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  • Helander, Susanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Att möta nyanlända elever2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att bidra med kunskap ur lärar- och elevperspektiv om hur skolan genomför och stödjer undervisning för nyanlända elever. Detta med bakgrund i ämnena svenska som andraspråk samt hem- och konsumentkunskap. Studiens frågeställningar ämnar att undersöka tre lärares och tre elevers perspektiv på hur undervisning genomförs och skildras av elever som varit i Sverige och gått i svensk skola i mindre än fyra år.

    Studien gör nedslag i min tidigare arbetslivserfarenhet och varför jag valt att undersöka just den här elevgruppens situation i skolan. Vidare i bakgrunden lyfts delar ur den reviderade läroplanen för grundskolan från 2018 och valda stycken ur kursplanerna för de två ämnena som nämns ovan. Tidigare forskning och Skolverksrapporter lyfts och kopplas sedan till resultatet.

    För att besvara studiens syfte och tre frågeställningar utfördes sex kvalitativa halvstrukturerade intervjuer med de informanter som i studiens inledande skede valts ut på en skola i Norrland. Empirin från intervjuerna resulterade i en tematisk innehållsanalys som redovisas genom tre olika teman och som sedan bryts ner genom att besvara studiens frågeställningar i diskussionen.

    Resultatet visar att lärarna upplever att de vill ha mer kompetensutveckling i att arbeta med elevgruppen. Att de behöver mer tid för att arbeta ämnesövergripande med exempelvis ämnesord och begrepp för att främja elevernas lärande. Eleverna är trygga med deras lärare i svenska som andraspråk och i det klassrummet men behöver mycket stöttning både i och utanför klassrummet av studiehandledare.

  • Wang, Sihan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umea University.
    Museums’ Responses to Tourism Sessonality: A Case Study in Umeå, Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the tourism literature, seasonality issues are widely existing in almost every destination and well documented particularly in some case located where it is peripheral, and cold-weather. Hotels and entrepreneurs attracted most attention due to the negative effects of seasonality on their business. This is problematic actually the non-profit making actors play a significant role in supplying touristic resources and marketing a destination. Therefore, museums’ responses to seasonality make sense.

    This thesis, therefore, applying an institutional analysis, examines seasonal patterns of the museums and their knowledge of tourism seasonality, investigates positive and negative effects of seasonality on the museums, and finds out how they tackle seasonality. The aim is to improve understanding and increase knowledge of tourism seasonality and complement the previous research on tourism seasonality with museum perspective.

    Both descriptive statistics and interviews are applied to serve the aim. The analysis of statistics supplies a statistical seasonal pattern of the study location while four informant interviews were conducted with respondents from tourism organizations and museums. The results show that the seasonal pattern of museums is highly relevant to the seasonal pattern in Umeå. For the museums the negative effects varied from one to another but outweighed the positive ones for all of them. Three strategies are addressed in the way that these museums tackled seasonality. Institutional performance is evaluated in the discussion chapter followed by suggestions for future work.

  • Wang, Sihan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umea University.
    Motivations and Experiences of an Airbnb Host: An Explorative Study in Umeå, Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a new wave power of sharing economy, or known as collaborative consumption has emerged in accommodation, and tourism marketplaces (Guttentag, 2015). Airbnb is one of the most talked-about among the sharing hospitality companies, which is an online marketplace and a platform connecting worldwide travelers with local hosts somewhere. Although Airbnb has two types of users, guests and hosts, in current studies of Airbnb hosts, most researchers focus on the hosts from a business perspective. This study aimed to identify and understand hosts’ motivations to start the Airbnb business, and the benefits and challenges in a host’s experience. The informal interview was the method for the study, and data were processed by thematic analysis. The results find that motivations varied from host to host when sharing nature in common. The benefits overweighed the challenges in each host’s experience since participants could gain economic benefits (extra income), mental health (brain exercise for old hosts) and well-being (cross-cultural social learning) in sharing economy. Worries about security and extra physical work did not bother most hosts, and the effects of a tax on Airbnb hosts were not obvious.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-17 13:00 N450, Umeå
    Wang, Jianfeng
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Enhanced block sparse signal recovery and bayesian hierarchical models with applications2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is carried out within two projects ‘Statistical modelling and intelligentdata sampling in Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron-emission tomography(PET) measurements for cancer therapy assessment’ and ‘WindCoE -Nordic Wind Energy Center’ during my PhD study. It mainly focuses on applicationsof Bayesian hierarchical models (BHMs) and theoretical developments ofcompressive sensing (CS). Under the first project, Paper I improves the quantityestimation of MRI parametric imaging by utilizing inherent dependent structure inthe image through BHMs; Paper III constructs a theoretically unbiased and asymptoticallynormal estimator of sparsity of a sparsified MR image by using a BHM;Paper IV extends block sparsity estimation from real-valued signal recovery tocomplex-valued signal recovery. It also demonstrates the importance of accuratelyestimating the block sparsity through a sensitivity analysis; Paper V proposes anew measure, i.e. q-ratio block constrained minimal singular value, of measurementmatrix for block sparse signal recovery. An algorithm for computing thisnew measure is also presented. In the second project, Paper II estimates the uncertaintyof Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model’s daily-mean 2-metertemperature in a cold region by using a BHM. It is a computationally cheaper andfaster alternative to traditional ensemble approach. In summary, this thesis makessignificant contributions in improving and optimizing the estimation proceduresof parameters of interest in MRI and WRF in practice, and developing the novelestimators and measure under the framework of CS in theory.

  • Josefsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Demographic Data Base.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Memory profiles predict dementia over 23–28 years in normal but not successful aging2019In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Prospective studies suggest that memory deficits are detectable decades before clinical symptoms of dementia emerge. However, individual differences in long-term memory trajectories prior to diagnosis need to be further elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate long-term dementia and mortality risk for individuals with different memory trajectory profiles in a well-characterized population-based sample.

    Methods: 1062 adults (aged 45–80 years) who were non-demented at baseline were followed over 23–28 years. Dementia and mortality risk were studied for three previously classified episodic memory trajectory groups: maintained high performance (Maintainers; 26%), average decline (Averages; 64%), and accelerated decline (Decliners; 12%), using multistate modeling to characterize individuals’ transitions from an initial non-demented state, possibly to a state of dementia and/or death.

    Results: The memory groups showed considerable intergroup variability in memory profiles, starting 10–15 years prior to dementia diagnosis, and prior to death. A strong relationship between memory trajectory group and dementia risk was found. Specifically, Decliners had more than a fourfold risk of developing dementia compared to Averages. In contrast, Maintainers had a 2.6 times decreased dementia risk compared to Averages, and in addition showed no detectable memory decline prior to dementia diagnosis. A similar pattern of association was found for the memory groups and mortality risk, although only among non-demented.

    Conclusion: There was a strong relationship between accelerated memory decline and dementia, further supporting the prognostic value of memory decline. The intergroup differences, however, suggest that mechanisms involved in successful memory aging may delay symptom onset.

  • Olsson Spjut, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Gråt inte – organisera er!: de norrländska köpsågverkens konkurrenssituation och samarbetsformer omkring år 19592019In: 1959 års ekonomiska historia: en festskrift i samband med professor Lena Andersson-Skogs 60-årsdag 2019, Umeå: Enheten för ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet , 2019, Umeå: Enheten för ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet , 2019, p. 41-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Bielecka-Dabrowa, Agata
    et al.
    Bytyci, Ibadete
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Clinic of Cardiology, University Clinical Centre of Kosovo, Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo.
    Von Haehling, Stephan
    Anker, Stefan
    Jozwiak, Jacek
    Rysz, Jacek
    Hernandez, Adrian V.
    Bajraktari, Gani
    Mikhalidis, Dimitri P.
    Banach, Maciej
    Association of statin use and clinical outcomes in heart failure patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis2019In: Lipids in Health and Disease, ISSN 1476-511X, E-ISSN 1476-511X, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 188Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The role of statins in patients with heart failure (HF) of different levels of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) remains unclear especially in the light of the absence of prospective data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in non-ischemic HF, and taking into account potential statins’ prosarcopenic effects. We assessed the association of statin use with clinical outcomes in patients with HF.

    Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central until August 2018 for RCTs and prospective cohorts comparing clinical outcomes with statin vs non-statin use in patients with HF at different LVEF levels. We followed the guidelines of the 2009 PRISMA statement for reporting and applied independent extraction by multiple observers. Meta-analyses of hazard ratios (HRs) of effects of statins on clinical outcomes used generic inverse variance method and random model effects. Clinical outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) mortality and CV hospitalization.

    Results: Finally we included 17 studies (n = 88,100; 2 RCTs and 15 cohorts) comparing statin vs non-statin users (mean follow-up 36 months). Compared with non-statin use, statin use was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72–0.83, P < 0.0001, I2 = 63%), CV mortality (HR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.76–0.88, P < 0.0001, I2 = 63%), and CV hospitalization (HR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.69–0.89, P = 0.0003, I2 = 36%). All-cause mortality was reduced on statin therapy in HF with both EF < 40% and ≥ 40% (HR: 0.77, 95% Cl: 0.68–0.86, P < 0.00001, and HR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.69–0.82, P < 0.00001, respectively). Similarly, CV mortality (HR 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79–0.93, P = 0.0003, and HR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77–0.90, P < 0.00001, respectively), and CV hospitalizations (HR 0.80 95% CI: 0.64–0.99, P = 0.04 and HR 0.76 95% CI: 0.61–0.93, P = 0.009, respectively) were reduced in these EF subgroups. Significant effects on all clinical outcomes were also found in cohort studies’ analyses; the effect was also larger and significant for lipophilic than hydrophilic statins.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, statins may have a beneficial effect on CV outcomes irrespective of HF etiology and LVEF level. Lipophilic statins seem to be much more favorable for patients with heart failure.

