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  • Public defence: 2019-08-30 13:00 Hörsal S205, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå
    Leijerholt, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Public sector branding: an internal brand management perspective2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of branding within the public sector signifies an important area for academic research that currently lacks theory and empirical evidence; public sector branding. Extant literature paints a scattered picture. On one hand, some branding principles appear to be equally relevant in the public sector as they are in the private sphere. On the other hand, the public sector appears to require a somewhat distinct approach to branding as there are contextual differences that may affect branding principles, their implementation, and outcomes. Thus, the field lacks established relevant theoretical frameworks to guide public sector organizations in their branding efforts.

    One particular area of interest is that of internal brand management. A strong organizational brand is dependent on the brand values being incorporated into the fabric of an organization and into the behaviors of its employees. How this outcome can be achieved in the public sector, however, is still unknown. Thus, the purpose of this dissertation is to investigate central factors affecting the implementation of internal brand management in the public sector, considering its specific nature.

    Through a multi-method study, this dissertation presents the synthesized findings of four individual papers. The first paper, a literature review, explores extant research on public sector branding. The next two papers are based on a qualitative case study, which includes interviews, observations, and brandrelated documents. The fourth paper is based on a quantitative study. The three empirical papers investigate various factors that influence internal brand management in the public sector.

    The synthesized findings demonstrate that organizations within the public sector need to approach branding in a manner that considers its distinct nature. From an internal brand management perspective this entails considering contextual, organizational, and individual factors. These factors have been found to affect branding principles and their implementation in public organizations and indicate the unique nature of public sector branding.

  • Palm, Theresia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Dom och domare i Johannesevangeliet: Vad innebär domen och vem ansvarar för domslutet över människan?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Dahlqvist-Sjöberg, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    ENVIRONMENTAL TAX ON FOOD IN SWEDEN: How can taxation affect emissions from protein consumption?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how policy reform can reduce emissions from the consumption of protein goods in Sweden. The data material used is time-series aggregated sales and price indexes on an annual basis of goods: beef, pork, poultry, fish, and egg, together with respective mean kilograms of emissions. To calculate the tax, elasticities have been estimated using the LA/AIDS model to find the theoretical appropriate excise tax of approximately 1.70 SEK per kilograms of emissions. This tax yields a reduction in emissions of ten percent based on the results from the model.

    The study also provides the insight that public data within the field of the environmental food industry is limited but would, if available, provide useful analysis to decelerate global warming. The estimations in the study lack significance but is in linear with previous studies and with enough data, the results would give a more accurate course of action to follow.

  • Nevala, Heidi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Öppna förskolan som arena för föräldraskapsstöd: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftade till att undersöka vilka uppfattningar pedagoger på öppna förskolor har om hur de arbetar med föräldraskapsstöd. Vidare syftade studien till att ta reda på hur öppna förskolans pedagoger upplever att verksamheten kan utvecklas. Metoden som användes var semistrukturerade intervjuer med åtta olika pedagoger verksamma på lika många öppna förskolor. Den insamlade datan analyserades med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Studien visade att öppna förskolor erbjuder en mängd olika strukturerade och ostrukturerade aktiviteter. Det är viktigt att göra verksamheten tillgänglig för målgruppen samt att göra föräldrar delaktiga i verksamheten och att låta dem ha inflytande i utformningen av öppna förskolans verksamhet. Därutöver visade studien på att det informella lärandet som sker i social form är väldigt viktigt och måste få ta plats. Således bör inte alla aktiviteter vara strukturerade. Det framkom även att det föreligger ett behov av en ökad samverkan med andra aktörer

  • Falk, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skolprestationer och Uppväxtvillkor i Sverige och Thailand: En Comparative Study Through the Lens of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined if there are any correlation between school performance and upbringing in two countries with different cultures. The upbringing was represented by Maslow's hierarchy of needs that through five categories explains the human needs. The way students who participaded responded on questions based on Maslow's theory gave an indication on how their upbringing was. To know the students grades they were asked about their past school preformance in three subjects english, math and their native language. Data was collected with a questionnarie with 15 questions based on Maslow's steps on the hiarchy of needs. This study wanted to examine similarites and differences between these two countries to see if Maslow's theory correspond to reality regardless of what gruop that is examined and therefore be able to ascertain if there is something the countries can do to raise their students preformance. The results showed that there where differances in both upbringing and school performance. Maslow's theory explains this to adegree, but that was only the case in Thailand, it is some unknown variable that this study did not catch that seems to affect swedish students grades

  • Westerlund, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Att svära eder i Nya testamentet: -hur Jesus, Petrus och Paulus förhåller sig till edssvärande2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Persson, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    En närvarande gemenskap: Unga kristna, deras församlingar och digitala medier.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today´s society is overwhelming with new technology and expressions of new media outlets.Forums, podcasts, easy internet access, videoblogs etc. is a new part of how people in generalare consuming media, searching for information and finding community. Previous studies haveshown that religious groups tend to use and interact with digital media in other ways than othersocial groups in the society. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine how members of twocongregations in Umeå interact and use different forms of digital media in relation to theirreligious offline-community. Four people agreed to be interviewed and be a part of this studyand semi structured interviews were made.The results was analyzed in relation to theories about how religious communities traditionallyhas used and interacted new forms of digital media. Also, theories about how traditional mediaoutlets changes forms and how people tend to use them was used for analyzing the finding. Theoutcome of those interviews revealed that there is a slight variation in how digital media isconceived and used in these religious communities, but the general view is that the offlinecommunityis a central part of their religious life. The opportunities that, for example religiousteaching online offers is viewed as only complementary to the teachings and other rituals thatoccur in the offline-community.

  • Ragnar, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    pisteu/ein i Johannes Evangelium 3:1-21: Vad menar Johannes med att tro och vad ryms inom ordets betydelsesfär?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Stenhamre, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Meningsskapandeprocessen, sexuella ofredanden och upplevelser utifrån #metoo-rörelsen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har, genom en kvalitativ intervjustudie och utifrån Parks (2010) modellom meningsskapandeprocessen, undersökt berättelser om sexuella ofredanden och reaktionerefter #metoo-rörelsen. Tre intervjuer har genomförts och analyserats med hjälp avinnehållsanalys där resultatet beskrev hur respondenterna inom ramarna för sina respektivemeningssystem hanterade upplevelsen av sexuella ofredanden, om meningssystemetförändrades i denna process, samt hur meningssystemet förändrades när respondenterna kom ikontakt med #metoo-rörelsen. Parks (2010) modell visade god passform utifrånrespondenternas utsagor, vilka antydde att de befann sig i meningsskapandeprocessen snarareän att mening kring det sexuella ofredandet hade skapats. Resultatet tyder på att sexuellaofredanden, då de initierar en meningsskapandeprocess, skapar en diskrepans mellanupplevelsen av ofredandet och det tidigare etablerade meningssystemet.

  • Nilsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Det etiska dilemmat i Religionskunskap 1: En kvalitativ fallstudie i momentet etik och moral med fokus på lärares didaktiska val i förhållande till etiska dilemman2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to examine how six teachers in religious education within the Swedishupper secondary school say they use ethical dilemmas within their ethics and morals classesfrom a didactic perspective. The essay will gather the six teachers’ thoughts and standpoints onethical dilemmas with the help of a qualitative interview method. The results show that most ofthe teachers have very similar opinions to each other and what the previous studies in this topicsay is the best course to take with dilemmas in education. Most of the teachers primarily useethical dilemmas a cognitive tool for which to understand ethical theories. The teachers alsochoose their dilemmas from everyday events that are relevant for their students. Lastly, theteachers work with dilemmas in a way that makes the students have an active learning role inthe classroom.

