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  • Timpka, Simon
    et al.
    Fraser, Abigail
    Schyman, Tommy
    Stuart, Jennifer J.
    Asvold, Bjorn Olav
    Mogren, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    Rich-Edwards, Janet W.
    The value of pregnancy complication history for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk prediction in middle-aged women2018In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 1003-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP; preeclampsia and gestational hypertension) or delivering low birth weight offspring (LBW; < 2500 g) have twice the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to study the extent to which history of these pregnancy complications improves CVD risk prediction above and beyond conventional predictors. Parous women attended standardized clinical visits in Sweden. Data were linked to registries of deliveries and CVD. Participants were followed for a first CVD event within 10 years from age 50 (n = 7552) and/or 60 years (n = 5360) and the predictive value of each pregnancy complication above and beyond conventional predictors was investigated. History of LBW offspring was associated with increased risk of CVD when added to conventional predictors in women 50 years of age [Hazard ratio 1.68, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.19, 2.37] but not at age 60 (age interaction p = 0.04). However, at age 50 years CVD prediction was not further improved by information on LBW offspring, except that a greater proportion of the women who developed CVD were assigned to a higher risk category (categorical net reclassification improvement for events 0.038, 95% CI 0.003, 0.074). History of HDP was not associated with CVD when adjusted for reference model predictors. In conclusion, a history of pregnancy complications can identify women with increased risk of CVD midlife. However, considered with conventional risk factors, history of HDP or having delivered LBW offspring did not meaningfully improve 10-year CVD risk prediction in women age 50 years or older.

  • Wikström, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Institutionen för socialt arbete, Umeå universitet.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Making Refugees Work?: Individualized Work Strategies in the Swedish Refugee Settlement Program2018In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 8, no S4, p. 47-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and elsewhere, work strategies have gained greater significance in social policy, and now also in settlement programs for refugees. This article addresses the level of practice of the refugee settlement program in Sweden, which previously emphasized ‘support’ and ‘social responsibility’, but now emphasizes ‘activation’ and ‘individual responsibility’. Through an analysis of interviews and individual action plans, we investigate how activation is put into practice in the work activities of refugee settlement and how employment officials and refugees articulate and experience the role that activation plays in refugees’ integration processes. The conclusion drawn is that activation is a central feature, but it involves conditionalizing elements that are used as the means to emphasize ‘work’ as the route to integration and to keep the ‘less employable’ refugees activated. The activation techniques applied require refugees to demonstrate that they are taking responsibility for their integration process and for increasing their employability

  • Tegern, Matthias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Ang, Bjorn O.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Larsson, Helena
    Inter-rater and test-retest reliability of movement control tests for the neck, shoulder, thoracic, lumbar, and hip regions in military personnel2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 9, article id e0204552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies are needed to mitigate the high rates and related risks of musculoskeletal complaints and injuries (MSCI) in the military aviator community. Previous work on Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) soldiers have shown that proper screening methods have been successful in reducing early discharge from military training. Research has pointed at the importance of optimal spinal movement control in military aviators. The aim of this work was to investigate the inter-rater and test-retest reliability of a battery of clinical tests for evaluating movement control in the neck, shoulders, thoracic, lumbar, and hip regions in a population of SwAF military personnel. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability of 15 movement control tests were assessed by crude and prevalence-adjusted kappa coefficient. The study included 37 (inter-rater) and 45 (test-retest) SwAF personnel and was performed with two physiotherapists simultaneously observing and rating the movements on the first occasion and repeated with one physiotherapist on the second occasion. For inter-rater reliability, the kappa coefficient ranged from .19 to .95. Seven tests showed substantial to almost perfect agreement (kappa > .60). With the adjusted kappa, three more tests reached the level of substantial agreement. The corresponding values for test-retest reliability ranged from .26 to .65. Substantial agreement was attained for two tests, three with adjusted kappa. The following tests can reliably be used when screening for biomechanically less advantageous movement patters in military aviators: Shoulder flexion, and rotation, Neck flexion in sitting and supine, Neck extension and rotation in sitting, Pelvic tilt, Forward lean and Single and Double knee extension tests. Grading criteria for tests in supine and quadruped positions need to be further elaborated.

  • Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: students’ perspectives on teachers’ didactical design2018In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 160-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a research study that scrutinised the student perspective on teachers’ different didactical designs from lessons in the one-to-one computing classroom. Specifically, the aim was to describe and understand three different clusters of didactical design in the one-to-one computing classroom from the student perspective. Each of the three clusters represents different interactions between teachers and students. The research questions embrace how the teachers or students, through the didactical design, will have an advantage over the other. The empirical material was based on student focus groups interviews, enhanced through the method of stimulated recall where different photographs of teaching and learning situations from the one-to-one computing classroom were shown to the students. The results demonstrate three empirical themes: students’ learning in class, students’ learning outside class, and classroom assessment. From a theoretical lens of power and control, the students’ reasoning demonstrates approaches to how teachers regulate students and to how students can make decisions in their learning process. For handling students’ demands, specifically in pedagogical plans, the one-to-one computing classroom becomes one component for making students’ learning processes smoother regarding when to study and how to study.

  • Lagali, Neil S.
    et al.
    Badian, Reza A.
    Liu, Xu
    Feldreich, Tobias R.
    Arnlov, Johan
    Utheim, Tor Paaske
    Dahlin, Lars B.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Dendritic cell maturation in the corneal epithelium with onset of type 2 diabetes is associated with tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 92018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 14248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by a low-grade inflammation; however, mechanisms leading to this inflammation in specific tissues are not well understood. The eye can be affected by diabetes; thus, we hypothesized that inflammatory changes in the eye may parallel the inflammation that develops with diabetes. Here, we developed a non-invasive means to monitor the status of inflammatory dendritic cell (DC) subsets in the corneal epithelium as a potential biomarker for the onset of inflammation in type 2 diabetes. In an age-matched cohort of 81 individuals with normal and impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes, DCs were quantified from wide-area maps of the corneal epithelial sub-basal plexus, obtained using clinical in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). With the onset of diabetes, the proportion of mature, antigen-presenting DCs increased and became organized in clusters. Out of 92 plasma proteins analysed in the cohort, tumor necrosis factor receptor super family member 9 (TNFRSF9) was associated with the observed maturation of DCs from an immature to mature antigen-presenting phenotype. A low-grade ocular surface inflammation observed in this study, where resident immature dendritic cells are transformed into mature antigen-presenting cells in the corneal epithelium, is a process putatively associated with TNFRSF9 signalling and may occur early in the development of type 2 diabetes. IVCM enables this process to be monitored non-invasively in the eye.

  • Ferreiro-Iglesias, Aida
    et al.
    Lesseur, Corina
    McKay, James
    Hung, Rayjean J.
    Han, Younghun
    Zong, Xuchen
    Christiani, David
    Johansson, Mattias
    Xiao, Xiangjun
    Li, Yafang
    Qian, David C.
    Ji, Xuemei
    Liu, Geoffrey
    Caporaso, Neil
    Scelo, Ghislaine
    Zaridze, David
    Mukeriya, Anush
    Kontic, Milica
    Ognjanovic, Simona
    Lissowska, Jolanta
    Szolkowska, Malgorzata
    Swiatkowska, Beata
    Janout, Vladimir
    Holcatova, Ivana
    Bolca, Ciprian
    Savic, Milan
    Ognjanovic, Miodrag
    Bojesen, Stig Egil
    Wu, Xifeng
    Albanes, Demetrios
    Aldrich, Melinda C.
    Tardon, Adonina
    Fernandez-Somoano, Ana
    Fernandez-Tardon, Guillermo
    Le Marchand, Loic
    Rennert, Gadi
    Chen, Chu
    Doherty, Jennifer
    Goodman, Gary
    Bickeboeller, Heike
    Wichmann, H-Erich
    Risch, Angela
    Rosenberger, Albert
    Shen, Hongbing
    Dai, Juncheng
    Field, John K.
    Davies, Michael
    Woll, Penella
    Teare, M. Dawn
    Kiemeney, Lambertus A.
    van der Heijden, Erik H. F. M.
    Yuan, Jian-Min
    Hong, Yun-Chul
    Haugen, Aage
    Zienolddiny, Shanbeh
    Lam, Stephen
    Tsao, Ming-Sound
    Johansson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Schabath, Matthew B.
    Andrew, Angeline
    Duell, Eric
    Melander, Olle
    Brunnstrom, Hans
    Lazarus, Philip
    Arnold, Susanne
    Slone, Stacey
    Byun, Jinyoung
    Kamal, Ahsan
    Zhu, Dakai
    Landi, Maria Teresa
    Amos, Christopher, I
    Brennan, Paul
    Fine mapping of MHC region in lung cancer highlights independent susceptibility loci by ethnicity2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 3927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lung cancer has several genetic associations identified within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); although the basis for these associations remains elusive. Here, we analyze MHC genetic variation among 26,044 lung cancer patients and 20,836 controls densely genotyped across the MHC, using the Illumina Illumina OncoArray or Illumina 660W SNP microarray. We impute sequence variation in classical HLA genes, fine-map MHC associations for lung cancer risk with major histologies and compare results between ethnicities. Independent and novel associations within HLA genes are identified in Europeans including amino acids in the HLA-B*0801 peptide binding groove and an independent HLA-DQB1*06 loci group. In Asians, associations are driven by two independent HLA allele sets that both increase risk in HLA-DQB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0701; the latter better represented by the amino acid Ala-104. These results implicate several HLA-tumor peptide interactions as the major MHC factor modulating lung cancer susceptibility.