  • Papadimitriou, Nikos
    et al.
    Muller, David
    van den Brandt, Piet A.
    Geybels, Milan
    Patel, Chirag J.
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Lopez, David S.
    Key, Timothy J.
    Perez-Cornago, Aurora
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Vineis, Paolo
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Boeing, Heiner
    Agudo, Antonio
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Overvad, Kim
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Fortner, Renee T.
    Palli, Domenico
    Drake, Isabel
    Bjartell, Anders
    Santiuste, Carmen
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas H.
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Lauritzen, Dorthe Furstrand
    Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte
    Quiros, Jose Ramon
    Stattin, Par
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Martimianaki, Georgia
    Karakatsani, Anna
    Thysell, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Tumino, Rosario
    Larranaga, Nerea
    Khaw, Kay Tee
    Riboli, Elio
    Tzoulaki, Ioanna
    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.
    A nutrient-wide association study for risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Netherlands Cohort Study2019In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The evidence from the literature regarding the association of dietary factors and risk of prostate cancer is inconclusive.

    Methods: A nutrient-wide association study was conducted to systematically and comprehensively evaluate the associations between 92 foods or nutrients and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and education were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for standardized dietary intakes. As in genome-wide association studies, correction for multiple comparisons was applied using the false discovery rate (FDR < 5%) method and suggested results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS).

    Results: A total of 5916 and 3842 incident cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 14 and 20 years in EPIC and NLCS, respectively. None of the dietary factors was associated with the risk of total prostate cancer in EPIC (minimum FDR-corrected P, 0.37). Null associations were also observed by disease stage, grade and fatality, except for positive associations observed for intake of dry cakes/biscuits with low-grade and butter with aggressive prostate cancer, respectively, out of which the intake of dry cakes/biscuits was replicated in the NLCS.

    Conclusions: Our findings provide little support for an association for the majority of the 92 examined dietary factors and risk of prostate cancer. The association of dry cakes/biscuits with low-grade prostate cancer warrants further replication given the scarcity in the literature.

  • Lindberg, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    The Autonomous Road Trip: Exploring how an autonomous vehicle can preserve and evolve the spontaneous and adventurous spirit of a road trip2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cars are becoming increasingly automated and expected to become fully autonomous in the near future. How will this a ect the car and its position of a symbol of freedom? This thesis investigates how an autonomous vehicle can evolve this symbolic value and be adapted to the use case of an explorative road trip.

    Based on learnings from travellers and experts the starting point has been the positive experience of a road trip in a conventional vehicle. The target has been to enhance the current experience and create an even more spontaneous and explorative atmosphere with the help of a future scenario and emerging technology.

    This project gives an example of an interface that supports and en- courages spontaneity which lets the travellers direct and control the vehicle intuitively in order to explore and enjoy what they nd during their journey. Furthermore it extends the travel experience beyond what a road trip has been by connecting travellers to locals. 

  • Waniowska, Nicole
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Empowering people through a new way of interacting with medical data2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project explored using human-centered design methods how can we change the way healthcare delivers information to people about their health so that they feel empowered and educated about their health. It also investigates how to create a space that allows for reflection about own health without falling into worry and unnecessary stress. Primar focus on the project was to investigate the end-user side and explore what value drawn from the medical records can be provided for people using healthcare. For this reason, empowerment in the healthcare context became the aim and important aspect of this project. Based on the research a set of empowerment guidelines was created that helped navigating design processes and decisions. The result is a design proposal - Health sphere - platform in a form of an app provided by the healthcare system, that gives an overview of current health status and communicates healthcare records in a way that empowers people by using progressive disclosure that gives the user the choice on how much they would like to learn. It also helps to organize and keep all medical records in one place and helps to understand their content with visuals and smart definitions of medical language.

  • Fuentes, Alejandro
    et al.
    Marina, Vannelli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law. Umeå University.
    Human Rights of Children in the Context of Migration Processes. Innovative Efforts for Integrating Regional Human Rights Standards in the Americas2019In: Laws, ISSN 0458-7251, E-ISSN 2268-1167, Vol. 8, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a critical analysis of the innovative jurisprudential approaches taken by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in integrating the content and scope of protection of the human rights of children, in the context of migration processes. How might one provide an effective protection to unaccompanied children that enter irregularly into the territory of a given country, when the safeguards guaranteed at the national level are elusive or inefficient? By focusing on the pioneering jurisprudence developed by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in recent years, this paper intends to unveil how a systemic integration of children’s rights, under the light of the current international law developments, could provide an effective protection for the rights of children in the context of migration processes. In fact, as a result of an evolutive, dynamic and effective interpretation, the regional tribunal has expanded the scope of protection of the American Convention on Human Rights, by taking into consideration and making known, references to instruments and provisions enshrined within the corpus juris of international human rights law, such as the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child, and—consequently—improving the level of protection of millions of children in the Americas.

  • Yau, Wai-Lok
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Nguyen-Dinh, Van
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Larsson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Lindquist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Section of Virology.
    Överby, Anna K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Section of Virology.
    Lundmark, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Model System for the Formation of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Replication Compartments without Viral RNA Replication2019In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 93, no 18, article id e00292-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flavivirus is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viral genus, with members causing severe diseases in humans such as tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, and dengue fever. Flaviviruses are known to cause remodeling of intracellular membranes into small cavities, where replication of the viral RNA takes place. Nonstructural (NS) proteins are not part of the virus coat and are thought to participate in the formation of these viral replication compartments (RCs). Here, we used tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) as a model for the flaviviruses and developed a stable human cell line in which the expression of NS proteins can be induced without viral RNA replication. The model system described provides a novel and benign tool for studies of the viral components under controlled expression levels. We show that the expression of six NS proteins is sufficient to induce infection-like dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the formation of RC-like membrane invaginations. The NS proteins form a membrane-associated complex in the ER, and electron tomography reveals that the dilated areas of the ER are closely associated with lipid droplets and mitochondria. We propose that the NS proteins drive the remodeling of ER membranes and that viral RNA, RNA replication, viral polymerase, and TBEV structural proteins are not required. IMPORTANCE TBEV infection causes a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from mild fever to severe encephalitis. Similar to other flaviviruses, TBEV exploits intracellular membranes to build RCs for viral replication. The viral NS proteins have been suggested to be involved in this process; however, the mechanism of RC formation and the roles of individual NS proteins remain unclear. To study how TBEV induces membrane remodeling, we developed an inducible stable cell system expressing the TBEV NS polyprotein in the absence of viral RNA replication. Using this system, we were able to reproduce RC-like vesicles that resembled the RCs formed in flavivirus-infected cells, in terms of morphology and size. This cell system is a robust tool to facilitate studies of flavivirus RC formation and is an ideal model for the screening of antiviral agents at a lower biosafety level.

  • Johansson, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Evaluation of Commercial Radar Sensors for Proximity Fuze Applications2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radar sensors has been known for their usage in military applications but during the last decade commercial radar sensors have been implemented for usage in for example advanced driver-assistance system. One common implementation for advanced driver-assistance system is the adaptive cruise control technology implemented in vehicles to help it adapt the velocity based on the distance to a detected vehicle in front. The development of the commercial radar sensors have made radar sensors cheaper and more accessible. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the civil market to see if there are any radar sensors available that could be of interest to use for applications in proximity fuzes. A proximity fuze can be used in projectiles to initiates its explosion when the projectile is positioned an optimal distance from the target where the distance can be estimated by using a radar system.

    Investigation of the civil market was made by performing a literature study by looking into articles about civil use applications for frequency modulated continuous wave radars and pulsed Doppler radars operating with a frequency in the GHz-area. In the literature study, five interesting frequencies were identified for the frequency modulated continuous wave radar: 24 GHz, 35 GHz, 77 GHz, 94 GHz and 122 GHz. For each article different properties regarding the sensors’ performance was investigated. Example of a few of the properties investigated was the sensor’s limitation of maximum range, angle and velocity. Based on the literature study’s result a 77 GHz radar sensor included in an evaluation kit was ordered and used to perform a proof-of-concept where the radar sensor’s performance was evaluated.

    The proof-of-concept was made by analyzing if the radar sensor could detect a drone at distances between 5 m and 20 m at rest or moving with a velocity of approximately 3 m/s. Two scenarios were tested for the drone and the sensor. In the first scenario, possible background clutter was eliminated while the second scenario included some background clutter. The sensor was able to detect the drone at all positions when moving or at rest, but for the second scenario there were some difficulties to get a clear detection of the target at 10 m and 20 m distance. Distance and angle measurements were performed on a metal plate having a larger radar cross section than the drone. The evaluation kit was able to detect the object at distances between 5 m and 20 m and when the object was placed 10 m away from the sensor in both x- and y-direction i.e. 45 ° from the sensor.

