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  • Karlsten, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of triclopyr on wood ants (family Formica)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical pollutants are one of the main threats against biodiversity and chemicals affecting non-target organisms are of great environmental concern. The herbicide triclopyr is commonly used to keep weeds under control and is believed to be weakly toxic to animals and only lethal in high doses. However, the knowledge of possible sub-lethal behavior effects in low doses is scarce. This study investigates whether the wood ant (family Formica) show behavioral changes when exposed to sub-lethal doses of triclopyr. The main hypotheses tested were; i) ants behaving normally show a preference for dark surfaces (i.e. scototaxis); and ii) triclopyr affect this behavior trait among ants. The hypotheses were tested by exposing ants to diets containing 1, 10 and 100 mg/L triclopyr for 24 hours (acute) and 7 days (chronic). To what extent ants preferred the white surface (proportion of frames with the ant visible), their activity (proportion of speed above 1 mm/s) their exploration (proportion area covered) and their average velocities was measured using a newly developed tracking software (ToxTrac). The results clearly show that ants have preference for dark surfaces and thus, that the first hypothesis is valid. However, the second hypothesis appear invalid as the different exposures to triclopyr did not affect the examined behaviors. Based on the results, triclopyr appear to not affect non-target organism such as ants, although possible behavioral effects in other organisms and other behavioral traits cannot be excluded. 

  • Gudnason, Asgeir
    et al.
    Adalberth, Gunnar
    Nilsson, Kjell-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Hailer, Nils P.
    Tibial component rotation around the transverse axis measured by radiostereometry predicts aseptic loosening better than maximal total point motion A follow-up of 116 total knee arthroplasties after at least 15 years2017In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 88, no 3, 282-287 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose - Maximal total point motion (MTPM) measured by radiostereometry (RSA) is widely used as a predictor of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) loosening. We compared the ability of different RSA measurements at different time points to predict loosening of tibial TKA components in the long term. Patients and methods - 116 TKAs in 116 patients were included in our analysis. 16 (14.8-17.4) years after surgery, 5 tibial components had been revised due to aseptic loosening. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated in order to investigate the specificity and sensitivity of different RSA parameters at different thresholds. Results - Rotation around the transverse (x-) axis measured 2 years postoperatively had the best predictive value of all parameters, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 80%. Using a threshold of 0.8 degrees, a specificity of 85% and a sensitivity of 50% were reached. The AUC for tibial component distal translation was 79% and it was 77% for proximal translation, whereas it was only 68% for MTPM. Interpretation - Rotation of the cemented tibial component around the transverse axis, proximal translation, and distal translation are slightly better at predicting aseptic loosening than MTPM, and tibial component migration measured after 2 years gives a good prediction of aseptic loosening up to 15 years.

  • Johansson, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utveckling av insticksprogram för DigiSign2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    DigiSign is a web application which is developed by a company called Omegapoint. The application is used tocontrol so called “Digital Signage” monitors and to administrate the content they show. The application islacking a function which lets the user create own templates. The goal with this project is to create a pluginthat integrates with DigiSign where the user can create their own templates and that facilitates the usage ofDigiSign by the customers.This project describes the development of the plugin and the integration with DigiSign. The plugin which isbeing developed is created with Microsoft ASP.NET Web forms and JavaScript.The work during the project has been divided into to three phases, pre-study, development of the userinterface and integration with the plugin in DigiSign. In the pre-study the technical options was explored,how competing products worked and a plan for the project was created. After deciding which technique touse and studying those techniques where knowledge was missing a meeting with the company was held.During the meeting, it was decided which requirements and features the plugin should have. Then the2development for the plugin started. The result of the work is a plugin which the customers can use to createown templates to use with their slideshows.

  • Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Jonsson, Jessica
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Fredriksson, Lennart
    Living with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and an implantable defibrillator2017In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 17, 121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: ICDs efficiently terminate life-threatening arrhythmias, but complications occur during long-term follow-up. Patients' own perspective is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to describe experiences of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients with implantable defibrillators (ICDs).

    Methods: We analyzed 26 Swedish patient interviews using hermeneutics and latent content analysis.

    Results: Patients (aged 27-76 years) were limited by HCM especially if it deteriorates into heart failure. The ICD implies safety, gratitude, and is accepted as a part of the body even when inappropriate ICD shocks are encountered. Nobody regretted the implant. Both the disease and the ICD affected professional life and leisure time activities, especially at younger ages. Family support was usually strong, but sometimes resulted in overprotection, whereas health care focused on medical issues. Despite limitations, patients adapted, accepted, and managed challenges.

    Conclusion: HCM patients with ICDs reported good spirit and hope even though they had to adapt and accept limitations over time.

  • Garcìa Lòpez, Natxo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Fine particle emissions from biomass cookstoves: Evaluation of a new laboratory setup and comparison of three appliances2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is estimated that around three billion people globally rely on traditional usage of biomass to cover their daily energy needs, which causes health and social inequality problems and contributes to global warming. Thus, the study of particle emissions from cookstoves provides important information that can help improve global welfare.  

    This study aims to (a) evaluate a new laboratory setup for measurement of particle emissions from cookstoves and (b) use this setup to compare the particle emissions from three cookstove appliances that cover the whole spectra of used technologies, namely a 3-stone fire, an improved cookstove and a gasifier stove.

    Emissions of total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (≤ 2500 nm) and other emission components such as carbon dioxide were measured.

    Results from this study show that the new laboratory setup is appropriate to measure and investigate fine particle emissions from cookstoves as well as cookstove efficiency. Further, it also shows that the 3-stone fire was the cookstove with the highest emission factor of all, followed by the rocket stove and the gasifier stove respectively. The analysis of the data obtained from the transient particle measurement provided some information on the particle size and the soot and salt contained in the overall emitted particles.

    Finally, some suggestions such as continuous measurements of background particle and CO2 levels are recommended. Additionally, further research ideas are also proposed. 

  • Eldborn, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Det svenska riksrådet: Det svenska riksrådets inre dynamik och agerande runt krisåret 16502017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Fernberg Dielemans, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Det nutida föräldraskapet?: En kvalitativ textanalys om framställningen av curlingföräldrar i svensk dags- och kvällspress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies syfte var att undersöka hur framställningen av curlingföräldrar ser ut i den svenska dags- och kvällspressen. För detta syfte analyserades ett flertal artiklar, krönikor och ledare i de två största svenska dagstidningarna, Svenska Dagbladet och Dagens Nyheter, samt de två största svenska kvällstidningarna, Expressen och Aftonbladet. Curlingföräldrar är ett begrepp som på senare år fått stort genomslag i debatten kring barnuppfostran, och det har getts stort utrymme i media. Det finns dock sparsamt med forskning kring curlingföräldrar och denna uppsats syftar därför till att bidra med en ökad kunskap om och förståelse för fenomenet. De forskningsfrågor som styrde undersökningen var följande: Hur beskrivs och framställs begreppet curlingföräldrar i dags- och kvällspress? Vilken typ av barnuppfostran samt föräldrasyn framhäver denna bild? Vilka olika typer av konsekvenser kan denna syn på barnuppfostran och föräldrasyn resultera i? Studiens empiri bestod av sammanlagt 15 olika artiklar, ledare och krönikor inhämtade från ovan nämnda tidningar. Dessa texter bearbetades och analyserades sedan genom en kvalitativ textanalys. Resultatet visade att curlingföräldrar beskrevs i huvudsakligen negativa termer, där föräldrarna ansågs brista i sitt föräldraskap på en rad punkter. De mest framhävande negativa aspekterna framställdes i form av brist på tid, brist på auktoritet och ansvarstagande, ängslan och oro samt missriktad omsorg. De beskrevs också som krävande och med orimliga krav på skolan. Curlingföräldrar ställs också i relation till en medelklass, där ett dåligt samvete över för lite tid med barnen kompenseras med överdriven omsorg. Konsekvenserna för barnen till dessa föräldrar beskrevs även de i negativa termer, där barnen framställdes som ouppfostrade, egoistiska, bortskämda och utan ansvar för det egna livet. På ett övergripande plan framställdes det curlande föräldraskapet som negativt både för barnen men också för samhället i stort, då det ansågs leda till konsekvenser i form av psykisk ohälsa, ungdomsarbetslöshet, ett utökande av samhällsklyftor och ett försvårande av social rörlighet.

