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  • Wallgren, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Källa på det?: En undersökning av källkritik i läromedel för Samhällskunskap2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sundström, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Undervisning av diskrimineringsgrunden sexuella trakasserier i grundskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Nordfjell, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Är det bara kvinnor som är ensamstående?: En kvalitativ textanalys av hur kvinnor  representeras i läromedel i samhällskunskap2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies huvudsakliga syfte har varit att analysera hur kvinnor representeras i läromedel i ämnet samhällskunskap. En särskild serie läromedlen har utgjort studiens material för att undersökningen även ska behandla ett perspektiv över tid. Den metod som använts är en kvalitativ innehållsanalys, där totalt fyra läromedel utgivna under en period som sträcker sig från år 1995 till 2017. Den tidigare forskningen har bland annat utgjorts av läromedelsgranskningar i förhållande till genus genomförda utav Skolverket och DEJA, Delegationen för jämställdhet i skolan. Studiens resultat har sedan analyserats och diskuterats, där genusteori varit den valda teoretiska utgångspunkten. Trots ett ökat innehåll av diskussioner om jämställdhet över tid, visar studien även hur de granskade läromedlen fortsättningsvis har innehåll som utgörs av stereotypa föreställningar och en kvinnlig underordning gentemot män.

  • Malmström, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gilla, kommentera och dela: En kvalitativ undersökning om utrymmet för elevers mediala erfarenheter i läromedel2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Bengtsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sametinget, en kolonial rest?: En kvalitativ studie om de samiska partierna, Sametingets roll och deras möjligheter i svensk politik2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker Sametingets möjligheter att driva de politiska frågor som de samiska partierna går till val med. Studien tar upp vilka frågor som de samiska partierna vill lyfta i Sametinget och hur de vill genomföra partiprogrammet. Studien går också igenom vilka lagar, förordningen och regleringsbrev som Sametinget behöver förhålla sig till i sitt arbete, dels som myndighet och som folkvalt organ. Studiens fokus är på relationen mellan vad de samiska partierna vill göra genom Sametinget och möjligheterna utifrån rådande lagar och förordningar ur ett postkolonialt teoretiskt perspektiv. Vad som framkommer i studien är att mandatet Sametinget fått är svagt i relation till vad de samiska partierna vill kunna genomföra. Studien kommer fram till att en utredning bör tillsättas för att undersöka möjligheten till ökat mandat för Sametinget.   

  • Almgren, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Att göra skillnad: En kvalitativ textanalys av de andras framställning i två läroböcker för samhällskunskap2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Karlström, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Protestbenägenheten mot utförsäljning av allmännyttan - en fråga om var: En jämförelse mellan Luleå och Umeå2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I två kontexter, Luleå och Umeå, undersöks benägenheten att protestera mot utförsäljningen av allmännyttan. Undersökningen tar ett brett grepp om protester och fångar in flera undersökningsobjekt. Benägenheten förklaras av strukturer, aktörer och idéer som finns i kontexterna i form av variabler på strukturell nivå som befolkningssammansättning och sysselsättningsstruktur samt det allmännyttiga beståndet. På aktöriell nivå finns förklaringar i den demokratiska processen och i köparens profil och som idéer i en protesttröskel. Dessa undersöks med en deduktiv och induktiv ansats. En dokumentstudie och djupintervjuer har gjorts, vilka bearbetats med en innehållsanalys. I empirin blev variablernas olikheter mellan Luleå och Umeå synliggjorda, varvid de analyserades för att därefter dra slutsatser om deras inverkan på benägenheten att protestera mot utförsäljning av allmännytta. Det allmännyttiga beståndets karaktär, mer eller mindre demokratiska ageranden i beslutsprocesser, köparens profil och idéer som fanns i en av kontexterna kunde särskilt förklara protestbenägenheten.

  • Brännström, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Musikens funktion i förskolan: En kvantitativ studie om musiken och sång2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att synliggöra möjliga mönster som kan finnas i musikens användning och funktion samt vilka faktorer som kan påverka pedagogers medvetenhet kring vad musik och sång kan bidra med till barns lärande. För att uppnå detta syfte har dessa frågeställningar använts: Hur mycket använder pedagoger sång och musik i förskolan? Vilken funktion har sång och musik i förskolan? Vilka bakgrundsfaktorer kan påverka pedagogers förhållningssätt kring användningen av musik och sång i förskolan? Enkäten skickades ut till pedagoger som arbetar i förskolan i 2 olika kommuner och har en svarsfrekvens på 44 %. Resultatet från denna studie visar att det flesta deltagarna använder musik och sång dagligen på förskolan, men att det finns en viss variation bland svaren. Musik och sång har en huvudsaklig funktion för att bidra med språkutveckling, men en viss medvetenhet i en mängd fler funktioner har också visats. Det sätt barn mestadels får uppleva musik och sång är i samband med samlingar, via dans och rörelselekar samt via IT. Denna studie har visat att skillnader i medvetenhet mellan förskollärare och barnskötare kan påverka valet hur ofta musik och sång använts vilken funktion det fyller.

  • Sjölund, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Avväxling på sammansatt byggelement: Provningar med balksko och skruvar i balkfläns2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lättelement AB in Örnsköldsvik manufactures self-supporting building elements in the form of roofs, walls and building floors. The elements are structured with light beams as frame filled with insulation. A plywood sheet is nail and glued on the upper side of the light beams and a thin steel plate is placed on the underside.

    In roofs there is usually a need for ventilation holes and roof hatches. A hole in the element means that load bearing light beams must be cut off to transfer the load to a lintel, called primary beam. The load bearing beam is called secondary beam. In this study, a connection has been designed between a secondary- and primary beam that has been analyzed in four different test series.

    The connection consisted partly of a hanger attached with anchor screws. The upper and lower flanges of the primary beam were attached with wooden screws placed through the flanges of the secondary beam. Test series 1 had the purpose of being a reference sample with beams of solid wood attached with the connection described above. Test series 2 consisted of light beams and with the connection. Test series 3 consisted of light beams, a plywood sheet placed one the upper side and a plate one the underside. Sample series 4 consisted of light beams, one plywood sheet and one plate and with the designed connection.

    The tests were performed at the subcontractor Masonite Beams in Rundvik. All test specimens were subjected to a compressive force to calculate the characteristic resistance of the connection for each test series. The deformation was measured under the hanger with a digital slider. The characteristic resistance was calculated based on the force at a displacement of 1.5 mm of the hanger. One specimen in each test series was subjected to a higher load to check if a crack fracture would occur along the primary beam. A crack fracture can occur when a beam is subjected to a force perpendicular to the fiber direction which can result in a break along the fiber direction of the wood.

    Test series 1 was not manufactured or tested because the results from the other test series didn’t have no signs of crack fracture on the primary beam. The result of the tests showed that test series 2 had a characteristic resistance of 16.47 kN and the failure for all specimens in test series 2 resulted in to that the secondary beam broke. The tests for test series 3 showed a strong displacement between the beams, which eventually caused the plate to break. The test series was not interesting to evaluate so no characteristic resistance was calculated for test series 3. The result for test series 4 showed that the test series managed the largest load compared to the other series of tests and the failure was that the secondary beam breaks. The characteristic resistance was calculated to 15.32 kN with a displacement of 1.5 mm under the hanger.

    The conclusion was that the wooden screws in the upper flanges resulted to the first break. The upper beam flange on the secondary beam cracked in both test series 2 and 4. During all series of tests, no sign of crack fractures occurred on the secondary beam. The result showed that test series 2 had a higher characteristic resistance compared to test series 4, this was because the test series 4 had a lager dispersion between the specimens compared to the test series 2. For future work it is recommended to design more test series with a larger number of specimens of each series to examine each part separately. This would give an increased understanding of the whole structure. As well as design the connection weaker than the beam´s bearing capacity to investigate the risk of crack fractures along the primary beam.