  • Emma, Rosalia
    et al.
    Bansal, Aruna T.
    Kolmert, Johan
    Wheelock, Craig E.
    Dahlen, Swen-Erik
    Loza, Matthew J.
    De Meulder, Bertrand
    Lefaudeux, Diane
    Auffray, Charles
    Dahlen, Barbro
    Bakke, Per S.
    Chanez, Pascal
    Fowler, Stephen J.
    Horvath, Ildiko
    Montuschi, Paolo
    Krug, Norbert
    Sanak, Marek
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Shaw, Dominick E.
    Fleming, Louise J.
    Djukanovic, Ratko
    Howarth, Peter H.
    Singer, Florian
    Sousa, Ana R.
    Sterk, Peter J.
    Cortield, Julie
    Pandis, Ioannis
    Chung, Kian F.
    Adcock, Ian M.
    Lutter, Rene
    Fabbella, Lorena
    Caruso, Massimo
    Enhanced oxidative stress in smoking and ex-smoking severe asthma in the U-BIOPRED cohort2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 9, article id e0203874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidative stress is believed to be a major driver of inflammation in smoking asthmatics. The U-BIOPRED project recruited a cohort of Severe Asthma smokers/ex-smokers (SAs/ex) and non-smokers (SAn) with extensive clinical and biomarker information enabling characterization of these subjects. We investigated oxidative stress in severe asthma subjects by analysing urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) and the mRNA-expression of the main pro-oxidant (NOX2; NOSs) and anti-oxidant (SODs; CAT; GPX1) enzymes in the airways of SAs/ex and SAn. All the severe asthma U-BIOPRED subjects were further divided into current smokers with severe asthma (CSA), ex-smokers with severe asthma (ESA) and non-smokers with severe asthma (NSA) to deepen the effect of active smoking. Clinical data, urine and sputum were obtained from severe asthma subjects. A bronchoscopy to obtain bronchial biopsy and brushing was performed in a subset of subjects. The main clinical data were analysed for each subset of subjects (urine-8-iso-PGF(2 alpha); IS-transcriptomics; BB-transcriptomics; BBrtranscriptomics). Urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) was quantified using mass spectrometry. Sputum, bronchial biopsy and bronchial brushing were processed for mRNA expression microarray analysis. Urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) was increased in SAs/ex, median (IQR) = 31.7 (24.5 +/- 44.7) ng/mmol creatinine, compared to SAn, median (IQR) = 26.6 (19.6 +/- 36.6) ng/mmol creatinine (p< 0.001), and in CSA, median (IQR) = 34.25 (24.4 +/- 47.7), vs. ESA, median (IQR) = 29.4 (22.3 +/- 40.5), and NSA, median (IQR) = 26.5 (19.6 +/- 16.6) ng/mmol creatinine (p = 0.004). Sputum mRNA expression of NOX2 was increased in SAs/ex compared to SAn (probe sets 203922_PM_s_at fold-change = 1.05 p = 0.006; 203923_PM_s_at fold-change = 1.06, p = 0.003; 233538_PM_s_at fold-change = 1.06, p = 0.014). The mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes were similar between the two severe asthma cohorts in all airway samples. NOS2 mRNA expression was decreased in bronchial brushing of SAs/ex compared to SAn (fold-change = -1.10; p = 0.029). NOS2 mRNA expression in bronchial brushing correlated with FeNO (Kendal's Tau = 0.535; p< 0.001). From clinical and inflammatory analysis, FeNO was lower in CSA than in ESA in all the analysed subject subsets (p< 0.01) indicating an effect of active smoking. Results about FeNO suggest its clinical limitation, as inflammation biomarker, in severe asthma active smokers. These data provide evidence of greater systemic oxidative stress in severe asthma smokers as reflected by a significant changes of NOX2 mRNA expression in the airways, together with elevated urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) in the smokers/ex-smokers group.

  • Pantzare, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Landsbygdsutveckling i strandnära lägen: En fallstudie om tre kommuner i Norrbottens län2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats i kulturgeografi handlar om landsbygdsutveckling och hur exploatering i strandnära lägen kan bidra till lokal- och regional utveckling. Denna utveckling kan ske genom att kommunal- och kommersiell service bibehålls på landsbygden och som därmed ger individer förbättrade möjligheter att vistas där. Detta har blivit möjligt sedan regeringen 2009 införde ett nytt planverktyg för kommunerna, landsbygdsutveckling i strandnära lägen. Genom detta verktyg går det att identifiera områden i nära anslutning till vatten som är lämpliga att bebygga utan att allmänhetens tillgång till strandområdet försämras samtidigt som goda livsvillkor för växt- och djurliv bevaras. Detta är också själva syftet med strandskyddet. Det kan handla om bebyggelse för både bostäder eller verksamheter. Tanken var att de attraktiva boendemiljöerna som finns längs stränderna skulle locka individer att exploatera dessa områden vilket skulle ge positiva effekter på landsbygden. Denna uppsats baseras på tre utvalda kommuners arbete och tillämpning av detta planverktyg, dessa kommuner är Arvidsjaur, Jokkmokk och Pajala. Det uppsatsen kommer fram till är att kommunerna hade likvärdiga förutsättningar när de startade arbetet med landsbygdsutveckling i strandnära lägen. Alla tre kommuner tampades med en negativ befolkningsutveckling till följd av den omfattande urbaniseringen som skedde under 1900-talet. Vidare var även kommunerna jämbördiga när det kommer till tillämpningen av det nya planverktyget och utfallet har för samtliga kommuner varit ett ökat byggande längs sjöar och vattendrag.

  • Peedu, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Metapopulations dynamics and sex-specific resource allocation in Silene dioica2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rising archipelagos provide unique settings for the study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of their biota. This offers the possibility to study the ecology and genetics of early successional processes; both between islands that differ in age and within islands when already established organisms have to keep pace with the changing environment. I have worked in the Skeppsvik Archipelago housing about 100 islands that due to land uplift vary in age, thus representing various stages of primary succession. I have utilized a naturally created metapopulation of Silene dioica, which in this archipelago is a dominant plant of the deciduous border, offering the possibility to study subpopulations on islands of different ages and in different phases of primary succession. Many plant species exist as metapopulations, which consists of many local populations which may differ in size and degree of connectivity. Metapopulations are further characterized by recurrent colorizations and extinctions of local populations, meaning that a species continually must disperse and relocate to allow for persistence in this system. For a dioecious plant species, gene flow is in the shape of seeds and pollen and to allow for the persistence of populations, it is necessary that levels of seed dispersal and pollen gene flow are enough to ensure both colonisation, establishment and subsequent population growth. Levels of seed dispersal and pollen gene flow is in turn influenced by how the two sexes partition resources between reproduction, growth and survival.

    In paper I, I combined a field survey, a common garden experiment and a nine-year demographic study to assess the demographic consequences of sex-specific resource allocation and to investigate if differential costs of reproduction may be a driver in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in dioecious Silene dioica. Significant somatic intersexual dimorphism was found with females being the larger sex, both in terms of above – and belowground biomass. Furthermore, the reproductive effort of females exceeds that of males across a growing season which largely confirms what has been observed earlier in dioecious, herbaceous plant species. According to the cost of reproduction hypothesis, high reproductive investment should result in trade-offs with somatic and/or life-history traits. Somatic trade-offs were not observed, and instead I found strong, positive associations between reproductive investment and vegetative growth in both males and females. Compensation mechanisms were found in both sexes although females are generally more efficient at compensating their reproductive costs. At the end of a flowering season, after having paid the current costs of reproduction, females are better than males at provisioning perennial roots and rosettes potentially influencing the ability to set future flower buds and winter survival. Trade-offs were found between current and future reproduction and survival, but this is condition dependent and compensation through frequency of flowering plays an important role. The cost of reproduction hypothesis appears to play some role in driving the somatic and demographic sexual dimorphisms observed in this system but sexual selection acting on males will be a fruitful avenue for future research.

    In paper II, I investigated the population genetic consequences of metapopulation dynamics in Silene dioica. The occurrence of islands in different phases of primary succession together with successional gradients across islands, makes it possible to investigate the genetic dynamics occurring in an age-structured metapopulation across several hierarchical levels. Genetic diversity and differentiation were estimated in eight young, recently colonised populations and in ten populations of an intermediate successional stage. Young populations were less genetically diverse compared to older populations, indicating that bottlenecks, created by small founding groups derived from a limited number of source populations, reduce the genetic diversity within newly founded populations. The observation of strong genetic structure both between islands and between patches with islands, indicates that gene flow is restricted across several spatial levels in this system. However, the lack of statistically significant differences in genetic differentiation between young and intermediate populations, indicates that levels of gene flow may not be high enough to reduce the genetic differentiation that arise from the initial founder event.

    The patterns of sexual dimorphism and the roles of males and females in Silene dioica have evolved to allow persistence in an ecological and population context of this species. The nature of this habitat, where islands rise up from the sea creating new environments for colonisation while at the same time, autogenic primary succession processes eventually leads to extinction, means that S. dioica continuously must relocate within successional phases for its persistence. The obvious success of this dioecious plant is apparent as it is one of the few dominant species in the deciduous border. This suggests that levels of seed dispersal and gene flow are sufficient enough to allow for establishment and persistence of island populations and that the sexual dimorphisms that have evolved in this metapopulation system act to increase levels of gene flow. The "live hard – die young" strategy, with extensive flowering bouts, which we find in the males may have evolved as a way of maintaining sufficient levels of genetic diversity in the metapopulation but will only be a possible strategy if there are continuous opportunities for re-establishments. Thus, the continuous land uplift that is occurring in the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia may very well be a prerequisite for the long-term persistence of this dioecious, perennial plant species.

  • Hernandez, Alison
    et al.
    Lorena Ruano, Ana
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Flores, Walter
    Pathways to accountability in rural Guatemala: a qualitative comparative analysis of citizen-led initiatives for the right to health of indigenous populations2019In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 113, p. 392-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strengthening citizen-led accountability initiatives is a critical rights-based strategy for improving health services for indigenous and other marginalized populations. As these initiatives have gained prominence in health and other sectors, there is great interest in how they operate and what makes them effective. Scholarly focus is shifting from measuring the efficacy of their tools and tactics to deepening understanding of the context-sensitive pathways through which change occurs. This paper examines how citizen-led initiatives' actions to strengthen grassroots networks, monitor health services and engage with authorities interact with local sociopolitical conditions and contribute to accountability achievements for indigenous populations in rural Guatemala. We used qualitative comparative analysis to first systematize and score structured qualitative monitoring data gathered in 29 municipal-level initiatives, and then analyze patterns in the presence of different forms of citizen action, contextual conditions and accountability outcomes across cases. Our study identifies pathways of collective action through which citizen-led initiatives bolster their power to engage and negotiate with authorities and bring about solutions to some of the health system deficiencies that they face. While constructive engagement is widely advocated as the most effective approach to interaction with authorities, our study indicates that success depends on wider processes of community mobilization. To overcome the power asymmetries that marginalized groups face when engaging with authorities, iterative processes of network building and participatory monitoring as well as persistence in their demands are critical. These processes further provide an enabling environment for moving beyond the local and projecting indigenous voices to engage with authorities at higher governance levels. Initiatives also applied adversarial legal action as an alternative engagement strategy that contributed to bolster citizen power. Our findings indicate the potential of collective power generated by the actions of citizen-led initiatives to enable marginalized populations to hold authorities accountable for health system failures. 

  • Larsson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karaktärisering av morän i Aitikgruvan för användning vid efterbehandling av gråberg2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Aitik Mine is the largest copper mine in Europe and every year, 15 – 20 Mt waste rock is deposited in dumps located close to the mine. This waste rock can contain sulfides, which if exposed to oxygen can cause leeching and formation of acid rock drainage. To prevent this from happening, Boliden has designed a dry cover system to prevent leaching from occurring. The purpose of this study was to characterize existing stockpiles of till at Boliden’s Aitik Mine site in the context of requirements for the closure cover system. The till was evaluated primarily of its suitability for use in a highly compacted layer (HCL), since Boliden has a cover system design that has to provide the necessary control on oxygen diffusion rates to underlying waste rock material over the long term. The sampling took place on three of the stockpiles and a total of 31 test pits were excavated. A total of 27 samples of soil were collected and analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD) testing. Following review of PSD results, select samples were tested for hydraulic conductivity and compaction testing. The PSD results showed that all materials were fine-grained sand with some gravel, cobbles and silt. Results also show the amount of clay particles (0,004 mm) were relatively low across the three stockpiles. The result for the hydraulic conductivity were higher than Boliden’s prescriptive criteria. The results indicate that the sampled till would require addition of sodium bentonite to be able to construct a HCL with a hydraulic conductivity not exceeding Boliden’s criteria.