  • Dunder, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The Manic Pixie Dream Girls in John Green’s Looking for Alaska and Paper Towns2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the function of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl trope in John Green’s young adult novels Looking for Alaska and Paper Towns is researched using feminist criticism and postfeminist theory. My claim is that The Manic Pixie Dream Girls in Looking for Alaska and Paper Towns perpetuate stereotypical gender roles and thereby help maintain a glorified image of the muse. I support this claim by researching how Alaska and Margo fit into the Manic Pixie Dream Girl trope and, as such, how they perpetuate stereotypical gender roles. Furthermore, this study shows how the MPDG is connected to the traditional archetype of the muse. 

  • Wickman, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Blasius, Bernd
    Klausmeier, Christopher A.
    Ryabov, Alexey B.
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Determining Selection across Heterogeneous Landscapes: A Perturbation-Based Method and Its Application to Modeling Evolution in Space2017In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 189, no 4, 381-395 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial structure can decisively influence the way evolutionary processes unfold. To date, several methods have been used to study evolution in spatial systems, including population genetics, quantitative genetics, moment-closure approximations, and individual-based models. Here we extend the study of spatial evolutionary dynamics to eco-evolutionary models based on reaction-diffusion equations and adaptive dynamics. Specifically, we derive expressions for the strength of directional and stabilizing/disruptive selection that apply both in continuous space and to metacommunities with symmetrical dispersal between patches. For directional selection on a quantitative trait, this yields a way to integrate local directional selection across space and determine whether the trait value will increase or decrease. The robustness of this prediction is validated against quantitative genetics. For stabilizing/disruptive selection, we show that spatial heterogeneity always contributes to disruptive selection and hence always promotes evolutionary branching. The expression for directional selection is numerically very efficient and hence lends itself to simulation studies of evolutionary community assembly. We illustrate the application and utility of the expressions for this purpose with two examples of the evolution of resource utilization. Finally, we outline the domain of applicability of reaction-diffusion equations as a modeling framework and discuss their limitations.

  • Linna Lundström, Molly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Barnaföderskors ekonomiska och(arbets-)rättsliga skydd 1929 – 1938: En kvalitativ studie av Statens offentliga utredningar i anknytning till införandet av ekonomiskunderstödsverksamhet för nyblivna mödrar och lagen omförbud mot avsked i samband med äktenskap och graviditet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lundin, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Strand, Leo
    Skriv dom och få din dom: En studie om vad lärare tenderar att fokuserar på i sin bedömning av språk i elevtexter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    This study explores the correlation between teachers' remarks regarding language correctness and style and upper secondary school students' grades. The material consists of assignments from three different classes, with two different teachers. The purpose is to investigate a possible connection between the teachers' remarks regarding the use of improper language and the students grades. The result of this study clearly demonstrates that the more remarks a student receives regarding improper language, the more he or she is likely to get a lower grade. The two teachers tend, however, to assess language use somewhat differently: the first teacher tends to value formal writing higher than the other one, who rather tends to appraise semantic strincency.

  • Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Karimpour, Masoumeh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bosson, Jenny A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Unosson, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Pourazar, Jamshid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Behndig, Annelie F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mass spectrometry profiling of oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and N-acylethanolamines in human lung lavage fluids reveals responsiveness of prostaglandin E2 and associated lipid metabolites to biodiesel exhaust exposure2017In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 409, no 11, 2967-2980 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adverse effects of petrodiesel exhaust exposure on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are well recognized. While biofuels such as rapeseed methyl ester (RME) biodiesel may have ecological advantages, the exhaust generated may cause adverse health effects. In the current study, we investigated the responses of bioactive lipid mediators in human airways after biodiesel exhaust exposure using lipidomic profiling methods. Lipid mediator levels in lung lavage were assessed following 1-h biodiesel exhaust (average particulate matter concentration, 159 mu g/m(3)) or filtered air exposure in 15 healthy individuals in a double-blinded, randomized, controlled, crossover study design. Bronchoscopy was performed 6 h post exposure and lung lavage fluids, i.e., bronchial wash (BW) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), were sequentially collected. Mass spectrometry methods were used to detect a wide array of oxylipins (including eicosanoids), endocannabinoids, Nacylethanolamines, and related lipid metabolites in the collected BWand BAL samples. Six lipids in the human lung lavage samples were altered following biodiesel exhaust exposure, three from BAL samples and three from BW samples. Of these, elevated levels of PGE2, 12,13-DiHOME, and 13-HODE, all of which were found in BAL samples, reached Bonferroni-corrected significance. This is the first study in humans reporting responses of bioactive lipids following biodiesel exhaust exposure and the most pronounced responses were seen in the more peripheral and alveolar lung compartments, reflected by BAL collection. Since the responsiveness and diagnostic value of a subset of the studied lipid metabolites were established in lavage fluids, we conclude that our mass spectrometry profiling method is useful to assess effects of human exposure to vehicle exhaust.

  • Philippi, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Nihlwing, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Embodied Quantification of Self: Motivating and Informing Action in Self-Tracking2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technical advancements allow for increasingly sophisticated methods of self-tracking. Despite this, the ways in which we interact with our numerical representations seem not to have progressed equally, making it challenging to use the data in meaningful ways. This prevents us from making the most of self-tracking in order to facilitate a healthier lifestyle and self-improvement. In this study, we show how Dourish’s Embodied Interaction can motivate acting based on self-tracked data, with the example of walking. We conducted evaluations with experts and users of a software prototype that is built on the notion of embodiment. Based on the results, we draw a number of conclusions about the usefulness of Embodied Interaction in this area: That digital applications can support physical activity through providing context, motivation and feedback; that self-tracking applications should focus on goals rather than data; that motivation might be increased by placing the users efforts in a context that transcends them as individuals; and that Embodied Interaction offers a rich field of possibilities which are yet to be discovered. 

  • Fischerström, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Åkerström, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Kundrelationer i det tekniska servicemötet: Self Service Technology's betydelse för den upplevda relationen till ett företag2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den digitala och tekniska utvecklingen som har skett under 2010-talet har påverkat hela samhället. För företag och kunder har samhällsutvecklingen inneburit att roller förändrats och kunderna är allt mer involverade i skapandet av tjänster. På grund av tjänstens karaktärsdrag skapas osäkerhet i kundens förväntningar kring tjänsten, och tjänsteföretagens svårighet är att skapa en trygghet för kunden i servicemötet. Traditionellt sett har denna trygghet skapats av servicepersonal, men teknikutvecklingen har gjort att kunderna allt oftare interagerar med teknologi, Self Service Technology (SST), istället för personal. När teknologi introduceras förändras förutsättningarna för mötet och tidigare forskning kring servicemötet utmanas.

    Syftet med denna studie är att utveckla förståelse för om SSTs kan vara en

    relationsbyggande faktor mellan kund och företag. Vi vill identifiera vad som har betydelse för kundrelationen i ett tekniskt servicemöte, för att kunna ge praktiska råd till företag inom tjänstebranschen som står inför beslutet att implementera SSTs i sin verksamhet.

    För att undersöka detta har vi studerat restaurangbranschen. Vi har genomfört åtta kvalitativa intervjuer med kunder till en restaurang som använder sig av SST i ett fysiskt servicemöte. Den teoretiska bakgrunden om tjänster, relationer och det tekniska samt mellanmänskliga servicemötet har ställts i relation till materialet från intervjuerna. Därefter har vi kunnat besvara studiens problemformulering:

    Hur upplever kunden relationen till ett företag i en fysisk tjänstemiljö när interaktionen mellan parterna sker via SST?