  • Persson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Frälsnings- eller skapelseorienterad dopteologi.: En analys av teologin i dopgudstjänsten i den svenska kyrkohandboken18.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lundmark, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Jonas Hassen Khemiri i religionsämnet: En studie om skönlitteratur och läromedel i religionsämnet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att undersöka framställningen av identitet och existentiella frågor i skönlitterära verk av Jonas Hassen Khemiri i förhållande till kursplanen i religionskunskap och läromedel i ämnet. Studien som har genomförts med en hermeneutisk textanalys har visat att många läromedel i religionskunskap brister i framställningen av identitet och existentiella frågor, vilka båda är centrala delar i kursplanen. Vidare har analysen visat att Khemiris verk behandlar identitet och existentiella frågor på ett nyanserat sätt och att verken därför kan fungera som komplement till läromedel. Jag har dragit slutsatsen att skönlitteratur är ett möjligt komplement till läromedel i religionskunskap.

  • Rönnfjord Vedin, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    En bild säger mer än tusen ord: Analys av gudabilder i religionsläroböcker2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Images in swedish schoolbooks for religions studies in secondary school will be analysed in this essay. The purpose of the essay is to review and analyse how iconic and aniconic images of gods within hinduism are presented in images from textbooks that are produced since the new swedish policy documents (Lgr11) were introduced. The intent with the analyse is to find if the images represent a domestic perspective (hindu iconography) or an oriental perspective. The results from that will then be compared to how the swedish school policies about religion education present that iconic and aniconic images of gods within hinduism should be mediated in religious studies. The essay includes semiotic analyses of the images and analyse of the belonging texts, also an analyse of the policy documents. The results shows that the images in the schoolbooks meet the hindu iconography, while the text and explanations that comes with the images have an oriental perspective. The result also shows that the images meet the school documents guidelines but there is a lack of information and facts. This may affect the students ability to properly understand what hindusim is from a domestic perspective and will instead continue the be influenced with an oriental perspective.

  • Venetvaara, Susanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    ”Jag är inte sjuk av annat än törst”: Intertextuella relationer mellan kvinnan vid Sykars brunn och Gertrud vid paradisbrunnen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Yngvesson, Tina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att förstå föräldraengagemang i förskolan: En narrativ studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish preschool curriculum and policies place a heavy emphasis on establishing and maintaining long-lasting relationships between the preschool and the home. This engagement between home and preschool is considered central for child well-being and healthy development of the child. The central target of inquiry in this study was thus to investigate the child-, parent and teacher’s understanding of what parent engagement in Swedish preschools is, with particular emphasis on the child’s perspective. The importance of understanding children’s learning as embedded in the social, cultural and family contexts in which it occurs contributes to the overall consensus that children will, in a well-being-, development- and learning perspective, do better with parents who are actively engaged in their children’s pedagogical life. Thus, designing pathways in order to develop the communication between home and preschool is considered a significant factor in children’s developmental outcomes. Against this background, the thesis took its point of departure in the perspective of the child and applied the theoretical framework of the Bronfenbrenner Ecological Systems Theory focusing on the interaction between the developing child and the parent and teacher in the preschool context. The study assumed a transformative worldview and a narrative design was applied in order to determine how the participants, specifically the child, personally experience parent engagement. Narratives were collected through interviews, then assembled into a case-study highlighting the interconnectedness of the stories through a thematic analysis. Through identifying harmonies and contradictions in the stories, the thesis has investigated the construct of the child’s-, the parent’s- and the preschool teacher’s understanding of parent engagement in the Swedish preschool. From that perspective the thesis has identified where their stories align and where they contradict, thus broadening the academic debate in regard to how parents and teachers can better prepare themselves for the dialogues within the micro-societies that their children’s immediate world consists of

  • Åkerberg, Olivia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lärandet av nya ord: Normkritiskt språkbruk i vardagen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Språket gör att människor kan vidmakthålla, förändra och förstå värderingar, normer och strukturer i samhället. Det är alltså genom språket människor upprätthåller den diskrimineringsstruktur som finns i samhället idag, där ett visst kön, etnicitet, sexuell läggning och utseende generar mer makt och mer social acceptans än andra. Språket är socialt konstruerat, vilket också innebär att det är flytande och att människor har makten att förändra det. Språkaktivismen har påverkat och ibland pressat på för att förändra de sätt som vi pratar på. Det skapade nyfikenhet kring lärandeprocessen av att lära om något så väletablerat som språket. Syftet med denna studie har varit att belysa när och hur universitetsstudenter lär sig använda normkritiska ord i sin vardag. Forskningsfrågorna för studien var(1) När och hur lärde de sig ett nytt normkritiskt ord senast? Samt (2) Är de engagerade i språkförändringar och språkaktivism? För att lyckas med detta genomfördes semistrukturerade intervjuer med sex universitetsstudenter som sedan analyserades i en tematisk analys. Resultatet visade att studenterna främst tagit del av kunskapen om normkritiskt språkbruk genom ett informellt lärande via sin omgivning och på sociala medier. Resultatet visade även att de informanter som har en positiv inställning till språkförändringen menade att det handlar om att inkludera alla i sitt språk och att visa respekt. De informanter med en mer negativ inställning till språkförändringen menade på att språket fungerar som det ska, att det inte är en debatt som berör dem eller deras omgivning personligen och därför är de ej insatta i debatten.

  • Reckien, D.
    et al.
    Salvia, M.
    Pietrapertosa, F.
    Simoes, S. G.
    Olazabal, M.
    Hurtado, S. De Gregorio
    Geneletti, D.
    Lorencova, E. Krkoska
    D'Alonzo, V
    Krook-Riekkola, A.
    Fokaides, P. A.
    Ioannou, B. I.
    Foley, A.
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Orru, K.
    Wejs, A.
    Flacke, J.
    Church, J. M.
    Feliu, E.
    Vasilie, S.
    Nador, C.
    Matosovic, M.
    Flamos, A.
    Spyridaki, N-A
    Balzan, M. , V
    Fulop, O.
    Grafakos, S.
    Paspaldzhiev, I
    Heidrich, O.
    Dedicated versus mainstreaming approaches in local climate plans in Europe2019In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 112, p. 948-959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are gaining prominence committing to respond to the threat of climate change, e.g., by developing local climate plans or strategies. However, little is known regarding the approaches and processes of plan development and implementation, or the success and effectiveness of proposed measures. Mainstreaming is regarded as one approach associated with (implementation) success, but the extent of integration of local climate policies and plans in ongoing sectoral and/or development planning is unclear. This paper analyses 885 cities across the 28 European countries to create a first reference baseline on the degree of climate mainstreaming in local climate plans. This will help to compare the benefits of mainstreaming versus dedicated climate plans, looking at policy effectiveness and ultimately delivery of much needed climate change efforts at the city level. All core cities of the European Urban Audit sample were analyzed, and their local climate plans classified as dedicated or mainstreamed in other local policy initiatives. It was found that the degree of mainstreaming is low for mitigation (9% of reviewed cities; 12% of the identified plans) and somewhat higher for adaptation (10% of cities; 29% of plans). In particular horizontal mainstreaming is a major effort for local authorities; an effort that does not necessarily pay off in terms of success of action implementation. This study concludes that climate change issues in local municipalities are best tackled by either, developing a dedicated local climate plan in parallel to a mainstreamed plan or by subsequently developing first the dedicated and later a mainstreaming plan (joint or subsequent "dual track approach"). Cities that currently provide dedicated local climate plans (66% of cities for mitigation; 26% of cities for adaptation) may follow-up with a mainstreaming approach. This promises effective implementation of tangible climate actions as well as subsequent diffusion of climate issues into other local sector policies. The development of only broad sustainability or resilience strategies is seen as critical.