    From these results it could be concluded that radar sensors used for automotive applications has potential to be used for proximity fuze applications but further tests have to be made before a definitive conclusion can be made. The sensor has to be tested for higher velocities than 500 m/s and for larger distances to be able to determine if this type of sensor could be applied in proximity fuzes.

  • Lindberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    In-situ sanering av förorenad mark: Jämförelse och utvärdering av existerande och potentiella in-situ behandlingsmetoder för PAH, aromater, arsenik, bly, nickel och bensen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with a contaminated area in the municipality of Östersund where a gas plant has previously been operating from 1914 to 1951. Operations at the property where the gas plant has been located currently consist of a workshop and commercial premises with associated car parking. In order to be able to build on the gas plant area, the municipality intends to implement post-treatment measures in the area. The substances found in the contaminated area (hotspot area E) are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aromatics, arsenic, nickel, lead and benzene. Measurement data indicate that these substances have been found at high levels, above the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's guideline values for contaminated soil. Many areas today are polluted to the level that they pose great risks to the environment and people, and this thought requires the treatment of contaminated soil. A risk assessment for hotspot area E determined that PAH, aromatics, arsenic, nickel, lead and benzene pose an unacceptable risk, and the area is therefore deemed to need remediation. Based on nearby buildings, in-situ soil remediation is a suitable approach that fits. This study summarizes the progress made in remediation research and shows that soil remediation methods have different advantages and disadvantages, and different strains on human health and the environment. Based on this study, it may be more appropriate to wait for more efficient or cheaper remediation techniques to be developed, but with the idea that these substances are volatile, toxic, and dangerous to us humans and the environment. This means that they pose a potential risk to society and a tendency to spread easily. Conclusions that can be drawn are that all in-situ methods included in this work can be applied in Sweden based on the geological conditions. In order to achieve optimum in-situ soil remediation, site-specific conditions, such as large groundwater flow or heterogeneous soil, control the choice of remediation method.

  • Näverlo, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Gunnarsson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Strigård, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Näsvall, Pia
    Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Luleå, Sweden.
    Quality of life after end colostomy without mesh and with prophylactic synthetic mesh in sublay position: one-year results of the STOMAMESH trial2019In: International Journal of Colorectal Disease, ISSN 0179-1958, E-ISSN 1432-1262, Vol. 34, no 9, p. 1591-1599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To determine whether prophylactic mesh in a sublay position has an impact on the quality-of-life (QoL) of patients receiving an end colostomy.

    Methods: One-year follow-up of patients from the STOMAMESH trial, a randomized controlled double-blinded multicenter study. Patients were randomized to either prophylactic synthetic mesh with a cruciform incision in the center, placed in sublay position, or no prophylactic mesh. Patients attended a 1-year visit and responded to the questionnaires EORTC QLQ C-30 and CR-38. The impact of having a mesh on QoL was determined by comparing a group of patients receiving a mesh with a group without. A subgroup analysis was made depending on whether a PSH was clinically present or not.

    Results: Of the 232 randomized patients, 211 patients reached the 1-year clinical follow-up. The response rate of these 211 patients was 70%. No differences were seen in global QoL between the groups. Mesh patients reported significantly less stoma-related problems (p = 0.014) but more sexual problems in males (p = 0.022). When excluding patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSH, the difference in stoma-related problems remained while no significant difference was seen regarding sexual problems in males.

    Conclusions: When forming an end colostomy, prophylactic synthetic mesh in a sublay position did not affect global QoL at 1-year follow-up, but stoma-related problems were fewer even in the presence of a clinically diagnosed PSH.

  • Fadl, Helena
    et al.
    Saeedi, Maryam
    Montgomery, Scott
    Magnuson, Anders
    Schwarcz, Erik
    Berntorp, Kerstin
    Sengpiel, Verena
    Storck-Lindholm, Elisabeth
    Strevens, Helena
    Wikstrom, Anna-Karin
    Brismar-Wendel, Sophia
    Persson, Martina
    Jansson, Stefan
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    Ursing, Carina
    Ryen, Linda
    Petersson, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt
    Hilden, Karin
    Simmons, David
    Changing diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes in Sweden-a stepped wedge national cluster randomised controlled trial-the CDC4G study protocol2019In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The optimal criteria to diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remain contested. The Swedish National Board of Health introduced the 2013 WHO criteria in 2015 as a recommendation for initiation of treatment for hyperglycaemia during pregnancy. With variation in GDM screening and diagnostic practice across the country, it was agreed that the shift to new guidelines should be in a scientific and structured way. The aim of the Changing Diagnostic Criteria for Gestational Diabetes (CDC4G) in Sweden (www.cdc4g.se/en) is to evaluate the clinical and health economic impacts of changing diagnostic criteria for GDM in Sweden and to create a prospective cohort to compare the many long-term outcomes in mother and baby under the old and new diagnostic approaches.

    Methods: This is a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial, comparing pregnancy outcomes before and after the switch in GDM criteria across 11 centres in a randomised manner. The trial includes all pregnant women screened for GDM across the participating centres during January–December 2018, approximately two thirds of all pregnancies in Sweden in a year. Women with pre-existing diabetes will be excluded. Data will be collected through the national Swedish Pregnancy register and for follow up studies other health registers will be included.

    Discussion: The stepped wedge RCT was chosen to be the best study design for evaluating the shift from old to new diagnostic criteria of GDM in Sweden. The national quality registers provide data on the whole pregnant population and gives a possibility for follow up studies of both mother and child. The health economic analysis from the study will give a solid evidence base for future changes in order to improve immediate pregnancy, as well as long term, outcomes for mother and child.

  • Mellner, Carl
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Mohammed, Jabbar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Larsson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Esberg, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Szymanski, Maciej
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Hellström, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Chang, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Berg, Hans E
    Sköldenberg, Olof
    Knutsson, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Morberg, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Mukka, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Ortopedkliniken, Region västerbotten.
    Increased risk for postoperative periprosthetic fracture in hip fracture patients with the Exeter stem than the anatomic SP2 Lubinus stem.2019In: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, ISSN 1863-9933, E-ISSN 1863-9941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the cumulative incidence of postoperative periprosthetic fracture (PPF) in a cohort of femoral neck fracture (FNF) patients treated with two commonly used cemented stems: either a collarless, polished, tapered Exeter stem or the anatomic Lubinus SP2 stem.

    METHODS: In this retrospective multicenter cohort study of a consecutive series of patients, we included 2528 patients of age 60 years and above with an FNF who were treated with either hemiarthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty using either a polished tapered Exeter stem or an anatomic Lubinus SP2 stem. The incidence of PPF was assessed at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively.

    RESULTS: The incidence of PPF was assessed at a median follow-up of 47 months postoperatively. Thirty nine patients (1.5%) sustained a PPF at a median of 27 months (range 0-96 months) postoperatively. Two of the operatively treated fractures were Vancouver A (5%), 7 were Vancouver B1 (18%), 10 were Vancouver B2 (26%), 7 were Vancouver B3 (18%), and 13 were Vancouver C (32%). The cumulative incidence of PPF was 2.3% in the Exeter group compared with 0.7% in the SP2 group (p < 0.001). The HR was 5.4 (95% CI 2.4-12.5, p < 0.001), using the SP2 group as the denominator.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Exeter stem was associated with a higher risk for PPF than the Lubinus SP2 stem. We suggest that the tapered Exeter stem should be used with caution in the treatment of FNF.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT03326271).

  • Ottosson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Pelander, Sofia
    Johansson, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Urology, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Huge, Ylva
    Aljabery, Firas
    Sherif, Amir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    The increased risk for thromboembolism pre-cystectomy in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer is mainly due to central venous access: a multicenter evaluation2019In: International Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0301-1623, E-ISSN 1573-2584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate if patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) had an increased risk of thromboembolic events (TEE) and to evaluate when these events occur on a timeline starting from 6 months pre-cystectomy, during NAC-administration and 60 months post-cystectomy.

    Methods: Two hundred and fifty five patients undergoing radical cystectomy during 2009–2014 at three Swedish cystectomy centers (Umeå, Linköping and Sundsvall) were in-detail reviewed retrospectively, using individual medical records. One hundred and twenty nine patients were ineligible for analysis. NAC patients (n = 67) were compared to NAC-naïve NAC-eligible patients (n = 59). The occurrence of TEE was divided into different periods pre-cystectomy and post-cystectomy. Statistical analyses included Chi-squared and logistical regression tests.

    Results: Significant associations were found between receiving NAC and acquiring a TEE during NAC therapy pre-cystectomy. All but one pre-cystectomy event was venous and all but one of the patients received NAC. 31% (14/45) of TEEs occurred pre-cystectomy. The incidence of TEEs pre-cystectomy in NAC-naive NAC-eligible patients was only 10% (2/20), whereas the incidence of TEEs in NAC patients occurred pre-cystectomy in 48% (12/25) and 11/12 incidents were detected during NAC therapy—this including 7/11 (64%) incidents affecting veins in anatomical conjunction with the placement of central venous access for chemotherapy administration.