  • Akhter, Shirin
    et al.
    Kretzschmar, Warren W.
    Nordal, Veronika
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    Street, Nathaniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Nilsson, Ove
    Emanuelsson, Olof
    Sundström, Jens F.
    Integrative analysis of three RNA sequencing methods identifies mutually exclusive exons of MADS-box isoforms during early bud development in Picea abies2018In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, article id 1625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent efforts to sequence the genomes and transcriptomes of several gymnosperm species have revealed an increased complexity in certain gene families in gymnosperms as compared to angiosperms. One example of this is the gymnosperm sister Glade to angiosperm TM3-like MADS-box genes, which at least in the conifer lineage has expanded in number of genes. We have previously identified a member of this subclade, the conifer gene DEFICIENS AGAMOUS LIKE 19 (DAL19), as being specifically upregulated in cone-setting shoots. Here, we show through Sanger sequencing of mRNA-derived cDNA and mapping to assembled conifer genomic sequences that DAL19 produces six mature mRNA splice variants in Picea abies. These splice variants use alternate first and last exons, while their four central exons constitute a core region present in all six transcripts. Thus, they are likely to be transcript isoforms. Quantitative Real-Time PCR revealed that two mutually exclusive first DAL19 exons are differentially expressed across meristems that will form either male or female cones, or vegetative shoots. Furthermore, mRNA in situ hybridization revealed that two mutually exclusive last DAL19 exons were expressed in a cell-specific pattern within bud meristems. Based on these findings in DAL19, we developed a sensitive approach to transcript isoform assembly from short-read sequencing of mRNA. We applied this method to 42 putative MADS-box core regions in P abies, from which we assembled 1084 putative transcripts. We manually curated these transcripts to arrive at 933 assembled transcript isoforms of 38 putative MADS-box genes. 152 of these isoforms, which we assign to 28 putative MADS-box genes, were differentially expressed across eight female, male, and vegetative buds. We further provide evidence of the expression of 16 out of the 38 putative MADS-box genes by mapping PacBio Iso-Seq circular consensus reads derived from pooled sample sequencing to assembled transcripts. In summary, our analyses reveal the use of mutually exclusive exons of MADS-box gene isoforms during early bud development in P. abies, and we find that the large number of identified MADS-box transcripts in P. abies results not only from expansion of the gene family through gene duplication events but also from the generation of numerous splice variants.

  • Bakker, Elisabeth S.
    et al.
    Veen, Ciska G. F.
    Ter Heerdt, Gerard J. N.
    Huig, Naomi
    Sarneel, Judith M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    High grazing pressure of geese threatens conservation and restoration of reed belts2018In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, article id 1649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) beds are important habitat for marsh birds, but are declining throughout Europe. Increasing numbers of the native marsh bird, the Greylag goose (Anser anser L.), are hypothesized to cause reed bed decline and inhibit restoration of reed beds, but data are largely lacking. In this study, we experimentally tested the effect of grazing by Greylag geese on the growth and expansion of reed growing in belts along lake shorelines. After 5 years of protecting reed from-grazing with exclosures, reed stems were over 4-fold denser and taller than in the grazed plots. Grazing pressure was intense with 50-100% of the stems being grazed among years in the control plots open to grazing. After 5 years of protection we opened half of the exclosures and the geese immediately grazed almost 100% of the reed stems. Whereas this did not affect the reed stem density, the stem height was strongly reduced and similar to permanently grazed reed. The next year geese were actively chased away by management from mid-March to mid-June, which changed the maximum amount of geese from over 2300 to less than 50. As a result, reed stem density and height increased and the reed belt had recovered over the full 6 m length of the experimental plots. Lastly, we introduced reed plants in an adjacent lake where no reed was growing and geese did visit this area. After two years, the density of the planted reed was six to nine-fold higher and significantly taller in exclosures compared to control plots where geese had access to the reed plants. We conclude that there is a conservation dilemma regarding how to preserve and restore reed belts in the presence of high densities of Greylag geese as conservation of both reed belts and high goose numbers seems infeasible. We suggest that there are three possible solutions for this dilemma: (1) effects of the geese can be mediated by goose population management, (2) the robustness of the reed marshes can be increased, and (3) at the landscape level, spatial planning can be used to configure landscapes with large reed bed reserves surrounded by unmown, unfertilized meadows.

  • Bohman, Tony
    et al.
    Tegern, Matthias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Halvarsson, Alexandra
    Broman, Lisbet
    Larsson, Helena
    Concurrent validity of an isokinetic lift test used for admission to the Swedish Armed Forces2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the IsoKai isokinetic lift test peak force (IsoKai(Peak))1 in comparison to a submaximal 5-1ORM deadlift test (5-10RM(DL)), and to develop an equation for converting the IsoKai(Peak) in Newton (N) to an estimated 1 RM (1 RMest) deadlift load in kilograms (kg). The participants included 28 males and 16 female employees in the Swedish Armed Forces (20-59 years). Each participant conducted the IsoKai lift test, followed by the 5-1ORM(DL) test at one occasion. The Pearson's correlation coefficient, with a 95% confidence interval was calculated to evaluate the validity between the IsoKai(peak) and the 1 RMest deadlift load derived from the 5-10RM(DL) test. Univariate and multivariable linear regressions were used to derive the equation for calculating the 1 RMest deadlift load based on the IsoKai(Peak)- The IsoKai(p)(eak) showed good- to-excellent correlation with the 1 RMest deadlift weight with a correlation coefficient of 0.84 (0.72-0.91) for the total sample, and 0.65 (0.37-0.83) and 0.81 (0.53-0.93) in males and females, respectively. The final equation, 1 RMest deadlift weight (kg) = -51.63 + (0.08 x IsoKai(Peak))1+ (2.28 x BMI), explained 72% (adjusted R-2 = 0.72) of the total variance in the 1 RMest, and had a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 16.57 kg. In conclusion, the IsoKai isokinetic lift test could be considered a highly valid measure of maximal dynamic muscular strength in comparison to the 5-10RM(DL). The equation can be used to convert the IsoKai lift test (N) results to an 1 RMest deadlift load (kg), but with consideration of the relative large SEE.

  • Voon, Chia Pao
    et al.
    Guan, Xiaoqian
    Sun, Yuzhe
    Sahu, Abira
    Chan, May Ngor
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Wagner, Stephan
    Fuchs, Philippe
    Nietzel, Thomas
    Versaw, Wayne K.
    Schwarzländer, Markus
    Lim, Boon Leong
    ATP compartmentation in plastids and cytosol of Arabidopsis thaliana revealed by fluorescent protein sensing2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 45, p. E10778-E10787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Matching ATP: NADPH provision and consumption in the chloroplast is a prerequisite for efficient photosynthesis. In terms of ATP: NADPH ratio, the amount of ATP generated from the linear electron flow does not meet the demand of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Several different mechanisms to increase ATP availability have evolved, including cyclic electron flow in higher plants and the direct import of mitochondrial-derived ATP in diatoms. By imaging a fluorescent ATP sensor protein expressed in living Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, we found that MgATP(2-) concentrations were lower in the stroma of mature chloroplasts than in the cytosol, and exogenous ATP was able to enter chloroplasts isolated from 4- and 5-day-old seedlings, but not chloroplasts isolated from 10- or 20-day-old photosynthetic tissues. This observation is in line with the previous finding that the expression of chloroplast nucleotide transporters (NTTs) in Arabidopsis mesophyll is limited to very young seedlings. Employing a combination of photosynthetic and respiratory inhibitors with compartment-specific imaging of ATP, we corroborate the dependency of stromal ATP production on mitochondrial dissipation of photosynthetic reductant. Our data suggest that, during illumination, the provision and consumption of ATP: NADPH in chloroplasts can be balanced by exporting excess reductants rather than importing ATP from the cytosol.

  • Vouzouneraki, Konstantina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Franklin, Karl A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Forsgren, Maria
    Wärn, Maria
    Persson, Jenny Tiberg
    Wik, Helena
    Dahlgren, Christina
    Nilsson, Ann-Sofie
    Alkebro, Caroline
    Burman, Pia
    Erfurth, Eva-Marie
    Wahlberg, Jeanette
    Åkerman, Anna-Karin
    Høbye, Charlotte
    Ragnarsson, Oskar
    Edén Engström, Britt
    Dahlqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Temporal relationship of sleep apnea and acromegaly: a nationwide study2018In: Endocrine (Basingstoke), ISSN 1355-008X, E-ISSN 1559-0100, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 456-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    Patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of sleep apnea, but reported prevalence rates vary largely. Here we aimed to evaluate the sleep apnea prevalence in a large national cohort of patients with acromegaly, to examine possible risk factors, and to assess the proportion of patients diagnosed with sleep apnea prior to acromegaly diagnosis.

    Methods: Cross-sectional multicenter study of 259 Swedish patients with acromegaly. At patients' follow-up visits at the endocrine outpatient clinics of all seven university hospitals in Sweden, questionnaires were completed to assess previous sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment, cardiovascular diseases, smoking habits, anthropometric data, and S-IGF-1 levels. Daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Patients suspected to have undiagnosed sleep apnea were referred for sleep apnea investigations.

    Results: Of the 259 participants, 75 (29%) were diagnosed with sleep apnea before the study start. In 43 (57%) of these patients, sleep apnea had been diagnosed before the diagnosis of acromegaly. After clinical assessment and sleep studies, sleep apnea was diagnosed in an additional 20 patients, yielding a total sleep apnea prevalence of 37%. Higher sleep apnea risk was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, and index finger circumference. Sleep apnea was more frequent among patients with S-IGF-1 levels in the highest quartile.

    Conclusion: Sleep apnea is common among patients with acromegaly, and is often diagnosed prior to their acromegaly diagnosis. These results support early screening for sleep apnea in patients with acromegaly and awareness for acromegaly in patients with sleep apnea.

  • Kormin, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Borot, Antonin
    Ma, Guangjin
    Dallari, William
    Bergues, Boris
    Aladi, Mark
    Földes, Istvan B.
    Veisz, Laszlo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Spectral interferometry with waveform-dependent relativistic high-order harmonics from plasma surfaces2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 4992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with matter opened the way to generate the shortest light pulses available nowadays in the attosecond regime. Ionized solid surfaces, also called plasma mirrors, are promising tools to enhance the potential of attosecond sources in terms of photon energy, photon number and duration especially at relativistic laser intensities. Although the production of isolated attosecond pulses and the understanding of the underlying interactions represent a fundamental step towards the realization of such sources, these are challenging and have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we present laser-waveform-dependent high-order harmonic radiation in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range supporting well-isolated attosecond pulses, and utilize spectral interferometry to understand its relativistic generation mechanism. This unique interpretation of the measured spectra provides access to unrevealed temporal and spatial properties such as spectral phase difference between attosecond pulses and field-driven plasma surface motion during the process.

  • Lillbäck, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Social identitet, normbrytande, konflikt och tillhörighet: En kvalitativ studie om fem personers övergång från köttnorm till veganism2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att utifrån Victor Turners teori om riter och övergångsritualer undersöka övergången från köttnorm till veganism och hur det påverkar och strukturerar individernas sociala identitet.

    Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med fem veganer och analyserades genom tematisk innehållsanalys. Detta gav tre teman; Uppbrott, Konflikt och Tillhörighet. Utifrån de temana redogör rapporten för individernas övergång från köttnormen till veganism, samt hur upplevelsen av tillhörighet och uteslutning påverkade individernas sociala identitet i övergångsprocessen.

    Studien visar att Turners teori om riter och övergångsritualer är applicerbar även på övergången från köttnormen till veganismen. Vidare visar studien att konflikt och tillhörighet kan ses som primära drivkrafter i individens övergång samt starkt påverkar dennes sociala identitet under processens gång. Konsekvenserna av detta, sett i ett bredare sammanhang, kan även tänkas innebära effekter på samhällsstrukturen i stort.

