifter. Lärarna fann svårigheter med att prioritera området kroppsideal.

  • Johagen, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Söder, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    ETT SVÅRT MEN VIKTIGT ÄMNE: Elever och lärare om kroppsidealundervisning i idrott och hälsa 12018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kroppsideal påverkar ungdomar i stor utsträckning och kan negativt inverka på den mentala hälsan. Kroppsideal har stark koppling till både fysisk aktivitet och sport, och välmående och hälsa. I ämnet idrott och hälsa på gymnasienivå utgör kroppsideal också ett kunskapsmål. Studiens syfte var att undersöka, ur ett elev- respektive lärarperspektiv, kroppsidealsundervisningen i idrott och hälsa 1 på gymnasiet. Frågeställningar som studien ämnade besvara var: i vilken utsträckning och hur idrott och hälsalärare arbetade med kroppsideal i kursen och vilka skillnader det fanns mellan könen kring dessa aspekter; vilka möjligheter och svårigheter lärare upplevde med kroppsidealsundervisningen samt skillnader i hur kvinnliga och manliga elever uppfattade kroppsidealsundervisningen. 334 st elever som läst färdigt kursen fick besvara en enkät om kroppsideal och undervisning, samt att fem lärare i ämnet intervjuades. Studiens resultat indikerar att kvinnligare idrott och hälsalärare undervisar mer om kroppsideal än manliga lärare. Lärarna uppgav att det fanns stora möjligheter att påverka elever positivt med undervisningen, men upplevde svårigheter då de uppfattade kroppsideal som ett känsligt område och att det saknades utrymme inom nuvarande läroplan för att undervisa mer om kroppsideal. Resultaten indikerar också att kvinnliga elever i betydligt större utsträckning än manliga elever vill ha mer kroppsidealsundervisning inom kursen.

  • Gustavsson, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Convention or Nature?: The Correctness of Names in Plato's Cratylus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about Plato‘s dialogue Cratylus, which is one of the earliest texts in the history ofphilosophy of language and has generated much interpretive controversy. In the dialogue, Platoexamines two theories on the correctness of names; conventionalism and naturalism. However,there is no clear positive outcome in the dialogue in regard to the debate betweenconventionalism and naturalism. Therefore, scholars have long been divided as to what Plato‘sown position on the correctness of names is. Another puzzling feature of the dialogue concernsthe etymological section, which has often been ignored or treated in isolation in modernscholarship. This section takes up about half of the dialogue and offers elaborate explanations ofa large number of words in the Greek language. Some recent studies of the Cratylus, however,are shedding much welcome light on the etymological section and the role it plays in thedialogue as a whole. In this thesis, I compare two competing interpretations of the etymologicalsection and discuss how an understanding of the etymologies can help us understand Plato‘sposition on the correctness of names and the purpose of the dialogue as a whole. In TimothyBaxter‘s interpretation, the etymological section should be read as a parody which amounts to aPlatonic critique of a mistaken attitude towards names and language found especially in thepoetry and philosophy in Plato‘s time. David Sedley, on the other hand, argues that theetymologies are seriously intended by Plato as a method of linguistic and historical analysis, amethod he himself endorsed and practiced. If the etymologies are taken seriously, Sedley argues,they show that Plato favored a form of naturalism in regard to the correctness of names. Afterproviding an outline and evaluation of these two interpretations, the thesis concludes with myown proposal. Although I disagree with some of Sedley‘s particular interpretations andarguments, I find myself in broad agreement with his general conclusions.

  • Hägglund, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ranki, Kaisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Idrott och hälsa eller hälsa i idrott?: En kvalitativ studie om lärarnas upplevelse av hälsoundervisning i Sverige och i Finland2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många svenska lärare i ämnet idrott och hälsa anser att begreppet hälsa är ett luddigt och svårtolkat begrepp i läroplanen. I Finland plockades hälsa ut från ämnet gymnastik 2001 och blev ett eget ämne med fokus på olika perspektiv och definitioner av hälsa. Studien syftar till att undersöka uppfattningar om begreppet hälsa i undervisningen hos svenska lärare i idrott och hälsa och finska lärarnas i ämnet hälsokunskap och gymnastik. Studien undersöker även vad lärarna ser för fördelar med att begreppet undervisas som inkluderat i ämnet idrott eller som ett eget ämne. Tre intervjuer med svenska lärare och tre intervjuer med finska lärare har genomförts i studien. I resultatet framkommer det att de svenska lärarna anser att det är svårt att väva in hälsa i innehållet på lektionerna i idrott och hälsa och ställer sig positiva till en möjlig uppdelning av ämnet. Finska lärarna i studien menar att eftersom hälsokunskap är ett eget ämne blir det tydligare för både lärare och elever kring innehållet i undervisningen om begreppet hälsa.