    Resultatet av studien visar på att det är möjligt att upprätta en relation mellan kund och företag när interaktionen sker via SST. Hur kunden upplever relationen beror på hur kunden hanterar de nya förutsättningarna som det tekniska servicemötet innebär. Det tekniska servicemötet innebär nya roller och manus vilka kunden och företaget måste lära sig. Det är även viktigt att förstå att förväntningarna bildas av tidigare erfarenheter från såväl det tekniska servicemötet samt från det mellanmänskliga servicemötet för att god tjänstekvalitet ska kunna uppnås. Vi har också identifierat att den upplevda trygghetskänslan är avgörande för att en relation ska ha möjlighet att upprättas mellan kund och företag. För att SST ska vara relationsbyggande är det viktigt att tekniken kan bidra till kundens upplevda trygghetskänsla.

  • Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Backsourcing intellectual capital: Is the damage already done, or can it be prevented?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a globalized world where competition has risen, it has become more and more popular for companies to outsource non-core activities. The main reasons for doing so are due to cost reductions, improving organizational focus, better flexibility and improve product quality, delivery and service. As outsourcing is increasingly growing in popularity, the problems associated is more prominent. For some companies outsourcing is a bridge to all the related benefits, while for some companies it can be a nightmare. When the expectations aren't met, the focal firm will have to re-evaluate the decision. The decision to will therefore to renegotiate with the vendor, switch to another vendor or to backsource. Backsourcing is when activities which previously has been outsourced is brought back in-house.

    Previous research on backsourcing has focused on functions such as information technology and information system. Little attention has been given towards production and the risk involved. In order for the vendor to produce, knowledge need to be shared. This can be complicated for knowledge-intensive firms considering their value creating resource is knowledge which derives from their intellectual capital. As the know-how of the product is shared to the vendor, the research made is transferred.

    If the knowledge-intensive firm is dissatisfied with the entered outsourcing agreement, and wishes to end the agreement the know-how will still continue to be shared. Causing the focal firm to feel locked-in with the vendor. If they choose to backsource, the risks related to the shared knowledge appears. As the knowledge is already shared, the question if it can be prevented arises. Which leads to our research questions:

    RQ1: What are the risks related to intellectual capital when backsourcing?

    RQ2: How can these risks be prevented?

    To answer these questions, a case study from a knowledge-intensive firm who faces this problem is examined with our theoretical framework. The risk identified were opportunistic behaviour with the shared intellectual capital, reputational risk, risk with reintegrating intellectual capital, investment risk and risk from earlier contractual arrangement. To prevent these revealed to be difficult but not impossible. To summarize the preventing measure identified, they revolve around legal protection from well-written contracts and patents, careful execution plan, use of external expertise and by avoiding high investment through establishing a pilot plant.

  • Krenek, Alexander
    et al.
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO).
    Schratzenstaller, Margit
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO).
    Sustainability-oriented Future EU Funding: A European Net Wealth Tax2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase of wealth inequality in many EU countries has spurred interest in wealth taxation. While taxes on wealth for a long time have played only a marginal role in the public finance and taxation literature, in the more recent literature a variety of arguments are brought forward in favour of (higher) wealth taxation. Most of these arguments directly or indirectly refer to the potential of wealth taxes to contribute to various dimensions of sustainability, in particular to economic, social, and/or institutional/cultural sustainability. Tax competition has led to an almost complete disappearance of recurrent taxes on personal or corporate net wealth in Europe. EU-wide implementation of a net wealth tax based on harmonised tax provisions may serve as a first step in a longer-term oriented move of the stepwise expansion of net wealth taxes on a global scale. By dealing with non- and under-reporting in the Household and Consumption Survey (HFCS) data set provided by the European Central Bank, we are able to estimate the wealth distribution within 20 EU Member States. Applying a progressive household-based tax schedule with a tax rate of 1% for net wealth above € 1 million and 1.5% for net wealth above € 5 million on these adjusted wealth distributions yields potential tax revenues of € 156 billion, taking into account the behavioural responses of individuals triggered by net wealth taxation. Given the positive sustainability properties of a net wealth tax with regard to economic efficiency and social inclusion, a European net wealth tax offers itself as an interesting candidate for sustainability-oriented tax-based own resources to finance the EU budget.

  • Wikström, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Nyorden som speglar nutiden: En korpusundersökning av hur 37 nyord har etablerat sig i svenskt skriftspråk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är undersöka 37 nyord från 2015 års nyordslista och få svar på hur de har etablerats i svenskt skriftspråk. För att genomföra undersökningen har jag använt mig av Språkbankens korpusverktyg, där jag bland annat har tagit reda på i vilken utsträckning nyorden används baserat på hur många sökträffar de har, samt i vilka sammanhang de förekommer. I syfte att komplettera mina resultat har jag även gjort sökningar på Google. Utifrån sökresultaten har jag jämfört nyorden och delat in dem i olika grupper baserat på antal sökträffar, därefter har jag analyserat nyorden i respektive grupp för att hitta en gemensam nämnare och ett mönster. Resultatet från min undersökning visar att nyorden tenderar att förekomma i störst utsträckning på webbplatserna Twitter och Flashback. Av de nio nyord som har blivit mest etablerade är några lånord från engelskan medan några har kopplingar till samhällsfrågor och en ny innovation. De fyra som fick flest sökträffar har gemensamt att de är etablerade i en tidigare betydelse. Nyordslistan 2015 präglas av lånord, sammansättningar samt politik- och teknikrelaterade ord som speglar vår nutid.

  • Forssén, Christoffer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Åhs, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Multiple factor models for equities: An empirical study of the performance of factor mimicking portfolios2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The trade-off between risk and return for equities has long been a challenge for portfolio and risk managers in order to create financial success and stability. This issue has led to several researchers trying to explain equity returns through various factor models. The capital asset-pricing model (CAPM) formulated by Sharpe (1964), Lintner (1965), and Black (1972) was the first model explaining the relation between cross-sectional returns relative the broad market index. Since then, factor models have evolved and fundamental multiple factor models have been found to successfully explain the risk structure of equities, through linear combinations of firm specific data and market data.

    In this paper, we implement and analyze a fundamental factor model. The objective is to build a dynamic and robust model that provide portfolio and risk managers with insight of what drives returns and risks of equities and portfolios. A key to understand the advantages of factor models lies in the characteristics of factors and the concept of factor mimicking portfolios, whose return perfectly replicates those of factors. These portfolios are derived through cross-sectional regressions of security returns and standardized exposure towards factors, which results in portfolios with a desired exposure. The model implementation is applied and evaluated for both a European and Swedish estimation universe, and the result indicate that some factor mimicking portfolios yield an excess return relative the market during 2015-01-01 to 2017-01-01. 

  • Lampa, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bättre företagsprestationer genom effektivare arbetsgrupper: En fallstudie på Öresundskraft AB2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study at the energy company Öresundskraft AB studies the relationship between group efficiency and business performance. An analyzation of key performance indicators, a correlation study and interviews was conducted at Öresundskraft, as well as a comparision to other energy companies. As the teams became more efficient, Öresundskraft’s short time profitability increased, they got more customers and the customers became more satisfied, Öresundskraft also increased internal efficiency and decreased expenses. The employees became happier, more flexible and more open to changes, which is relevant especially to companies that face an instable future. The results from this study are useful to companies that want to improve their internal efficiency and increase their performance. 