  • Seekell, David A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lake morphometry moderates the relationship between water color and fish biomass in small boreal lakes2018In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 2171-2178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lake morphometry may moderate the effects of water color on fish biomass in boreal lakes, but empirical evidence is scarce because there are a limited number of lakes for which both water color and bathymetry have been measured. We evaluated variations in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE), an indicator of fish biomass, across orthogonal gradients of light extinction and mean depth in 16 small Swedish lakes (mean depth 1.7-4.8 m, surface area 1-10 ha). Multiple regression coefficients indicated that the effect of light extinction on CPUE was negative, and that the relationship was more negative for deeper lakes than it was for shallower lakes. The pattern was strongest for lakes with mean depths between 2.1 m and 3.5 m. We estimated that 26% of small lakes in boreal Sweden fall within this mean depth range. These results contribute to the growing understanding of how variations in water color and lake morphometry influence patterns of fish biomass across the boreal landscape.

  • Nicoll, Rachel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Environmental contaminants and congenital heart defects: a re-evaluation of the evidence2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 10, article id 2096Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a common birth defect of largely unknown etiology, with high fetal and neonatal mortality. A review of CHDs and environmental contaminant exposure found that meta-analyses showed only modest associations for smoking, vehicle exhaust components, disinfectant by-products and proximity to incinerators, with stronger results from the newer, larger and better quality studies masked by the typical absence of effect in older studies. Recent studies of exposure to agricultural pesticides, solvents, metals and landfill sites also showed associations. Certain contaminants have been associated with certain CHDs, with septal defects being the most common. Frequent methodological problems include failure to account for potential confounders or maternal/paternal preconception exposure, differences in diagnosing, defining and classifying CHDs, grouping of defects to increase power, grouping of contaminants with dissimilar mechanisms, exclusion of pregnancies that result in death or later life diagnosis, and the assumption that maternal residence at birth is the same as at conception. Furthermore, most studies use measurement estimates of one exposure, ignoring the many additional contaminant exposures in daily life. All these problems can distort and underestimate the true associations. Impaired methylation is a common mechanism, suggesting that supplementary folate may be protective for any birth defect.

  • Winsö, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Kral, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Wang, Wanzhong
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Kralova, Ivana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Abrahamsson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Blind, Per-Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Thoracic epidural anaesthesia reduces insulin resistance and inflammatory response in experimental acute pancreatitis2018In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is crucial at an early stage in the development of an inflammatory reaction. A study of metabolic events globally and locally in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP), implying hampered SNS activity, is lacking. We hypothesized that thoracic epidural anaesthesia (TEA) modulates the inflammatory response and alleviates the severity of AP in pigs.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: The taurocholate (TC) group (n = 8) had only TC AP. The TC + TEA group (n = 8) had AP and TEA. A control group (n = 8) underwent all the preparations, without having AP or TEA. Metabolic changes in the pancreas were evaluated by microdialysis and by histopathological examination.

    RESULTS: The relative increase in serum lipase concentrations was more pronounced in the TC group than in TC + TEA and control groups. A decrease in relative tissue oxygen tension (PtiO2) levels occurred one hour later in the TC + TEA group than in the TC group. The maintenance of normoglycaemia in the TC group required a higher glucose infusion rate than in the TC + TEA group. The relative decrease in serum insulin concentrations was most pronounced in the TC + TEA group.

    CONCLUSION: TEA attenuates the development of AP, as indicated by changes observed in haemodynamic parameters and by the easier maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Further, TEA was associated with attenuated insulin resistance and fewer local pathophysiological events.

  • Markasz, Laszlo
    et al.
    Wanders, Alkwin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Szekely, Laszlo
    Lilja, Helene Engstrand
    Diminished DEFA6 Expression in Paneth Cells Is Associated with Necrotizing Enterocolitis2018In: Gastroenterology Research and Practice, ISSN 1687-6121, E-ISSN 1687-630X, article id 7345426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in premature infants with a high morbidity and mortality. Paneth cell dysfunction has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of NEC. Defensin alpha-6 (DEFA6) is a specific marker for Paneth cells acting as part of the innate immunity in the human intestines. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of DEFA6 in infants with NEC.

    Materials and Methods: Infants who underwent bowel resection for NEC at level III NICU in Sweden between August 2004 and September 2013 were eligible for the study. Macroscopically vital tissues were selected for histopathological evaluation. All infants in the control group underwent laparotomy and had ileostomy due to dysmotility, and samples were taken from the site of the stoma. DEFA6 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. Digital image analysis was used for an objective and precise description of the samples.

    Results: A total of 12 infants were included in the study, eight with NEC and four controls. The tissue samples were taken from the colon (n = 1), jejunum (n = 1), and ileum (n = 10). Both the NEC and control groups consisted of extremely premature and term infants (control group: 25-40 gestational weeks, NEC group: 23-39 gestational weeks). The postnatal age at the time of surgery varied in both groups (control group: 4-47 days, NEC group: 4-50 days). DEFA6 expression in the NEC group was significantly lower than that in the control group and did not correlate with gestational age.

    Conclusion: The diminished DEFA6 expression in Paneth cells associated with NEC in this study supports the hypothesis that alpha-defensins are involved in the pathophysiology of NEC. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of alpha-defensins in NEC aiming at finding preventive and therapeutic strategies against NEC.

  • Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Avelar-Pereira, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Garzon, Benjamin
    Sitnikov, Rouslan
    Kalpouzos, Gregoria
    Functional coherence of striatal resting-state networks is modulated by striatal iron content2018In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 183, p. 495-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resting-state spontaneous fluctuations have revealed individual differences in the functional architecture of brain networks. Previous research indicates that the striatal network shows alterations in neurological conditions but also in normal aging. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in striatal resting-state networks (RSNs) have been less explored. One candidate that may account for individual differences in striatal spontaneous activity is the level of local iron accumulation. Excessive iron in the striatum has been linked to a loss of structural integrity and reduced brain activity during task performance in aging. Using independent component analysis in a sample of 42 younger and older adults, we examined whether higher striatal iron content, quantified using relaxometry, underlies individual differences in spontaneous fluctuations of RSNs in general, and of the striatum in particular. Higher striatal iron content was linked to lower spontaneous coherence within both caudate and putamen RSNs regardless of age. No such links were observed for other RSNs. Moreover, the number of connections between the putamen and other RSNs was negatively associated with iron content, suggesting that iron modulated the degree of cross-talk between the striatum and cerebral cortex. Importantly, these associations were primarily driven by the older group. Finally, a positive association was found between coherence in the putamen and motor performance, suggesting that this spontaneous activity is behaviorally meaningful. A follow-up mediation analysis also indicated that functional connectivity may mediate the link between striatal iron and motor performance. Our preliminary findings suggest that striatal iron potentially accounts for individual differences in spontaneous striatal fluctuations, and might be used as a locus of intervention.

  • Eriksson, Charli
    et al.
    Kimber, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Skoog, Therése
    Design and implementation of RESCUR in Sweden for promoting resilience in children: a study protocol2018In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-11, article id 1250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This research program aims to investigate the implementation and effects of a theoretically promising prevention method. It is being developed in a European research collaboration within a Comenius project (2012-2015) between 6 European universities (in Malta, Italy, Greece, Croatia, Portugal and Sweden) with the purpose of enhancing European children's resilience.

    METHODS/DESIGN: RESCUR in Sweden consists in a RCT study of the Resilience Curriculum (RESCUR) that is taking place in Sweden 2017-2019. The study is being performed by Junis, IOGT-NTO's Junior Association, part of IOGT International, in conjunction with researchers at Göteborg, Umeå and Stockholm universities, and is being funded by the Public Health Agency of Sweden. Around 1000 children of the ages 7-12 will, through their schools and associations, or via groups in social services, be acquainted with the material. Children will learn and practice mindfulness, storytelling, group discussions and much more, all designed to strengthen protective factors and increase their resilience. The program also involves parents, who are taking part in the work to reinforce children's protective factors. Based on the work with groups of children, an effectiveness study including children aged 7-12 in school classes, with randomized and controlled pre- and post-measurements, self-rating questionnaires and group observations is being performed. The program will also be implemented in a non-governmental organization and in groups in social services. The study also investigates forms of implementation.

    DISCUSSION: The design of the study will enable the researchers to answer five research questions by using a mixed-methods approach. Implementation will be studied, which is a necessary prerequisite for an effect study. Moreover, the research procedure has been tailored to the target group, with age-appropriate measures as well as multiple informants, which will produce high-quality data for analysis. A special ethical challenge is the study of young children, and efforts to give children a voice have been included in the program. This project is regarded as having good potential to benefit children in general, and particularly children in vulnerable positions.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: National Institute of Health, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03655418. Registered August 31, 2018.

  • Farooqi, Nighat
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Carlsson, Maine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Håglin, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Slinde, Frode
    Energy expenditure in women and men with COPD2018In: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, ISSN 2405-4577, Vol. 28, p. 171-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lose weight. Successful nutritional intervention is vital, thus assessment of energy requirement is required. The aim of this study was to present an improved possibility to assess energy requirement in patients with COPD.

    Methods: Pub Med search was conducted for all the studies reporting total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly labeled water (DLW) method in patients with COPD. Four studies were identified, whereof three were conducted in Sweden. The present analysis is based on these three studies of which the data was acquired.

    Results: There was a large variation in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and TEE. Body mass index decreased significantly with increase in disease severity (p < .001), and correlated significantly to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted (r = .627, p < .001). FEV1% predicted had a significant correlation with RMR/kg body weight (BW)/day (r = -.503, p = .001), RMR/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (r = .338, p = .031), and TEE/kg FFM/day (r = .671, p < .001). Compared to men, women had a lower RMR and TEE/kg BW/day (p < .001 respectively p = .002), and higher RMR and TEE/kg FFM/day (p = .080 respectively p = .005). The correlates of: RMR/kg BW were gender and FEV1% predicted; of TEE/kg BW the correlates were age and gender, and of TEE/kg FFM the correlates were age and FEV1% predicted.

    Conclusion: In this study, we have presented a possibility to assess energy requirement per kg BW/day and per kg FFM/day in patients with COPD in clinical settings. However, gender, age, and disease severity must be considered. 

  • Richmond, Erinn K.
    et al.
    Rosi, Emma J.
    Walters, David M.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hamilton, Stephen K.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife Fish, and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå 90187, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Grace, Michael R.
    A diverse suite of pharmaceuticals contaminates stream and riparian food webs2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 4491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multitude of biologically active pharmaceuticals contaminate surface waters globally, yet their presence in aquatic food webs remain largely unknown. Here, we show that over 60 pharmaceutical compounds can be detected in aquatic invertebrates and riparian spiders in six streams near Melbourne, Australia. Similar concentrations in aquatic invertebrate larvae and riparian predators suggest direct trophic transfer via emerging adult insects to riparian predators that consume them. As representative vertebrate predators feeding on aquatic invertebrates, platypus and brown trout could consume some drug classes such as antidepressants at as much as one-half of a recommended therapeutic dose for humans based on their estimated prey consumption rates, yet the consequences for fish and wildlife of this chronic exposure are unknown. Overall, this work highlights the potential exposure of aquatic and riparian biota to a diverse array of pharmaceuticals, resulting in exposures to some drugs that are comparable to human dosages.