  • Meja, Sundman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nyttan, lusten och litteraturen: Ett samtal med Sara Mannheimers roman Handlingen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to problematize the concepts of usefulness and lust in relation to reading and literature. My analysis is based in Sara Mannheimer’s novel Handlingen. The research questions seeks to interpret the character´s understanding of the two ideas usefulness and lust, and further try to analyze how the character's view on literature and abstract thinking is determined by the two concepts. With theories on cleaning, baking and the practical work as well as theories of reading, the discussions with the novel´s character evolved to think further about the concept of literature and what it really stands for in one’s life. The results from the analysis of the novel resulted in a dualistic view between the two concepts usefulness and lust where the entrance to the world of literature is conditioned by having genuine lust for reading. I further problematize this view with a discussion about what it means to be an authentic person and that it does not reject the union of the two concepts. Another central point in the analysis of the novel is how usefulness relates to organization and a clear system whereas lust speaks to the abstract thinking and chaos. My conclusion consists of the union of being open to abstraction and the fact that a person cannot know certain things that will always be out of reach for us, such as existential questions and so on. This could mean that the usefulness and lust are dependent of each other in one’s life, at least that they are not ruling out each other’s existence. 

  • Popov, Oleg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    I jakten på beprövad erfarenhet2019Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Presentationen problematiserar begreppet beprövad erfarenhet (BE) och användningen av begreppet inom den pedagogiska verksamheten. BE kan ses som en form av praxisgrundad kunskap som omfattar kognitiva, praktiska och emotionella dimensioner. I Skolverkets dokument poängteras vikten av den beprövade erfarenhetens dokumentation, delning och prövning i ett kollegialt sammanhang, men vilka former av dokumentation och spridning som är valida preciseras inte. I presentationen dikuteras olika dimensioner av BE och skillnader mellan forskning och BE. En teoretisk modell föreslås för konceptualiseringen av BE.

  • Lundin, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Lindberg, Matilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    "Jag får vara tjock, smal, hela registret. Det är jag som bestämmer.": En kritisk diskursanalys om hur kampen mot kroppshets synliggörs på Instagram.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s medialized society we are fed with a constant flow of advertisements, no matter where we are. In these advertisements we see skinny and retouched ideal bodies, especially female bodies. The images shown in the media are the reference frameworks for the human body and in many cases, a conservative social order is propagated where women must exhibit an attractive exterior. This is a social problem for many women all around the world, and the work to counteract these tight ideals is called body activism. This study aims to investigate which different discourses prevail over the fight against body anxiety between different users on Instagram in order to broaden the understanding of how body anxiety is counteracted.

     

    The theoretical framework begins with theory and previous research on postmodern feminism and continues with studies related to digital feminism. Subsequently studies on female bodies and their ideals are presented, as well as the shame that is often linked to the norm-breaking body. Finally, the objectification and observation of the female body is presented. The critical discourse analysis is used in combination with a semiotic analysis to examine both image and the text that is linked to it. We have used Faircloughs three-dimensional framework for studying discourse as well as semiotic analytical tools such as connotations and mythologies.

     

    In conclusion of this study, we have interpreted these discourses about the struggle of body anxiety as a way of eventually changing the social norms and structures that prevail today. This has been done in different ways by different people, but with similar focus and goals. These people have shared their own experiences in the hope of spreading a body-positive mindset to their readers.

  • Wesslund, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Klimatmöten enligt Dagens Nyheter: En kritisk diskursanalys av Dagens Nyheters rapportering från tre av FN:s klimatmöten.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine how the climate summits arranged by the UN in Kyoto 1997, Copenhagen 2009 and Paris 2015 was portrayed by the Swedish daily newspaper Dagens Nyheter. The purpose was also to examine how the problem of climate change was portrayed in the paper in conjunction with the above mentioned climate summits. This was done by using the method critical discourse analysis. A total of 39 articles published in Dagens Nyheter during the time of the different summits was thoroughly analyzed using the method. The results show that Climate change is consequently described as an important issue and a problem that could result in large consequences for the entire planet if the different negotiating parts at the summits could not reach an agreement. The negotiations are described as tough, with countries having big difficulties reaching an agreement. In articles from all three summits the negotiating parts will, or unwillingness, to cooperate and taking responsibility for the situation is described as a key factor in order for the summits to achieve success. However, the media discourse in Dagens Nyheter regarding what taking responsibllity actually means has changed between the different conferences. In the Kyoto-articles being a responsible actor for preventing climate change were described to act according to the line of action already established by the United Nations. However the articles from the meetings held in Copenhagen and Paris described responsibility as something that can only be performed within the political frameworks realm of possibllity.The results also show that solutions to the problem of climate change are described exclusively as something that needs to be done within a liberal economic framework. Economic growth is described as something necessary for countries to develop and humanity’s adjustments to climate change must therefore be done without disrupting the current economic balance too severely.

  • Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    De postindustriella nätverken och samhällets sårbarhet1994In: Samhällets strukturomvandling och dess betydelse för lokal och regional anpassning / [ed] Tom Ritchey, Sundbyberg: Försvarets forskningsanstalt , 1994, 1, p. 91-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Holmgren, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Någon eller något?: En undersökning av djurgestaltning i tre skönlitterära verk2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper intends to examine animal portrayal in literature with the guidance of three literary works; Charlotte’s Web, The Call of the Wild and The Guest Cat. The overall purpose is to explore the representation of animals in text and see what it possibly could show about our – the humans – view of animals. Through this I investigate what we do when we interpret animals in text and how this portrayal can effect animals, with the help of a moral philosophical angle. I put focus on how the view of animals can be effected depending on if one sees animals as an object or a subject – someone or something. Questions used are: How are animals portrayed in this fiction? What can this portrayal show about our relationship with – and view of – animals? The analysis show consequences of both sides through the thought that both views still can be a sign of power over animals, since we never completely can understand animal’s thoughts or actions. I argue, however, that there still is a value to reflect about the animal in literature because it can demonstrate a shifting animal view and let us reflect not only about the animals in literature ­– but in the reality as well.

  • Visén, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Barndödlighet från sekelskiftet till mitten av 1900-talet.: En studie av socioekonomiska skillnader i barndödlighet i Umeå och Skellefteå2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Even thou the decline of child mortality in Sweden was a major factor during the demographic transition and that it caused a higher competition of resources in the society. There has been none research of the socioeconomic differences in child mortality in Umeå and Skellefteå in Sweden 1880–1950. This period was also characterized by processes such as the induztrialisation, urbanization and the development of the Swedish welfare state. Which should make it an even more interesting time to study socioeconomic differences in child mortality. The objective in this study was to examine socioeconomic differences in child mortality dependent of the father or mothers socioeconomic position in the society. The methods used was Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to investigate the chance of 179 406 children to survive until five years of age dependent of their fathers and mothers socioeconomic position in Umeå and Skellefteå in Sweden 1880–1950. The analysis show that the socioeconomic position of the parents had a statistical significance for the childrens survival during 1920 to 1950 in Umeå Skellefteå. The fathers socioeconomic position did also have statistical significance for the childrens survival during 1900–1920. However there was no statistical significance to be found for the mothers during the same period 1900–1920. There were also no statistical significance to be found between the parents socioeconomic position and childrens survival during1880–1900. The conclusions drawn is that more research can be done by using Cox regressions to analyze the differences in impact of the fathers and mothers socioeconomic position on the childrens survival. But also to analyze the impact of illegitimacy, legitimacy and intervals on the childrens survival during this period.