    Conclusions: There is a significantly increased risk for TEE pre-cystectomy during chemotherapy administration in MIBC patients receiving NAC, compared to the risk in NAC-naïve NAC-eligible MIBC patients. In 64% of the pre-RC TEEs in NAC patients, there was a clinical connection to placement of central venous access.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-13 10:15 Hörsal S 213, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå
    Barnes, Philippa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    When processes collide: leadership, legitimacy and liberation in Palestine2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Palestinian national movement leadership has long been intertwined with thecontext of the national movement processes – liberation, peace and statebuilding. Over time, as these processes have not come to fruition, the numerousleadership groups have had to negotiate their relationships with these processesas both the groups and processes increasingly overlap, creating significantobservable points of tension within Palestinian politics. There are currentlymultiple levels of leadership across the national movement: two representativegoverning institutions – the Palestine Liberation Organisation and thePalestinian Authority; two dominant political movements – Fatah and Hamas;and numerous popular resistance initiatives such as the Boycott, Divestment andSanctions movement coalition that has different levels of endorsement (or lackof) by the other leaderships. This thesis seeks to map the Palestinian nationalliberation movement leadership, examining the inter-relations between themultiple leadership groups and internal (i.e. intra-Palestinian) legitimacies.Examining the internal legitimacies of the Palestinian leaderships results in anexpansion of how internal legitimacy can be conceptualised. For the historicalperiod (1958-2008) analysed, I found revolutionary, representative,oppositional, institutional, democratic and moral legitimacy types within thePalestinian case. Furthermore, these were all attributed to respective nationalmovement processes. Analysing the recent period (2016-2017) requires the useof a relational approach to further develop understandings of legitimacy. Thisapproach transforms legitimacy into a process of (de)legitimisation, whichinteracts with the national movement processes and helps us capture and analysethe complexities of the Palestinian case – that of concurrent, multiple andcontending perspectives. I found the continuation of the liberation and statebuilding processes as simultaneous bases of legitimisation to be a critical point oftension within the tandem legitimisation-delegitisimation process. Engaging arelational approach demonstrated the need for ongoing leadershipreconstruction. I conclude that, in order to negotiate the interactions andcontestations between the multiple and dynamic processes that underlielegitimacy, leaderships face an ultimatum of ‘reconstruct or delegitimise’. WherePalestinian leadership groups have stagnated and not engaged with a process ofreconstruction, we see processes of delegitimisation arising that can explain thecurrent leadership complexities within the Palestinian national movement.

  • Brännlund, Annica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. 630114-8521.
    Edlund, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Educational achievement and poor mental health in Sweden: the role of family socioeconomic resources2019In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article elaborates on previous research showing that educational achievement is negatively related to poor mental health during adolescence and positively related to the family’s socioeconomic resources. We examine (i) the potential moderating effects of family resources on the negative relationship between educational achievement and poor mental health and (ii) the impact of resources linked to the mother and father, respectively, on educational achievements. We use register data that cover all children born in Sweden in 1990 who still lived there in 2010 (n = 115,882). We use two dependent variables – upper secondary school graduation and grade point average (GPA) – and analyse the performance of girls and boys separately. Our results indicate that the impact of mothers’ socioeconomic resources on children’s school performance is stronger overall than that of fathers’ resources. The compensatory effects of family socioeconomic resources on the risk of failure to graduate are more pronounced amongst girls than boys. With regard to GPA, compensatory effects are largely absent.

  • van der Wal, Jacqueline E.
    et al.
    Sgaramella, Nicola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Norberg-Spaak, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Zborayova, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    High podoplanin and low E-cadherin levels correlate with better prognosis in adenoid cystic carcinoma2019In: Clinical and Experimental Dental Research, ISSN 2057-4347, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 350-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: As tumour spread is a complicating event for malignant salivary gland tumours, we decided to study factors related to cell adhesion and lymph vessel formation in two of the three most common malignant salivary gland tumours, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), to clarify the clinical relevance and potential usefulness of these factors. We also included a group of polymorphous adenocarcinoma (PAC) as this tumour, in common with ACC often shows perineural growth, but in contrast to ACC has an overall good prognosis.

    Material and methods: Eighteen patients with ACC, 15 with MEC, and six with PAC were included. Protein expression of podoplanin and E‐cadherin was evaluated as percentage of cells expressing the protein and intensity of expression. Ki‐67 expression was included in the study as a marker of proliferative activity.

    Results: Looking at podoplanin, significantly more ACCs were high expressing compared with both MECs (P = .001) and PACs (P = .028). Also when looking at Ki‐67 expression, significantly more ACCs were high expressing compared with MECs (P = .003). Significantly better survival was also seen for ACCs with high podoplanin (P = .022) and low E‐cadherin expression (P = .021), respectively.

    Conclusions: Our findings show that ACCs express significantly higher levels of podoplanin compared with both MECs and PACs and that high levels are correlated to better survival. Even though the group of PACs analysed was small, these tumours, despite their tendency to perineural spread, which they have in common with ACC, differ from ACCs concerning expression of factors with a known connection to tumour spread.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-12 13:00 Hörsal E, Umeå
    Dahlkvist, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The politics of Islam, non-violence, and peace: the thought of Maulana Wahiduddin Khan in context2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of the multifaceted thought of Maulana Wahiduddin Khan (b.1925–), Indian writer, public intellectual, and Muslim religious leader. Khan has been a prolific writer since at least the 1970s and is also an ālim, a Muslim scholar learned in religion. His reputation is based on his public presentation of Islam, non-violence, and peace – a position he has defended in his monthly journal, al-Risāla (Eng. version: Spirit of Islam), a large number of published books and pamphlets, and recently also through use of the internet and social media. Furthermore, as a religious leader and debater Khan has been active as a commentator in Indian national media and through religious dialogue meetings, for which he has received national awards and honours. Khan’s religious thought may be summarised as a thorough attempt at presenting Islam, the Quran, and the example of the Prophet Muhammad as a systematic message of peace. Islam is described as a divine message calling for individual commitment and knowledge. Hence, Islam requires a setting of freedom, peace, and stability so that believers can choose its message without restriction. The Quran is regarded as highlighting non-violent patience as the most significant virtue and peace is both a divine quality as well as a requirement for salvation. The religious ideal of the Prophet Muhammad is not his political achievements. Instead, the Prophet’s message is understood as peaceful negotiation and success through turning conflict into friendship as the ultimate path to end hatred, violence, and persecution. The concept of jihad is seen as essential to this type of peace-building struggle; spreading Islam only through preaching, as well as overcoming the hurdles of the self and ego, for instance anger and violent impulses. By situating Khan’s thought in a context of historical and contemporary debate on the meaning of Islam, this study argues that he continues and develops the nineteenth century Indian Islamic Modernist tradition of presenting Islam, non-violence, and peace in relation to issues of the modern state and the minority situation of Indian Muslims. This type of religious position became nationally prominent from the 1920s during the Indian independence movement. In the contemporary Indian political and social situation however, Hindu nationalist and anti-Muslim rhetoric is being followed by large-scale violence. Khan’s thinking aims to dissociate the rhetorical connection between Islam and violence, while supporting the democratic, pluralist, and secular trappings of the state. The analysis of Khan’s thought considers Islamic Modernism and unmarked reform Sufi Islam, alongside the secularism, democratic liberalism, and reform socialism of the Indian constitution. However, these thematic and discursive structures of thought are formulated by Khan with regard to a certain historical situation, and address particular political and social issues. Studying the various connections between Khan’s thought, the ideological and religious debates, and the historical context of Indian and global society, the final analysis of this study takes on the theoretical issue of whether contemporary and globalised religion can be a force for the development of more democratic and peaceful societies.

  • Holmgren, Madelene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Dunås, Tora
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Assessment of Cerebral Blood Flow Pulsatility and Cerebral Arterial Compliance With 4D Flow MRI2019In: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ISSN 1053-1807, E-ISSN 1522-2586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow MRI) enables efficient investigation of cerebral blood flow pulsatility in the cerebral arteries. This is important for exploring hemodynamic mechanisms behind vascular diseases associated with arterial pulsations.

    PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of pulsatility assessments with 4D flow MRI, its agreement with reference two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI (2D PC-MRI) measurements, and to demonstrate how 4D flow MRI can be used to assess cerebral arterial compliance and cerebrovascular resistance in major cerebral arteries.

    STUDY TYPE: Prospective.

    SUBJECTS: Thirty-five subjects (20 women, 79 ± 5 years, range 70-91 years).

    FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 4D flow MRI (PC-VIPR) and 2D PC-MRI acquired with a 3T scanner.

    ASSESSMENT: Time-resolved flow was assessed in nine cerebral arteries. From the pulsatile flow waveform in each artery, amplitude (ΔQ), volume load (ΔV), and pulsatility index (PI) were calculated. To reduce high-frequency noise in the 4D flow MRI data, the flow waveforms were low-pass filtered. From the total cerebral blood flow, total PI (PItot ), total volume load (ΔVtot ), cerebral arterial compliance (C), and cerebrovascular resistance (R) were calculated.

    STATISTICAL TESTS: Two-tailed paired t-test, intraclass correlation (ICC).

    RESULTS: There was no difference in ΔQ between 4D flow MRI and the reference (0.00 ± 0.022 ml/s, mean ± SEM, P = 0.97, ICC = 0.95, n = 310) with a cutoff frequency of 1.9 Hz and 15 cut plane long arterial segments. For ΔV, the difference was -0.006 ± 0.003 ml (mean ± SEM, P = 0.07, ICC = 0.93, n = 310) without filtering. Total R was 11.4 ± 2.41 mmHg/(ml/s) (mean ± SD) and C was 0.021 ± 0.009 ml/mmHg (mean ± SD). ΔVtot was 1.21 ± 0.29 ml (mean ± SD) with an ICC of 0.82 compared with the reference. PItot was 1.08 ± 0.21 (mean ± SD).