  • Nakao, Ryoma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Department of Bacteriology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.
    Myint, Si Lhyam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Enhanced Biofilm Formation and Membrane Vesicle Release by Escherichia coli Expressing a Commonly Occurring Plasmid Gene, kil2018In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 2605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Escherichia coli is one of the most prevalent microorganisms forming biofilms on indwelling medical devices, as well as a representative model to study the biology and ecology of biofilms. Here, we report that a small plasmid gene, kil, enhances biofilm formation of E coli. The kil gene is widely conserved among naturally occurring colicinogenic plasmids such as ColE1 plasmid, and is also present in some plasmid derivatives used as cloning vectors. First, we found that overexpression of the kil gene product dramatically increased biofilm mass enriched with extracellular DNA in the outer membrane-compromised strain RN102, a deep rough LPS mutant E. coli K-12 derivative. We also found that the kil-enhanced biofilm formation was further promoted by addition of physiologically relevant concentrations of Mg2+, not only in the case of RN102, but also with the parental strain BW25113, which retains intact core-oligosaccharide LPS. Biofilm formation by kil-expressing BW25113 strain (BW25113 kil+) was significantly inhibited by protease but not DNase I. In addition, a large amount of proteinous materials were released from the BW25113 kil+ cells. These materials contained soluble cytoplasmic and periplasmic proteins, and insoluble membrane vesicles (MVs). The kil-induced MVs were composed of not only outer membrane/periplasmic proteins, but also inner membrane/cytoplasmic proteins, indicating that MVs from both of the outer and inner membranes could be released into the extracellular milieu. Subcellular fractionation analysis revealed that the Kil proteins translocated to both the outer and inner membranes in whole cells of BW25113 kil+. Furthermore, the BW25113 kil+ showed not only reduced viability in the stationary growth phase, but also increased susceptibility to killing by predator bacteria, Vibrio cholerae expressing the type VI secretion system, despite no obvious change in morphology and physiology of the bacterial membrane under regular culture conditions. Taken together, our findings suggest that there is risk of increasing biofilm formation and spreading of numerous MVs releasing various cellular components due to kil gene expression. From another point of view, our findings could also offer efficient MV production strategies using a conditional kil vector in biotechnological applications.

  • Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Rimm, Stefan (Contributor)
    Agents and Subjects: schooling and Conceptions of Citizenship in Nineteenth-Century Sweden2018In: History of Education, ISSN 0046-760X, E-ISSN 1464-5130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyse how the emerging Swedish school system in the early nineteenth century can be understood within the context of a gradual break-up of the estate society and its replacement with a class society in which citizenship was an important foundation. This is done through the discussion of the conceptions of citizenship on two levels. The first is the national level, focusing the national debate on education, and the second is the local level, investigating the local schools and the school setting. The main result is that the conceptions of citizenship in the school context were formed along two major lines: an inclusive social and civil citizenship and an exclusive, active and political citizenship. Consequently, the emerging Swedish school system simultaneously fostered these two citizenship conceptions, which coexisted in an educational system that was able to cast pupils as either subjects (comprehensive citizenship) or agents (designated citizenship).

    KEYWORDS: Citizenship, gender, class, school system

  • Vikberg, Sanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sörlén, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Brandén, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. School of Sports Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway..
    Hult, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Effects of Resistance Training on Functional Strength and Muscle Mass in 70-Year-Old Individuals With Pre-sarcopenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial2018In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenia has been defined as age-related loss of muscle mass and function. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of a 10-week instructor-led resistance training program on functional strength and body composition in men and women aged 70 years with pre-sarcopenia.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were randomized to either 10 weeks of a physical training regimen including optional nutritional supplementation (n = 36) or to a control group (n = 34) (ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT03297632). The main outcome was changes in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score. Secondary outcomes included the Timed Up and Go test, chair sit-stand time, lean body mass, and fat mass.

    RESULTS: The intervention had no significant effect on SPPB in the total cohort (P = .18), when comparing changes in the intervention group with the control group. However, those given the intervention in the male subcohort increased 0.5 ± 0.4 (mean ± standard error for the difference) points in SPPB during follow-up (P = .02) compared to male controls. With respect to secondary outcomes, the intervention group decreased 0.9 ± 0.6 seconds in chair sit-stand time compared to controls (P = .01). Furthermore, the intervention resulted in significantly greater improvements for the training group than control group in all measures of body composition (P ≤ .01 for all). For example, lean body mass increased by a mean of 1147 ± 282 g (P < .001), and total fat mass decreased by a mean of 553 ± 225 g (P = .003), favoring the intervention group.

    CONCLUSION/IMPLICATIONS: The main finding of this intervention study is that an easy-to-use, functional resistance training program was effective in maintaining functional strength and increasing muscle mass in older adults with pre-sarcopenia.

  • Haas, Julia Christa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Abiotic stress and plant-microbe interactions in Norway spruce2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is a dominant tree species in boreal forests with extensive ecological and economic value. Climate change is threatening these ecosystems, with rising temperatures impacting cold hardening and increasing drought stress in regions experiencing lower precipitation. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nitrogen deposition can, in contrast, partially offset such negative effects by improving tree growth and carbon uptake. Similar to aboveground carbon fixation, carbon sequestration in boreal soils is important. Bacteria and fungi mineralize organic matter and, by making nutrients available for plants, are important for tree health. The ability of Norway spruce and the associated microbiota to adapt to climate change is of fundamental importance for ecosystem functioning and is the focus of this thesis.

    Norway spruce seedlings were subjected to cold or drought stress and the transcriptional response compared to known mechanisms in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Analyses revealed that while there was overlap in the stress responses between species, including increased osmotic and oxidative stress tolerance, the majority of differentially expressed genes were stress-responsive only in Norway spruce. Importantly, transcription factors of the abscisic acid dependent and independent pathways were not differentially expressed or were missing homolog sequences in Norway spruce, indicating that different regulatory pathways are active in Norway spruce and suggesting that stress response has evolved differently in the species. Furthermore, differential gene expression in roots differed extensively from that of needles in response to stress and highlighted the need for separate profiling in above- and belowground tissues.

    In another study at the Flakaliden research site in northern Sweden, the effects of long-term nutrient addition on the microbiota associated with mature Norway spruce were tested. In agreement with earlier findings, nutrient addition improved tree growth and phylogenetic marker gene analysis on DNA of fungi and bacteria provided new insights into associated changes in plant-microbe interactions. Microbial diversity increased over time and compositional changes in nitrophilic community members indicated changes in carbon and nitrogen cycling at the plant-microbe interface, which has implications for carbon storage in boreal forest soils in the future. Follow-up RNA-based techniques largely confirmed community members from marker gene analysis.

    In summary, understanding of both the Norway spruce-specific responses to abiotic stress and the ability of the associated microbiota to cope with the environmental changes are essential for future productivity, survival and distribution of Norway spruce forests. Sustainability will depend on tree vitality and a more holistic understanding of tree-microbe interactions is required to model future sustainability.

  • Moshi, Haleluya
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Traumatic spinal cord injuries in rural Tanzania: occurrences, clinical outcomes and life situations of persons living in the Kilimanjaro region2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) is one of the most troubling health condition as it leaves the inflicted individual with irreversible sensorimotor impairment. Rural areas of Tanzania and other low income countries are characterized by inadequate emergency, medical and rehabilitation services and are mostly inaccessible by wheelchair. The studies in this thesis aimed to create an understanding of the epidemiology, clinical outcomes of SCI, as well as living with the condition, in a typical rural area of a low-income country.

    Methods: Four studies were conducted with two being hospital-based and two carried out in the community. A retrospective study assessed the magnitude, etiology and clinical outcomes for past five years (2010-2014) by using patients’ data from archives of the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC). In the same setting, another study assessed the same variables prospectively for one year (2017) with greater focus being placed on classifying severity of injury and health complications. In the community, a qualitative study was used to conceptualize coping resources for persons with SCI in one study, while in another, the WHOQoL-BREF questionnaire was used to assess the quality of life of these persons quantitatively.

    Results: The retrospective study obtained 213 full patient records in which the leading cause of injury was falls 104(48.8%) followed by road traffic accidents 73(34.3%). The annual incidence for the Kilimanjaro region (population 1,640,087) was estimated at more than 26 persons per million for this period. The most documented complications were pressure ulcers at 19.7%, respiratory complications at 15.0% and multiple complications at 13.1%. The in-hospital mortality rate was 24.4%. The prospective study involved 87 persons who sustained SCI in 2017, of whom 66.7% were due to falls (especially from a position of height), 28.7% to road traffic accidents and 4.6% from other causes. The annual incidence rate based on Kilimanjaro region (population 1,910, 555) was estimated at more than 38 new cases per million. The majority of the injuries occurred at the cervical 56.3% and lumbar 31% levels. Most of the injuries 59.8% were incomplete while 40.2% were complete. The questionnaire study reports that the majority of the participants rated their quality of lives as neither poor nor good 39(48.8%) and poor life 20(25%). The mean score for domains of QoL showed the highest score in social relations and psychological well-being, while the lowest scores were rated for physical health and environment. There was no significant mean difference in the score of domains based on sociodemographic characteristics, except for physical environment in which quadriplegia scored lower than paraplegia (p = 0.038). The qualitative interview study identified acceptance as the core category for identification and utilization of both internal and external coping resources for persons with TSCI in the community. Internal coping resources related to personal factors and external coping resources related to family and community were found to be important.

    Conclusion: Most of the traumatic SCI in Kilimanjaro rural area are due to falls, followed by road traffic accidents. SCI-related complications are common and hospital mortality is still high. Persons with SCI faces various challenges pertaining to health and accessibility that affect them physically, socially and environmentally. Establishment of emergency and critical care services, trauma registries, community-based rehabilitation and population-based surveys would address major issues pertaining to TSCI in these areas.

  • Reyes Forsberg, Diana Carolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Experimental study of alkalinisation of cellulose in industrial relevant conditions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercerisation of cellulose pulp with a solution of NaOH is the first step of manufacturing cellulose-based value-added products, e.g. viscose fibres and cellulose ethers. During this process, cellulose transforms into a swollen crystalline structure, alkali cellulose (Na-Cell). This increases the reactivity of the cellulose and makes it more accessible for reagents to penetrate and react with the hydroxyl groups. The mercerisation conditions are known to affect the degree of alkalinisation of cellulose as well as the final products. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate how the alkalinisation of softwood sulphite dissolving cellulose pulp is influenced by the co-variation of process variables in the mercerisation in industrial relevant conditions, for both viscose and cellulose ether production. This objective was achieved by quantitative analysis of the effect of simultaneous variation of a set of key parameters on the degree of alkalinisation (i.e. degree of activation, DoA) of the chosen dissolving pulp. Quantitative measurements were performed using Raman spectroscopy data, evaluated by partial least squares (PLS) regression. For mercerisation at viscose production conditions, the effect of studied variables on mass yield was also considered. In the case of mercerisation at ether processing conditions, formation of alkali cellulose at a fixed temperature was included. The knowledge obtained on mercerisation under ether processing conditions was then applied for preparation of the ionic cellulose ether carboxymethylcellulose (CMC).