  • Lindqvist, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ett bra ledarskap enligt unga vuxna: Erfarenheter och förväntningar på arbetslivet bland millennials2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka millennials erfarenheter av och förväntningar på ledarskap i arbetslivet för att på så vis bidra till den vetenskapliga forskning som finns om vilka krav som ställs på ledarskapsutövning idag samt bidra till förståelsen om vad kompetensutvecklingskurser för ledare bör innehålla. Frågeställningarna var vilka erfarenheter av ledarskap informanterna uppfattar som positiva respektive negativa, vilka förväntningar de har på ledarskap i arbetslivet, samt hur ledarskapet påverkar deras engagemang, motivation, arbetsprestation och lojalitet till arbetsgivaren. I fokus för studien stod fyra deltagare mellan 26 och 34 år. För att besvara frågeställningarna genomfördes kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med var och en av dessa deltagare. För att förklara resultaten utgick studien ifrån teorier som definierar ledarskap som antingen egenskaper, beteenden eller relation mellan ledare och medarbetare. Resultaten av studien visade att ledarskap enligt informanterna kännetecknas av egenskaper, beteende och relation samtidigt, dock med stor betoning på relationsaspekten. Deltagarna uppgav att ett bra ledarskap framförallt kännetecknas av rak och öppen kommunikation som inkluderar feedback på arbetsprestationen, tydlig förväntansbild från båda håll och ett starkt förtroende. Resultaten är inte menade att generaliseras till att gälla alla millennials, speciellt som studien på grund av tidsaspekten enbart hade fyra deltagare. Studien gav dock en fingervisning av vad ett bra ledarskap för unga kan tänkas innehålla och kan på så vis förhoppningsvis användas för att både utforma vidare forskning och kompetensutvecklingskurser på området.

  • Hahlin, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    "This is my father and he's a woman": En undersökning av framställningar av transpersoner i tv-serierna Orange Is the New Black och Transparent.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine how transgender people are represented in modern

    day popular fiction. To do this, I have analyzed two tv-programmes, Orange Is the New Black

    and Transparent. To do this, I have used thematic analysis as well as analyzed the images

    produced within the programs. The theories that I base my analysis on is largely based on the

    theories of representation as coined by Stuart Hall as well as queer theory and Judith Butler’s

    take on gender. I find that they share many common themes such as the process of “coming

    out” and a clear focus on what transgender peoples’ bodies look like and how they interact

    with gender. It is mainly trans women who are the subject of fictional movies and tv-programmes and this is perhaps because they are believed to be more approachable and hu-morous than other transgender people. The key to representation is variation and overlook-ing the fact that trans women are somewhat overrepresented, Orange Is the New Black and

    Transparent portray transgender people in a realistic and intersectional fashion.

  • Palmebjörk, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Gränslöst arbete inom akademin: En fenomenologisk studie av chefers upplevelser av det gränslösa arbetets effekter på den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det ”gränslösa arbetet” är vitt utbrett i dagens samhälle och får konsekvenser för såväl individer som organisationer. Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur chefer, i form av prefekter och föreståndare, upplever att ”det gränslösa arbetet” påverkar den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön. För att besvara syftet och frågeställningarna utfördes sex semistrukturerade intervjuer med prefekter och föreståndare inom akademin. De frågeställningar som besvarats är: ”Hur upplever cheferna att det gränslösa arbetet tar sig uttryck inom akademin?”, ”Hur upplever cheferna att det gränslösa arbetet kan bidra till en god organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö?”, ”Hur upplever cheferna att det gränslösa arbetet kan motverka en god organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö?” samt ”Hur upplever cheferna sin egen roll i att hantera effekter som kan uppstå av det gränslösa arbetet”. Analysen genomfördes med en fenomenologisk utgångspunkt och resulterade i ett antal teman utifrån frågeställningarna. För frågeställningen om hur det ”gränslösa arbetet” tar sig uttryck inom akademin framkom två teman: frihet under ansvar och ett arbete utan slut. Vad gäller frågeställningen om hur det ”gränslösa arbetet” kan bidra till en organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö visade sig essensen i temat flexibilitet och egen kontroll. För den tredje frågeställningen om hur det ”gränslösa arbetet” kan motverka en god organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö framkom två teman: otydliga gränser och distansering. Slutligen framkom essensen gällande frågeställningen hur cheferna upplever sin egen roll i att hantera de effekter som kan uppstå av det ”gränslösa arbetet” i temat skapa förutsättningar, minskad kontroll och förebilder.

  • Stefansson, Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Värme i ledning. : En kvalitativ studie om fjärrvärmens framväxt i Umeå,Karlstad och Mjölby 1940–1980.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker motiven bakom byggandet av fjärrvärmesystem i Tre

    svenska städer. Sopförbränningsanläggningen

    Ålidhemsverket i Umeå, samt det

    fjärrvärmesystem som är kopplat till anläggningen, och fjärrvärmesystemen i

    Karlstad och Mjölby. I fallet Ålidhemsanläggningen var Umeås växande befolkning,

    med ökad befolkningstäthet som följd en viktig faktor. Politikerna menade att

    luftföroreningarna till följd av eldning för bostadsvärme riskerade bli omfattande.

    Även sophanteringen väntades bli problematisk i takt med att staden blev större. När

    stadsdelen Ålidhem skulle byggas under 1960-talet uppstod ett läge där värme från

    sopdestruktion kunde användas. Miljonprogramssatsningen var en av de stora

    anledningarna till att fjärrvärmesystem byggdes i många svenska städer.

    De tre städerna byggde sina respektive system i olika tider varför det är intressant att

    jämföra dessa tre fall. Karlstads fjärrvärmesystem var det första i Sverige och stod

    klart under sent 1940-tal, Umeå byggde sitt under sent 1960-tal medan byggandet i

    Mjölby skedde under 1980-talet. I Karlstads fall var det behovet av extrakraft som

    ledde till byggande av kraftvärmeverk, och sedan fjärrvärmesystem. I Umeå var

    miljöaspekterna centrala. I Mjölby bestod drivkrafterna i stor utsträckning av statligt

    förd energipolitik i tiden efter oljekriserna, då politikerna hade för avsikt att minska

    landets beroende av fossila bränslen.

  • Gutiérrez, Ainhoa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    El humor como resistencia en Arráncame la vida2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna C-uppsats är att studera och analysera användningen av humor, ironi och parodi, och den så kallade ”maskerspel” i romanen Arráncame la vida av Ángeles Mastretta. För detta baserar vi på teorierna av Joan Riviere, Yolanda Montalvo, Alberto Bruzos, C. D Muecke och Linda Hutcheon, bland andra författare. Med vår forskning vill vi visa hur med en blandning av humor och masker, Mastretta lyckas att huvudpersonen i romanen förmår att kunna göra kritik av de orättvisa situationerna som hon ser eller lider, och därutöver detta möjliggör hennes uppror och hennes egen befrielse.

  • Gamboa, Xie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Organisationsförändringar i offentlig sektor: Mellanchefers upplevelser av organisationsförändringar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att skapa kunskap om mellanchefers upplevelser och erfarenheter avorganisationsförändringar i offentlig sektor. Den offentliga sektorn är känd för sinförändringsobenägenhet men trots det genomgår många kommuner, landsting och myndigheterstörre organisationsförändringar. Tio kvalitativa intervjuer har gjorts på mellanchefer inomstaten, landsting och kommun för att finna gemensamma mönster. Frågeställningarna som harbesvarats är: “Vilka möjligheter upplever mellanchefer under en organisationsförändring?” Och”Vilka svårigheter upplever mellanchefer under en organisationsförändring?” Intervjuernaanalyserades från en fenomenologisk utgångspunkt som resulterade i fem teman: delaktighet,förberedelse, samarbete, små förändringar samt fokusområden. De nämnda temana harupplevts som antingen en möjlighet eller ett problem av de intervjuade personerna. Delaktighetnämndes av alla informanterna som en viktig del i en förändringsprocess. Samarbete, småförändringar, kortare beslutsvägar och fokus på ett visst område var gemensamma nämnaresom upplevdes som positiva vid en organisationsförändring. De problem som upplevdes medförändringar var att samarbetet blev svårt när det var för många delaktiga och att förändringenvar tidskrävande samt att stora förändringar förväntades. Små steg i taget ansågs därmed merlämpligt.