    DATA CONCLUSION: We successfully assessed 4D flow MRI cerebral arterial pulsatility, cerebral arterial compliance, and cerebrovascular resistance. Averaging of multiple cut planes and low-pass filtering was necessary to assess accurate peak-to-peak features in the flow rate waveforms.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2

    Technical Efficacy Stage: 2

    J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019.

  • Bosson, Jenny A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Mudway, Ian S.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Traffic-related Air Pollution, Health, and Allergy: The Role of Nitrogen Dioxide2019In: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 200, no 5, p. 523-524Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Johansson, Dan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Landgren, Göran
    IT-stöd och systemutveckling (ITS), Umeå Universitet.
    Lund, Andreas
    IT-stöd och systemutveckling (ITS), Umeå Universitet.
    Datasalen i vardagsrummet: Distansundervisning på tekniska kurser via virtuella boxar2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hösten 2016 utvecklades två kurser vid Institutionen för informatik, vilka båda kännetecknades av en relativt hög grad av tekniskt djup gällande den kontext som undervisningen var tänkt att bedrivas i. Den ena kursen, Implementation av system- och användargränssnitt, skulle fungera som en campusförlagd kurs, medan den andra kursen, NoSQL-databaser hade en helt och hållet distansbaserad karaktär.

    En förutsättning för att bedriva respektive kurs var upprättandet av en tekniskt utmanande miljö med flertalet samverkande programvaror: den ena kursen kombinerade en modern databasansats med ett webbramverk, ett front-end ramverk och en webbserver för att skapa fullskaliga applikationer; den andra kursen introducerade studenterna till den typ av databasansatser som går bortom den relationella databasmodell som varit förhärskande sedan 1970-talet. En annan utmaning var att kursmaterialet liksom de versioner och standarder som användes förväntades förändras i stor utsträckning inför varje nytt kurstillfälle, vilket också kom att besannas.

    Distansbaserade kurser vars innehåll och tekniska förutsättningar ständigt förändras krävde ett kreativt synsätt på hur de skulle paketeras och tillgängliggöras för studenterna. Svaret blev en s k virtual box, en virtuell låda i vilken man kan packa ned ett operativsystem som kör en slags dator i datorn för studenten. Oavsett om studenten ägde en Windows-dator, en Mac, eller någon form av Linux-variant, kunde vi genom att förbereda och göra den virtuella lådan tillgänglig för nedladdning se till att alla studenter hade samma tekniska förutsättningar genom att köra operativsystemet Ubuntu. I den virtuella lådan lät vi sedan studenterna ladda hem och packa upp en s k Vagrant box, en låda i lådan, där vi hade möjlighet att förinstallera alla program som skulle användas på kursen, samtliga öppen programvara och fria att distribuera. På så sätt kunde vi lärare vara säkra på att alla studenter hade tillgång till samma uppsättning program, som samverkade på samma sätt och betjänades av samma operativsystem. Vår vision om att ta inte bara lärandet utan hela datasalen in i vardagsrummet hemma hos studenten hade lyckats.

    Presentationen kommer att behandla det tekniska kursupplägget, de styrkor och svagheter vi kunnat identifiera under de fyra första kurstillfällena, både vad gäller undervisning med hjälp av VirtualBox och Vagrant i datorsalar på Campus, men även inom distansundervisning, på studenternas egna datorer. Tanken är att visa på undervisningsformens giltighet för att inspirera andra, men samtidigt dela med oss av erfarenheter runt dolda fallgropar.

  • Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Hedlund, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Johansson, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Att utbilda framtida kollegor2019In: Universitetspedagogiska konferensen 2019: Abstracts, Umeå universitet , 2019, p. 38-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår presentation kommer att behandla två nyligen framtagna projektkursmoment vid Institutionen för informatik, där vi skapar förutsättningar för lärande så lika som möjligt de som framtidens systemvetare och beteendevetare inom IT-området ställs inför. Kursmomenten (som vi valt att se som en helhet) baseras på tre huvudsakliga pedagogiska idéer:

    1. Integrera teori och praktik inom ramen för samma kurs, med ett moment som handlar om att planera ett projekt och ett moment som handlar om själva genomförandet av detta.

    Vi anser det vara väldigt viktigt för en individs kunskapsutveckling att praktiskt få prova på något som man tidigare endast lärt sig på en teoretisk nivå. Genom att se kursmomenten som en helhet kunde studenterna först planera vad man skulle göra (teori), och sedan genomföra detta (praktik). Erfarenheten var att vissa saker fungerade precis som man tänkt, medan andra saker krävde förändring. Detta är en värdefull insikt inför ett kommande arbetsliv.

    2. Skapa förutsättningar för lärande när det gäller gruppdynamik genom att samarbeta över programgränser och ställas inför föränderliga utmaningar.

    Projektgrupperna sattes samman av projektdeltagare från lika delar det Systemvetenskapliga programmet liksom det Beteendevetenskapliga programmet med inriktning mot IT-miljöer. Som yrkesverksam, med en utbildning från informatik, arbetar man med största sannolikhet ofta i projekt som relaterar till olika dimensioner av samhällets digitalisering. Något som utmärker projekt är att de består av deltagare med olika kompetenser, viljor och personligheter – omständigheter som ställer krav på förmågan att hantera gruppdynamik. Olika deltagare har olika egenskaper och karaktärer och det gäller för grupper att kunna hantera dessa på bästa möjliga sätt. Även för individen är detta en viktig process. Det handlar om att lära känns sig själv och sina egna styrkor och svagheter.

    3. Skapa förutsättningar för lärande när det gäller att arbeta mot riktiga klienter som upplever verkliga behov och även ställer krav.

    På kursen arbetar vi med riktiga beställare och skarpa case, vilket ger ett flertal fördelar. Dels skapar det en spänning som ofta leder till ökat engagemang och lärande hos studenterna. Dels får studenterna lära sig att hantera en extern klient, en klient som de inte känner, som inte besitter deras kunskap och som kan ha väldigt annorlunda förväntningar på samarbetet. Som yrkesverksamma är detta vanligt förekommande och vi hade svårligen kunnat uppnå samma effekt med fiktiva case. Ett skarpt case har dessutom alltid en överlägsen nivå av komplexitet, och därmed även överraskningar, i jämförelse med ett påhittat case.

  • Durbeej, Natalie
    et al.
    Sörman, Karolina
    Norén Selinus, Eva
    Lundström, Sebastian
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Hellner, Clara
    Halldner, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Research center, BUP Klinisk forskningsenhet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Trends in childhood and adolescent internalizing symptoms: results from Swedish population based twin cohorts2019In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 7, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has noted trends of increasing internalizing problems (e.g., symptoms of depression and anxiety), particularly amongst adolescent girls. Cross-cohort comparisons using identical assessments of both anxiety and depression in youth are lacking, however.

    METHODS: In this large twin study, we examined trends in internalizing symptoms in samples of 9 year old children and 15 year old adolescents, gathered from successive birth cohorts from 1998 to 2008 (age 9) and 1994-2001 (age 15). Assessments at age 9 were parent-rated, and at age 15 self- and parent-rated. We examined (i) the relation between birth cohorts and internalizing symptoms using linear regressions, and (ii) whether percentages of participants exceeding scale cut-off scores changed over time, using Cochrane Armitage Trend Tests.

    RESULTS: Among 9 year old children, a significantly increasing percentage of participants (both boys and girls) had scores above cut-off on anxiety symptoms, but not on depressive symptoms. At age 15, a significantly increasing percentage of participants (both boys and girls) had scores above cut-off particularly on self-reported internalizing symptoms. On parent-reported internalizing symptoms, only girls demonstrated a corresponding trend.

    CONCLUSION: In line with previous studies, we found small changes over sequential birth cohorts in frequencies of depression and anxiety symptoms in children. Further, these changes were not exclusive to girls.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-11 09:00 N460
    Rebbling, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Application of fuel design to mitigate ash-related problemsduring combustion of biomass2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy supply of today is, through the use of fossil energy carriers,contributing to increased net emissions of greenhouse gases. This hasseveral negative effects on our environment and our climate. In order toreduce the impact of this, and possibly to reverse some of the effects, allrenewable energy sources must be used. Biomass is the renewable energycarrier that has the greatest potential to reduce net greenhouse gasemissions, but the transition from fossil fuels to biofuels is challenging.The combustion of biomass is associated with various technical andenvironmental problems such as slagging, corrosion, and emissions ofparticles, soot, or harmful chemical compounds. Most of these problemsare linked to ash chemical reactions involving alkali metals. Therefore, toreduce the risk of operational and environmental problems, it is importantto understand and control the ash transformation reactions involvingalkali metals.The research presented in this thesis has focused on the development oftools, such as models and indices, for predicting the behaviour of variousbiofuels during combustion, and on the development of the concept of fueldesign and implementation of the same during industrial combustion ofbiomass. The development of easy-to-use tools for predicting problematicash behaviour is crucial in order to make it possible to increase the use ofbiomass as an alternative to fossil fuels. The tools presented here are basedon theoretical and empirical knowledge and can be used to predictchallenges concerning the fuel ash composition and to propose relevantfuel design measures.The purpose of fuel design, as used here, is to broaden the fuel feedstockand to increase the usability of biomass in the global energy system. Thisis achieved through measures to change the ash chemical composition inorder to enhance beneficial properties, or reduce problematic properties,via the use of additives or blending of two or more different fuels.The present thesis extends the foundation of knowledge regarding fuel ashtransformation reactions and their implications for operational problemsthrough in-depth laboratory studies and analyses. Furthermore, thefeasibility of applying this extended knowledge in the medium and largescaleindustrial combustion of biomass is demonstrated and validated. More specifically, a slagging index has been developed using the results ofseveral years of combustion experiments. Fuel designs based on the indexwas demonstrated during normal operation in local and district heatingplants. Furthermore, a model was developed for predicting slaggingproblems that take into account both the chemical composition of the fueland the burner technology.Several studies have also been performed on different fuel designs basedon the same foundation as the index and the model. Additives to supply forexample calcium and sulphur, as well as the clay kaolin, have been used toreduce both technical and environmental problems.The conclusion is that fuel design, based on ash chemistry, is a possiblepath for increased fuel flexibility and a broader feedstock for bioenergy.