  • Wahlberg, Benjamin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Rundberg, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    En legitimations påverkan för hälso- och sjukvårdskuratorer: En kvalitativ studie om hälso- och sjukvårdskuratorers synpunkter på hur en yrkeslegitimation skulle kunna påverka yrket gällande status och arbete2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom hälso- och sjukvården är kuratorer den enda professionen som saknar legitimation. Ett lagförslag finns för att denna profession ska erhålla legitimation som planeras träda i kraft 1 juli 2019. Frågan är då hur detta kan komma att påverka hälso- och sjukvårdskuratorer då de kan ses vara i underläge gentemot andra professioner inom hälso- och sjukvård som har legitimation. Syftet med denna studie är därför att undersöka hur hälso- och sjukvårdskuratorer förhåller sig till en potentiell yrkeslegitimation, med frågeställningar som berör hur en legitimation skulle kunna komma att påverka dem i deras arbete samt gällande deras professionella status. För att besvara syftet och frågeställningarna har fyra semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med verksamma hälso- och sjukvårdskuratorer som därefter analyseras genom en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Materialet från intervjuerna har sedan analyserats och diskuterats utifrån tidigare kunskap kring ämnet och teoretiska begrepp. Detta har resulterat i upptäckter som tyder på en osäkerhet kring yrkesrollen som hälso- och sjukvårdskurator har vilket en yrkeslegitimation skulle kunna hjälpa till att förtydliga samt öka statusen för kuratorerna inom hälso- och sjukvården i allmänhet. Att hälso- och sjukvårdskuratorer erhåller legitimation kan ses vara viktigt just på grund av den oklara yrkesrollen som kuratorn har inom hälso- och sjukvården då flera professioner delar samma arbetsuppgifter i nuläge, exempelvis psykologer som även arbetar med samtalsbehandling samt har sjuksköterskor börjat försöka träda in på det psykosociala arbetet. En legitimation för hälso- och sjukvårdskuratorer skulle då kunna vara centralt för att stärka professionens identitet samt skydda arbetsuppgifter för att i framtiden inte ersättas av andra professioner.

  • Falk, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gunnarsson, Molly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "det känns ibland som att det finns ett slags avstånd mellan oss": En studie om BUP-kuratorers uppfattning om samverkan med socialtjänsten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn och ungdomar med sammansatta behov, det vill säga både psykiatriska och sociala, kräver ofta insatser från både socialtjänst och barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin. Detta ställer i sin tur krav på dessa organisationer att samverka för att patienten ska få de samordnade insatser hen är i behov av. Syftet med denna uppsats är att få en bild av hur kuratorer på BUP ser på samverkan med socialtjänsten och vilken inverkan samverkan kan ha för patienter med sammansatta behov. Uppsatsen avser även att svara på vilka faktorer som kuratorerna upplever påverkar hur samverkan med socialtjänsten fungerar samt vilka förbättringsområden som finns. Empiriskt material har samlats in genom kvalitativa semi-strukturerade intervjuer med fyra verksamma kuratorer på BUP. En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av det transkriberade materialet resulterade i ett övergripande tema vilket var: patientens bästa är i fokus men frustration uppstår när samverkan brister. Utöver temat utmynnade analysen i tre huvudkategorier; samverkans effekter, faktorer som påverkar samverkan och förbättringsområden. Resultatet av analys och diskussion visade att kuratorerna på olika sätt uttryckte att patientens bästa står i fokus beträffande varför samverkan med socialtjänsten är viktig. Samtliga kuratorer ansåg att samverkan hade möjligheten att ge patienten en hjälp som de inte kunnat få om organisationerna arbetat på separata håll. Samtidigt framgick att det hos kuratorerna fanns känslor av maktlöshet och frustration över att samverkan inte alltid fungerade så väl som de önskade. Faktorerna som kuratorerna upplevde påverkar huruvida samverkan fungerar bra eller inte var dels på organisatorisk nivå men även på individ- och gruppnivå. Resultatet av analysen kan tolkas som att även om det finns lagar och riktlinjer ligger ett stort ansvar på de yrkesverksamma som utför det praktiska arbetet i samverkan. Denna omständighet ställer i sin tur krav på både lagstiftare, kommun och landsting. Detta då de är ytterst ansvariga för att ge kuratorerna, och socialarbetarna, förutsättningar för att ha en god samverkan med varandra. En välfungerande samverkan möjliggör att barn och ungdomar, med sammansatta behov, får de bästa förutsättningarna att utvecklas i en positiv riktning.

  • Östensson, Amanda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Brännström, Virginia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Svensk äldrepolitik: En kvalitativ studie av hur nationella mål för hemtjänsten tar sig uttryck på lokal nivå2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien syftar till att få djupare förståelse för hur de av riksdagen satta äldrepolitiska målen kommer till uttryck på en lokal nivå. De mål som åsyftas är att äldre ska kunna leva ett aktivt liv, ha inflytande över sin vardag samt åldras i trygghet med bibehållet oberoende. Studien genomfördes inom två hemtjänstområden i en mellanstor kommun i norra Sverige våren 2018. Genom en kvalitativ insamlingsmetod i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer med tre enhetschefer inom hemtjänstverksamheter i kommunen, samt gruppintervjuer med vårdpersonal, framkom det en medvetenhet kring de äldrepolitiska målen. Äldreomsorgens övergripande vision tillsammans med servicegarantier ska tillförsäkra samhällsmedborgarna att mötas med respekt och att brukarnas önskemål vid behov av hemtjänstinsatser även respekteras. Den huvudsakliga begränsningen för att nå de politiska målen och garantierna som verksamheterna arbetar utifrån är höga personalomsättningar och de tilldelade ekonomiska resurserna. I studien uttryckte vårdpersonalen en vilja att öka brukarnas inflytande över sin vardag. Begränsningar för ökat brukarinflytande handlade om verksamhetens förutsättningar att kunna planera de dagliga insatserna efter personalens olika kompetenser. När inte all vårdpersonal har fullgod kompetens för att utföra sina arbetsuppgifter uppstår det begränsningar i förutsättningarna att utföra insatserna efter brukarnas önskemål. Till skillnad från enhetschefernas goda kunskaper om de äldrepolitiska målen som de har fått via ett antal utbildningsmöjligheter, så fick vårdpersonalen sina kunskaper inom ämnet via arbetsplatsträffar där även andra aktuella ämnen tas upp under samma träff. Sammanfattningsvis så uttrycktes en övergripande vilja från samtliga i studien att uppfylla de äldrepolitiska målen. Från båda grupperna med vårdpersonal och enhetscheferna uppgavs ekonomin vara största begränsningsfaktorn för äldreomsorgens och de undersökta verksamheternas måluppfyllelse.