  • Bersani, Cinzia
    et al.
    Sivars, Lars
    Haeggblom, Linnea
    DiLorenzo, Sebastian
    Mints, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahrlund-Richter, Andreas
    Tertipis, Nikolaos
    Munck-Wikland, Eva
    Nasman, Anders
    Ramqvist, Torbjorn
    Dalianis, Tina
    Targeted sequencing of tonsillar and base of tongue cancer and human papillomavirus positive unknown primary of the head and neck reveals prognostic effects of mutated FGFR32017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 21, 35339-35350 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus positive (HPV+) tonsillar cancer (TSCC), base of tongue cancer (BOTSCC) and unknown primary cancer of the head and neck (HNCUP) have better outcome than corresponding HPV- cancers. To find predictive markers for response to treatment, and correlations and differences in mutated oncogenes and suppressor genes between HPV+TSCC/BOTSSCC and HPV+ HNCUP and HPV- TSCC/BOTSCC targeted next-generation sequencing was performed of frequently mutated regions in 50 cancer related genes.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: DNA from 348 TSCC/BOTSCC and 20 HNCUP from patients diagnosed 2000-2011, was sequenced by the Ion Proton sequencing platform using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 to identify frequently mutated regions in 50 cancer related genes. Ion Torrent Variant Caller software was used to call variants.

    RESULTS: 279 HPV+ TSCC/BOTSCC, 46 HPV- TSCC/BOTSCC and 19 HPV+ HNCUP samples qualified for further analysis. Mutations/tumor were fewer in HPV+ TSCC/BOTSCC and HNCUP, compared to HPV- tumors (0.92 vs. 1.32 vs. 1.68). Differences in mutation frequency of TP53 and PIK3CA were found between HPV+ TSCC/BOTSCC and HNCUP and HPV- TSCC/BOTSCC. In HPV+TSCC/BOTSCC presence of FGFR3 mutations correlated to worse prognosis. Other correlations to survival within the groups were not disclosed.

    CONCLUSIONS: In HPV+ TSCC/BOTSCC mutation of PIK3CA was most frequently observed, while TP53 mutations dominated in HPV- TSCC/BOTSCC. In HPV+ TSCC/BOTSCC and HNCUP, mutations/tumor were similar in frequency and fewer compared to that in HPV- TSCC/BOTSCC. Notably, FGFR3 mutations in HPV+ TSCC/BOTSCC indicated worse prognosis.

  • Ekman, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Price Vector Recalculation Optimization2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • You, Yuan
    et al.
    Sawikowska, Aneta
    Neumann, Manuela
    Pose, David
    Capovilla, Giovanna
    Langenecker, Tobias
    Neher, Richard A.
    Krajewski, Pawel
    Schmid, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Spemannstrasse 35, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Temporal dynamics of gene expression and histone marks at the Arabidopsis shoot meristem during flowering2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 15120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants can produce organs throughout their entire life from pluripotent stem cells located at their growing tip, the shoot apical meristem (SAM). At the time of flowering, the SAM of Arabidopsis thaliana switches fate and starts producing flowers instead of leaves. Correct timing of flowering in part determines reproductive success, and is therefore under environmental and endogenous control. How epigenetic regulation contributes to the floral transition has eluded analysis so far, mostly because of the poor accessibility of the SAM. Here we report the temporal dynamics of the chromatin modifications H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 and their correlation with transcriptional changes at the SAM in response to photoperiod-induced flowering. Emphasizing the importance of tissue-specific epigenomic analyses we detect enrichments of chromatin states in the SAM that were not apparent in whole seedlings. Furthermore, our results suggest that regulation of translation might be involved in adjusting meristem function during the induction of flowering.

  • Rundqvist, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Av god Conduit: Privatlärare i Stockholm med omnejd 1793-17952017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    OF PROPER CONDUCT: PRIVATE TUTORS IN STOCKHOLM AND ITS ENVIRONS 1793–1795

    This paper studies private tutors in Stockholm and its environs 1793-1795 by examining work advertisements written by said tutors. It is in part a continuation of a previous study of the education market in Stockholm 1798. It utilizes Yvonne Hirdman ’s gender theory and Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of symbolic capital to analyze differences in what male and female tutors offered to teach, how they portrayed themselves and if any social groups could be ascertained. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used, where the quantitative method is partly influenced by the verb oriented-method from the Gender and Work (GaW) project and the qualitative method is influenced by hermeneutics.

    The study shows that most of the tutors were men, and of those men a majority were students, priests, educated men and officials. The female tutors did not use titles overall, but the subjects they offered to teach suggests most were in the mid- to upper mid layer of society. The French salon culture was dominating among the nobles at the end of the 18th century. This study argues that the salon culture was the cultural capital by which the tutors measured themselves. Because of their academic merits, men tended to use institutionalized cultural capital while women used only partly embodied cultural capital through their knowledge of the French language.

    Where men tended to use formal merits, women used a wider array of strategies. There were however a number of men who used strategies of weakness when faced with financial difficulties. Women taught mainly needlework and French, where female tutors offering to teach how to sew of clothes showed a shift from male professional tailors to female seamstresses.

    It is argued that Hirdman’s principle of segregation between men and women both affected the subjects the tutors were able to offer as well as the subjects they did offer.

  • Klaus, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Environmental effects on cryoturbation along bioclimatic gradients in subarctic Sweden: The importance of soil disturbance proxy, spatial scale and mesoclimatic regime2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cryoturbation is a fundamental soil forming process with large importance for ecosystem functioning in the Arctic. Recent investigations have emphasized the effect of climate change on cryoturbation, but contrast in their predictions on cryoturbation under future climate warming. This study analyzed to what extent conclusions on the response of cryoturbation to environmental conditions depend on: 1) the proxy of cryogenic activity used; 2) the spatial scale of environmental predictor variables; and 3) the mesoclimatic regime of the study site. As an example of cryoturbated soil, 48 non-sorted patterned-ground features were sampled at eight sites along an elevational and a precipitation gradient and vegetation gradients nested within each site in the Abisko area, northernmost Sweden. To quantify cryogenic activity, eight proxies of cryogenic activity were used. In addition, environmental data were obtained at two spatial scales from field surveys and existing geodata. The results suggest a significant correlation between most activity proxies. Cryogenic activity increased along the precipitation gradient and peaked at intermediate elevations, while within-site variation was similar to between-site variation. The response of cryogenic activity to environmental factors was largly independent of the proxy used but varied with the spatial scale of predictor variables and across mesoclimatic regimes, with precipitation and vegetation cover being the most important predictors. The study indicates that spatial scale and mesoclimate should be considered when assessing the sensitivity of cryoturbation to climate changes. The results therefore provide possible explanations for contrasting previous predictions on the fate of cryoturbated patterned-ground ecosystems under future climate warming.

  • Ligtenberg, Jora
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lake condition changes of a boreal lake over the past ca. 6500 years based on varve geochemistry2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess changes in the in-lake conditions of lake Kassjön, northern Sweden, in response to environmental and climate changes over the past ca. 6500 years. Sediment concentrations of different elements and biogenic silica (bSi) were measured with wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The lake-water total organic carbon (LWTOC) content was inferred based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The marine sediment was distinguished from the lacustrine sediment by higher dry bulk density, lithogenic element concentrations and Br content, and lower bSi concentrations. After lake formation, the dry bulk density, lithogenic element concentrations and metal contents decreased, while organic matter (OM), bSi and LWTOC increased. The main reasons for these changes are soil development and vegetation establishment. Spruce immigration around 3000 BP induced considerable changes to the sediment concentrations indicative of increased erosion versus weathering, and LWTOC declined. These changes are mainly related the different characteristics of spruce compared to birch. Human influences in the catchment were also clearly visible, but the rest of the sediment sequence demonstrated that natural changes can be of a similar magnitude. Overall, relatively small-scale, catchment specific processes seem to be more important for changes in the lake conditions than general climate change.