  • Savas, Süleyman
    et al.
    School of Information Technology, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Computers Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ul-Abdin, Zain
    School of Information Technology, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nordström, Tomas
    Umeå University.
    A framework to generate domain-specific manycore architectures from dataflow programs2020In: Microprocessors and microsystems, ISSN 0141-9331, E-ISSN 1872-9436, Vol. 72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last 15 years we have seen, as a response to power and thermal limits for current chip technologies, an explosion in the use of multiple and even many computer cores on a single chip. But now, to further improve performance and energy efficiency, when there are potentially hundreds of computing cores on a chip, we see a need for a specialization of individual cores and the development of heterogeneous manycore computer architectures.

    However, developing such heterogeneous architectures is a significant challenge. Therefore, we propose a design method to generate domain specific manycore architectures based on RISC-V instruction set architecture and automate the main steps of this method with software tools. The design method allows generation of manycore architectures with different configurations including core augmentation through instruction extensions and custom accelerators. The method starts from developing applications in a high-level dataflow language and ends by generating synthesizable Verilog code and cycle accurate emulator for the generated architecture.

    We evaluate the design method and the software tools by generating several architectures specialized for two different applications and measure their performance and hardware resource usages. Our results show that the design method can be used to generate specialized manycore architectures targeting applications from different domains. The specialized architectures show at least 3 to 4 times better performance than the general purpose counterparts. In certain cases, replacing general purpose components with specialized components saves hardware resources. Automating the method increases the speed of architecture development and facilitates the design space exploration of manycore architectures.

  • Westergren, Ulrika H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Mathiassen, Lars
    Georgia State University, Center for Process Innovation, J. Mack Robinson College of Business, .
    Partnering to create IT-based value: A Contextual Ambidexterity Approach2019In: Information and organization, ISSN 1471-7727, E-ISSN 1873-7919, Vol. 29, no 4, article id 100273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Going beyond the boundary of the firm and traditional notions of how IT contributes to value creation, scholars have started to investigate under what conditions, in what ways, and with which results firms can co-create IT-based value. However, we lack comprehensive insights into how firms can develop such collaborative partnerships and the types of value they create at different stages of the process.Using a qualitative case study, we analyze in detail how a mining company, a manufacturer of mining machinery, and an IT provider developed a joint venture over a ten-year period. Drawing on ambidexterity theory, we show how the three firms successfully built a context that encouraged alignment of interests and allowed the participants to adapt to emerging conditions as they collaborated to create IT-based value. Moreover, we uncover the different types of value they created over the various stages of developing the collaboration. As a result, we contribute to the literature on IT-based value co-creation with insights into how inter-firm collaboration can be developed to create different types of IT-based value. In addition, we advance contextual ambidexterity theory by demonstrating how it applies to developing new partnerships between firms. 

  • Robroek, Suzan JW
    et al.
    Nieboer, Daan
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Burdorf, Alex
    Educational differences in duration of working life and loss of paid employment: working life expectancy in The Netherlands2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, article id 3843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aims to provide insight into educational differences in duration of working life by working life expectancy (WLE) and working years lost (WYL) through disability benefits and other non-employment states in the Netherlands.

    Methods: Monthly information on employment status of the Dutch population (N=4 999 947) between 16 and 66 years from 2001‒2015 was used to estimate working life courses and loss of working years for specific non-employment states. Across educational groups, bi-directional transitions between paid employment and non-employment states were calculated. Using a multistate model, the WLE and WYL at age 16, 30, 50 and up to 66 years as statutory retirement age were estimated for each educational group, stratified by gender.

    Results: Low-educated men and women had a 7.3 (men) and 9.9 (women) years lower WLE at age 30 than high-educated men and women. Among low-educated men, 3.4 working years were lost due to disability benefit compared to 0.8 among high-educated men. Low-educated women lost 3.0 working years due to disability benefit compared to 1.4 among high-educated women.

    Conclusions: There are large educational inequalities over the course of working life. Among low-educated workers, more working years are lost due to unemployment, no income, and especially disability benefits. The latter reflects large educational inequalities in health and working conditions. The metrics of WLE and WYL provide useful insights into the life-course perspective on working careers.

  • Persson, Kristina
    Naturanimering i sakprosatexter för barn om naturens cykliska processer2019In: Svenskans beskrivning 36: Förhandlingar vid trettiosjätte sammankomsten, Uppsala 25-27 oktober 2017 / [ed] Marco Bianchi, David Håkansson, Björn Melander, Linda Pfister, Maria Westman, Carin Östman, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2019, p. 219-229Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Petrusenko, Nadezda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History. Umeå University.
    Grön marknadsföring eller greenwashing?: en diskursiv konstruktion av sopsugssystemet som en miljövänlig produkt på slutet av 1980-talet och början på 1990-talet2019In: 1959 års ekonomiska historia: en festskrift i samband med professor Lena Andersson-Skogs 60-årsdag 2019 / [ed] Helén Strömberg, Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2019, p. 51-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Saidi, Olfa
    et al.
    Zoghlami, Nada
    Bennett, Kathleen E
    Mosquera, Paola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Malouche, Dhafer
    Capewell, Simon
    Romdhane, Habiba Ben
    O'Flaherty, Martin
    Explaining income-related inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors in Tunisian adults during the last decade: comparison of sensitivity analysis of logistic regression and Wagstaff decomposition analysis2019In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 18, article id 177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is important to quantify inequality, explain the contribution of underlying social determinants and to provide evidence to guide health policy. The aim of the study is to explain the income-related inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors in the last decade among Tunisian adults aged between 35 and 70 years old.

    METHODS: We performed the analysis by applying two approaches and compared the results provided by the two methods. The methods were global sensitivity analysis (GSA) using logistic regression models and the Wagstaff decomposition analysis.

    RESULTS: Results provided by the two methods found a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in those with high socio-economic status in 2005. Similar results were observed in 2016. In 2016, the GSA showed that education level occupied the first place on the explanatory list of factors explaining 36.1% of the adult social inequality in high cardiovascular risk, followed by the area of residence (26.2%) and income (15.1%). Based on the Wagstaff decomposition analysis, the area of residence occupied the first place and explained 40.3% followed by income and education level explaining 19.2 and 14.0% respectively. Thus, both methods found similar factors explaining inequalities (income, educational level and regional conditions) but with different rankings of importance.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed substantial income-related inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes in Tunisia and provided explanations for this. Results based on two different methods similarly showed that structural disparities on income, educational level and regional conditions should be addressed in order to reduce inequalities.

  • Lico, Angjelo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Andersson, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Augmented reality inom sjukvården: En studie om utmaningar och möjligheter för AR i sjukvården2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about the use of Augmented Reality in healthcare, to highlight the challenges and the opportunities that generate from the subject. With the continual development of technology that is introduced to healthcare, it is important to understand the effects that Augmented Reality has on the workers that use it, and the people who are affected by it. This essay is based on a literature review to be able to examine the information that is best suited to contribute to the work. We created a table to present our findings by identifying two perspectives that are affected by the use of AR. The two perspectives are introduced as Care providers and Care recipients, which are the two main signifiers in hospitals and the healthcare environment. The conclusion of this essay will reveal the opportunities and the challenges of Augmented Reality in healthcare and may serve as a suggestion to what the future of Augmented Reality in healthcare can hold.

  • Westerlund, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine.
    Sundberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Implementation of Implementation Science Knowledge: The Research-Practice Gap Paradox2019In: Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, ISSN 1545-102X, E-ISSN 1741-6787, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 332-334Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Karlsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Gyllencreutz, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    The medical perspective on mining incidents: Interviews with emergency medical service (EMS) personnel2019In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 236-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine emergency medical service (EMS) personnel’s perceptions and experiences of managing underground mining injury incidents.

    Design/methodology/approach: In total, 13 EMS personnel were interviewed according to a semi-structured interview guide. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Findings: An underground mining environment was described as unfamiliar and unsafe and, with no guidelines for operational actions in an extreme environment, such as underground mines, the EMS personnel were uncertain of their role. They therefore became passive and relied on the rescue service and mining company during a major incident. However, the medical care was not considered to be different from any other prehospital care, although a mining environment would make the situation more difficult and it would take longer for the mine workers to be placed under definitive care.

    Originality/value: This study complements earlier studies by examining the EMS personnel’s perceptions and experiences of major incidents.