  • Gustavsson Riveros, Leonor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Arbetet kring stödinsatser i svenska grundskolan: En kvalitativ studie av några lärares och rektorers erfarenheteroch uppfattningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Elever med behov av stöd har ökat de senaste åren. Som påföljd har det lett till att skolan som organisation måste ha ett väl fungerande system och rutiner för att få ett flöde i arbetsprocessen. Studien fokuserade på att se från både lärarens och rektorns perspektiv i arbetet med elever i behov av särskilt stöd. Studien har också fokuserat på att hitta både styrkor och utmaningar i arbetet i de svenska grundskolorna. Genom kvalitativa intervjuer och bearbetning av data med hjälp av constant comparative method visar resultatet, att det finns flera likheter och olikheter mellan olika skolor kring arbetet med särskilda insatser. Kommunikation, förtroende och tydligt ledarskap är faktorer som visat sig vara viktiga för att arbetet med stödinsatser ska fungera. Det tydligaste, men också den mest oroande slutsatsen, är att kunskapsnivån hos lärare är lägre än förväntad och att många upplever att det behövs mer kompetensutveckling. Även de lärare som nyligen avslutat sin utbildning signalerar att det inte ges tillräckliga kunskaper för att kunna klara av och hantera alla elever i behov av stöd.

  • Selvam, Balathandayuthabani Panneer
    et al.
    Lapierre, Jean-Francois
    Soares, Ana R. A.
    Bastviken, David
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Berggren, Martin
    Photo-reactivity of dissolved organic carbon in the freshwater continuum2019In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 81, no 4, article id UNSP 57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The patterns in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) photo-mineralization along the freshwater continuum from land to sea are poorly known. Specifically, it has not been resolved how the photo-degradation ofDOC into CO2 (PD)depends on the combination of intrinsic properties of DOC and extrinsic variables that affect the photo-reactions. We measured PD per unit of absorbed ultraviolet light energy (PD-E-w) in headwater streams, lakes, intermediate rivers and river mouths in Sweden. Surprisingly, no trend of decreasing PD-E-w was found with decreases in colored DOC. However, there was a relationship between PD-E-w and pH, best described by a quadratic (U-shaped) curve, indicating environmental control of photo-reactivity. Interestingly, the highest values for both of these variables were recorded for river mouths. Moreover, PD-E-w increased with proxy variables for the amount of autochthonous DOC in the water. Thus, changes in pH and autochthonous DOC input along the continuum may sustain high DOC photo-mineralization throughout continental aquatic networks.

  • Spjut, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stereotyper och rasbegreppet i finlandssvenska läroböcker: En textnära komparation av beskrivningar av samer under fyra decennier2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:2, p. 50-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textbooks are in this article seen as reflections on values and ideas of its present. Often, it’s the majority’s culture and narrative that are told in a nation’s textbooks. What happens when one minority’s textbooks describe another minority? In Finland such a study is possible, since their Swedish-speaking minority, Finland-swedes, have their own tradition of textbook-production. This article analyses textbooks-quotes about Sami, a Finnish minority-group. The textbooks in question are written 1963, 1972, 1981 and 1997, for the Finnish minority-group, Finland-swedes. The aim of the article is to, by comparison, enlighten and analyse how and why one minority’s textbook describes another minority during four decades of status-change for minorities in Finland. Questions raised are i) How do textbooks for the Finland-swedes describe Sami-people, another marginalized minority during a period of 40 years? ii) Which identity-markers and concepts are in focus in textbook-descriptions? iii) What changes or stagnations are seen in textbooks and what factors could have made impact on the textbook-content over time?Results show that the first three books are reproduced intertextual but with an out-fading of stereotypical identity concepts which reflects a change from a biological definition of ethnicity to a more social definition. Although the concept ‘race’ appears in the textbooks from 1997, which can be caused by new race-debates, combined with change in the status of both Finland-swedes and Sami’s in Finland in the beginning of 1990s. The article argues that a marginalisation of Finland-swedes, as the same time as Sami’s got recognition as Finland’s indigenous people, made it important to connect Finns and Swedes as the common people – the common race – in order to get acknowledged as a natural part of Finlands population. In other words: When a majority culture defines and narrows down what is included in a national identity, it effects the minorities at several levels.

  • Tiwari, Tejshree
    et al.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Contrasting responses in dissolved organic carbon to extreme climate events from adjacent boreal landscapes in Northern Sweden2019In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 14, no 8, article id 084007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing pressures of climate change, as expressed by the increased intensity, duration, and frequency of temperature and precipitation events, threatens the storage of carbon in northern latitudes. One key concern is how these events will affect the production, mobilization, and export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the main form of aquatic carbon export in these regions. In this study, we retrospectively show contrasting effects of climate extremes over 23 years on two adjacent boreal catchments, one dominated by forest cover and the other draining a mire (wetland), despite experiencing the same extreme climate events. During the peak snowmelt, DOC concentrations ranged from 20 to 33 mg l(-1) in the forest catchment and 10-28 mg l(-1) in the mire catchment respectively, highlighting large inter-annual variation in the springtime hydrologicCexport at both sites. Weused climate and discharge variables to predict this variation, and found that DOC from the forested catchment, which is derived largely from riparian soils, had the highest concentrations following cold summers, dry autumns, and winters with high precipitation. By contrast, in the mire outlet, where DOC is primarily derived from decomposing peat, the highest DOC concentrations in the spring followed cold/dry winters and dry summers. Our results indicate that processes regulating stream DOC concentrations during spring in both catchments were dependent on both temperature and precipitation in multiple seasons. Together, these patterns suggest that DOC responses to climatic extremes are complex and generate variable patterns in springtime concentrations that are strongly dependent upon landscape context.

  • Modin, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Nordin, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Våld, sexism & rasism: En litteraturstudie om normer i data- och TV-spel och deras påverkan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    An objective of this study is to investigate what current research states regarding how violent, sexist, and racist norms in video games affects the player over time. Another objective is to investigate in what way the current longitudinal research takes different aspects of game design and the player’s context into consideration. This was done by conducting a systematic literature review. The findings suggest that current longitudinal research has focused on violent norms in video games, and that a few or no longitudinal studies have investigated how sexist and racist norms affect the player. The findings also suggest a connection between playing violent video games and aggression. However, the cause for this effect and how powerful it is, is yet not concluded. These issues and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  • Nilsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Soderstrom, L.
    Alverlind, K.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Mooe, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hand-held cardiac ultrasound examinations performed in primary care patients by nonexperts to identify reduced ejection fraction2019In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 19, article id 282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundEarly identification of patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) could facilitate the care of patients with suspected heart failure (HF). We examined if (1) focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) performed with a hand-held device (Vscan 1.2) could identify patients with LVEF <50%, and (2) the distribution of HF types among patients with suspected HF seen at primary care clinics.MethodsFCU performed by general practitioners (GPs)/GP registrars after a training programme comprising 20 supervised FCU examinations were compared with the corresponding results from conventional cardiac ultrasound by specialists. The agreement between groups of estimated LVEF <50%, after visual assessment of global left ventricular function, was compared. Types of HF were determined according to the outcomes from the reference examinations and serum levels of natriuretic peptides (NT-proBNP).ResultsOne hundred patients were examined by FCU that was performed by 1-4 independent examiners as well as by the reference method, contributing to 140 examinations (false positive rate, 19.0%; false negative rate, 52.6%; sensitivity, 47.4% [95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.3-68.3]; specificity, 81.0% [95% CI: 73.1-87.0]; Cohen's kappa measure for agreement=0.22 [95% CI: 0.03-0.40]). Among patients with false negative examinations, 1/7 had HF with LVEF <40%, while the others had HF with LVEF 40-49% or did not meet the full criteria for HF. In patients with NT-proBNP >125ng/L and fulfilling the criteria for HF (68/94), HF with preserved LVEF (>= 50%) predominated, followed by mid-range (40-49%) or reduced LVEF (<40%) HF types (53.2, 11.7 and 7.4%, respectively).ConclusionsThere was poor agreement between expert examiners using standard ultrasound equipment and non-experts using a handheld ultrasound device to identify patients with reduced LVEF. Asides from possible shortcomings of the training programme, the poor performance of non-experts could be explained by their limited experience in identifying left ventricular dysfunction because of the low percentage of patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction seen in the primary care setting.Trial registrationThe study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02939157). Registered 19 October 2016.