    The overall results show that temperature has a strong effect on DoA and mass yield for mercerised samples under steeping conditions. Measured DoA decreases as the temperature increases from 20 to 70 °C. Mass yield correlates positively with the temperature up to 45-50 °C in the PLS model, after which the relation is negative. The [NaOH] and reaction time show a complex dependence of other variables. At mercerisation conditions for cellulose ether production, the NaOH/AGU stoichiometric ratio, denoted as (r), shows to be very important for DoA, with a positive correlation. At these mercerisation conditions, temperature shows no effect on DoA. The influence of the [NaOH] (which also refers to the concentration of water) shows a complex dependence on (r). As (r) increases and [NaOH] decreases, the measured DoA increases. Prolonged mercerisation time shows no significance in the modelled DoA. However, a gradual increase of the DoA over time was seen when mercerisation was performed with 30% and 40% [NaOH] at (r) = 0.8, suggesting a slow diffusion of NaOH and Na-Cell formation. 13C CP-MAS NMR measurements of samples produced at room temperature show that formation of the Na-Cell allomorph is mainly determined by the [NaOH]. However, in the transition area between Na-Cell I and Na-Cell II, (r) also seems to be of importance.  An increase of DS in the produced CMC samples also shows to be consistent at such conditions with the increase in the measured DoA and with increased (r) and decreased [NaOH]. However, these conditions also favour the formation of by-products. In the synthesised CMC samples, a DS of up to 0.7 was achieved. Measured solubility was lower than expected for any given DS. This, along with the non-statistical distribution of monomer units in the polymer chains, indicates high heterogeneity in the synthesised samples. The distribution of substituents within the AGU shows attachment to hydroxyl oxygens in the order O3 < O2 ≈ O6. The relative importance of the substitution at O3 indicates an increase at this position when [NaOH] increases.

    The models presented in this thesis will hopefully serve as a basis for predicting the effects of the studied variables on the DoA, as well as on the mass yield of cellulose pulp when mercerisation conditions are adjusted. Moreover, it is believed that the presented studies can give a better understanding of mercerisation at cellulose ether conditions, hence enabling further development of this process step.

  • Svensson, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    A Theology for the Bildungsbürgertum: Ritschl in Context2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this historical-theological investigation is the German Lutheran theologian Albrecht Ritschl (1822-1889). Ritschl’s theology is understood in the context of the de-Christianization of the German Bildungsbürgertum (educated middle class). It is demonstrated that an ambition to counteract this tendency runs all through Ritschl’s theological thinking. More specifically, the study argues that Ritschl’s theology can be seen as a response to three intellectual challenges to Christianity in general and Lutheranism in particular – historical criticism, materialism, and anti-Lutheran polemics.

    Part I concentrates on historical criticism and Ritschl’s interpretation of history. Chapter 1, which presents Leopold von Ranke’s historicist-oriented historical school at the University of Berlin and Ferdinand Christian Baur’s theological Tübingen school, provides the wider setting of Ritschl’s historical analysis. It is argued, in chapter 2, that those schools had a significant impact – albeit in different ways – on Ritschl’s understanding of history. The contribution of Ritschl to the so-called first quest for the historical Jesus is analyzed in chapter 3, which also points out that Johannes Weiss’ and Albert Schweitzer’s apocalyptic critique of the first quest undermined the historical foundation of Ritschl’s theology.

    In part II, the focus is on materialism and the metaphysical framework of Ritschl’s theology. Chapter 4 discusses anthropological materialism, scientific materialism, and late idealism – three intellectual movements of relevance to Ritschl’s metaphysics. In chapter 5, Ritschl’s metaphysical framework is described as an attempt to safeguard the spiritual dimension of existence against the threat of materialism. This chapter also argues that Ritschl’s metaphysics is indebted to Hermann Lotze’s late idealist philosophy. Chapter 6 highlights the relationship between Ritschl’s metaphysics and his protest against “classical metaphysical theology,” and examines how Ritschl’s metaphysical framework leads him to reject natural theology and the classical Christological and trinitarian dogmas.

    Part III discusses Ritschl’s theological ethics or understanding of Christian life in the context of the values of the Bildungsbürgertum and against the background of anti-Lutheran polemics. In chapter 7, an overview of the ethos of the educated middle class is provided. The subject of chapter 8 is Ritschl’s defense of Luther’s cultural importance against Paul de Lagarde’s criticism of the Lutheran Reformation. Chapter 9 carries out an analysis of Ritschl’s thinking on Christian life and its modern sources, especially noting the influences of Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Schleiermacher, and exploring the similarities between Ritschl’s ethics and the values of the educated middle class.

    In the Conclusion, the findings of the investigation are summarized in the claim that Ritschl’s responses to historical criticism, materialism, and anti-Lutheran polemics demonstrate that his theology in many respects was a theology for the Bildungsbürgertum. The concluding chapter also reflects on the implications of the present study for the common characterization of Ritschl as a Kulturprotestant (mediator between the Protestant Reformation and modern culture), problematizes Ritschl’s interpretation of the historical Jesus, and argues that Ritschl’s theological project was essentially abandoned by his most famous students.

  • Shah, Farhan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Holmlund, Thorbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Levring Jäghagen, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Berggren, Diana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Franklin, Karl A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Stål, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Axon and Schwann Cell Degeneration in Nerves of Upper Airway Relates to Pharyngeal Dysfunction in Snorers and Patients With Sleep Apnea2018In: Chest, ISSN 0012-3692, E-ISSN 1931-3543, Vol. 154, no 5, p. 1091-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The pathophysiologic mechanism of nocturnal obstruction and swallowing dysfunction commonly occurring in patients with sleep apnea is unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate whether nerve injuries in the upper airways of snorers and patients with sleep apnea are associated with pharyngeal dysfunction and severity of sleep apnea.

    METHODS: Twenty-two patients undergoing palatal surgery due to snoring and sleep apnea were investigated for a swallowing dysfunction by using videoradiography. Twelve healthy nonsnoring subjects were included as control subjects. Tissue samples from the soft palate at the base of the uvula were obtained in all patients and control subjects. Nerves and muscle were analyzed with immunohistochemical and morphologic methods, and the findings were correlated with swallowing function and degree of sleep apnea.

    RESULTS: In the soft palate of patients, nerve fascicles exhibited a significantly lower density of axons (5.4 vs 17.9 x 10(-3) axons/mu m(2); P = .02), a smaller percentage area occupied by Schwann cells (17.5% vs 45.2%; P = .001) and a larger number of circular shaped Schwann cells lacking central axons (43.0% vs 12.7%; P < 0.001) compared with control subjects. The low density of axons was significantly related to degree of swallowing dysfunction (r = 0.5; P = .03) and apnea-hypopnea index > 5 (P = .03). Regenerating axons were frequently observed in patients compared with control subjects (11.3 +/- 4.2% vs 4.8 +/- 2.4%; P = .02).

    CONCLUSIONS: Axon degeneration in preterminal nerves of the soft palate is associated with pharyngeal dysfunction in snorers and patients with sleep apnea. The most likely cause for the nerve injuries is traumatic snoring vibrations and tissue stretch, leading to swallowing dysfunction and increased risk for upper airway obstruction during sleep.

  • Bartels, Pia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC), Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC), Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Allochthonous Organic Matter Supports Benthic but Not Pelagic Food Webs in Shallow Coastal Ecosystems2018In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1459-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers transport large amounts of allochthonous organic matter (OM) to the ocean every year, but there are still fundamental gaps in how allochthonous OM is processed in the marine environment. Here, we estimated the relative contribution of allochthonous OM (allochthony) to the biomass of benthic and pelagic consumers in a shallow coastal ecosystem in the northern Baltic Sea. We used deuterium as a tracer of allochthony and assessed both temporal variation (monthly from May to August) and spatial variation (within and outside river plume). We found variability in allochthony in space and time and across species, with overall higher values for zoobenthos (26.2 +/- 20.9%) than for zooplankton (0.8 +/- 0.3%). Zooplankton allochthony was highest in May and very low during the other months, likely as a result of high inputs of allochthonous OM during the spring flood that fueled the pelagic food chain for a short period. In contrast, zoobenthos allochthony was only lower in June and remained high during the other months. Allochthony of zoobenthos was generally higher close to the river mouth than outside of the river plume, whereas it did not vary spatially for zooplankton. Last, zoobenthos allochthony was higher in deeper than in shallower areas, indicating that allochthonous OM might be more important when autochthonous resources are limited. Our results suggest that climate change predictions of increasing inputs of allochthonous OM to coastal ecosystems may affect basal energy sources supporting coastal food webs.

  • Sgaramella, Nicola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. Multidisciplinary Department of Medical, Surgical and Dental Specialties, Second University of Naples; 3 Department of Neuroscience Reproductive and Dentistry Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, I-801 38 Naples, Italy.
    Wilms, Torben
    Boldrup, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Loljung, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Gu, Xiaolian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Coates, Philip J.
    Hassellöf, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Califano, Luigi
    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. RECAMO, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, 656 53 Brno, Czech Republic; University Paris Diderot, INSERM UMRS1162, Paris 75010, France.
    Spaak, Lena Norberg
    Franco, Renato
    Tartaro, Gianpaolo
    Colella, Giuseppe
    Santagata, Mario
    Orabona, Giovanni Dell'Aversana
    Chirico, Fabrizio
    Danielsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Troiano, Giuseppe
    Ardito, Fatima
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Ethnicity based variation in expression of E-cadherin in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue2018In: Oncology Letters, ISSN 1792-1074, E-ISSN 1792-1082, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 6603-6607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oral tongue is the most common site for tumours within the oral cavity. Despite intense research, there has been no improvement in the survival rate for patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) during the last decades. Differences between oral cancer patients based on ethno-geographical distribution have been reported. The present study used immunohistochemistry to evaluate commonly used markers of cancer cell phenotypes, E-cadherin, -catenin and cytokeratins 5 and 19, in 120 patients with OTSCC. To evaluate the impact of ethnicity, patients from Sweden and Italy were included. A higher proportion of Swedish patients exhibited high expression of E-cadherin in their tumours (P=0.039), and high levels of E-cadherin in Swedish OTSCC patients that had succumbed to their disease were associated with poor prognosis. These data demonstrated differences in the pathological characteristics of OTSCC between two different European populations. The findings emphasise the need to take ethnicity/geographical location of patients into account when comparing results from different studies of OTSCC.

  • Pant, A.
    et al.
    Kumar, Rajendra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wani, N. A.
    Verma, S.
    Sharma, R.
    Pande, V.
    Saxena, A. K.
    Dixit, R.
    Rai, R.
    Pandey, K. C.
    Allosteric Site Inhibitor Disrupting Auto-Processing of Malarial Cysteine Proteases2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 16193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Falcipains are major haemoglobinases of Plasmodium falciparum required for parasite growth and development. They consist of pro- and mature domains that interact via 'hot-spot' interactions and maintain the structural integrity of enzyme in zymogen state. Upon sensing the acidic environment, these interactions dissociate and active enzyme is released. For inhibiting falcipains, several active site inhibitors exist, however, compounds that target via allosteric mechanism remains uncharacterized. Therefore, we designed and synthesized six azapeptide compounds, among which, NA-01 & NA-03 arrested parasite growth by specifically blocking the auto-processing of falcipains. Inhibitors showed high affinity for enzymes in presence of the prodomain without affecting the secondary structure. Binding of NA-03 at the interface induced rigidity in the prodomain preventing structural reorganization. We further reported a histidine-dependent activation of falcipain. Collectively, for the first time we provide a framework for blocking the allosteric site of crucial haemoglobinases of the human malaria parasite. Targeting the allosteric site could provide high selectivity and less vulnerable to drug resistance.