  • Sjödin, Tord
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    On Mixtures of Gamma Distributions, Distributions with Hyperbolically Monotone Densities and Generalized Gamma Convolutions (GGC)2019In: Probability and Mathematical Statistics, ISSN 0208-4147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Let Y be a standard Gamma(k) distributed random variable (rv), k > 0, and let X be an independent positive rv. If X has a hyperbolically monotone density of order k (HMk), then Y ·X and Y/X are generalized gamma convolutions (GGC). This extends work by Roynette et al. and Behme and Bondesson. The same conclusion holds with Y replaced by a finite sum of independent gamma variables with sum of shape parameters at most k. Both results are applied to subclasses of GGC.

  • Arumugam, Ashokan
    et al.
    Markström, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    A novel test reliably captures hip and knee kinematics and kinetics during unanticipated/anticipated diagonal hops in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction2019In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unanticipated land-and-cut maneuvers might emulate lower limb mechanics associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Reliability studies on landing mechanics of such maneuvers are however lacking. This study investigated feasibility and within-session reliability of landing mechanics of a novel one-leg double-hop test, mimicking a land-and-cut maneuver, in individuals with ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Our test comprised a forward hop followed by a diagonal hop in either of two directions (medial/lateral) under anticipated and unanticipated conditions. Twenty individuals with a unilateral ACLR (aged 24.2 ± 4.2 years, 0.7-10.8 years post-surgery) performed three successful hops/direction per leg. We determined reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) and agreement (standard error of measurement [SEM]) of 3-dimensional hip and knee angles and moments during the deceleration phase of the land-and-cut maneuver (vulnerable for non-contact ACL injuries). Mean success rate for unanticipated hops was 71-77% and for anticipated hops 91-95%. Both limbs demonstrated moderate-excellent reliability (ICC 95% confidence intervals: 0.50-0.99) for almost all hip and knee peak angles and moments in all planes and conditions, with a few exceptions: poor-good reliability for hip and knee frontal and/or transverse plane variables, especially for lateral diagonal hops. The SEMs were ≤5° and ≤0.23 N·m/kg·m for most peak angles and moments, respectively. Our test seems feasible and showed satisfactory reliability for most hip and knee angles and moments; however, low knee abduction and internal rotation angles and moments, and moderate reliability of these moments deserve consideration. The test appears to challenge dynamic knee control and may prove valuable in evaluation during knee rehabilitation.

  • Eriksson, Helena P.
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Forsell, Karl
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Norrland University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden; Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Eva
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mortality from cardiovascular disease in a cohort of Swedish seafarers2019In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether Swedish seafarers have increased mortality from cardiovascular disease compared with the general population.

    METHODS: Register-based longitudinal cohort study of 85,169 Swedish seafarers where all subjects with a minimum of 30 days service registered in the Seafarers' Register 1985-2013 were included. Mortality from coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and total mortality for comparison were analysed by calculating standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Mortality was further analysed by gender, duty on board, type of vessel, and over time.

    RESULTS: There was no increase in either mortality from cardiovascular disease or total mortality for seafarers, who had worked solely on passenger ferries. Mortality from coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease was increased for male seafarers < 46 years old who had worked on different types of vessels, SMR 1.48 (95% CI 1.06-2.01) and SMR 1.93 (95% CI 1.16-3.02), respectively. Analysing the seafarers by duty showed significantly increased SMRs from coronary heart disease in males aged < 46 of the categories "deck crew" and "engine officer/crew (ever)". The total mortality for seafarers who had worked on different types of vessels was increased; males SMR 1.05 (95% CI 1.02-1.09) and females SMR 1.17 (95% CI 1.04-1.30), but decreased over time.

    CONCLUSIONS: No increased mortality on passenger ferries but younger male seafarers on different types of vessels had increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. Reduction of hazardous occupational exposures onboard is important, such as shift work, stress and noise.

  • Zhang, Feng'e
    et al.
    School of Public Health, Health Science Center of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Xi'an, China.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). School of Public Health, Health Science Center of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Xi'an, China.
    Shao, Wanzhen
    School of Public Health, Health Science Center of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Xi'an, China.
    Zhang, Pan
    School of Public Health, Health Science Center of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Xi'an, China.
    Zhang, Yanan
    School of Public Health, Health Science Center of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Xi'an, China.
    Wei, Haiyan
    School of Public Health, Health Science Center of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Xi'an, China.
    Guo, Xiong
    School of Public Health, Health Science Center of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Xi'an, China.
    Cytotoxic properties of HT-2 toxin in human chondrocytes: Could T3 inhibit toxicity of HT-2?2019In: Toxins, ISSN 2072-6651, E-ISSN 2072-6651, Vol. 11, no 11, p. E667-E667, article id 31731600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) plays an important role in coordinated endochondral ossification and hypertrophic differentiation of the growth plate, while aberrant thyroid hormone function appears to be related to skeletal malformations, osteoarthritis, and Kashin-Beck disease. The T-2 toxin, present extensively in cereal grains, and one of its main metabolites, HT-2 toxin, are hypothesized to be potential factors associated with hypertrophic chondrocyte-related osteochondropathy, known as the Kashin-Beck disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of T3 and HT-2 toxin on human chondrocytes. The immortalized human chondrocyte cell line, C-28/I2, was cultured in four different groups: controls, and cultures with T3, T3 plus HT-2 and HT-2 alone. Cytotoxicity was assessed using an MTT assay after 24-h-exposure. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect gene expression levels of collagen types II and X, aggrecan and runx2, and the differences in runx2 were confirmed with immunoblot analysis. T3 was only slightly cytotoxic, in contrast to the significant, dose-dependent cytotoxicity of HT-2 alone at concentrations ≥ 50 nM. T3, together with HT-2, significantly rescued the cytotoxic effect of HT-2. HT-2 induced significant increases in aggrecan and runx2 gene expression, while the hypertrophic differentiation marker, type X collagen, remained unchanged. Thus, T3 protected against HT-2 induced cytotoxicity, and HT-2 was an inducer of the pre-hypertrophic state of the chondrocytes.

  • De Vries, Bouke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    ‘I am your son, mother’: Severe dementia and duties to visit parents who can’t recognise you2019In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly assumed that many, if not most, adult children have moral duties to visit their parents when they can do so at reasonable cost. However, whether such duties persist when the parents lose the ability to recognise their children, usually due to dementia, is more controversial. Over 40% of respondents in a public survey from the British Alzheimer’s Society said that it was “pointless” to keep up contact at this stage. Insofar as one cannot be morally required to do pointless things, this would suggest that children are relieved of any duties to visit their parents. In what appears to be the only scholarly treatment of this issue, Claudia Mills has defended this view, arguing that our duties to visit our parents require a type of relationship that is lost when parents no longer remember who their children are. This article challenges Mills’ argument. Not only can children be duty-bound to visit parents who have lost the ability to recognise them, I argue that many children do in fact have such duties. As I show, these duties are grounded in any special interests that their parents have in their company; the fact that visiting their parents might allow them to comply with generic duties of sociability; and/or the fact that such visits allow them to express any gratitude that they owe their parents.

  • Pastula, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Marcinkiewicz, Janusz
    Cellular Interactions in the Intestinal Stem Cell Niche2019In: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, ISSN 0004-069X, E-ISSN 1661-4917, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 19-26Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epithelial cells are one of the most actively cycling cells in a mammalian organism and therefore are prone to malignant transformation. Already during organogenesis, the connective tissue (mesenchyme) provides instructive signals for the epithelium. In an adult organism, the mesenchyme is believed to provide crucial regulatory signals for the maintenance and regeneration of epithelial cells. Here, we discuss the role of intestinal myofibroblasts, α-smooth muscle actin-positive stromal (mesenchymal) cells, as an important regulatory part of the intestinal stem cell niche. Better understanding of the cross-talk between myofibroblasts and the epithelium in the intestine has implications for advances in regenerative medicine, and improved therapeutic strategies for inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal fibrosis and colorectal cancer.

  • Pastula, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Middelhoff, Moritz
    Brandtner, Anna
    Tobiasch, Moritz
    Höhl, Bettina
    Nuber, Anders H.
    Demir, Ihsan Ekin
    Neupert, Steffi
    Kollmann, Patrick
    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma
    Quante, Michael
    Three-Dimensional Gastrointestinal Organoid Culture in Combination with Nerves or Fibroblasts: A Method to Characterize the Gastrointestinal Stem Cell Niche2016In: Stem Cells International, ISSN 1687-9678, article id 3710836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gastrointestinal epithelium is characterized by a high turnover of cells and intestinal stem cells predominantly reside at the bottom of crypts and their progeny serve to maintain normal intestinal homeostasis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the pivotal role of a niche surrounding intestinal stem cells in crypts, which consists of cellular and soluble components and creates an environment constantly influencing the fate of stem cells. Here we describe different 3D culture systems to culture gastrointestinal epithelium that should enable us to study the stem cell niche in vitro in the future: organoid culture and multilayered systems such as organotypic cell culture and culture of intestinal tissue fragments ex vivo. These methods mimic the in vivo situation in vitro by creating 3D culture conditions that reflect the physiological situation of intestinal crypts. Modifications of the composition of the culture media as well as coculturing epithelial organoids with previously described cellular components such as myofibroblasts, collagen, and neurons show the impact of the methods applied to investigate niche interactions in vitro. We further present a novel method to isolate labeled nerves from the enteric nervous system using Dclk1-CreGFP mice.