  • Hung, Rayjean J.
    et al.
    Spitz, Margaret R.
    Houlston, Richard S.
    Schwartz, Ann G.
    Field, John K.
    Ying, Jun
    Li, Yafang
    Han, Younghun
    Ji, Xuemei
    Chen, Wei
    Wu, Xifeng
    Gorlov, Ivan P.
    Na, Jie
    de Andrade, Mariza
    Liu, Geoffrey
    Brhane, Yonathan
    Diao, Nancy
    Wenzlaff, Angela
    Davies, Michael P. A.
    Liloglou, Triantafillos
    Timofeeva, Maria
    Muley, Thomas
    Rennert, Hedy
    Saliba, Walid
    Ryan, Brid M.
    Bowman, Elise
    Barros-Dios, Juan-Miguel
    Perez-Rios, Monica
    Morgenstern, Hal
    Zienolddiny, Shanbeh
    Skaug, Vidar
    Ugolini, Donatella
    Bonassi, Stefano
    van der Heijden, Erik H. F. M.
    Tardon, Adonina
    Bojesen, Stig E.
    Landi, Maria Teresa
    Johansson, Mattias
    Bickeboeller, Heike
    Arnold, Susanne
    Le Marchand, Loic
    Melander, Olle
    Andrew, Angeline
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Caporaso, Neil
    Teare, M. Dawn
    Schabath, Matthew B.
    Aldrich, Melinda C.
    Kiemeney, Lambertus A.
    Wichmann, H-Erich
    Lazarus, Philip
    Mayordomo, Jose
    Neri, Monica
    Haugen, Aage
    Zhang, Zuo-Feng
    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto
    Brenner, Hermann
    Harris, Curtis C.
    Orlow, Irene
    Rennert, Gadi
    Risch, Angela
    Brennan, Paul
    Christiani, David C.
    Amos, Christopher I.
    Yang, Ping
    Gorlova, Olga Y.
    Lung Cancer Risk in Never-Smokers of European Descent is Associated With Genetic Variation in the 5(p)15.33 TERT-CLPTM1Ll Region2019In: Journal of Thoracic Oncology, ISSN 1556-0864, E-ISSN 1556-1380, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 1360-1369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Inherited susceptibility to lung cancer risk in never-smokers is poorly understood. The major reason for this gap in knowledge is that this disease is relatively uncommon (except in Asians), making it difficult to assemble an adequate study sample. In this study we conducted a genome-wide association study on the largest, to date, set of European-descent never-smokers with lung cancer. Methods: We conducted a two-phase (discovery and replication) genome-wide association study in never-smokers of European descent. We further augmented the sample by performing a meta-analysis with never-smokers from the recent OncoArray study, which resulted in a total of 3636 cases and 6295 controls. We also compare our findings with those in smokers with lung cancer. Results: We detected three genome-wide statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms rs31490 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.722-0.820; p value 5.31 x 10(-16)), rs380286 (OR: 0.770, 95% CI: 0.723-0.820; p value 4.32 x 10(-16)), and rs4975616 OR: 0.778, 95% CI: 0.730-0.829; p value 1.04 x 10(-14)). All three mapped to Chromosome 5 CLPTM1L-TERT region, previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk in smokers and in never-smoker Asian women, and risk of other cancers including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate. Conclusions: We found that genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in never-smokers is associated to genetic variants with pan-cancer risk effects. The comparison with smokers shows that top variants previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk only confer risk in the presence of tobacco exposure, underscoring the importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of this disease. (C) 2019 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • Paslawski, Wojciech
    et al.
    Zareba-Paslawska, Justyna
    Zhang, Xiaoqun
    Holzl, Katharina
    Wadensten, Henrik
    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza
    Janelidze, Shorena
    Hansson, Oskar
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Andren, Per E.
    Svenningsson, Per
    alpha-synuclein-lipoprotein interactions and elevated ApoE level in cerebrospinal fluid from Parkinson's disease patients2019In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 116, no 30, p. 15226-15235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The progressive accumulation, aggregation, and spread of alpha-synuclein (alpha SN) are common hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology. Moreover, numerous proteins interact with alpha SN species, influencing its toxicity in the brain. In the present study, we extended analyses of alpha SN-interacting proteins to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Using coimmunoprecipitation, followed by mass spectrometry, we found that alpha SN colocalize with apolipoproteins on lipoprotein vesicles. We confirmed these interactions using several methods, including the enrichment of lipoproteins with a recombinant alpha SN, and the subsequent uptake of prepared vesicles by human dopaminergic neuronal-like cells. Further, we report an increased level of ApoE in CSF from early PD patients compared with matched controls in 3 independent cohorts. Moreover, in contrast to controls, we observed the presence of ApoE-positive neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra of PD patients. In conclusion, the cooccurrence of alpha SN on lipoprotein vesicles, and their uptake by dopaminergic neurons along with an increase of ApoE in early PD, proposes a mechanism(s) for alpha SN spreading in the extracellular milieu of PD.

  • Carlsson, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Alternativ bygglogistik för projekt i täta miljöer2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown that there is great potential for streamlining the construction process through better logistics. In the construction industry, it has long been considered the complexity that a construction project has that makes it difficult to get more efficient logistics. The project organization looks different for each project and the supply chains equally. The purpose of this project is to investigate which alternative logistics solutions that exist for construction projects in urban environments which means no room for materials storage on the site and require their deliveries just-in-time with high delivery precision. In the study, two case studies were conducted to investigate alternative solutions and how other companies have solved the problems.

    Storage of material outside the workplace of construction logistics centers and joint deliveries for contractors through third-party companies are possible alternatives for simplifying construction projects. The case studies show that the view of logistics differs depending on where in the country you are. Costs are reallocated to logistics personnel and third-party companies that handle large parts of the material flows instead of the craftsmen themselves. The challenges have been known for a long time in larger cities and methods have been developed based on the just-in-time principle to solve the problems.

    The result shows that flexibility and communication are the most important if one is to use a third-party logistics company within the construction industry. Digital tools play an increasingly important role as it is perceived to simplify and increase the collaboration between the contractors and the suppliers.

  • De Vries, Bouke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Is Multiculturalism Discriminatory?2019In: Res Publica, ISSN 1356-4765, E-ISSN 1572-8692, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many political theorists are multiculturalists. They believe that states ought to support and accommodate minority cultures, even if they disagree about when such support and accommodations are due and what forms they should take. In this contribution, I argue that multiculturalists have failed to notice an important objection against a wide range of multiculturalism policies. This objection is predicated on the notion that when states support and accommodate minority cultures, they should support and accommodate many subcultures and individualistic conceptions of the good as well. However, since a significant proportion of multiculturalism policies imposes financial costs on society, it will often be prohibitively expensive for states to support and accommodate citizens’ subcultures and individualistic conceptions of the good on an equal basis. The result is that implementing such policies is likely to end up discriminating against certain groups, which might include e.g. fervent football fans, globe-trotters, mountain climbers, motor bikers, Hippies, and artists. I conclude by considering six reasons for giving preferential treatment to minority cultures that would allow multiculturalists to avoid this implication, which invoke, inter alia, the depth, duration, and involuntariness of cultural commitments; the role of culture in allowing people to live autonomously; and cultural rights to political self-determination. None are found to be convincing.