  • Agvald, Liv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Fysisk aktivitetsnivå hos barn i årskurs 3: En accelerometerstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The importance of physical activity is well investigated, but the knowledge regarding the physical activity of younger children is limited. Accelerometers have proved to be a valid method to measure physical activity in children.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the total level of physical activity (relative to recommended level) in children in grade three at a school in northern Sweden. Furthermore, the study investigated whether there are any differences in physical activity based on gender or participation in organized sports.

    Method: Forty children participated in the study. Their level of physical activity was measured using tri-accelerometry technology during one week. Each participant also completed a short questionnaire regarding their level of physical activity.

    Results: No significant difference was found in the level of physical activity in relation to gender or participation in organized sports. All but one participant reached the recommended level of daily activity.

    Discussion: Based on the study, children in grade three appear to be sufficiently active to achieve the daily level of activity, a positive result in spite of the alarming reports of increased sedentary behavior among children. Intensified studies are needed to see if these results recur in a broader context.

  • Eriksson Krutrök, Moa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lindgren, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Continued contexts of terror: analyzing temporal patterns of hashtag co-occurrence as discursive articulations2018In: Social Media + Society, ISSN 1896-1800, E-ISSN 1557-7112, Vol. 4, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study looks at how terror attacks are rendered discursively meaningful on social media through the concurrent use and reiteration of terror hashtags, which were created following previous incidents of terror. The article focuses on 12 terror attacks in Europe in 2015-2017 and their relating hashtags on Twitter, to see how various combinations of these were reused and co-articulated in tweets posted in relation to subsequent attacks. Through social network analysis of co-occurring hashtags in about 3 million tweets, in combination with close readings of a smaller sample, this study aims to analyze both the networks of hashtags in relation to terror attacks as well as the discursive process of hashtag co-articulation. The study shows that the patterns by which attack hashtags are reused and co-articulated depend on both temporal and contextual differences.

  • Bovinder Ylitalo, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Molecular heterogeneity of prostate cancer bone metastasis2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) develops after androgen deprivation therapy of advanced PC, often with metastatic growth in bone. Patients with metastatic CRPC have very poor prognosis. Growth of CRPC, in most but not all patients, seems to involve androgen receptor (AR) activity, despite castrate levels of serum testosterone. Multiple mechanisms behind AR activation in castrated patients have been described, such as AR amplification, AR mutations, expression of constitutively active AR variants, and intra-tumoral steroid synthesis. However, other mechanisms beside AR activation are also involved and CRPC patients with tumors circumventing the need for AR stimulation will probably not benefit from AR targeting therapies but will need alternative treatments.

    Available treatments for CRPC are chemotherapy, AR antagonists or inhibition of androgen-synthesis. Novel drugs are constantly under development and several new therapies has recently been approved for clinical use. These include, in addition to new AR targeting therapies also immunotherapy, osteoclast inhibitors and bone-targeting radiopharmaceuticals. Due to heterogeneous mechanisms behind CRPC and that newly developed therapies are based on different mechanisms of action, there are reasons to believe that CRPC patients show different therapy responses due to diverse molecular properties of individual tumors. Although there are promising prospects, no biomarkers are used today for patient stratification into different treatments. Another important aspect is that, when effective, any therapy will probably induce tumor responses that subsequently cause further molecular diversities and alternative paths for development of tumor relapse and castration-resistance. Such mechanisms are important to understand in order to develop new treatment strategies.

    In this thesis, global gene expression and methylation patterns were studied in bone metastases obtained from PC patients going through metastasis surgery for spinal cord compression. Gene expression patterns were analyzed by multivariate statistics and ontology analysis with the aim to identify subgroups of biological/pathological relevance. Interesting findings from array analysis were verified using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, a xenograft mouse model was used to study the effects of abiraterone (steroidogenesis inhibitor) and cabazitaxel (taxane), and subsequently developed resistance mechanisms in the 22Rv1 PC cell line expressing high levels of AR-V7; a constitutively active AR splice variant associated with a poor prognosis and resistance to AR targeting therapies.

    In summary, results showed that the majority of CRPC bone metastases were AR-driven, defined from high levels of AR-regulated gene transcripts, while a smaller sub-group was non-AR-driven (paper I). AR-driven bone metastases had high metabolic activity in combination with downregulated immune responses while non-AR-driven cases had a more pronounced immune response (paper I) and higher bone cell activity (paper II). Paper III identified pronounced hypermethylation in primary prostate tumors probably causing a suppressed anti-tumor immune-response whereas metastases showed a different methylation pattern related to increased AR activity and patient outcome. In paper IV, 22Rv1 xenografts showed poor response to abiraterone and initially excellent response to cabazitaxel, but eventually resistance occurred probably due to an upregulation of the ABCB1 transporter protein. Anti-androgens partly reversed the resistance.

    In conclusion, we have identified molecular heterogeneities in clinical bone metastases associated with biological characteristics, which could perhaps be used both for stratifying patients into treatment modalities, and to aid in further development of effective therapies for CRPC.

  • Ögren, Joachim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Serious hemorrhage and secondary prevention after stroke and TIA2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of stroke survivors is growing worldwide, and these patients have an increased risk of new vascular events and death. This risk decreases with secondary treatment medications recommended in guidelines. However, the characteristics of unselected stroke patients differ from patients included in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Thus, the efficacy of these treatments based on RCT results may not be directly transferable to the patients treated in clinical practice. A treatment may be associated with a higher risk of serious side-effects or less benefit than expected:1) Antithrombotic treatment increases the risk of a serious hemorrhage, a risk that is not well studied in an unselected population with older age and more comorbidities; 2) Treatment of modifiable risk factors after a stroke can be improved. Many patients do not reach treatment targets, which indicates a need for strategies to improve secondary prevention and increase treatment benefit.It is therefore essential to evaluate recommended treatments through studies in a real-world setting.

    Aims: The aims of this thesis were to assessincidence, temporal trends, effect on mortality, and factors associated with an increased risk of a serious hemorrhage after ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA); andif a nurse-led, telephone-based intervention including medical titration could improve modifiable risk factors in patients after stroke or TIA.

    Methods: In paper I, all patients registered with an IS in the national stroke register Riksstroke during 1998–2009 were studied. The register was combined with the In-Patient Register and a diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage (ICrH) within 1 year after IS was identified. In paper II, any diagnosis of serious hemorrhage was identified during follow-up up to 2015 in all patients with an IS or TIA diagnosis, 2010–2013, at Östersund hospital. The incidences of ICrH (papers I and II) and all serious hemorrhages (paper II) were calculated. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to assess any temporal trend in paper I and if a serious hemorrhage affected survival in study II. Cox regression analysis was used in both studies I and II to assess any factor associated with hemorrhage.

    In the randomized controlled NAILED stroke trial, all patients with acute stroke or TIA treated at Östersund hospital during 2010–2013 were screened for participation. Patients whose condition permitted a telephone-based follow-up were randomized to either a control group with follow-up according to usual care or to an intervention group with a nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up including titration of medication. Blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were assessed at 1, 12, 24, and 36 months. We assessed the effect of the intervention on mean levels of BP and LDL-C and on the proportion of patients reaching treatment targets at 12 months (Study III) and at 36 months (Study IV). Study III also assessed for interactions between group allocation and measurement levels at baseline with BP and LDL-C at the 12-month follow-up. Study IV also explored temporal trends.

    Results: The risk of an ICrH was 1.97% per year at risk, within the first year after IS,  and 0.85% excluding the first 30 days. Between 1998 and 2009, the risk of an ICrH increased during the first 30 days after an IS but decreased during days 31–365. The risk of a serious hemorrhage was 2.48% per year at risk in paper II. It was more common in elderly. The incidence rate was higher in patients discharged with AP compared with RCTs. A hemorrhage increased the risk of death in patients with good functional status but did not affect the already high mortality in patients with impaired functional status. Male sex and previous ICrH were associated with an increased risk of ICrH during the first year after IS, thrombolytic treatment, atrial fibrillation and warfarin were associated with an increased risk in the acute phase. A previous diagnosis of hypertension was associated with an increased risk of all serious hemorrhages. 

    The NAILED trial intervention group had a significantly lower mean systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and LDL-C at 12 and 36 months. The mean SBP at 36 months was 128.1 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): 125.8–130.5) in the intervention group, 6.1 mmHg (95% CI: 3.6–8.6; p<0.001) lower than the control group. The interaction analysis at 12 months showed that the effect of the intervention was confined to patients whose values were above the respective targets at baseline and therefore had their medication adjusted. At 36 months, a significantly higher proportion of patients in the intervention group reached treatment targets for SBP, DBP, and LDL-C. The mean differences and differences in proportions reaching treatment target for BP increased during the 36 months of follow-up.

    Conclusion: A serious hemorrhage after an IS or TIA is fairly common. It is more common in elderly and patients with impaired functional status. The incidence is higher in patients discharged with AP compared with RCTs. A serious hemorrhage could affect survival in patients with good functional status. The nurse-led, telephone-based intervention including medical titration used in the NAILED stroke trial improved risk factor levels after stroke and TIA, and more patients reached treatment targets. The effect increased over time. 

  • Kawde, Anurag Y.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | ESRF - Division of Experiments, Grenoble, France .
    Advanced silicon photoelectrodes for water splitting devices: design, preparation and functional characterization by photo-electrochemistry and high-energy X-ray spectroscopy2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last century, mankind has been hugely dependent on fossil fuels to meet its energy needs. Harnessing energy from fossil fuels led to the emission of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases such as CO2 are a major contributor to global warming. Since the last decade, the global annual average temperature has increased by almost 1 oC, while the annual average temperature of Europe has increased by almost 1.7 oC. It is high time to find an alternative source of energy. Such an energy source must be renewable, sustainable, robust and free of greenhouse gases. Our earth has a non-stop supply of solar energy and water in oceans, harvesting energies from such resources will not only be clean but also inexpensive. Solar fuels such as H2 generated from sunlight and seawater using earth-abundant materials are expected to be a crucial component of a next generation renewable energy mix.

    My PhD research was thus focused on the use of solar energy to split water into molecular hydrogen and oxygen, a process that is referred to as ‘artificial photosynthesis’. This can be achieved with the help of semiconductor photocatalysts. As most of the earth crust has a high abundance of silicon (Si), I prepared my semiconductor photoelectrodes using Si. However, Si tends to degrade in an aqueous environment. Thus, my PhD research comprises the synthesis of microstructured Si photoelectrodes and their protection with a TiO2 inter layer followed by functionalization with various earth abundant co-catalysts. The study on the synthesis, morphology and elemental characterization of the photoelectrodes was carried out under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Johannes Messinger at the Chemistry Department of Umeå University. Deep insight on the electronic and atomic structure of the functionalized Si photoelectrodes was obtained by careful experiments at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) under the supervision of Dr. Pieter Glatzel. I investigated the electronic and geometric structural properties of my photocatalysts using inner shell electron spectroscopy, which is also referred to as ‘X-ray spectroscopy’. Thus, my PhD thesis falls under the broad title of “Artificial Photosynthesis and X-Ray Spectroscopy”.