  • de Widt, Dennis
    et al.
    Cardiff University.
    Oats, Lynne
    University of Exeter.
    Co-operative Compliance: Views of large businesses in the Netherlands and UK2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper presents the findings of a study of Co-operative Compliance in the Netherlands and the UK. These two countries were early adopters of Co-operative Compliance as a mechanism for managing the relationships between large business taxpayers and the tax authorities, mediated to various degrees by tax advisers. The juxtaposition of these two cases provides interesting insights into how policy initiatives come into being and evolve, as well as how regulators learn from each other in subtle, and not so subtle ways. Policy learning in this context is promoted by the intervention of the OECD as promulgator of best practices in tax administration.

    Our focus is on Co-Operative Compliance in these two jurisdictions in practice. We examine how highly skilled actors perceive the programme in retrospect and prospect, by reference to their lived experiences derived from interviews. We also chart the emergence and subsequent adaptations of the programmes through the lens of official pronouncements and policy documents. The project started in 2013 and is generously funded by Horizon 2020. Over the course of the project, the objects of study were constantly moving within and between the countries we study, as was the backdrop of global events and developments in other jurisdictions. Capturing the essence of such a dynamic environment has been challenging but rewarding.

    Sections 2 and 3 of this report provides a brief background to the project and an explanation of our methodology respectively. This is followed by descriptions of the working practices in both jurisdictions in Sections 4 and 5. Section 6 is the heart of the report that builds on the background provided in earlier Sections and presents the views of large businesses of various dimensions of Co-operative Compliance in both countries. In Section 7 we offer a discussion of our findings together with our conclusions.

  • Lagerhjelm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Extracting Information from Encrypted Data using Deep Neural Networks2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore various approaches to using deep neural networks to per- form cryptanalysis, with the ultimate goal of having a deep neural network deci- pher encrypted data. We use long short-term memory networks to try to decipher encrypted text and we use a convolutional neural network to perform classification tasks on encrypted MNIST images. We find that although the network is unable to decipher encrypted data, it is able to perform classification on encrypted data. We also find that the networks performance is depending on what key were used to en- crypt the data. These findings could be valuable for further research into the topic of cryptanalysis using deep neural networks.

  • Eriksson, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindhe, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Individuella insatser: En studie om speciallärares en-till-en-arbete med elever i lässvårigheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to examine the one-to-one interventions and methods used by special education teachers for pupils with reading disabilities. The study highlights how special education teachers plan, implement and evaluate the interventions, based on analysis of qualitative interviews. The survey consists of eleven special education teachers active in eleven different schools. The study shows that the special education teachers consider early, intense interventions and a combination of evidence-based methods and materials as a means for good results. A majority of the teachers emphasize high competence and use current research in planning, implementation and evaluation of reading interventions. The special education teachers are unanimous in that cooperation between different competences and with guardians is a necessity to best support pupils with reading difficulties. All special education teachers emphasize that a respectful relationship with the pupil must permeate the individual reading interventions. In summary, the special education teachers express the need of more time for early intense interventions regarding pupils with reading disabilities. A question that arises is why those responsible in the municipality, in spite of thorough screening and research, do not sufficiently prioritize early intense interventions.

  • Jasim, Sarah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Type IV secretion genes in cagE-negative Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotype b2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative bacterium that plays an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis. The cagE gene, which encodes a putative exotoxin, has been found to be present in highly leukotoxic serotype b strains. Both in the JP2 genotype, in which there is a 530-bp deletion in the leukotoxin operon’s promoter region, and in the non-JP2 genotype, and it was recently shown that the cagE gene could serve as a genetic marker for highly leukotoxic serotype b strains. It was also noticed that the cagE gene and the virB4 gene did not seem to be found in the same strain. The aim of this study was to determine whether the cagE negative strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype B harboured the virB4 gene and vice versa. We hypothesize that the virB4 gene would be present in the serotype b samples that lacked the cagE gene and vice versa. In order to screen the samples for the presence of the virB4 gene conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used.  Indeed, we found that the cagE gene and the virB4 gene seldom co-existed in the same strain of A. actinomycetemcomitans, i.e. it can function as a marker for non-cagE genotype strains. However, it could also be concluded that it was common for a strain to lack both of these genes.

  • Gustafsson, Karl Kaj
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Diffusionstäthet vid restaurering: En analys av restaureringsprocessen avseende byggnadsfysikalisk projektering och byggnadsvård2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the restoration of an older building there are several factors, besides technical requirements, that are necessary to consider in order to succeed in achieving a suitable design. This relates to the fact that the history of the building and its technical construction could eventually imply a particular value. In social development, building preservation is the discipline that advocates careful maintenance and preservation of buildings, with respect for their originality and origin. This study aims to investigate how the restoration of an older building is carried out in accordance with good building restoration principles according to this discipline, with the ambition to investigate both technical-, as well as cultural- and architectural aspects. In addition to building preservation, the discipline of building physics is also used, with the purpose to assist the study with a technical calculation basis.

     

    In order to achieve the purpose of the study, a literature study supported by personal communication with restoration actors was conducted, as well as a moisture safety design. The literature study examined valid law and the regulations that were relevant to consider in order to achieve the aim of the study, and partly how this can be done in practice. In addition, the literature study investigated whether traditional building art is compatible with the modern building art, as they do meet during a restoration process.

     

    The moisture safety design investigated how the restoration of the older building could be conducted with good thermal- and moisture resistance. This was done by proposing four alternative internal additional insulations for the building. The alternatives were then analyzed for their respective moisture and heat technical performance and subsequently compared. The analysis was conducted with both hand calculations based on practical building physics, as well as with computer-aided analysis with the moisture calculation program WUFI® PRO 6.2.

     

    The study shows that the process of restoring an older building is a complicated process, where valid law and regulations can be considered difficult to interpret. However, it can be considered that the requirement for caution, as stipulated in chapter 8, 17 § Plan- och bygglag (2010:900) (PBL) takes precedence. Furthermore, the developer´s own ambition can be argued to be central to how the restoration is conducted, since achieving a restoration result according to good building preservation principles, is a difficult undertaking in a modern contemporary.

     

    The moisture safety design showed that all the proposed alternatives for the restoration meant energy efficiency, but their thermal- and moisture resistance properties varied. It also showed that the calculations performed by hand and with computer support were consistent at large. The alternative that was best from a building preservation point of view was finally proposed, which was an interior additional insulation with cellulose insulation without diffusion plastic in the construction. The hygroscopic properties of the cellulose were believed to ensure the diffusion resistance of the construction.

  • Molin, Marion
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Tonåringar i den osynliga garderoben: En komparativ analys mellan ungdomsromanerna Leah on the offbeat av Becky Albertalli och Ingen normal står i regnet och sjunger av Sara Ohlsson2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines how sexuality and sexual identity is expressed in the two young adult novels Ingen normal står i regnet och sjunger by Sara Ohlsson, and Leah on the offbeat by Becky Albertalli. The main purpose with the essay is to do a comparative analysis of the two novels to examine how they differ in their portrayals of lgbtq-characters and their portrayals of sexuality in adolescents. The analysis is based on gender and queer theory, with Judith Butler’s gender theories as a main basis, and references to other theories and authors in and around the field. The two novels are being put in comparison to each other with the help of a close reading and by the examining of different scenes and phenomenon’s that are important to the essay’s purpose. The analysis shows an evident similarity in the novels regarding the plotlines and the portrayals of the main characters as two confident, independent, bisexual teenage girls, while the novels differ more in the terms of how the discussion about sexuality and lgbtq-questions is being used, how much focus it gets in Leah on the offbeat compared to Ingen normal står i regnet och sjunger. In conclusion, the essay highlights the most evident differences and similarities in the two novels, and how they are manifested.