  • Dermineur, Elise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Peer-to-peer lending in pre-industrial France2019In: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the world of informal financial transactions and informal networks in pre-industrial France. Often considered merely as simple daily transactions made to palliate a lack of cash in circulation and to smooth consumption, the examination of private transactions reveals not only that they served various purposes, including productive investments, but also that they proved to be dynamic. The debts they incurred helped to smooth consumption but also helped to make investments. Some lenders were more prominent than others, although no one really dominated the informal market. This article also compares informal transactions with formal ones through the study of probate inventories and notarial records respectively. It compares these two credit circuits, their similarities and different characteristics, and their various networks features. The debts incurred in the notarial credit market were more substantial but did not serve a different purpose than in the informal market. Here too, the biggest lenders did not monopolise the extension of capital. Perhaps the most striking result lies in the fact that the total volume of exchange between the informal credit market and the notarial credit market (after projection) was similar.

  • Pya, Natalya
    et al.
    Schmidt, Matthias
    Incorporating shape constraints in generalized additive modelling of the height-diameter relationship for Norway spruce2016In: Forest Ecosystems, ISSN 0015-7473, E-ISSN 2197-5620, Vol. 3, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Measurements of tree heights and diameters are essential in forest assessment and modelling. Tree heights are used for estimating timber volume, site index and other important variables related to forest growth and yield, succession and carbon budget models. However, the diameter at breast height (dbh) can be more accurately obtained and at lower cost, than total tree height. Hence, generalized height-diameter (h-d) models that predict tree height from dbh, age and other covariates are needed. For a more flexible but biologically plausible estimation of covariate effects we use shape constrained generalized additive models as an extension of existing h-d model approaches. We use causal site parameters such as index of aridity to enhance the generality and causality of the models and to enable predictions under projected changeable climatic conditions.

    Methods: We develop unconstrained generalized additive models (GAM) and shape constrained generalized additive models (SCAM) for investigating the possible effects of tree-specific parameters such as tree age, relative diameter at breast height, and site-specific parameters such as index of aridity and sum of daily mean temperature during vegetation period, on the h-d relationship of forests in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    Results: Some of the derived effects, e.g. effects of age, index of aridity and sum of daily mean temperature have significantly non-linear pattern. The need for using SCAM results from the fact that some of the model effects show partially implausible patterns especially at the boundaries of data ranges. The derived model predicts monotonically increasing levels of tree height with increasing age and temperature sum and decreasing aridity and social rank of a tree within a stand. The definition of constraints leads only to marginal or minor decline in the model statistics like AIC. An observed structured spatial trend in tree height is modelled via 2-dimensional surface fitting.

    Conclusions: We demonstrate that the SCAM approach allows optimal regression modelling flexibility similar to the standard GAM but with the additional possibility of defining specific constraints for the model effects. The longitudinal character of the model allows for tree height imputation for the current status of forests but also for future tree height prediction.

  • Pya, Natalya
    et al.
    Wood, Simon N.
    Shape constrained additive models2015In: Statistics and computing, ISSN 0960-3174, E-ISSN 1573-1375, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 543-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A framework is presented for generalized additive modelling under shape constraints on the component functions of the linear predictor of the GAM. We represent shape constrained model components by mildly non-linear extensions of P-splines. Models can contain multiple shape constrained and unconstrained terms as well as shape constrained multi-dimensional smooths. The constraints considered are on the sign of the first or/and the second derivatives of the smooth terms. A key advantage of the approach is that it facilitates efficient estimation of smoothing parameters as an integral part of model estimation, via GCV or AIC, and numerically robust algorithms for this are presented. We also derive simulation free approximate Bayesian confidence intervals for the smooth components, which are shown to achieve close to nominal coverage probabilities. Applications are presented using real data examples including the risk of disease in relation to proximity to municipal incinerators and the association between air pollution and health.

  • Nerell, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Värdskap i öppna kök: En studie utifrån kockar, restaurangchefer och restaurangägares perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For the past 30 years, research on meal experiences has increased and parts of the meeting, service, trends and hosting have been the focus. The meal experience has been described from both the guest's and the producer perspective of the meal, but not from the chefs perspective. This thesis studies chefs, restaurateurs and restaurant managers perspective on behavior in the open kitchen. The study highlights the concept of hospitality and hospitableness, and how it relates to Goffman’s dramaturgical perspective in context of the meal, Five Aspects Meal Model and Whyte’s theories of human behavior and social structure in the restaurant industry. The study is based on a qualitative interview method for in-depth conversations from the respondent's perspective. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the content of the material and resulted in two themes ; awareness and interaction. The study shows that there is hospitality in the open kitchen and that the chefs perform this hospitality both in the meeting with each other and in the meeting with the guest. 

  • Rutegård, Miriam
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Båtsman, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Brynolfsson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Brännström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Rutegård, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Ljuslinder, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Blomqvist, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Rutegård, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    PET/MRI and PET/CT hybrid imaging of rectal cancer - description and initial observations from the RECTOPET (REctal Cancer trial on PET/MRI/CT) study2019In: Cancer Imaging, ISSN 1740-5025, E-ISSN 1470-7330, Vol. 19, article id 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe role of hybrid imaging using F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to improve preoperative evaluation of rectal cancer is largely unknown. To investigate this, the RECTOPET (REctal Cancer Trial on PET/MRI/CT) study has been launched with the aim to assess staging and restaging of primary rectal cancer. This report presents the study workflow and the initial experiences of the impact of PET/CT on staging and management of the first patients included in the RECTOPET study.MethodsThis prospective cohort study, initiated in September 2016, is actively recruiting patients from Region Vasterbotten in Sweden. This pilot study includes patients recruited and followed up until December 2017. All patients had a biopsy-verified rectal adenocarcinoma and underwent a minimum of one preoperative FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MRI examination. These patients were referred to the colorectal cancer multidisciplinary team meeting at Umea University Hospital. All available data were evaluated when making management recommendations. The clinical course was noted and changes consequent to PET imaging were described; surgical specimens underwent dedicated MRI for anatomical matching between imaging and histopathology.ResultsTwenty-four patients have so far been included in the study. Four patients were deemed unresectable, while 19 patients underwent or were scheduled for surgery; one patient was enrolled in a watch-and-wait programme after restaging. Consequent to taking part in the study, two patients were upstaged to M1 disease: one patient was diagnosed with a solitary hepatic metastasis detected using PET/CT and underwent metastasectomy prior to rectal cancer surgery, while one patient with a small, but metabolically active, lung nodulus experienced no change of management. PET/MRI did not contribute to any recorded change in patient management.ConclusionsThe RECTOPET study investigating the role of PET/CT and PET/MRI for preoperative staging of primary rectal cancer patients will provide novel data that clarify the value of adding hybrid to conventional imaging, and the role of PET/CT versus PET/MRI.Trial registrationNCT03846882.

  • McCallum, Erin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Cerveny, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Slow-Release Implants for Manipulating Contaminant Exposures in Aquatic Wildlife: A New Tool for Field Ecotoxicology2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 14, p. 8282-8290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field-based ecotoxicology studies are invaluable for uncovering the effects of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) on aquatic organisms. However, large-scale exposures are still very rare due to prohibitive costs, the availability of replicated habitats, and the potential for exposure to cause lasting damage to the environment. Here, we evaluated the viability of internal slow-release implants as an alternative method for manipulating CEC exposures in aquatic wildlife using two fat-based carriers (coconut oil and vegetable shortening). We treated roach (Rutilus rutilus) with implants containing a high (50 mu g/g), low (25 mu g/g), or control (0 mu g/g) concentration of the behavior-modifying pharmaceutical oxazepam. We then measured oxazepam uptake in four tissues (plasma, muscle, liver, and the brain) over 1 month. The two carriers released oxazepam differently: coconut oil was the superior implant type because it delivered a more consistent dose across time, while vegetable shortening released oxazepam rapidly at the start of the exposure period. For both carriers and treatments, the brain and liver contained the most oxazepam. Overall, the method is a promising technique for controlled manipulations of pharmaceuticals in fish, and we have provided some of the first data on the suitability and contaminant release kinetics from different implant types.