  • Sehlstedt, Kim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utredning av nya styrsätt för Hedensbyverket2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present thesis was to investigate alternative ways of controlling boiler 2 at Hedenbyverket with the target to smoothen the combustion process and thereby increase the maximum production. The boiler capacity is limited by the maximum flow of flue gas fan and the control mode of the boiler entails in fluctuations, which lowers the production even more. Operation test campaigns showed that the fluctuations can be derived to two different phenomena in the boiler. Low frequent fluctuations occur due to the fuel feed system attempting to control the vapor pressure. There are also fluctuations with higher frequency which are caused by variations in the fuel flow that is being fed into boiler. Two different measures were proposed, one that eliminates the low frequent fluctuations and one measure that reduces the high frequent fluctuations. With the help of some assumptions, new values for boiler efficiency and resulting maximum production was calculated for each measure. An optimization model was used to predict the production of all heat generators connected to the district heating system and the economic effect of each measure was estimated. The results showed that by smoothening the high frequent fluctuations a profit higher than 100 000 SEK could be made due to higher electricity production for boiler 2 at Hedensbyverket and reduced heat production at other facilities. However, to achieve the highest amount of savings it is recommended to implement both measures. A future study is recommended to investigate whether an investment in a bigger flue gas fan would be profitable. 

  • Steinvall, Konrad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Deriving the Undisturbed Near-surface Lunar Electric Field: Simulations of the electrostatic environment of the Umeå Lunar Venture electric field instrument2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of an electric field on the Moon has been theorized since the end of the 1960s, when reports from astronauts suggested that charged particles from the lunar surface could be seen interacting with light at high altitudes. Today it is believed that an electric field drives the motion of charged particles on the Moon, and although a good number of simulations investigating the field have been made, the electric field has not been measured experimentally.

    Space Science Sweden and Umeå Lunar Venture have developed an electric field mill instrument that is to be attached to a lunar lander with the intention of measuring the electric field near the lunar terminators. The main problem that arises when this approach is used to measure electric fields is that the presence ofthe lunar lander, and of the instrument itself, distorts the ambient fields intended to be measured.

    A numerical electrostatic model treating the electric field distortions caused by conductive materials and their charge is developed in COMSOL Multiphysics, and is shown to agree well with both theoretical and experimental results. The model is then applied to a system consisting of a lunar lander with the electric field instrumen tattached, and the resulting field distortions are investigated. The system is calibrated for different locations of the field mill, as well as for different modifications of the instrument in order to find the optimal location and instrument that minimizes the errors in the calculated ambient fields.

    The results indicate that if the instrument consists of three field mills, and is placed near a corner of the lunar lander, it will be able to measure the ambient electric field larger than a few 100 mV/m, unless the potential of the lunar lander is around 10 V, in which case the charge induced field drowns out the ambient field. However, the model of the lunar lander that was used lacked information regarding its materials and solar panels. Consequently, the assumption that the surfaces of the lander were conductive and held at the same potential was made. Similarly, only very simplified models of the solar panels were used to estimate their importance. Because of these simplifications, the results should be seen as preliminary, and not conclusive.

    In order to obtain more reliable results that can be used together with actual lunar data, a few changes and additions should be made to the model. Specifically, a more detailed and accurate computer model of the lunar lander is necessary to obtain more correctly estimated field distortions. Additional information regarding the material and coating of the solar panel is required to properly model the solar panels and account for their effect on the ambient electric field.

  • Bengtsson, Tommy
    Mortality and Causes of Death in Västanfors Parish, Sweden, 1700-19251988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 461-493 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Nelson, Marie C.
    Patterns of Mortality in Sweden’s Northernmost County in the 1860’s1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 437-459 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Rogers, John
    Comments on the Session Change and Patterns in Rural Mortality1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 429-435 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Åkerman, Sune
    et al.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Danielsson, Mats
    Height, Health and Nutrition in Early Modern Sweden1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström och Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 413-428 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Haage, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Opportunities of Work and Family in Young Disabled People’s Lives: A Comparative Study of Disabled and Non-disabled Young Adults in Nineteenth-century Northern Sweden Using Sequence Analysis2016In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Sequence Analysis and Related Methods (LaCOSA II) / [ed] Gilbert Ritschard and Matthias Studer, Lausanne: Université de Lausanne , 2016, 93-102 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     This study focuses on young adults with disabilities and their pathways towards work and family in past society. The aim is to explore their life trajectories and compare them to a non-disabled group of people who experienced the same time-space context, represented by the 19th-century Sundsvall region, Sweden. We employ sequence analyses on a series of demographic events that were to occur in the life of young adults: first occupation, marriage and parenthood. We also check for the events of death and out-migration. Disability studies show that disabled people were often subject to stigmatization caused by their impairment and prevailing perceptions about normalcy in in society. This would have limited their opportunities of work and family compared to non-disabled persons. Individual-level data consisting of parish registers digitized by the Demographic Data Base (DDB), Umeå University, Sweden, allow sequence analysis that helps to answer the questions of whether and how disability influenced people’s life trajectories. We obtain a holistic picture of how their life developed that suggests that disability substantially limited people’s opportunities to find job, marry and form a family. This indicates that a stigma was associated with disability beyond the impairment itself and worked to add to disabled individuals’ difficulties in both the labor market and marriage market.

  • Pouliadou, Kallirroi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    VR versus Phobias: An exploration of Virtual Reality in exposure therapy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in Virtual Reality (VR) is growing fast. Tech companies are now starting to identify its most relevant application that will make it desireable. The use of VR in healthcare and mental health, has been proven through clinical research. Moreover, patient support programs extend treatment to people’s homes. An underlying opportunity was to envision a service for remote treatment of phobias with exposure therapy through VR. During the process, I conducted desk research, interviews, a workshop, prototyping and user testing. I collected evidence to lay out the service experience and communicate the key role of the therapist in the overall journey. My goal was to maximize the leaning outcome of exposure therapy and avoid the return of fear. Focusing on VR for the mobile phone, as the most accessible hardware for the broad audience, I created examples of exposure experience, that demonstrate the therapist’s presence and the user’s interactions with the environment. 

  • Lundvall, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    La razón y su mitología en, El siglo de las Luces, de Alejo Carpentier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyses the imagined and possible connections that reason has in the novel “El siglo de las Luces” by Alejo Carpentier. This is investigated both as our capacity to make conclusions, and by the way myth is pictured in the novel. The analysis is made in the framework of the ideas of reason during the Age of Enlightenment, and from thirteen engravings by Francisco de Goya that are included in a larger series named “Los desastres de la Guerra Independencia española”. These thirteen engravings are represented in Carpentier’s novel through the same number of epigraphs that introduce chapters or sections. The purpose of this essay is to explore the images and words in the novel, and their connection to reason. This study also examines how the myth of reason functions in the novel. The results show that images and words are related, and that there is a link to reason. Further findings demonstrate that the myth of reason connects the reality and illusory (rationality and irrationality), which Carpentier uses in his novel to create contrasts.

  • Nyong, Reuben
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS OF NATURAL GAS FLARING IN NIGERIA2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The World Bank has set 2030 as the year for the cessation of routine natural gas flaring in countries concerned. Nigeria is among the most consistent natural gas flaring nations on earth and natural gas flaring remains an intractable negative externality for approximately six decades of crude oil exploration in the country. With a focus on the long run, we employ the Autoregressive Distribution Lag bounds test to cointegration approach to search for the determinants of natural gas flaring in Nigeria using secondary data from 1984-2013. Empirical result identified natural gas flaring penalty, crude oil production, natural gas price, natural gas marketization and lack of natural gas infrastructure as fundamental determinants of natural gas flaring in Nigeria. Crude oil production contributed the highest to the increase in natural gas flaring while natural gas marketization has the greatest impact on gas flaring abatement. The key conclusion from this paper is that the implementation of policies targeting optimal natural gas flaring can result in natural gas flaring mitigation in the long run and put Nigeria on the path towards meeting the 2030 World Bank deadline on cessation of routine natural gas flaring.