  • Litsgård, Matilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Aldrig stilla, aldrig farliga: Groteska kroppar i Mare Kandres romaner Bestiarium och Xavier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I study the bodies in Mare Kandre’s two novels Bestiarium (1999) and Xavier (2002), with the help of Mikhail Bakhtin’s theories of the grotesque. I examine the worldview that is portrayed in the novels – focusing on the attitude towards death – and seek answers to the following questions: how do the human bodies look and how do they relate to their surroundings? What does the way they are portrayed say about the world the novels portray? And what role does laughter play in the novels? I also examine the similarity between a grotesque body, and a gothic monster. As a result, I find that one body may exist both in life and death at the same time, that the bodies can merge together, and that the boundaries between body and world may be exceeded. I also find the grotesque abilities of the body not to be threatening, but filled with possibilities. Here, even monsters are not harmful.

  • Frick, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Text-parasiter: En tanke-vandring kring vår relation till texter och läsande2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the reading-subjects relationship to reading and texts, and if this relationship, through metaphors, could be compared to that of a parasite or a symbiosis. In other words the question that was asked was; can the reading-subjects relationship to the written text be compared to that of a parasite and it’s host, or is the relationship more similar to that of a symbiosis? The method for the study has been to find and compare different views on reading and text, that has been presented by a series of different theoreticians. The author’s whose work the study is based upon are Anders Johansson and his studies concerning “good” and “evil”, Martin Borgs work on propaganda and Iser Wolfgangs book The implied reader. The analysis is also based of the worldview presented by the characters in Ray Bradbury’s novel Fahrenheit 451. In conclusion, the parasitic and symbiotic metaphor, could be applied and seen in each off the works listed above, it is however not possible to fully say the relationship is closer to one or the other. Each text works in a network of other texts with all different background and intentions. To be able to fully understand the relationship – further studies must be made.

  • Droguett Gonzalez, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    När X blir Y: En genusanalys om hur könsroller i Stephenie Meyers roman Life and Death: Twilight Reimagined gestaltas genom genderswap.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats ämnar att analysera genderswap tekniken i Stephenie Meyers bok Life and Death: Twilight Reimagined ur ett genusperspektiv. Uppsatsen förhåller sig till Lena Gemzöes bok Feminism där genusproblematiker diskuteras. Uppsatsen avser att jämföra Life and Death: Twilight Reimagined med original boken Twilight för att undersöka om det finns könsskillnader mellan huvudkaraktärerna Bella och Beau och hur genderswap påverkar detta.

    Analysen visar att via genderswap lyckas man framhäva skillnaderna mellan Bella och Beau i förhållande till våld, familjesfären och manliga privilegier. Via ett genderswap visar Meyer på hur den kvinnliga stereotypen fortfarande präglar Bella som kvinnlig karaktär och hur Beau som Bellas respektive manliga version framhäver existerande problematiker inom berättelsen. Jag argumenterar att analysen om genderswap driver till diskussion om hur könsroller gestaltas i Meyers två böcker och skapar utrymme för vidare diskussion inom ämnet. 

  • Sahlin, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Prissättning av suventionerad kultur: vilka är de internationella erfarenheterna?1996Report (Other academic)
  • Charléz, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    "A Mere Dream Dreamed in a Bad Time": A Marxist Reading of Utopian and Dystopian Elements in Ursula K. Le Guin's Always Coming Home2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Ursula K. Le Guin’s novel Always Coming Home, utopian and dystopian elements interact according to patterns inspired by anarchism and Taoism to criticise material excesses and oppressive social structures under capitalism. Via discussions of gender, state power, and forms of social (re)production, this Marxist reading proposes that the novel’s separation of utopia from dystopia hinges on the absence or presence of a state. The reading also suggests that the novel’s utopia is by its own admission a “mere dream” with limited relevance to anti-capitalist politics, and employs the novel’s own term “handmind” to show that the aesthetic and philosophical dimensions of its anti-capitalist sentiments encourage a reconsideration of utopia, to be viewed not as a fixed future product – a good-place – but as a constant process of becoming – a no-place.

  • Nordmark, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Människan som skapare, eller Den moderne Gud: Skapelseberättelsen som den skildras i Clay och Amnesia: A Machine for Pigs genom Milton och Shelley2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the themes of godhood and creation in modern, secular works. Using literary analysis, the thesis examines how the creation myth and the relationship between creator and creation is written in David Almond’s novel Clay and the video game Amnesia: A Machine for Pigs, in comparison with how the same relationship is presented in Frankenstein and Paradise Lost. The thesis focuses on how the different works portray the themes of god, creation, original sin, and atonement, where the portrayals differ and where are the same. It ends with a discussion on how modern, secular stories using these themes manage to separate themselves from their religious origins while still remaining true to their inspirations.

  • Luu, Trieuvy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    van den Broeck, Martijn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Sondergaard, Marie Louise Juul
    Data Economy: Interweaving Storytelling and World Building in Design Fiction2018In: NORDICHI'18: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 10TH NORDIC CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION, ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 771-786Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the design of a design fiction as an iterative process of interweaving storytelling and world building. With the design fiction Data Economy, we present how we have imagined and externalized a data obsessed future through a protagonist, narratives, plots and diegetic prototypes; this includes the short stories Memoirs of Jesse, the short film Data Economy and a number of designed objects. Data Economy explores how far people are willing to go to satisfy their individualistic hunger to consume by creating a tension between consumerism and data collection. By analyzing the design fiction, we discuss social and ethical issues of data privacy. With a focus on narratives, plots, protagonists and diegetic prototypes, we argue that the designerly potential of design fiction lies in its ability to interweave the literary methods of storytelling with the designerly methods of world building.

  • Ljung, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Department of Medicine Solna, Clinical Epidemiology Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ueda, Peter
    Liao, Katherine P.
    Greenberg, Jeffrey D.
    Etzel, Carol J.
    Solomon, Daniel H.
    Askling, Johan
    Performance of the Expanded Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Score for Rheumatoid Arthritis in a geographically distant National Register-based cohort: an external validation2018In: RMD Open, E-ISSN 2056-5933, Vol. 4, no 2, article id UNSP e000771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) should facilitate evidence-based management. Prior work has derived an internally validated a CV risk score, the Expanded Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Score for Rheumatoid Arthritis (ERS-RA), using US data. The aim of this study was to perform an external validation among unselected patients with RA from Europe. Methods Three large, partially overlapping, cohorts of patients with RA from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality register were identified for external validation, two with information on smoking and two with close to 10 years of median follow-up. The 10-year rate of first CV events was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The performance of ERS-RA was assessed using C-index and comparisons of observed versus predicted risks. Results The C-index for ERS-RA varied across the three RA cohorts, from 0.75 to 0.78. Predicted risks corresponded well to observed risks among individuals with <= 10 % observed 10-year CV risk, but underestimated risk in individuals with a higher observed risk. In the absence of data on smoking, ERS-RA underestimated the CV risk by 3.3%, whereas in the cohorts including data on smoking, the calibration was within 1% (0.06% and 0.7%). In the clinically relevant risk intervals (<5%, 5.0%-<7.5%, 7.5%-<10%), ERS-RA performed well. Conclusions In an unselected Swedish population with RA, ERS-RA performed well, although the 10-year CV risk was underestimated in high-risk groups and in the absence of data on smoking. ERS-RA could be considered as a risk stratification tool for targeted preventive interventions in clinical rheumatology practice.