  • Udo, Camilla
    et al.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Axelsson, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Unit of Clinical Research Centre‐Östersund.
    Björk, Olle
    Lövgren, Malin
    Physicians working in oncology identified challenges and factors that facilitated communication with families when children could not be cured2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: We explored physicians' experiences of communicating with families when their child had cancer and a cure was no longer an option, by focusing on barriers and facilitating factors.

    Methods: Physicians from the six cancer centres in Sweden took part in focus group discussions between December 2017 and May 2018, and the data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Focus groups enabled us to gather individual and shared perspectives.

    Results: The 35 physicians (20 male) had a mean age of 47 (range 31-74) and a mean of 11 years' experience in oncology, ranging from under one year to 43 years. They reported communication challenges when a cure was not possible, namely: emotional and mental drain, lack of mutual understanding and uncertainty about communication skills. They also reported facilitating factors: flexibility in complex conversations, the child's position in the conversations, continuity and trusting relationships, support from colleagues and having discussed the potentially life-threatening nature of cancer from the very start of treatment.

    Conclusion: Training to overcome communication issues could support the early integration of palliative care.

  • Iakunkov, Artem
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Skrypnychuk, Vasyl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Nordenström, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Shilayeva, Elizaveta A.
    Korobov, Mikhail
    Prodana, Mariana
    Enachescu, Marius
    Larsson, Sylvia H.
    Talyzin, Aleksandr V.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Activated graphene as a material for supercapacitor electrodes: effects of surface area, pore size distribution and hydrophilicity2019In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activated reduced graphene oxide (a-rGO) is a material with a rigid 3D porous structure and high specific surface area (SSA). Using variation of activation parameters and post-synthesis mechanical treatment we prepared two sets of materials with a broad range of BET (N2) SSA ∼1000–3000 m2 g−1, and significant differences in pore size distribution and oxygen content. The performance of activated graphene as an electrode in a supercapacitor with KOH electrolyte was correlated with the structural parameters of the materials and water sorption properties. a-rGO is a hydrophobic material as evidenced by the negligibly small BET (H2O) SSA determined using analysis of water vapor sorption isotherms. However, the total pore volume determined using water vapor sorption and sorption of liquid water is almost the same as the one found by analysis of nitrogen sorption isotherms. Ball milling is found to provide an improved bulk density of activated graphene and collapse of all pores except the smallest ones (<2 nm). A decrease in the activation temperature from 850 °C to 550 °C is found to result in materials with a narrow micropore size distribution and increased oxygen content. Elimination of mesopores using ball milling or a lower activation temperature provided materials with better specific capacitance despite a significant decrease (by ∼30%) of the BET (N2) SSA. The best gravimetric and volumetric capacitances in KOH electrolyte were achieved not for samples with the highest value of the BET (N2) SSA but for materials with 80–90% of the total pore volume in micropores and an increased BET (H2O) SSA. Comparing the performance of electrodes prepared using rGO and a-rGO shows that a more hydrophilic surface is favorable for charge storage in supercapacitors with KOH electrolyte.

  • Ejsmond, M. J.
    et al.
    Blackburn, N.
    Fridolfsson, E.
    Haecky, P.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Casini, M.
    Belgrano, A.
    Hylander, S.
    Modeling vitamin B1 transfer to consumers in the aquatic food web2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 10045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin B-1 is an essential exogenous micronutrient for animals. Mass death and reproductive failure in top aquatic consumers caused by vitamin B-1 deficiency is an emerging conservation issue in Northern hemisphere aquatic ecosystems. We present for the first time a model that identifies conditions responsible for the constrained flow of vitamin B-1 from unicellular organisms to planktivorous fishes. The flow of vitamin B-1 through the food web is constrained under anthropogenic pressures of increased nutrient input and, driven by climatic change, increased light attenuation by dissolved substances transported to marine coastal systems. Fishing pressure on piscivorous fish, through increased abundance of planktivorous fish that overexploit mesozooplankton, may further constrain vitamin B-1 flow from producers to consumers. We also found that key ecological contributors to the constrained flow of vitamin B-1 are a low mesozooplankton biomass, picoalgae prevailing among primary producers and low fluctuations of population numbers of planktonic organisms.

  • Massai, Francesco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Saleeb, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Doruk, Tugrul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Forsberg, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Development, Optimization, and Validation of a High Throughput Screening Assay for Identification of Tat and Type II Secretion Inhibitors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa2019In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 9, article id 250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics are becoming less effective in treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial therapies based on the inhibition of specific virulence-related traits, as opposed to growth inhibitors, constitute an innovative and appealing approach to tackle the threat of P. aeruginosa infections. The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa, and constitutes a promising target for the development of anti-pseudomonal drugs. In this study we developed and optimized a whole-cell, one-well assay, based on native phospholipase C activity, to identify compounds active against the Tat system. Statistical robustness, sensitivity and consequently suitability for high-throughput screening (HTS) were confirmed by a dry run/pre-screening test scoring a Z' of 0.82 and a signal-to-noise ratio of 49. Using this assay, we evaluated ca. 40,000 molecules and identified 59 initial hits as possible Tat inhibitors. Since phospholipase C is exported into the periplasm by Tat, and subsequently translocated across the outer membrane by the type II secretion system (T2SS), our assay could also identify T2SS inhibitors. To validate our hits and discriminate between compounds that inhibited either Tat or T2SS, two separate counter assays were developed and optimized. Finally, three Tat inhibitors and one T2SS inhibitor were confirmed by means of dose-response analysis and additional counter and confirming assays. Although none of the identified inhibitors was suitable as a lead compound for drug development, this study validates our assay as a simple, efficient, and HTS compatible method for the identification of Tat and T2SS inhibitors.

  • Ulander-Wänman, Carin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    The Swedish occupational pension scheme ITP2 can be discriminatory on elderly workers2019In: Festskrift till Örjan Edström / [ed] Ruth Mannelqvist, Staffan Ingmanson, Carin Ulander-Wänman, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2019, 41, p. 485-499Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Karlsson, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    The rise and demise of a meme: A study on what a meme is and why people are spreading them2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media content, as well as how it is being used and the impact it has on the society, have underwent significant transformations and nowadays they are quite different from what they were when social media just came around. Analysing the transformations is important for understanding both the current state and further development of the technology that stands behind social media. One of the most noticeable aspects of today’s social media is the phenomenon of “internet memes”. An internet meme can be roughly defined as “a piece of culture, typically a joke, which gains influence through online transmission” (Davison, 2012). While memes play a substantial role in the use of social media and there has been growing interest in exploiting their potential for marketing and, more generally, conveying various types of messages, there has been a lack of HCI (Human Computer Interaction) research on memes. The understanding of how memes are perceived by social media users and how memes spread on social media is currently rather limited. The study reported in this thesis addresses the limitation of existing HCI research by presenting empirical evidence for the definition of memes, as well as memes' spreadability. Three online surveys (the total number of respondents:3161), targeting the users of the social media platforms Reddit and Facebook, were developed within the study. The social media platform Reddit was selected because it is a platform where memes are often created and also where they are moved to other platforms, like YouTube and Instagram. The study adopted a mixed method approach, combining the analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data. It is shown that memes are shared because they are found funny and that they are shared within the community or with friends. But if a meme spreads and becomes popular outside this original community, the meme loses its value to the original users. Some contents, like character memes, are much easier to spread, but just as soon as they become popular, they disappear.  