     With the motivation of developing a bias free photoelectrochemical device for overall water splitting, I first developed cost effective earth abundant photocathodes. The experimental data and detailed analysis of the photocathodes are presented in Paper I. The best photocathode obtained in Paper I (p-Si/TiO2/NiOx) was then coupled with a well-studied FTO/α-Fe2O3 photoanode in parallel-illumination mode. The two most significant information obtained in Paper II were: 1) p-Si/TiO2/NiOx outcompetes Pt as a counter electrode and 2) a space charge region in the pristine hematite can be enhanced using p-Si/TiO2/NiOx as photocathode without bias or using any dopant. The proof of concept device studied in Paper II was further optimized in Paper III by replacing the FTO substrate with the n-Si MW to a obtain n-Si MW/TiO2/α-Fe2O3 photoanode. A record high photocurrent density of 5.6 mA/cm2 was achieved for the undoped hematite photoanode. I also found out that the TiO2 inter layer plays a crucial role in enhancing the overall device performance. The role of TiO2 was thus further studied using valence to core X-ray emission spectroscopy, which opened a new avenue for identifying and investigating the prime components in such devices. Paper I to III discuss the role of TiO2 and of the co-catalysts towards solar water splitting and thus the only material left to study was the Si substrate. For paper IV, a detailed analysis on Si substrate was performed. The electronic structural changes on Si LII, III edge was studied using X-ray Raman spectroscopy. The X-ray spectroscopic studies presented in papers I to III were performed at the ID-26 beamline at ESRF, while the X-ray Raman Spectroscopy presented in Paper IV was performed at the ID-20 beamline at ESRF. The data presented in Paper IV is preliminary and needs to be processed and analyzed further.

  • Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    What is local resilience against radicalization and how can it be promoted?: a multidisciplinary literature review2018In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research note, we present results from a review of research on local resilience in relation to radicalization in public health, social work, crisis management, and community policing using terrorism studies as a point of departure. In order to identify agreements between literatures, we focus on how local resilience is understood, how it is said to be promoted, and how this knowledge could be synthesized. We show that resilience by and large is understood as both a process and a capacity underpinned by cooperation, social networks, and community resources and that an initial mapping of existing strengths and resources is pivotal for local resilience-building.

  • Långström, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Mapping change of employment structure in public and private organisations2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     The structure of employment is important for companies to keep

    their policies. This structure changes continuously due to new

    technologies. At the beginning of the 90 ’s, for example, the number

    of highly educated workers increased at the expense of workers

    with little education. But later studies have shown that this trend

    has received competition from two other trends, one is a polarized

    structure, i.e., more workers with little or high education at the

    expense of workers with medium education, who mostly do administration.

    The other trend, which only has been observed among

    academic workers, is the opposite: more workers with medium

    education at the expense of high and low education. The problem

    with the last trend is that companies will grow in an inefficient way:

    More resources will go to the administration department and leaving

    less money for the Core department, which generates growth

    in the organization. Here we show which industries in the Swedish

    economy that are at risk of this inefficient growth. Results make it

    clear that this problem not only exists in the academic world but

    in every state-owned organization. In the state-owned category, we

    find medical care that is criticized for its high administration costs.

    Our findings show that medical care is one of the more efficient

    state-owned industries, with respect to the proportion of administration.

    Overall, our results demonstrate that it is not always

    positive to grow large as an state-owned organisation. These results

    suggest that state-owned organisations should avoid merging to

    maintain their efficiency.

  • Sjödin Wågberg, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Prices on electricity and the prices on stocks: -A Vector autoregressive approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study will investigate if a relationship exists between the price of electricity and the Swedish stock market. This study will also try to investigate what consequences an increase in the price of electricity will have on the return of the Swedish stock market. Economic theory and earlier literature will then be used to try to explain the results obtained in this study.

    The results from the tests performed in this study imply that a one-way Granger-causality exists between the prices on electricity and the price on the OMX 30. The impulse response functions performed shows that a positive shock in the price on electricity will predict an increase in the return of the OMX 30 in the short run. This effect may come from the existence of a countercyclical risk premium. Although further research needs to be performed to conclude that this is the true reason for the observed result.

  • Neely, Gregory
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. School of Psychology, Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    The impact of spoken action words on performance in a cross-modal oddball task2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a cross-modal oddball task was employed to study the effect that words spoken either non-urgently or urgently would have on a digit categorization task and if women would exhibit greater behavioral inhibitory control. The words were unrelated to the task itself, but related to the action required to complete the task. Forty participants (21 women) conducted a computerized categorization task while exposed to a sinewave tone as a standard stimulus (75% of the trials) or a to-be ignored word (press, stop) spoken either non-urgently or urgently as unexpected auditory deviant stimulus (6.25% trials for each category). Urgent words had sharp intonation and an average fundamental frequency (F0) ranging from 191.9 (stop) to 204.6 (press) Hz. Non-urgent words had low intonation with average F0 ranging from 103.9.9 (stop) to 120.3 (press) Hz. As expected, deviant distraction and longer response times were found by exposure to the word stop, but deviant distraction was not found to be significant with the word press or due to intonation. While the results showed that women had in general longer reaction times, there were no gender differences found related to the deviant distraction caused by word or intonation. The present results do not support the hypothesis that women have greater behavioral inhibitory control, but there was evidence that the meaning of the word could influence response times.

  • Hajdarevic, Senada
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Rasmussen, Birgit H
    Overgaard Hasle, Trine L
    Ziebland, Sue
    Qualitative cross-country comparison of whether, when and how people diagnosed with lung cancer talk about cigarette smoking in narrative interviews2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 11, article id e023934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To compare and examine whether, when and how patients with lung cancer in three countries, with different survival rates, talk about cigarette smoking and its relationship with help-seeking.

    DESIGN: A qualitative cross-country comparison with analysis of narrative interviews.

    SETTING: Participants in Sweden, Denmark and England were interviewed during 2015-2016. Interviews, using a narrative approach, were conducted in participants' home by trained and experienced qualitative researchers.

    PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-two men and women diagnosed with lung cancer were interviewed within 6 months of their diagnosis.

    RESULTS: The English participants, regardless of their own smoking status, typically raised the topic of smoking early in their interviews. Smoking was mentioned in relation to symptom appraisal and interactions with others, including health professionals. Participants in all three countries interpreted their symptoms in relation to their smoking status, but in Sweden (unlike England) there was no suggestion that this deterred them from seeking care. English participants, but not Swedish or Danish, recounted reluctance to consult healthcare professionals with their symptoms while they were still smoking, some gave up shortly before consulting. Some English patients described defensive strategies to challenge stigma or pre-empt other people's assumptions about their culpability for the disease. A quarter of the Danish and 40% of the Swedish participants did not raise the topic of smoking at any point in their interview.

    CONCLUSION: The causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is well known in all three countries, yet this comparative analysis suggests that the links between a sense of responsibility, stigma and reluctance to consult are not inevitable. These findings help illuminate why English patients with lung cancer tend to be diagnosed at a later stage than their Swedish counterparts.

  • Sjöberg, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Integrering av konceptet cirkulär ekonomi i ett globalt konsultföretag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current linear “take, make and dispose” economic model is not sustainable, therefore we need to move towards a circular economy. The society faces a major challenge and as experts and advisors to the society, the consultancy companies play a key role in the transition. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a consultancy company work with the circular economy concept today and how the concept further can be integrated into the company to meet future challenges. Qualitative interviews with eleven representatives from the consultancy company Ramboll were made. All the interviews were recorded and the collected data was analyzed in a qualitative analysis. The results showed a high awareness of the circular economy concept and that Ramboll can offer customers help in their progress towards a circular economy. The demand of circular services is currently low but it will probably increase in the future, both with respect to existing services but also new types of assignments.To meet the future demand the company needs to ensure knowledge within the company, raise awareness and concretize the concept throughout the company. The Nordic countries have an opportunity to be the forerunner in the transition to a circular economy but to do so, one must focus on the issue. If Sweden seriously starts to strive for a circular economy, much help and support will be needed and the consulting companies can be very helpful if they are prepared and have the competence.

  • Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Claesson, Kenji
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Edström, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Holmner, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Home-based system for recording pulmonary function and disease-related symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD: a pilot study2016In: SM Journal of Pulmonary Medicine, ISSN 2574-240X, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Many patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) suffer from acute exacerbations characterized by an increase in symptoms beyond normal day-to-day variation. The prognosis of patients with frequent exacerbations is poor and effort to curb these worsening episodes has great potential to improve the patient’s quality of life and to reduce associated costs. Telemonitoring has been proposed as a promising strategy in this respect. However, information on what physical signs or symptoms that should be recorded and how recorded data should be interpreted is largely missing in the literature.

    Methods: A new home-based system, based on a tablet computer, which can guide COPD patients to perform spirometry (inspiratory capacity, IC and forced expiratory volume in one and six seconds, FEV1 and FEV6) and record symptoms (COPD assessment test, CAT) was developed. The system was evaluated for 8-12 weeks in four patients with moderate to severe COPD with the aims to; i) assess the feasibility of the system to be used unsupervised by COPD patients and, ii) to evaluate the quality and ability of recorded parameters to reveal early signs of an exacerbation. Pearson bivariate correlation was performed between all outcome measures and descriptive information about inherent subject properties were presented.

    Results: The system was well accepted by all study subjects and the study generated a total of 253 measurements of which 94.5% were considered acceptable for analysis. One of the subjects developed an acute exacerbation towards the end of the study, whereas the other three subjects remained stable. Descriptive analysis of the data suggest that trends in the CAT score may indicate changes in health status and that IC tends to be more responsive to these changes compared to FEV1.

    Conclusion: The system developed in this study is well suited to be used unsupervised by COPD patients. Recorded data, in particular CAT, may be sensitive enough to detect early signs of an acute COPD exacerbation, although more data is needed to fully resolve the nature of such an association.

  • Lundin, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Stommen och grundens klimatpåverkan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has become a more and more pressing issue in our time, the earth is heating up and the recourses are decreasing. There is now pressure on a lot of establishments to reduce their emissions and waste of recourses. The construction industry lets out a lot of environmentally harmful emissions, something they know, and new regulations and legislations that will force them to improve are about to be introduced. The construction process has in the past not been subject to much scrutiny when it comes to climate impact, but the process is now beginning to be more closely examined. Today the process of constructing a building stands for a big part of the building’s total climate impact and the materials is in its turn a big source of the construction processes emissions.

    Miljöbyggnad which is the most used environmental assessment system for buildings in Sweden has during the last year come out with a new version; Miljöbyggnad 3.0. In this version a new indicator has been added where the climate impact of the buildings framework and foundation is to be presented. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the environmental impact created by a buildings framework and foundation using the new indicator from Miljöbyggnad. Information for the study has also been collected in form of a literature study.

     Calculations has been performed on an example house, a one-storied house at 123 m2 with a wooden framework and a slab-on-grade foundation. To be able to carry out the calculations the amounts for the relevant materials had to be extracted and then converted so that every material could be accounted for in kilograms. For some of the materials this required the use of density, which led to approximations of the density for two of the materials: the insulation and the concrete. Three calculations where then carried out with three different approximations for density, thereafter a fourth calculation was made with the use of data from product specific  EPD: s. 

    The results show that the concrete stands for the largest percentage of the calculations climate impact and that the concrete therefor is the most important material to be able to produce data for. It can also be showed that the density for the concrete have a large impact on the result since the concrete has the largest volume and mass. Of the approximated values that where used the average values came closest to the product specific values.

    The study shows that it is well worth to illuminate the climate impact that framework and foundation materials creates. If this impact could be reduced it would be a big step forward. There are currently several projects that works towards reducing the carbon emissions from these materials and a new climate declaration law concerning buildings is on its way.

    The study fails to show that any material is superior compared to the others, the conclusion is rather that there is much to gain from forcing presentation of data for material since this can impel manufacturers to improve their products climate impact.