  • Hauptmann, Demian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Seasonality of resource limitation of stream biofilm: Nutrient limitation of an arctic stream in northern Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic ecosystems are sensitive to climate change and this biome is experiencing accelerated warming. Climate change in the arctic is projected to further alter precipitation and temperature patterns, which may influence land-water interactions in the future. Such changes have the potential to affect aquatic biofilm communities (i.e., algae, bacteria, and fungi) that form the base of riverine food webs, yet are sensitive to changes in thermal and light regimes, and are potentially limited by macronutrients like carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). This study investigated the patterns of resource limitation for autotrophic and heterotrophic biofilms in the Arctic using nutrient diffusing substrata (NDS) in a river network in northern Sweden (Miellajokka). Continuous NDS deployments (March until September) in a birch forest stream were combined with a spatial survey of nutrient limitation in late summer across 20 sites that encompassed a variety of nutrient, light, and temperature combinations. Results show that nutrient limitation of autotrophic processes was common during summer, but also that light inhibited algal growth in early season, and that temperature accelerated rates of activity throughout the growing season. By comparison, heterotrophic processes were less influenced by temperature, unless experimentally supplied with N and P. Alongside persistent N limitation, co-limitation by macronutrients (NP: autotrophic and heterotrophic biofilm, or CNP: heterotrophic biofilm) dominated the overall pattern of limitation over time and space. However, results from the spatial survey suggested that the identity of the primary limiting nutrient can change from N to P, based on differences in chemistry that arise from varying catchment features. As arctic studies are often conducted at individual sites during summer, they may miss shifts in the drivers of stream productivity that arise from variable nutrient, temperature, and light regimes. This study attempted to capture those changes and identify conditions where one might expect to see transitions in the relative importance of physical and chemical factors that limit biofilm development. These results also highlight the challenge of identifying the single most important limiting nutrient (e.g., N versus P) in streams and rivers across the Arctic, as I found that both nutrients could play this role within a single, relatively small drainage system.

  • Gydemo Östbom, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lake water chemistry and the changing arctic environment: Topographic or climatic control?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The arctic is expected to be one of the regions most affected by ongoing climate change, with relative changes in air temperatures significantly higher than the global mean. Lakes are recognized for their potential role in the global climate system and as ecosystems of importance for local societies. As such, there is a scientific interest regarding how arctic lakes and their geochemistry will respond to climatic changes. Lakes around Kangerlussuaq (66.99 N, 51.07 W), south-west Greenland, are known for their unique geochemical composition, including oligosaline lakes, of which some are enriched in colourless dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The origin of this DOC and the importance of local catchment properties for the general water chemistry is currently being debated. This thesis aimed at: i) exploring the extent and effect of catchment morphology on lake-water chemistry in the Kangerlussuaq area; ii) determine the predominant origin of DOC, aquatic or terrestrial. I used a remote-sensing approach based on satellite imagery and digital elevation model (DEM) in deciding landscape influence on water chemistry (pH, alkalinity, conductivity, base cations, sulphate, nitrogen and absorbance). To trace the origin of the organic sources behind DOC lake water and sediments, I used a hydrogen isotope tracing method. The remote sensing approach revealed that morphological characteristics serving as proxies for lake water residence time and hydrologic connectivity (e.g. lake altitude difference and absence of outlets) explained up to 77% of the variations in lake water chemistry. The hydrogen isotopic signature of the DOC indicated a predominantly autochthonous origin, i.e. 59 to 78% was estimated to originate from algae. I conclude that lake water chemistry of the lakes in the study area is primarily controlled by the precipitation : evaporation balance, enhanced by static catchment characteristics regulating water age. Thus, the examined lake water chemical properties are likely to remain across future climatic scenarios, providing the current precipitation : evaporation balance prevails.

  • Hedman, Astrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of land use on wetland carbon storage and ecosystem services in the tropics: A first estimation investing rural wetlands in central and eastern Uganda2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands provide important ecosystem services (ES) by storing large amounts of organic carbon (OC) and being of high biological, cultural, and economical value. Uganda is covered by vast wetland areas but has with a booming population rapidly been decreasing due to pressure on lands. The aim of this report was to examine important socio-ecological dynamics of rural wetlands in relation to variations of land use in central and eastern Uganda. This by assessing above- (ABG) and belowground (BG) C stocks, soil pH, and capturing provisioning ES and related impacts on soil and vegetation. The methods involved initial spatial analysis followed by two field campaigns with collection of soil samples, biomass measurements and recordings of provisioning ES, following locally developed standardized methods. Laboratory soil analyses included bulk density, loss on ignition and pH. The results shows that the permanent wetland LUC classes store the most total ecosystem C (273.5 to 356.5 t C ha-1), with the BG pool being the largest. It further brings new insights to the much less studied seasonal wetlands that also proves to be an important C stock (331.1 t C ha-1) as well as providing essential ES. In line with previous research, the total ecosystem C and the provisioning ES of wetlands decreases with changing land use management (farmlands 185 to 209; grasslands 125; woodland 120 to 284 t C ha-1). Further knowledge of socio-ecological dynamics of wetlands is needed, especially in seasonal wetlands, to increase sustainable wetland management. This being urgently needed for many communities in Uganda that are dependent on agroecologically-based economies in close relation to wetland ES and vulnerable to climate variations.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-22 09:00 Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå
    Sundell, Claes-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Low back pain in adolescent athletes2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Globally Low back pain (LBP) is one of five leading causes of years lived with disability (YLD), and LBP is a common complaint among adults as well as adolescents and adolescence athletes. During adolescents, the LBP often is considered as non- specific without structural findings and thus not needed to be further diagnosed or treated specifically. However, LBP that begins in adolescence often continue through adulthood, and since adolescent athletes with high physical activity seems to have more LBP than less physically active adolescents, high physical loading during adolescence, might be a risk factor for LBP later in life.

    Studies: Epidemiology: The Standardized Nordic Questionnaire adjusted for adolescence was used to investigate the prevalence of LBP during adolescence (16-19 years old individuals).

    Retrospective study: A ten-year follow-up on symptomatic low back spondylolysis patients identified on MRI or CT. Sixteen out of nineteen identified patients agreed to answer a questionnaire and to have their case-history reviewed.

    Case-control study: Twenty-five patients (13-19-year-old boys and girls) with LBP and 13 pain free individuals (controls, 14-19-year-old boys and girls) were investigated with physical examination and MRI. If the patients had findings on MRI a CT investigation was performed.

    Clinical study: Twelve of 14 patients (a subgroup from the case-control study) with Spondylolysis on MRI and CT were evaluated with a modified Hollenberg classification (six levels). These patients were re-evaluated with MRI and CT after 3 months of treatment with complete rest from sports activity.

    Differential diagnosis: Five adolescent patients with on-going LBP/thigh pain previously treated in other clinics, were reevaluated for a “second opinion”.

    Results: Epidemiology study: The prevalence of LBP among adolescents was 46% (N= 2522) with an annual incidence of 42 %. Girls reported more LBP than boys (52 % versus 40 %). Individuals who were active in sports > 6 h/w had significantly more LBP compared with less physically active individuals. 

    Retrospective study: Thirteen of the 16 individuals had a second MRI/CT investigation and thus 52 out of the initial 64 pars interarticularis where investigated a second time (mean 3 months after the first investigation). These patients had had different treatments, most commonly rest for 3 months. In total, 7 out of 16 individuals healed (44%).

    Case control study: In 22/25 patients (88%) there were clinical findings and MRI findings such as spondylolysis, disc herniated discs, disc degeneration and injuries to the vertebral body. In 13/25 patients (52%) spondylolysis of different stages were found. No clinical test alone, or in combination, could reliably diagnose spondylolysis, and could thus not be used as a selection test for patients who need further diagnostics with MRI and CT.