  • Linnea, Rådahl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Kund och säljare i ett digitalt samhälle: En kvalitativ studie om kundrelationer i dagens detaljhandel2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digitalization has provided the retailing business with a wide range of technologies and systems that has made it possible for retailers to connect with customers and do businesses in a new and efficient way. However, the new advanced technology has also provided some challenges such as higher competition and new demands from the customer. Since the customer is a vital part of the retail business and technology has become a big part of people and businesses everyday life, this study aims to create a richer understanding of the importance of digital technology for managing customer relations in the retail sector. By conducting interviews with owners and part owners of retail businesses the study was able to get an insight of their view on this matter. The result shows that the technology does not play the primary role but can be applied as an extension to the physical meeting and facilitate parts that constitute good customer relations.

  • Feltenius, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Wide, Jessika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Business as usual?: Civil society organizations in a marketized Swedish welfare state2019In: Journal of Civil Society, ISSN 1744-8689, E-ISSN 1744-8697, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 230-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to examine the participation of pensioners’ organizations in a context of marketization within local elderly care. The literature on New Public Management (NPM) points out different views on the effects of marketization on the participation of civil society organizations within the decision-making process. One view states marketization implies less of participation by civil society organizations since this stands in conflict with inherent values of NPM, such as efficiency and the citizen as customer on a market. An opposite view states that marketization does not cause this effect, i.e., civil society organizations participate in the same manner as before. The empirical investigation consists of results from a questionnaire sent out to pensioners’ organizations in Swedish municipalities with a marketized elderly care. The main result is that marketization does not cause any major crowding out effect on civil society organizations from the decision-making process. However, according to the survey, there exists a variation in this respect – participation varies between municipalities.

  • Lyxell, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    A Machine Learning Approach to Fiber Delivery Lead Time Estimation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Everybody’s talking about big data. Telecom companies have access to huge quantities of data but unfortunately, most of it is not further analyzed in search of valuable information regarding the optimization of processes. Telia Infra delivery operates to supply fiber to the whole of Swe- den. An important part of planning future deliveries is to decide on a delivery date immediately after the order is placed, a so-called ”First promise”. Today, there are great opportunities for improvement in this decision making. In 2018, the business had a low delivery precision on First promise, which today is done with manual resources. Therefore, the aim of the master thesis project is to develop and apply a model that improves the delivery precision at First promise, and can be implemented in the business as support for decision making at the delivery date.

    A variety of machine learning algorithms were trained and tested in order to estimate fiber de- livery lead time. One of the algorithms was chosen and results have shown that a significant increase in delivery precision is possible to obtain by implementing an automated system for estimation of delivery lead times based on analyzed available data. It gives reason to believe that to take the step from basing decisions on a hunch and move to a more technology based solution will optimize processes and with a high possibility reduce costs and resource demands. The master thesis has shown that there exists great potential for other tasks within the field of machine learning and automation of today’s processes.

  • Capo, Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tolu, Julie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Domaizon, Isabelle
    Debroas, Didier
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    How Does Environmental Inter-annual Variability Shape Aquatic Microbial Communities?: A 40-Year Annual Record of Sedimentary DNA From a Boreal Lake (Nylandssjon, Sweden)2019In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2296-701X, Vol. 7, article id 245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the sensitivity of lakes to anthropogenically-driven environmental changes (e.g., nutrient supply, climate change), it is necessary to first isolate the effects of between-year variability in weather conditions. This variability can strongly impact a lake's biological community especially in boreal and arctic areas where snow phenology play an important role in controlling the input of terrestrial matter to the lake. Identifying the importance of this inherent variability is difficult without time series that span at least several decades. Here, we applied a molecular approach (metabarcoding on eukaryotic 18S rRNA genes and qPCR on cyanobacterial 16S rRNA genes) to sedimentary DNA (sed-DNA) to unravel the annual variability of microbial community in 40 years' sediment record from the boreal lake Nylandssjon which preserve annually-laminated sediments. Our comparison between seasonal meteorological data, sediment inorganic geochemistry (X-ray fluorescence analyses) and organic biomarkers (pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses), demonstrated that inter-annual variability strongly influence the sediment composition in Nylandssjon. Spring temperature, snow and ice phenology (e.g., the percentage of snow loss in spring, the timing of lake ice-off) were identified as important drivers for the inputs of terrestrial material to the lake, and were therefore also important for shaping the aquatic biological community. Main changes were detected in the late-80s/mid-90s and mid-2000s associated with increases in algal productivity, in total richness of the protistan community and in relative abundances of Chlorophyta, Dinophyceae as well as Cyanobacteria abundance. These changes could be linked to a decline in terrestrial inputs to the lake during the snow melt and run-off period, which in turn was driven by warmer winter temperatures. Even if our data shows that meteorological factors do affect the sediment composition and microbial communities, they only explain part of the variability. This is most likely a consequence of the high inter-annual variability in abiotic and biotic parameters highlighting the difficulty to draw firm conclusions concerning drivers of biological changes at an annual or sub-annual resolution even with the 40-year varved sediment record from Nylandssjon. Hence, it is necessary to have an even longer time perspective in order to reveal the full implications of climate change.

  • Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Mazouch, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Binary classification for predicting propensity to buy flight tickets.: A study on whether binary classification can be used to predict Scandinavian Airlines customers’ propensity to buy a flight ticket within the next seven days.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A customers propensity to buy a certain product is a widely researched field and is applied in multiple industries. In this thesis it is showed that using binary classification on data from Scandinavian Airlines can predict their customers propensity to book a flight within the next coming seven days. A comparison between logistic regression and support vector machine is presented and logistic regression with reduced number of variables is chosen as the final model, due to it’s simplicity and accuracy. The explanatory variables contains exclusively booking history, whilst customer demographics and search history is showed to be insignificant.

  • Åström, Hannah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Sjöholm, Paulina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    FLOW SIMULATION OF AN OUTPUT SHAFT LINE: Capacity analysis and optimization of the overall process efficiency2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scania CV AB is a world leading provider of sustainable transport solutions. This includes trucks and buses, as well as an extensive offering of product-related services. This project takes place at the Södertälje plant and is carried out under the Transmissions Manufacturing department, with the output shaft line as the main focus. Due to a higher scale of product demand, the department aims to extend the line's production capacity to include both additional components and a higher production volume.

    The line under investigation consists of eleven serial processes. The project sets out to investigate the line's dynamic, find a theoretical maximum capacity for different product types and derive a reasonable OPE goal. Moreover, the project's final objective refers to how un-utilized capacity can be revealed.

    The project's results are delivered in three distinct parts. Firstly, a complex and thorough simulation model is delivered to the department alongside usage instructions. The model in its entirety is found in appendix A3. It is crucial to ensure that the model describes the real system. Therefore, the second result is an extensive model verification and validation. Lastly, results to where un-utilized capacity can be found is presented.

    General findings are that, reducing the cycle times to the times stated in the buy-in contract alongside with reducing the length (but not frequency) of shutdowns gives a considerable capacity enhancement. All further optimization endeavours assumes that the line's cycle times have already been reduced to the purchased times. Moreover, it is possible to increase product type one's manufacturing capacity by 11,4%, product type two's capacity by 13,1% and product types three and four's capacity with 7,2%. The capacity enhancements depends on several parameters for the different product types.

  • Erikmats, John
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Sjösten, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Sustainable Investment Strategies: A Quantitative Evaluation of Sustainable Investment Strategies For Index Funds2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern society is faced with the complex and intractable challenge of global warming, along with other environmental issues that could potentially alter our way of life if not managed properly. Is it possible that financial markets and equity investors could have a huge part to play in the transformation towards a greener and more sustainable world?

    Previous studies about investment strategies regarding sustainability have for the most part been centered around possibly less objective ESG-scores or around carbon and GHG-emissions only, with little or no consideration for water usage and waste management. This thesis aims to amend to the previous work on carbon reducing strategies and ESG-investing with the addition of water usage and waste management, especically using raw data of these measures instead of ESG-ratings.