  • Wallin, Michaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utredning kring verkningsgrad och driftparametrar hos en biobränsleeldad rosterpanna: Panna 6 Ålidhems värmeverk2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Boiler 6 is one of Umeå Energy's heating boilers that are placed at Ålidhem's heat plant and it is used for top heat production during the winter season. It is a grate fired biomass boiler with an installed effect of 32 MW and it is fed with fine wood chips. During the past few years, the boiler have had problems with some of the parameters that does not work the way they should. For example, the content of carbon monoxide (CO) in the flue gases are extreamly high at sometimes and it is a high amount of unburnt organic material in the the ash. Since the boiler is not continuously in use, it is difficult to identify the reason to this unwanted conditions. The efficiency of the boiler is calculated with the input-output method every month, but a more thorough determination is demanded from Umeå Energy. Therefore, the efficiency has been calculated with the heat loss method in this work together with an investigation of the non-optimal parameters.

    Samples from three different times when the conditions of the boiler was different was taken and sent of for analysis. Samples from the fuel and the ashes were taken and the surface temperature and wind flow close to the boiler was determined. After the sampling and calculation was done, the investigation of the parameters started and some help could be taken from the efficiency determination.

    The result showed that the efficiency is high, between 92-93 % depending on the conditions. The investigation showed that it is possible to save up to 55 000 SEK per year by reduce the amount of unburnt material in the ash with 85 %. It also showed a relation between the high amount of CO in the flus gases and the heat output of the boiler. When the boiler is on maximal operation, the fuel is most likely not fully combusted. That is therefore the reason for the high amount of CO when the boiler is at its maximal operation. The result also showed that the secondary air supply does not have any relation to the CO amount, which it was assumed to have in the first place.

    The conclusion of the work is that the boiler works well overall, but there are some improvments of the parameters that could be done and further investigated. It is recommended to further look at the relation between the CO and heat output to determine its occurrence and aslso determine the new maximum heat output for the boiler to work in a more stable and environmental way.

  • Nilsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Marklund Hjelm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Faktorer som påverkar risken att avlida efter en stroke: En överlevnadsanalys med fokus på interaktion mellan kön och socioekonomiska faktorer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stroke är den tredje vanligaste dödsorsaken i Sverige efter hjärtsjukdom och cancer. Varje år insjuknar 20 000 - 25 000 personer för första gången och ytterligare 5 000 - 10 000 personer återinsjuknar i sjukdomen. Datamaterialet till den här studien erhölls från kvalitetsregistret för svensk strokevård, Riksstroke. Riksstroke har som huvudsyfte att se till att strokesjukvården på våra sjukhus ständigt förbättras och utvecklas. Uppsatsens syfte var attförklara vilka faktorer som påverkar dödlighet efter insjuknande i stroke samt undersöka om det fanns någon interaktion mellan kön och socioekonomiska faktorer (utbildningsnivå, inkomstnivå och ensamboende). Studien genomfördes med överlevnadsanalys där metoden Cox proportional hazard regression tillämpades.

    Resultaten visade att faktorerna ålder, medvetandegrad vid ankomst till sjukhus , kön,rökning, typ av stroke, boende på institution, annan sjuklighet och olika socioekonomiska faktorer hade en signifikant effekt på risken att dö efter insjuknande i stroke. Om en individ var medvetslös vid inläggning så var risken 7,9 (hasard-kvot (HR), 7,876; 95 %konfidensintervall (KI), 7,546–8,221) gånger högre att avlida efter en stroke jämfört med en individ som var alert vid inläggning. För en patient som var 85 år eller äldre var risken 5,8 (HR, 5,779; 95 % KI, 5,389–6,197) gånger högre att avlida jämfört med en patient som var mellan 18-64 år. Dessutom visade det sig att det fanns en interaktion mellan kön och inkomstnivå. Lägre inkomstnivå ökade risken att avlida efter insjuknande i stroke för män. 1000 dagar efter insjuknande i stroke var sannolikheten för en man med hög inkomstnivå att överleva cirka 70 %, medan den var 65 % för en man med låg inkomstnivå. För kvinnor varierade sannolikheten att överleva 1 000 dagar mellan 69-70 % för de olika inkomstgrupperna. Varför det skiljer sig mellan inkomstgrupper för de båda könen är svårtatt sia om utifrån våra resultat. Ytterligare undersökningar kring detta samband bör genomföras.

  • Ward, W. Peter
    Hospitalization, Birth Weight and Nutrition in Montreal and Vienna 1850-19301988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 385-394 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Näslund, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energikartläggning av fastigheten Ålidhem Centrum2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Liu, Sheng
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Tiger, Bobo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Antecedents of buying intention towards bio-cotton clothing: A quantitative study among young business students at USBE2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the growing involvement of external stakeholders including pressure groups such as Greenpeace, sustainability issues have increasingly become a focus point in the business sector. Thereby, many businesses began to integrate sustainability into their corporate mission and vision. Similar to fast food consumption, fast fashion consumption has decreased well-being of both nature and humans. With the goal of reducing harmful impact on people and planet, apparel and fashion firms such as C&A, H&M, and Nike have been gradually shifting the use of conventional cotton to bio-cotton in their production of clothing. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to investigate the influence of different factors on purchasing intention of bio-cotton clothing among young business students. In connection to this, the research question of the present study is formulated as follows:

    “What kind of impacts do attitude, social norm, perceived efficacy of consumer, perceived availability as well as functional, monetary, and psychological risk have on the purchase intention of bio-cotton clothing among young business students?” 

    The present study was conducted quantitatively by using online survey method. The survey was distributed to a random sample of 220 young business students at Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). The research model of this study comprises seven hypotheses. Each hypothesis is assigned with a unique independent variable and a dependent variable (i.e. purchase intention). All the constructs are derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour as well as from the Theory of Perceived Risk. Following a multiple linear regression analysis, it was revealed that independent variables including attitude, social norm, perceived efficacy of consumer, and perceived availability significantly affect the purchase intention. All influencers except perceived availability was found to have a negative influence on purchase intention. Although none of the constructs from the Theory of Perceived Risk was found to significantly affect purchase intention, a significant quantity of variance in the purchase intention was explained by all independent variables combined. This contributes to the current research gap since numerous studies have focused on the behavioural intention of organic food rather than bio-cotton clothing. This study’s findings provide insights to businesses that intend to market their bio-cotton clothing among young business students. Since the availability of bio-cotton clothing was found to be low, managers are advised to increase the visibility and benefits of such products by using online and offline communication instruments. Policy makers, especially those from developed countries, are advised to support informational campaigns to transform consumer behaviour.

  • Wänglund, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Undersökning av SNCR som rökgasreningsmetod för att reducera utsläpp av NOx: En utredning gjord på SCA Östrands massafabrik2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På SCA Östrands massafabrik i Timrå produceras två olika typer av pappersmassa,blekt sulfatmassa och kemitermomekanisk massa (CTMP). Idag produceras ungefär 430 000 ton blekt sulfatmassa och 95 000 ton CTMP per år. Just nu pågåren om- och nybyggnation av sulfatmassalinjen inom projektet Helios. Målet med projektet är att under 2018 ta i drift en fabrik med en kapacitet att producera 900 000 ton blekt sulfatmassa per år. I och med utbyggnaden har fabriken fått en ny miljödom (som ett resultat av verksamhetstillståndsansökan) med villkor attförhålla sig till. I miljödomen presenteras ett antal olika villkor; utredningsvillkor, utsläppsvillkor och riktvärden. Ett av villkoren är ett utredningsvillkor som gäller utredning av rökgasreningstekniken SNCR (selektiv icke-katalytisk reduktion) för att rena rökgaserna från fabrikens ångproducerande enheter, barkpannan (ÅP1)och sodapannan (SP6), från NOx. Syftet med examensarbetet var att i ett första steg i utredningen av utredningsvillkoret undersöka möjligheterna till att använda SNCR som rökgasrening på ÅP1 för att rena rökgaserna från NOx.