    Clinical study: Using a combination of MRI and CT examination the early signs of skeletal injury (oedema, incomplete fracture) to the pars interarticularis were detected. Patients diagnosed with these early stages healed significantly better than if diagnosed in later stages (complete fracture and pseudoarthrosis).

    Differential diagnosis: The second opinion with careful physical examination and MRI examination diagnosed stress reactions in the pelvic ischial tuberosity in the patient seeking help for pain in the lower back/thigh. After guided rehabilitation, all these patients returned to previous sport activities.

    Conclusions: LBP is common during adolescence, more common in girls and in highly active individuals. LBP must be taken seriously, especially in adolescent athletes who not seldom have fractures in pars interarticularis (Spondylolysis). If diagnosed early, there seems to be good potentials to heal the fracture with 3 months ́ of rest from loading (sport activity). Differential diagnoses such as stress reactions in the pelvic ischial tuberosity should be taken into consideration.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-22 10:15 Hörsal 1031, Norra Beteendevetarhuset, Umeå
    Gorbach, Tetiana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Methods for longitudinal brain imaging studies with dropout2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges in aging research is to understand the brain mechanisms that underlie cognitive development in older adults. Such aging processes are investigated in longitudinal studies, where the within-individual changes over time are observed. However, several methodological issues exist in longitudinal analyses.  One of them is loss of participants to follow-up, which occurs when individuals drop out from the study. Such dropout should be taken into account for valid conclusions from longitudinal investigations, and this is the focus of this thesis. The developed methods are used to explore brain aging and its relation to cognition within the Betula longitudinal study of aging.

    Papers I and II consider the association between changes in brain structure and cognition. In the first paper, regression analysis is used to establish the statistical significance of brain-cognition associations while accounting for dropout. Paper II develops interval estimators directly for an association as measured by partial correlation, when some data are missing. The estimators of Paper II may be used in longitudinal as well as cross-sectional studies and are not limited to brain imaging. 

    Papers III and IV study functional brain connectivity, which is the statistical dependency between the functions of distinct brain regions. Typically, only brain regions with associations stronger than a predefined threshold are considered connected. However, the threshold is often arbitrarily set and does not reflect the individual differences in the overall connectivity patterns.  Paper III proposes a mixture model for brain connectivity without explicit thresholding of associations and suggests an alternative connectivity measure. Paper IV extends the mixture modeling of Paper III to a longitudinal setting with dropout and investigates the impact of ignoring the dropout mechanism on the quality of the inferences made on longitudinal connectivity changes.

  • Friesz, Terry L.
    et al.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sou, Zhong-Gui
    A Spatial Computable Genral Equilibrium Model1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a spatial computable general equilibrium model for which the Walras' law is employed to articulate the general equilibrium of a spatially separated economy while Wardrop's first principle is used to enunciate the flow equilibrium on a general transportation network. A price and transportation cost dependent input–output matrix is employed to alleviate the need for explicit supply and factor demand functions found in traditional Samuelson–Takayama–Judge spatial price equilibrium models. A detailed transportation network presentation is employed to more precisely predict commodity movements. A numerical example with constant net output matrix is also presented.

  • Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Trading natural resources for public grants: development rhetoric, image, and social capital in North Sweden2006In: Social capital and development trends in rural areas: vol. 2 / [ed] Katsuhisa Ito, Hans Westlund, Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi Hatori, Kyoto: Kyoto University , 2006, 1, p. 71-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kulin, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A Little More Action, Please: Increasing the Understanding about Citizens’ Lack of Commitment to Protecting the Environment in Different National Contexts2018In: International Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0020-7659, E-ISSN 1557-9336, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 314-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study advances the current understanding of why many citizens do not display a high level of commitment to protecting the environment. We examine cross-national differences in the salience of attitudinal and behavioral profiles distinguished by their comparably low levels of pro-environmental behavior, in both the public and private spheres. Based on theories of postmaterialism and collective action problems, we expect gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and levels of generalized trust to be related to the salience of these attitudinal and behavioral profiles cross-nationally. First, low levels of GDP very likely constrain pro-environmental behavior through decreasing environmental concern, which should increase the probability of citizens displaying an attitudinal and behavioral profile characterized by low levels of both environmental concern and pro-environmental behavior. Second, collective action problems in low-trust countries should also constrain behavior by undermining the propensity of environmentally concerned individuals to act on their concerns, which should increase the probability of citizens displaying a profile characterized by low levels of pro-environmental behavior despite high levels of concern. Using latent class analysis and multilevel modeling, we analyze data from the International Social Survey Programme (2010) and show that the probability of individuals displaying these profiles is clearly linked to GDP and national levels of generalized trust, in the expected manner. In contrast to previous research, we demonstrate that these societal factors are complementary insofar as they relate to fundamentally different individual-level processes underlying pro-environmental behavior.

  • Bäckström, Angelica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Heder och trauma: En kvalitativ studie som belyser socialarbetares upplevelser av att arbeta med människor som har varit utsatta för hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att belysa socialarbetares upplevelser av att arbeta med människor som har varit utsatta för hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck. Datainsamlingen har skett med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Fyra socialarbetare som arbetar på skyddade boenden för personer utsatta för hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck har fått beskriva sitt arbete med klienterna och hur detta arbete påverkar dem själva. Det insamlade materialet har analyserats genom tematisk analys. Socialarbetarna beskriver ett komplext arbete med traumatiserade klienter, ett arbete som kräver att de arbetar med ett speciellt förhållningssätt. Det komplexa arbetet med klienterna innebär att härbärgera svåra berättelser dagligen vilket i sin tur påverkar socialarbetarna i viss mån negativt. Socialarbetarna beskriver också att arbetet är utmanande och intressant där de får hjälpa andra människor genom att stödja klienterna under en tid i deras liv, på vägen mot ett självständigt liv utan våld.

  • Svensson, Jennie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hallqvist, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gränssättning och emotioner i den professionella yrkesrollen: En kvalitativ studie om hur det emotionella arbetet påverkar yrkesverksammma socialsekreterare i Umeå Kommun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen belyser den aktuella emotionella arbetssituationen avseende yrkesverksamma socialsekreterare. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur det emotionella arbetet påverkar socialsekreterare som arbetar i Umeå Kommun. Vidare är syftet att undersöka om detta påverkar dem utanför arbetslivet. För att besvara syftet har studien utgått från följande forskningsfrågeställningarna:  Hur påverkas socialsekreterare emotionellt av sitt yrke, hur hanterar socialsekreterare emotionell börda på jobbet samt hur märker socialsekreteraren av sin yrkesroll utanför arbetslivet? Studien baseras på en kvalitativ forskningsmetod där det empiriska materialet inhämtats med hjälp av en semistrukturerad intervjumetod. Urvalet består av yrkesverksamma socialsekreterare från Vuxenenheten samt Barn - och Ungdomsenheten, ett målinriktat urval som resulterade i snöbollsurval. Avgränsningen i urvalet avser socialsekreterare i Umeå Kommun. En konventionell innehållsanalys användes för att analysera det empiriska materialet. Vidare för analys användes teori bestående av Affektteori och Emotionellt Arbete som teoretiska begrepp. Studiens resultat visar på olika faktorer som påverkar socialsekreteraren emotionellt. Resultatet visar att det emotionella arbetet synliggörs i klientrelationer, arbetsmiljön, individuella och kollektiva strategier samt effekter på socialsekreterarens privatliv. Betydelsen av professionalitet och gränssättning var väsentlig för hantering av det emotionella arbetet. Således påverkar det emotionella arbetet socialsekreteraren både psykiskt och fysiskt på arbetstid som utanför arbetstid. Resultatet visar således på att de är individuellt hur mottaglig man är för emotionell påverkan. Vidare framkom att det är oundvikligt att vara i kontakt med det emotionella inom verksamhetsfältet.  Den emotionella påverkan upplevdes som negativ men resultatet visar även på att det emotionella arbetet kan ha en positiv inverkan på arbetsuppgifter. Detta som ett redskap för socialsekreteraren att använda sig utav. Studiens slutsats visar på en tydlig parallell mellan emotionell påverkan och socialsekreterarens arbete som likväl styrks av presenterad forskning.