    Index replicating portfolios have become more and more popular as it proves harder and harder to beat the index, offering good returns along with cheap and uncomplicated portfolio construction and management. In a trending market, the fear of missing out and the demand for market return can make an index replicating strategy a way for investors to have market exposure but still remain diversied and without confusion about which horses to bet on. This thesis studies the relationship between tracking-error and the increase of sustainability in a portfolio through reduction of the intensity of carbon emissions, water usages and poor waste management. To be able to make a fair comparison, these measures are normalized by dividing each measure by the reported annual revenue. These three obtained intensities are then implemented individually, as well as all together into index replicating portfolios in order to study the effect from decreasing them. First and foremost we study the effect on the tracking-error, but also the effects on returns and volatility. We also study the effect on liquidity and turnover in the portfolios to show that it is possible to implement extensive sustainability increasing methods into an index replication equity portfolio. We follow the UCITS-directory to avoid overweightin specic companies and only allow the portfolios to overweight a sector with maximum 2%, in order to avoid an unwanted exposure to sectors with naturally lower intensities. The portfolios are obtained by using a multi-factor risk model to predict the expected statistical behaviour in relation to the chosen factors. Followed by applying Markowitz Modern Portfolio Theory through a convex optimization problem with the objective function to minimize tracking-error. All displayed portfolios had stable and convex optimization and were compliant with the UCITS-directory. We limited our study to only North American stocks and chose the index "MCSI NA" to replicate. Only stocks that were a part of the index were allowed to invest in and we did not allow negative weights for any stocks. The portfolios were constructed and backtested for the period 2014-12-01 until 2019-03-01 with rebalancing quarterly at the same points in time that the index is rebalanced by MCSI.

    We found that it was possible to implement extensive sustainability considerations into the portfolios and still keep a high correlation with the index whilst keeping low tracking-errors. We believe that most index replicating investors should be able to implement reductions of above mentioned intensities of about 40-60% without compromising tracking-errors,returns and volatility too much. We found evidence that during this time and in this market our low-intensities portfolios would have overperformed the index. We also found that returns increased and volatility decreased as we increased the reduction of each individual measure and all three collectively. Reducing carbon intensity seemed to drive positive returns and lower volatility the most, but we also observed apositive effect from reduction of all intensities.

    Our belief before conducting this study was that sustainability should have a negative effect on returns due to the limitation of the feasible area of investing. This motivated us to build portfolios with intent to makeup for these lesser returns and hopefully "beat the index". This failed in almost all cases and the only way we were able to beat the index were through implementing sustainability in our portfolios.

  • Ahlin, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Ranby, Felix
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Predicting Marketing Churn Using Machine Learning Models2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For any organisation that engages in marketing actions there is a need to understand how people react to communication messages that are sent. Since the introduction of General Data Protection Regulation, the requirements for personal data usage have increased and people are able to effect the way their personal information is used by companies. For instance people have the possibility to unsubscribe from communication that is sent, this is called Opt-Out and can be viewed as churning from communication channels. When a customer Opt-Out the organisation loses the opportunity to send personalised marketing to that individual which in turn result in lost revenue. 

    The aim with this thesis is to investigate the Opt-Out phenomena and build a model that is able to predict the risk of losing a customer from the communication channels. The risk of losing a customer is measured as the estimated probability that a specic individual will Opt-Out in the near future. To predict future Opt-Outs the project uses machine learning algorithms on aggregated communication and customer data. Of the algorithms that were tested the best and most stable performance was achieved by an Extreme Gradient Boosting algorithm that used simulated variables. The performance of the model is best described by an AUC score of 0.71 and a lift score of 2.21, with an adjusted threshold on data two months into the future from when the model was trained. With a model that uses simulated variables the computational cost goes up. However, the increase in performance is signicant and it can be concluded that the choice to include information about specic communications is considered relevant for the outcome of the predictions. A boosted method such as the Extreme Gradient Boosting algorithm generates stable results which lead to a longer time between model retraining sessions.

  • Harrysson, Axel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Buddhism i Läroböcker: Presentation av buddhism i läroböcker för religionskunskap 12019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning tyder på att läroböcker framställer buddhism på ett otillräckligt vis som intebehandlar dess mångfacetterade uttryck. De behandlar inte heller om hur buddhism tar siguttryck i väst i jämförelse med asiatiska länder. Detta medför att religionen blir generaliseradoch exotifierad. I detta arbete ser vi hur framställningen av buddhism i läroböcker skrivna förreligionskunskap 1 och läroplanen Lgy11 ter sig. Undersökningen vilar på textanalys avläroböcker samt en kvalitativ forskningsprocess. Det visar sig att undersökningen ärsamstämmig med tidigare forskning då läroböckerna inte framställer buddhism tillräckligt ifråga om mångfald. Det visar sig också hur läroböckerna på egen hand inte når kraven somkursens syfte och centrala innehåll ställer samt hur endast en minoritet av läroböckernabeskriver västerländsk buddhism.

  • Landström, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Naarttijärvi, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Legal limits to prioritisation in policing – challenging the impact of centralisation2019In: Policing & society, ISSN 1043-9463, E-ISSN 1477-2728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article illustrates, through a combination of administrative and legal perspectives, how ambitions to centralise prioritisation decisions within a police organisation can be limited by the legal rules relating to crime investigations and public order policing. As a case study, we use the centralisation of the Swedish Police, a reform intending to reduce the previously far-reaching operational independence of regional police authorities in favour of a centralised and uniform single authority. Through this case study, we analyse the interaction between the legal and institutional frameworks of policing and prosecution, including positive obligations enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights. We conclude that legal responsibilities affecting the Swedish Police may significantly limit the possibility for managers and officers to de-prioritise many cases and public order concerns, which, in turn, may limit the ability to divert resources to other—centrally prioritised—tasks. Failure to account for such limits may cause reform ambitions to collide with legal responsibilities in day-to-day operative policing. The results indicate that research into organisational reform and police prioritisation may benefit from a more systemic analysis of the legal and institutional factors limiting institutional discretion.

  • Ljungberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Reduktion av bygglovsavgifter: -En kartläggning av dess effekter2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of a ten-week time limit in processing building permits, that came in legislation introduced in 2011, has sins its addition been under constant discussion. Mainly due to the fact that big variations in the time needed to get permits has become a reality over the country and that the ten-week limit is not held sufficiently. To address this problem, the government of Sweden came with a proposition. A reduction on building permits fees would be introduced. The idea was that fees were to be reduced by 20% for every week the handling exceeded the ten-week time limit. From the 1 of january 2019, the law is in effect. 

    How can this potentially effect the building committees economically and what will the results be for applicants and the municipality? That’s what this report seeks to find answers to. 

    The report has calculated the fees on a referents year (2018), using statistics from Umeå county’s board of construction. This has given a god estimate on the possible size of the reductions if the working methods don’t change. During the work with the report two key people in Umeå county’s organization has been available for questions and information, they work as town architect and administrator.         

    The result shows that the reductions can turn out to be an economical problem for the board of construction mainly because they use fees to finance their organization. In Umeå county, the fees stand for 93% of all revenues. If the referents year 2018 would be subdued to reductions on permit fees, it would have cost over 12% of total profits by revenues during that year. This makes it very likely that short processing times from now on will be a priority, otherwise reductions can be a severe economic threat. An Increase in stress for people working with permits seems also already to have been an effect. Different ways to make the process faster and more effective has also been discussed, for example the meeting routines for the board of constriction. For the applicants the view is brighter, mainly because it can have to effects: ether the processing time becomes faster or they will get a reduction in price. However, one possible negative is detected that can become a reality. The law states that if there is special circumstances the process time can be prolonged by ten more weeks. This could be used as a loophole to avoid reductions in a non-ethical way. This could mean that certain permits will have longer processing times in the future.