  • Strong, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Tengman, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    One-leg rise performance and associated knee kinematics in ACL-deficient and ACL-reconstructed persons 23 years post-injury2019In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research indicates reduced knee function and stability decades after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Assessment requires reliable functional tests that discriminate such outcomes from asymptomatic knees, while providing suitable loading for different populations. The One-leg rise (OLR) test is common in clinics and research but lacks scientific evidence for its implementation. Our cross-sectional study compared performance including knee kinematics of the OLR between ACL-injured persons in the very long term to controls and between legs within these groups, and assessed the within-session reliability of the kinematics.

    METHODS: Seventy ACL-injured individuals (mean age 46.9 ± 5.4 years) treated with either reconstructive surgery and physiotherapy (ACLR; n = 33) or physiotherapy alone (ACLPT; n = 37), on average 23 years post-injury, and 33 age- and sex-matched controls (CTRL) attempted the OLR. Participants completed as many repetitions as possible to a maximum of 50 while recorded by motion capture. We compared between all groups and between legs within groups for total repetitions and decomposed the OLR into movement phases to compare phase completion times, maximum and range of knee abduction and adduction angles, and mediolateral knee control in up to 10 repetitions per participant.

    RESULTS: ACLPT performed significantly fewer OLR repetitions with their injured leg compared to the CTRL non-dominant leg (medians 15 and 32, respectively) and showed significantly greater knee abduction than ACLR and CTRL (average 2.56°-3.69° depending on phase and leg). Distribution of repetitions differed between groups, revealing 59% of ACLPT unable to complete more than 20 repetitions on their injured leg compared to 33% ACLR and 36% CTRL for their injured and non-dominant leg, respectively. Within-session reliability of all kinematic variables for all groups and legs was high (ICC 3,10 0.97-1.00, 95% CI 0.95-1.00, SEM 0.93-1.95°).

    CONCLUSIONS: Negative outcomes of OLR performance, particularly among ACLPT, confirm the need to address aberrant knee function and stability even decades post-ACL injury. Knee kinematics derived from the OLR were reliable for asymptomatic and ACL-injured knees. Development of the OLR protocol and analysis methods may improve its discriminative ability in identifying reduced knee function and stability among a range of clinical populations.

  • Grip, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Tengman, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Liebermann, Dario G
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Kinematic analyses including finite helical axes of drop jump landings demonstrate decreased knee control long after anterior cruciate ligament injury2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 10, article id e0224261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to evaluate the dynamic knee control during a drop jump test following injury of the anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL) using finite helical axes. Persons injured 17-28 years ago, treated with either physiotherapy (ACLPT, n = 23) or reconstruction and physiotherapy (ACLR, n = 28) and asymptomatic controls (CTRL, n = 22) performed a drop jump test, while kinematics were registered by motion capture. We analysed the Preparation phase (from maximal knee extension during flight until 50 ms post-touchdown) followed by an Action phase (until maximal knee flexion post-touchdown). Range of knee motion (RoM), and the length of each phase (Duration) were computed. The finite knee helical axis was analysed for momentary intervals of ~15° of knee motion by its intersection (ΔAP position) and inclination (ΔAP Inclination) with the knee's Anterior-Posterior (AP) axis. Static knee laxity (KT100) and self-reported knee function (Lysholm score) were also assessed. The results showed that both phases were shorter for the ACL groups compared to controls (CTRL-ACLR: Duration 35±8 ms, p = 0.000, CTRL-ACLPT: 33±9 ms, p = 0.000) and involved less knee flexion (CTRL-ACLR: RoM 6.6±1.9°, p = 0.002, CTRL-ACLR: 7.5 ±2.0°, p = 0.001). Low RoM and Duration correlated significantly with worse knee function according to Lysholm and higher knee laxity according to KT-1000. Three finite helical axes were analysed. The ΔAP position for the first axis was most anterior in ACLPT compared to ACLR (ΔAP position -1, ACLPT-ACLR: 13±3 mm, p = 0.004), with correlations to KT-1000 (rho 0.316, p = 0.008), while the ΔAP inclination for the third axis was smaller in the ACLPT group compared to controls (ΔAP inclination -3 ACLPT-CTRL: -13±5°, p = 0.004) and showed a significant side difference in ACL injured groups during Action (Injured-Non-injured: 8±2.7°, p = 0.006). Small ΔAP inclination -3 correlated with low Lysholm (rho 0.391, p = 0.002) and high KT-1000 (rho -0.450, p = 0.001). Conclusions Compensatory movement strategies seem to be used to protect the injured knee during landing. A decreased ΔAP inclination in injured knees during Action suggests that the dynamic knee control may remain compromised even long after injury.

  • Martinez Gunnarsson, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Främmande växtarter: En studie av vägkanter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are about 2,000 alien species of which 388 are invasive alien species. Invasive alien species are species that compete and create problems for the native species we have in our nature. One of the major drivers of the introduction of alien species is transport. Transport between different geographical areas increases from year to year, making it easier for new alien species to enter the country. The purpose of this work is to investigate the distribution of alien species along roads of different sizes with different amount of traffic, to be able to get an overview of how the number of cars passing a road affects the spread of alien species and whether it differs among roads. Roads of different sizes were inventoried, in the municipalities of Lekeberg and Laxå, Sweden. Two of the roads were highways, 3 middle sized roads and 3 small sized roads. All species in the sample sites were inventoried, including native species. One-way Anova was used to check if there were any significant differences. The result shows that where most alien species were found, least native species could also be found. Other studies have found linkages between paved roads and invasive species, where it was found that paved roads had more alien species than gravel roads. The result of this study showed that most foreign species could be found along the middle roads and least along the small roads. This could be due to the smaller roads having less traffic intensity, which means that there is less chance of alien species entering these roads by cars. The fact that most species were found on the intermediately sized roads compared to the highways may be due to the higher speed and a higher traffic flow. 

  • Jäder, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Sidenvall, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Mathematical problem solving in textbooks from twelve countries2019In: International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of secondary school mathematics textbooks from twelve countries on five continents was analysed to better understand the support they might be in teaching and learning mathematical problem solving. Over 5700 tasks were compared to the information provided earlier in each textbook to determine whether each task could be solved by mimicking available templates or whether a solution had to be constructed without guidance from the textbook. There were similarities between the twelve textbooks in the sense that most tasks could be solved using a template as guidance. A significantly lower proportion of the tasks required a solution to be constructed. This was especially striking in the initial sets of tasks. Textbook descriptions indicating problem solving did not guarantee that a task solution had to be constructed without the support of an available template.

  • Naumburg, Estelle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics. Pediatrics department, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Söderström, Lars
    Increased risk of pulmonary hypertension following premature birth2019In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PAH) among children and adults has been linked to premature birth, even after adjustments for known risk factors such as congenital heart disease and chronic lung disease. The aim of this population-based registry study was to assess the risk of PAH following exposure to premature birth and other factors in the decades when modern neonatal care was introduced and survival rates increased.

    Methods: Data on pulmonary hypertension and perinatal factors were retrieved from population-based governmental and national quality registers. Cases were adults and children over five years of age with pulmonary hypertension born from 1973 to 2010 and individually matched to six controls by birth year and delivery hospital. Conditional multiple logistic regression was performed to assess the risk of pulmonary hypertension following premature birth and to adjust for known confounding factors for the total study population and for time of birth, grouped into five-year intervals.

    Results: In total, 128 cases and 768 controls were included in the study group. Preterm birth was over three times more common among cases (21%) than among controls (6%). The overall adjusted risk of pulmonary hypertension was associated with premature birth, OR = 4.48 (95% CI; 2.10–9.53). Maternal hypertension, several neonatal risk factors and female gender were independently associated with PAH when potential confounders were taken into account. For each five-year period, the risk of PAH following premature birth increased several times for children born in the 2000s and later, OR = 17.08 (95% CI 5.60–52.14).

    Conclusions: Preterm birth, along with other factors, significantly contributes to PAH. PAH following premature birth has increased over the last few decades. Our study indicates that new, yet unknown factors may play a role in the risk of preterm-born infants developing PAH later in life.

  • Högberg, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Johansson, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Petersen, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Consequences of school grading systems on adolescent health: evidence from a Swedish school reform2019In: Journal of education policy, ISSN 0268-0939, E-ISSN 1464-5106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education reforms that entail increased emphasis on high-stakes testing, assessment and grading have spread across education systems in recent decades. Critics have argued that these policies could have consequences for stress, identity, self-esteem and the overall health of pupils. However, these potentially negative consequences have rarely been investigated in a systematic and rigorous way. In this study we use a major education reform in Sweden, which introduced grades and increased the use of testing for pupils in the 6th and 7th school year (aged 12 to 13 years), to study the consequences of grading and assessment for health outcomes. Using data from the Health Behaviours of School-Aged Children Survey, we find that the reform increased school-related stress and reduced the academic self-esteem of pupils in the 7th school year. This, in turn, had an indirect effect on psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction for these pupils. Moreover, the negative effects of the reform were generally stronger for girls, thereby widening the already troubling gender differences in health. We conclude that accountability reforms aimed at increased use of testing, assessment and grading can potentially have negative side effects on pupils’ health.