  • Assarsson, Olivia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lindström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sandqvist, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Medföljande barn till frihetsberövade mödrar i anstalt: En kvalitativ studie med syfte att undersöka kriminalvårdens syn på barnperspektivet inom kriminalvården samt samverkan med socialtjänsten gällande medföljande barn i anstalt.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien avser att belysa kriminalvårdens syn på barnperspektivet gällande medföljande barn med sin frihetsberövade mamma i anstalt. Vidare avser studien att belysa samverkan mellan kriminalvården och socialtjänsten i dessa ärenden, utifrån barnets bästa. Studien är baserad på fem kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med yrkesverksamma från fyra av kriminalvårdens kvinnoanstalter som kommit i kontakt med medföljande barn i anstalt. Författarnas teoretiska utgångspunkt har varit att analysera resultatet av intervjuerna utifrån ett anknytningsteoretiskt förhållningssätt. Resultatet visar att kriminalvården har en god kännedom om och kan tillgodose barns grundläggande behov i spädbarnsålder, men saknar i dagsläget resurser att tillgodose behoven hos äldre barn. Vidare visar resultatet att en god samverkan mellan kriminalvården och socialtjänsten är en förutsättning för att vistelsen på anstalt ska bli så bra som möjligt för barnet, och att det finns mer att önska av nuvarande samarbete mellan myndigheterna.

  • Olsson, Matilda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nyman, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Acceptans som trend: En kvalitativ studie av hur flickor talar om begreppet familj2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna kvalitativa studie genomförs två gruppintervjuer av sammantaget sex personer i åldrarna 14-16 år, i Västerbotten, för att ta reda på hur flickor talar om begreppet “familj” och vilka faktorer som påverkar flickor i hur de talar om begreppet "familj". Millenniegenerationen beräknas frångå traditionella normer och är präglad av teknologins framväxt av sociala medier. Den traditionella kärnfamiljen har länge setts som ett ideal i samhället vilket också visar sig i socialtjänstens arbete, denna studie fokuserar på hur flickor idag ser på begreppet familj. Genom innehållsanalys av materialet skapas tre teman ”Modern familj”, ”Traditionella normer”, ”Det perfekta livet”. Resultatet visar att flickor kan antas prata om familj som något biologiskt och/eller socialt konstruerat. Det som främst påverkar hur intervjupersonerna talar kring begreppet “familj” är dels den egna familjen samt sociala medier, vilket kan förväntas vara representativt för målgruppen. Tydliga könsroller genomsyrar intervjupersonernas sätt att prata om familj. Denna studie visar att flickor kan tänkas ha ett öppet förhållningssätt kring olika typer av familjekonstellationer, samtidigt som traditionella värderingar kan reproduceras i praktiken. Vilket utifrån studiens resultat går att tolka som att normer kring kärnfamiljen kan styra flickor idag. Tidigare forskning visar på att människor i dagens moderna samhälle tycks längta tillbaka till det traditionella levnadssättet, vilket denna studies slutsatser styrker då det framgår att “kärnfamiljen” betraktas som ett ideal.

  • Bäckström, Angelica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Heder och trauma: En kvalitativ studie som belyser socialarbetares upplevelser av att arbeta med människor som har varit utsatta för hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att belysa socialarbetares upplevelser av att arbeta med människor som har varit utsatta för hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck. Datainsamlingen har skett med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Fyra socialarbetare som arbetar på skyddade boenden för personer utsatta för hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck har fått beskriva sitt arbete med klienterna och hur detta arbete påverkar dem själva. Det insamlade materialet har analyserats genom tematisk analys. Socialarbetarna beskriver ett komplext arbete med traumatiserade klienter, ett arbete som kräver att de arbetar med ett speciellt förhållningssätt. Det komplexa arbetet med klienterna innebär att härbärgera svåra berättelser dagligen vilket i sin tur påverkar socialarbetarna i viss mån negativt. Socialarbetarna beskriver också att arbetet är utmanande och intressant där de får hjälpa andra människor genom att stödja klienterna under en tid i deras liv, på vägen mot ett självständigt liv utan våld.

  • Ederlöf, Ebba
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Wendel, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Byggnadsrelaterad ohälsas påverkan på enskilda individer: En studie med fokus på psykosociala aspekter av BRO2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Denna undersökning handlar om hur individer påverkas psykosocialt av byggnadsrelaterad ohälsa. Även om problematikens ursprung kommer från byggnaden så är konsekvenserna av problemet inte enbart medicinska. De insatser som idag implementeras är av medicinsk eller teknisk bakgrund, vilket kommer problematiseras i undersökningen. Studien består av sex stycken intervjuer med individer som är eller har blivit drabbade av BRO och har analyserats med en hermeneutisk metod. Resultaten av undersökningen visar att individerna med BRO har en påverkad livssituation där de har svårigheter att delta i vanliga sociala sammanhang. De individer som har fått hjälp via sociala insatser uppger att de idag har bättre förutsättningar och förmåga att hantera problematiken än de som stått utan sådana insatser. Detta innebär att de behövs mer insatser av social karaktär för att hjälpa de som är och har blivit utsatta. Intervjupersonerna upplever att de inte fått något erkännande kring händelsen eller en ursäkt för det de utsatts för. Studien tyder på att det finns ett behov av socialt stöd där fokus ligger på att bearbeta problematiken och lära sig att hantera deras besvär.

  • Nordström, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Fejle, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ”…Man vill inte vara klen i huvet”: En kvalitativ studie om biståndshandläggares beaktande av psykisk ohälsa bland äldre kvinnor.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Biståndshandläggare inom äldreomsorgen har i uppgift att efter ansökan utreda äldre personers behov och rätt till bistånd för att sedan besluta om insatser vilka enligt lag tillförsäkrar äldre personer en skälig levnadsnivå. De behovsbedömningar som görs tenderar dock att utelämna områden som psykisk ohälsa till följd av faktorer som begränsade insatser, tid och bristande kunskap på området. Behovsbedömningar tenderar även att påverkas av den äldres könstillhörighet trots en strävan mot att bortse från kön under handläggningsprocessen. Förhållandet mellan att utföra jämställda behovsbedömningar för äldre personer baserade på individuella behov och viljan att bortse från kön under handläggningsprocessen kan därför anses som smått problematiskt då det kan påverka biståndshandläggares möjligheter och förmågor att upptäcka och beakta psykisk ohälsa bland äldre. Studien syftade således till att undersöka hur biståndshandläggare inom äldreomsorgen beaktar psykisk ohälsa bland äldre kvinnor i handläggningsprocessen då kvinnor utgör en sårbar grupp vad gäller exempelvis ensamhet. Detta till följd av att de bland annat idag generellt sett lever längre än män. Studien genomfördes med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer med fem biståndshandläggare inom äldreomsorgen i en mellanstor kommun i Västerbotten. Av studien framgår det att ett aktivt avståndstagande från betydelsen av äldre personers kön kan medföra att könsspecifika behov eller upplevelser inte får gehör under utredningen. Exempelvis riskeras kvinnors oro att negligeras till följd av stereotypiska uppfattning om hur äldre kvinnor uttrycker sig eller har för behov. Det stora handlingsutrymme biståndshandläggare har lägger även stor press på varje specifik handläggare att upptäcka och beakta psykisk ohälsa bland äldre kvinnor. Det uppfattas av biståndshandläggare själv som ett komplext problem som är svårt att avgöra i förhållande till lagens bestämmelser om skälig levnadsnivå. Det visar sig alltså finnas behov av utökad kunskap bland biståndshandläggare vad gäller psykisk ohälsa bland äldre personer generellt, samt ökad medvetenhet om hur tidigare och nuvarande könsstereotyper kan påverka beslut om insatser. Det pekar sammanfattningsvis på att ett medvetet förhållningssätt till kön i vissa fall kan hjälpa snarare än stjälpa när det kommer till att beakta psykisk ohälsa bland äldre kvinnor.