    För att utreda möjligheterna att använda SNCR på ÅP1 gjordes temperaturmätningar av rökgaserna i pannans övre del och en temperaturprofil över pannan bestämdes. Vidare undersöktes olika metoder av SNCR och andra sekundära rökgasreningsmetoder i en litteraturstudie och i en undersökning av marknaden som bland annat innehöll referensbesök på anläggningar med olika SNCR-system.En grov kostnadsmässig analys genomfördes också genom att beräkna teoretiskautsläppsmängder för de nya förutsättningarna efter Helios, NOx-avgiften och kemikalieförbrukningen i ett hypotetiskt fall där SNCR installeras.

    Under de förutsättningar som temperaturmätningarna gjordes framkom det att det inte är möjligt att använda sig av SNCR för att reducera NOx-utsläppen från ÅP1. Mätningarna visade dock att det är möjligt att använda SNCR som reningsmetod vid laster högre än 72 ton ånga/h om det finns ett linjärt samband mellan last(ton ånga/h) och rökgastemperaturen.

  • Levander, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Genrepedagogik: Det kollegiala samarbetet och metodens gynnsamhet för alla elever2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att ge en fördjupad bild av lärares uppfattningar; om hur det är att arbeta medgenrepedagogik, det kollegiala samarbetets betydelse för metoden, samt om genrepedagogik gynnar allaelevers möjligheter till lärande i det heterogena klassrummet. Genrepedagogik vilar på tre ben, det förstaoch andra benet utgör genrepedagogikens teoretiska utgångspunkter; Vygotskijs teori om lärande ochHallidays teori om språk, som även är teoretiska utgångspunkter i den här studien. Det tredje benet utgörgenrepedagogikens pedagogiska modell som kallas cirkelmodellen. Studien har även en vetenskapligteoretisk utgångspunkt i fenomenografin där fokus ligger på hur ”något uppfattas vara” och inte ”hurnågot är” som kommer i uttryck i hur studiens syfte, frågeställningar samt frågorna i enkät/intervjuerna ärformulerade med fokus på lärarnas uppfattningar. Den fenomenografiska ansatsen kommer även i uttrycki hur de empiriska data, 3 semistrukturerade intervjuer och 44 enkätsvar, analyserades och redovisades iresultatdelen. Resultatet visade att lärares varierade uppfattningar kunde sammanställas i trebeskrivningskategorier, tydligt, stöttande och gemensamt. Resultatet av de fasta svarsalternativen ienkätundersökningen visade att lärarna ansåg att genrepedagogik gynnar alla elever i det heterogenaklassrummet, men främst andraspråkselever och lågpresterande elever. Lärare i enkätundersökningenansåg att genrepedagogik är minst gynnsamt för elever med diagnoser t.ex. adhd/autism vilket skiljde sigfrån lärarnas uppfattningar i beskrivningskategorierna. I arbetet med genrepedagogik ansåg lärare attavgörande faktorer för att stötta elevernas möjligheter till lärande var; lärarens kompetens, samspelmellan lärare, elever och kollegor samt möjligheterna till tid (tid för fortbildning och tid för kollegialtsamarbete).

  • Öhman, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    BIM i förvaltningsfasen: En studie om möjligheter i förvaltningsfasen av en byggnad med hjälp av en väl utförd informationsmodell2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BIM – building information modelling or building information model is a well known concept that most people in the construction industry is familiar with and agrees that there is a big potential with this new technology. Despite this, the implementation of this new approach is slow in the industry. Still, BIM is most used before and during the production of new buildings and facilities, while the longest period in a building's life cycle is forgotten, namely the management of the building. New buildings often have a lifespan of over 100 years, which means that maintenance and repairs will be necessary to maintain the requirements of modern buildings. There is potential to facilitate the management of buildings with well-executed information modeling. Today there is a small demand for these well-made models from the management companies and owners of the buildings, they commonly do not acknowledge the benefits of having a building information model to help with their daily work and therefore place no special demands on the various models.

     

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out how information models can be used in the management work of the building and to find out what the projectors can add to the models that are useful in the management work. In order to find out, a literature study has been made to understand the necessary theory and facts and a reference object has been examined to find out how BIM will be used in this particular project.

    The reference object that was used in this thesis was Helios, a part of SCA's new pulp mill in Timrå, outside of Sundsvall, has a detailed model been drawn up and based on this model the necessary 2D drawings is produced and used as the basis for construction. The model does not contain more information than necessary, because few demands have been made on it. The information is gathered in other documents and descriptions used in the production and management. The model that has been drawn up can be exported to IFC format, which means that the model can be opened in the program that can be downloaded for free from the Internet. In these applications, the user can twist and turn the model and look at all details of the building. It is also possible to connect these models with other systems, for example, tabulated values in Microsoft Excel. This makes it possible to obtain an accurate visual representation of the elements of the building while further information can be read by other applications. It is possible for projectors to enter more information in the models. For example, there are links to products' websites, what kind of anti-corrosion treatment a particular element has received and what type of fire protection paint that has been used. The project Helios, the concept of BIM will be lost when the building goes into the management phase as this model will not follow. Flat drawings and a descriptions will be the basis for management work for about 100 years to come. This does not mean that BIM can not be used later in the building's life cycle. It is possible to make a model of the building afterwards, although not all information about all objects is represented in the model or in the associated system. However, in order for BIM to achieve the potential that exists, more requirements must be set in the design phase.

  • Mahr, Jöran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Imhof, Melissa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Applying Frugal Innovation to Serve the Bottom of the Pyramid in Germany2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In times of scarce resources, frugal innovation can be a driving engine for growth and market success, as it is a practical concept established in developing countries. Nonetheless, the available literature also emphasizes a potential importance for Western countries. Accordingly, our thesis and research add to the lack of literature that connects frugal innovation to developed countries and its specific underlying conditions. The review of available literature and further discussions led to the following research questions:

    1. What is the current application status of frugal innovation in Germany? 2. What characteristics should frugal innovations have to serve the BoP in the

    context of the German market?

    A preliminary theoretical framework was created from the relevant literature streams stressing the fragmented nature of frugal innovation. As the concept and research addressing this issue are in a nascent stage, one unifying definition was not found. For the course of this thesis, the definition of frugal innovation was therefore chosen to be "thrifty, modest and affordable innovations, valuable for BoP customers”. One major derivation from the literature review is that frugal innovation can be of major importance in developed countries, not only for customers for getting access to certain products, but also for companies addressing untapped markets.

    The empirical investigation and explorative data collection was undertaken within the market context of Germany based on eight companies from different industry backgrounds. Therefore, interviews were held with representatives of companies that offer frugal products (thereafter also including services) according to the definition from above. Within the scope of the grounded theory analyzation techniques, the interviews supported our aim to gain rich and meaningful data to extend the substantive theory about the concept of frugal innovation.

    Our study results (based on our eight interviews) prove the existence of frugal products in the German market, while the term and the concept have previously been unknown. Even though frugal innovations were still to be confirmed, they were not labeled as such to connect them to the concept. The study also indicates the existence of a bottom of a pyramid in Germany, despite its original connection to emerging market population. Our findings resulted in a revised framework that connects relevant fragments to a logical comprehension of the concept of frugal innovation. Finally, characteristics for frugal products and requirements could be validated and improved to be economically successful in developed market contexts.

    The major contribution of our thesis is its general investigation of a rather unknown concept and its presence in other markets than originally laid down. The thorough literature review, the creation and revision of the framework and our study results will serve as a fruitful ground for further exploration of this innovation type.