  • Norman Sjödahl, Rebecca
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Skalja, Stella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "De uppfattade socialtjänsten som någon som tog allting ifrån dem".: En kvalitativ studie om orsakerna bakom ungdomars tillit eller misstro till socialtjänsten.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien ämnade att undersöka skälen bakom intervjupersonernas upplevda tillit eller misstro gentemot socialtjänsten. Vidare var det även av intresse att få en ökad förståelse för hur detta påverkade individernas benägenhet att vid behov uppsöka myndigheten för stöd. Studien baserades på intervjuer med högstadieelever på en skola i Sverige. Undersökningens slutsatser visade på att intervjupersonernas benägenhet att anförtro sig åt myndigheten var tydligt förankrade i olika skäl, vilka sammanfattades till tre huvudteman. Det framkom att intervjupersonerna upplevde att de inte var tillräckligt informeradeavseende myndigheten och dess förfarande, vilket försämrade förutsättningarna till ett ökat tillitskapital. Vidare påvisade resultatet att intervjupersonerna uppfattade att det råder ojämn maktbalans- socialarbetare och klient - emellan. Det fanns även en rädsla för socialtjänstens befogenheter och hur dessa tillämpas. Detta då det förelåg en uppfattning om att maktutövandet kunde användas för att bestraffa den enskilde. Risken för stigmatisering var ännu ett skäl till varför intervjupersonerna upplevde en känsla av misstro gentemot socialtjänsten. Rädslan för att bli socialt bestraffad minskade benägenheten att uppsöka stöd, vilket medförde att intervjupersonerna i största möjliga mån valde att undvika myndigheten.

  • Solomon, Binyam
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Norberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eriksson, Mathias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att leda äldreomsorg i skuggan av New Public Management: En kvalitativ studie om enhetschefers syn på reformer inspirerade av New Public Management i den kommunala äldreomsorgen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan slutet av 1980-talet har den svenska välfärden implementerat en förvaltningspolitisk doktrin om styrning- och ledning lånade från det privata näringslivet. Till dessa idéer räknas bland annat mål-och resultatstyrning, konkurrensutsättning, beställar- och utförarmodeller och kundvalsmodeller. Målet med dessa reformer kan sägas ha varit att öka effektivitet och kvalitet. Dessa förändringar som beskrivits utgör en del i en reformvåg som går att observera i flera länder och har inom forskningen med ett samlingsnamn kallats för New Public Management (NPM). Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka hur reformer och idéer inspirerade av NPM påverkar enhetschefer inom den kommunala äldreomsorgen och deras arbetssituation. Uppsatsens empiri utgörs av fem kvalitativa intervjuer med enhetschefer i den kommunalt drivna äldreomsorgen i en svensk kommun. Intervjuerna har transkriberats och sedan analyserats med hjälp av konventionell kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultaten visade att enhetscheferna upplever en rad centrala NPM-inspirerade reformer som har beskrivits i tidigare forskning. De intervjuade enhetscheferna beskrev ett decentraliserat budgetansvar, mål- och resultatstyrning inom kommunens äldreomsorg samt fokus på efterkontroll, vilket har lett till mer administrativa arbetsuppgifter. Dessutom visar uppsatsens resultat att de intervjuade enhetscheferna hade en delvis positiv bild av konkurrensutsättning inom äldreomsorgen. Visserligen visar uppsatsen att förutsättningar för konkurrens mellan privata och kommunala utförare uppfattades vara orättvis. Men alla de intervjuade enhetscheferna menade samtidigt att konkurrens eventuellt kunde bidra till att höja kvaliteten i äldreomsorgens verksamheter.

  • Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Tjulander, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Adopterades plats i det svenska samhället: En kvalitativ studie om personer som blivit internationellt adopterade och deras erfarenheter av att leva i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att undersöka och analysera en grupp internationellt adopterades erfarenheter av att tala om sin adoption och det egna ursprungets betydelse. Studien syftar även till att undersöka de adopterades syn på möjligheten att inkluderas i adoptionsdebatten samt deras syn på samhällets kunskap om adoption. Vidare undersöks vilket eventuellt behov av stödinsatser de själva identifierar. Material har inhämtats via semistrukturerade intervjuer och frågeformulär från sex individer som blivit adopterade till Sverige. Resultatet visar att det finns en upplevelse av bristande kunskap kring adoption i samhället och att de stödinsatser som finns behöver kompletteras. Av resultatet syns indikationer på att det finns en känsla av bristande delaktighet i samhället gällande adoptionsfrågor. Det framkommer även att det biologiska ursprunget har en betydelse för majoriteten av studiens deltagare. Förutom att resultatet besvarar studiens syfte visar resultatet även att det icke vita utseendet har en stor betydelse för majoriteten av informanterna och att de adopterade kan känna en kluvenhet i sin identitet och grupptillhörighet. Slutsatsen är att det finns en viss problematik som adopterade utsätts till följd av positionen som adopterad.

  • Lundgren, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Första linjens chef i hemtjänsten: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga chefers upplevelser av utmaningar och glädje de möter i sin profession2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vård- och omsorgssektorn är en organisation som domineras av kvinnor vilket även gäller första linjens chefer inom äldreomsorgen. Tidigare studier visar att arbetsvillkoren är pressade för chefer inom äldreomsorgen och att kvinnor drabbas oftare av arbetsrelaterad ohälsa bland annat på grund av genusstrukturerna i samhället. Chefer inom vård- och omsorgssektorn ansvarar för fler medarbetare, har mindre resurser och mindre handlingsutrymme jämfört med mansdominerade verksamheter. Denna studie fokuserar på kvinnliga chefer inom hemtjänsten och syftet belyser hur de upplever sin psykosociala arbetsmiljösituation och vilka krav och förväntningar de möter inom sin profession. Syftet är även att synliggöra kvinnliga hemtjänstchefers kompetens och profession.

    Kvalitativa intervjuer har utförts med fyra kvinnliga hemtjänstchefer från två olika kommuner och kvinnornas uttryck, erfarenheter och perspektiv har sammanställts tillsammans med kunskap från tidigare forskning och teorier. Resultaten visade att de kvinnliga hemtjänstchefernas hängivenhet och tillgänglighet upplevdes i både positiva och negativa aspekter. De upplevde hög arbetsbelastning i sin psykosociala arbetsmiljö och stress upplevdes i varierande grad av olika orsaker. Slutsatsen om subjektiva krav och förväntningar tyder på att den rådande genusordningen finns närvarande i de ledande kvinnornas identitetsskapande. En del chefer uppgav behovet av stöd och kollegor vilket tyder på att stereotypa ledarskapsegenskaper om att en chef ska kunna arbeta självständigt bör betvivlas. Samtliga kvinnliga hemtjänstchefer upplevde arbetsglädje av att få stärka och göra gott för andra.

  • Eriksson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Krantz, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Biståndsbedömning: Biståndshandläggarens handlingsutrymme2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis