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  • Önsari, Büsra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Läkemedelsbehandling av depression bland barn och unga: En studie av effekt och säkerhet med amitriptylin, fluoxetin och venlafaxin2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Boucher, Chance
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Att avtala med maskiner - En studie av framtidsutsikterna och resonemangen kring avtalsrättens förhållande till artificiell intelligens.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hyving, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Europabolagets ställning i Sverige - kan lärdomar dras från Tjeckiska republiken?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Östbye, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Att förtjäna sin familj - Ett strängare försörjningskrav vid anhöriginvandring och dess inverkan på rätten till familjeliv.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Boström, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hellberg, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Idrott och hälsa, ”en checkstation” på idrottsprofilerade gymnasium.: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om idrottslärares åsikter om ämnet idrott och hälsa för elitidrottselever2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden athlete schools, where students are attending in terms of optimizing their athletic careers in correlation with their studies, are a widely spread phenomena over the country and the system is included within the ordinary school system. This study aims to examine how the subject Physical Education and Health (PEH) is taught at athlete schools in comparison to how it is taught in classes with ordinary upper secondary school students. This study is based on interviews with eight teachers from two different Swedish schools. The results show that teachers do adjust their teaching in order to achieve quality teaching to give the athletic students optimized possibilities to improve. The results show different teacher perspectives about what knowledge that is prioritized. Admittedly, the teachers confess having problems with whether they assess these students on their previous skills or if they actually learn new skills during their PEH. Hence, this study serves the purpose of revealing the importance of developing new and individualized strategies on how to form an optimized educational environment and quality teaching for those students.

  • Wirebring, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lärare om Testbaserat lärande: En intervjustudie om lärares inställning till test som verktyg för att stärka lärandet.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Testbaserad inlärning är en pedagogisk metod som bygger på användningen av test och prov som verktyg för att stärka inlärningen istället för som underlag för bedömning. En enig forskarkår i kognitionsvetenskap och psykologi har med robusta och tydliga resultat visat hur upprepad testning kan användas för att stimulera och stärka inlärning. (Wiklund-Hörnqvist 2015).Metoden bygger på ett kognitivt fenomen som kallas testeffekten. Genom att testa sig själv på det stoff man försöker lära sig, till exempel genom att utsätta sig för ett diagnostiskt test, uppmuntras eleven att plocka fram ur minnet information om det denne läst och försöker lära. Denna minnesframplockning stärker förmågan att minnas informationen vid senare tillfällen på ett bättre sätt, jämfört med om eleven i stället för att testa sig på innehållet, skulle ha läst om samma text efter samma tidsintervall. (Roediger & Karpicke 2006).Trots den enighet som råder bland forskarna ser vi ganska lite av upprepad testning som lärandemetod i skolan. Baserat dels på en kandidatuppsats gjord på gymnasielärare (Wirebring 2014), dels på erfarenhet av samtal med forskare och lärare, kan jag dra slutsatsen att användningen av test och prov som metod för att stärka inlärningen verkar sällsynt. Detta trots att kunskapen om testeffekten inte är särskilt ny (James 1890). Fenomenet omskrivs förvisso redan i förra seklets början, men forskning på testbaserad inlärning tog fart framför allt under de två senaste decennierna.Jag ser en lucka i mötet mellan en enig forskarkår och de yrkesverksamma lärarna. Det verkar som om många lärare inte hört talas om testbaserad inlärning eller begreppet testeffekten. Därtill förefaller diskussioner kring hur de vetenskapliga rönen om testbaserat lärande skall kunna tolkas, användas och implementeras i den pedagogiska verksamheten svårfunna. De forskare som studerar testbaserat lärande gör det företrädelsevis inom kognitionsvetenskapliga fält. De studerar ju hur hjärnan fungerar, inte hur skolan fungerar. Hur kan det vara att ett område som har så tydliga kopplingar till den pedagogiska verksamheten inte diskuteras av pedagogerna själva? Min undersökning handlar just om detta. Genom ett par pedagogiska glasögon betraktat, hur ser man på användningen av upprepad testning i skolan? Hur ser lärarna på testbaserat lärande i sin verksamhet? Till vilken grad känner de till metoden överhuvudtaget? Vilka är metodens möjligheter och begränsningar enligt de som arbetar i pedagogisk verksamhet.Detta är mitt huvudsakliga syfte med studien. Undersökningen bygger på ett antal kvalitativa intervjuer med lärare i gymnasieskolan och strävar efter att bidra med ett pedagogiskt perspektiv på testbaserade inlärningsmetoder.

  • Storm, Rickard J
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Persson, David B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Skalman, Lars Nygård
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Frängsmyr, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Lindström, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Rankin, Greg
    Lundmark, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Domellöf, Fatima Pedrosa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Human Adenovirus Type 37 Uses αVβ1 and α3β1 Integrins for Infection of Human Corneal Cells2017In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 91, no 5, e02019-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is a severe, contagious ocular disease that affects 20 to 40 million individuals worldwide every year. EKC is mainly caused by six types of human adenovirus (HAdV): HAdV-8, -19, -37, -53, -54, and -56. Of these, HAdV-8, -19, and -37 use sialic acid-containing glycans as cellular receptors. αVβ3, αVβ5, and a few additional integrins facilitate entry and endosomal release of other HAdVs. With the exception of a few biochemical analyses indicating that HAdV-37 can interact physically with αVβ5, little is known about the integrins used by EKC-causing HAdVs. Here, we investigated the overall integrin expression on human corneal cells and found expression of α2, α3, α6, αV, β1, and β4 subunits in human corneal in situ epithelium and/or in a human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell line but no or less accessible expression of α4, α5, β3, or β5. We also identified the integrins used by HAdV-37 through a series of binding and infection competition experiments and different biochemical approaches. Together, our data suggest that HAdV-37 uses αVβ1 and α3β1 integrins for infection of human corneal epithelial cells. Furthermore, to confirm the relevance of these integrins in the HAdV-37 life cycle, we developed a corneal multilayer tissue system and found that HAdV-37 infection correlated well with the patterns of αV, α3, and β1 integrin expression. These results provide further insight into the tropism and pathogenesis of EKC-causing HAdVs and may be of importance for future development of new antiviral drugs.IMPORTANCE Keratitis is a hallmark of EKC, which is caused by six HAdV types (HAdV-8, -19, -37, -53, -54, and -56). HAdV-37 and some other HAdV types interact with integrin αVβ5 in order to enter nonocular human cells. In this study, we found that αVβ5 is not expressed on human corneal epithelial cells, thus proposing other host factors mediate corneal infection. Here, we first characterized integrin expression patterns on corneal tissue and corneal cells. Among the integrins identified, competition binding and infection experiments and biochemical assays pointed out αVβ1 and α3β1 to be of importance for HAdV-37 infection of corneal tissue. In the absence of a good animal model for EKC-causing HAdVs, we also developed an in vitro system with multilayer HCE cells and confirmed the relevance of the suggested integrins during HAdV-37 infection.

  • Sannerström, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Att arbeta med genus och könsroller inom ämnet teater på Estetiska programmet2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I mitt arbete har jag undersökt om eleverna på Estetiska programmet anser att utbildningen tar upp frågan om genus och könsroller i undervisningen. Jag har främst intresserat mig för teaterinriktningen. Jag har intervjuat tio elever i årskurserna 3 och 1. Samtliga av eleverna har jag haft i undervisningen. En del av eleverna har kommit i kontakt med frågorna inom teatern, andra har det inte. Jag har också frågat dem om de arbetat med frågan i andra sammanhang. Jag har frågat dem om hur det uppfattar begreppet genus och om de kommit i kontakt med det i samhället och vad det innebär för dem på ett personligt plan. Vidare har jag undersökt om och på vilket sätt de har kommit i kontakt med genus/könsroller i undervisningen. Jag har specialiserat mig på att ställa frågor kring teaterundervisningen, om de har arbetat med genus/könsroller och på vilket sätt. Jag har också försökt få fram hur de vill arbeta med frågan och dess betydelse. I arbetet har jag också beskrivit metoder för instudering av rollen enligt pedagogerna/teaterteoretikerna Konstantin Stanislavskij och Bertolt Brecht. Jag har också tagit upp forskning kring genus och könsroller bland barn och unga inom skolan. I mitt arbete har jag diskuterat och analyserat vikten av en normkritisk pedagogik i utbildningen och behovet av att våga arbeta och ifrågasätta rådande värderingar och normer i samhället. Att man som pedagog vågar utmana sina egna värderingar tillsammans med eleverna. Jag har också beskrivit en del metoder för att arbeta med genus och könsroller inom scenisk gestaltning. Resultatet från min undersökning är att samtliga elever tycker att det är viktigt att arbeta med genus och könsroller i undervisningen. De tycker att det är intressant att ifrågasätta värderingar och normer och att arbetet leder till en större tolerans mot varandra. Eleverna tycker också att det är viktigt att arbeta med genus och könsroller i undervisningen. De säger att de främst har fått arbeta med frågan inom teaterämnet och att de saknar ett genusperspektiv i utbildningen på Estetiska programmet. 

  • Wallén, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    För vilka finns kroppspositivismen?: En diskursanalytisk och semiotisk studie av hur kroppsaktivister på Instagram artikulerar kroppspositivism2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been conducted with the purpose of examining how body activists articulate body and body positivity through imagery and text on their Instagram accounts. This study also aims to investigate if the articulations of body positivity differ, and if so how. Finally, the study aims to examine how body activists articulates the purpose of the movement. The theoretical framework of this study is based on past research and established theories about postmodern feminism, fat studies, activism and objectification. The study has had a qualitative approach and is based on discourse analysis and a semiotic analysis of texts and images from twelve swedish body activists on Instagram. The result of the study showed that there are different opinions regarding which bodies that can be included in the body positive movement. Some of the participants argued that the movement includes all body types, while some argued that the movement should only include norm-breaking types of bodies. The study also showed that the body activists articulates their bodies in different ways. Some of the participants have taken pictures similar to how women are portrayed in advertisements while others have taken norm-breaking types of pictures by the choice of angle and pose. Finally, the study showed that the body activists have a different point of view regarding the purpose of the movement. For some of the body activists the aim of the movement is to make others feel good about their own body while others wants to see more body types in the media. Some of the participants feels that the purpose is to stop objectification of the female body. 

  • Eriksson, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Söderström, Jolin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av självbild och sexualitet efter mastektomi till följd av bröstcancer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Women’s experiences of self-image and sexuality after mastectomy due to breast cancer - a literature study.

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women and is an illness which incidence is increasing while the mortality is decreasing. Mastectomy is one of the most frequently used forms of treatment which means that a greater number of women will be living in the aftermaths of it.

    Aim: To describe women’s experiences of self-image and sexuality after mastectomy due to breast cancer.

    Method: Eight scientific articles were examined, analyzed and compiled into a literature study with a qualitative approach. The search for articles was conducted in CINAHL, PubMed and PsycInfo.

    Results: The results of the analysis were compiled into two domains; Altered self-image and Altered sexuality. The results show that after the procedure women can experience changes such as negative feelings regarding physical appearance, sense of femininity and changes in sex life.

    Conclusion: Women who have undergone mastectomy are in need of information and support to cope with changes to their self-image and sexuality. To provide good care health nurses need knowledge of what implications the procedure can have for the woman.

    Keywords: Self-image, sexuality, mastectomy, breastcancer.

  • Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Eriksson, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Patienters upplevelser av strålrelaterade biverkningar vid behandling av huvud och halscancer-en litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Flera studier har visat att cancer i huvud- och halsområdet och omvårdnaden runt dessa patienter är komplex och omfattande. De flesta patienter får kvarstående biverkningar långt efter behandlingens slut och känner sig lämnade utan ståd från sjukvården. Det behövs fler studier kring hur patienter upplever sin situation under och efter strålbehandling.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att belysa patienters upplevelser av strålrelaterade biverkningar vid behandling av huvud- och halscancer.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie med hjälp av innehållsanalys har gjorts på ett urval av tretton stycken kvalitativa, vetenskapliga artiklar.

    Resultat: Resultatet presenteras med fyra kategorier; Fysiska förändringar, psykiska förändringar, sociala förändringar och se det positiva i livet. Kategorierna resulterade i ett genomgående tema; Fortsätta livet trots nya förutsättningar.

    Konklusion: Ur resultatet framkom att upplevelserna av att genomgå strålbehandling mot HH-cancer ger upphov till att livet fortsätter med helt nya förutsättningar under och efter strålbehandling. För att sjuksköterskor ska kunna vårda denna patientgrupp krävs det stor förtåelse för biverkningarna och kunskap i hur man hanterar dessa. Vården av dessa patienter bör utformas på ett personcentrerat sätt för att göra den mer holistisk.

  • Väcklén, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Örnebjörk, Terese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av palliativ vård i hemmet - en litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt Bakgrund: 2010 avled omkring 72 000 människor med behov av palliativ vård i Sverige. Sedan ÄDEL-reformens genomförande har andelen svårt sjuka som vårdas och dör i hemmet ökat. Den avancerade medicinska hjälpen i hemmet har förbättrats, men anhöriga spelar fortfarande en viktig roll för genomförandet av palliativ vård i hemmet. Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte var att studera anhörigas upplevelser vid vård av en närstående i hemmet i livets slutskede. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt. Sju artiklar med kvalitativ design och en artikel med mixed design valdes ut genom sökning i databaserna CINAHL, PubMed och PsycINFO. Artiklarna kvalitetsgranskades och analyserades sedan med hjälp av kvalitativ manifest innehållsanalys. Resultat: Majoriteten av anhörigvårdarna var kvinnor. Resultatet visade i hög grad på att anhörigvårdare upplevde vårdandet av sin närstående svårt och påfrestande. Problem som nämns i resultatet är bland annat trötthet, oro och ångest, frustration, ilska och rädsla. Positiva aspekter framkom också och däribland uppgavs tillfredsställelse, stolthet och en känsla av att ha gjort det rätta. Konklusion: Anhörigvårdarna ses som en förutsättning för palliativ vård i hemmet. Bättre stöd och mer information från sjuksköterskan och övrig personal i teamet till anhöriga som vårdar en familjemedlem i hemmet i livets slutskede kan leda till ökad trygghet och delaktighet hos anhörigvårdarna. Forskningsmässigt är ämnet väl studerat, men kunskapen skulle behöva spridas till yrkesverksamma inom sjukvården.

  • Färdig, Tom
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sundesten, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Det stigmatiserade missbruket: En litteraturstudie om vårdpersonals attityder till och erfarenhet av missbrukare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:The number of patients with substance use disorder are increasing within the healthcare system, therefore is also the contact between this patient group and the healthcare personnel becoming more frequent. It is the healthcare personnel’s responsibility to give equal care to all patients, including a respectful treatment. The attitude of the healthcare personnel will influence the patient’s experiences of how they are approached and the quality of the care they receive, which in turn affects the patients trust in the healthcare system. 

    Aim:The Aim of this study was to explore healthcare personnel’s experience of caring for patients with substance use disorder and their attitudes towards this patient group, in non-specialist settings. 

    Method:A literature study was conducted including 10 articles with a qualitative approach. These articles have been reviewed, analysed and compiled with help of an integrative literature review. Database searches have been executed in Cinahl, PsychInfo and Pubmed.

    Result:Three major categories and seven subcategories were identified. The three major categories included: The view and experiences of patients with substance misuse, The view on care for patients with substance misuse, and The view on responsibility and origin of misuse.

    Conclusion:Attitude towards patients with substance use disorder varies among healthcare personnel, however this study indicates that the attitudes are predominantly negative. This results in a care that are often more task oriented, and less orientated toward the individual. Furthermore, the literature study also demonstrates that more educated and experienced healthcare personnel usually express a more positive attitude toward this group of patients. This indicates that there is a need to educate healthcare personnel to avoid negative attitudes towards patients with substance use disorder.

  • Degent, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. 1994.
    Strålberg, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av mötet med kvinnor utsatta för våld i nära relationer.: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ABSTRAKT

    Titel: Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av mötet med kvinnor utsatta för våld i nära relationer.

    Bakgrund: Våld i nära relationer är idag ett globalt folkhälsoproblem. En tredjedel av världens kvinnor har någon gång utsatts för fysiskt eller sexuellt våld i en nära relation och det är stor sannolikhet att man som sjuksköterska kommer möta dessa våldsutsatta kvinnor. Sjuksköterskan har en viktig roll i mötet med utsatta kvinnor och befinner sig i en unik position när det gäller att identifiera våld i nära relation och för att ge en adekvat omvårdnad.                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av mötet med kvinnor utsatta för våld i nära relationer.                                                                                                                                                                                Metod: Studien var en litteraturstudie som baserades på en kvalitativ innehållsanalys med 10 artiklar som låg till grund för resultatet.                                                                                                                                                                         Resultat: Tre domäner och nio underkategorier identifierades. Domänerna innefattade: Förhållningssätt i mötet, Känslor som uppstår i mötet och Behov av kunskap och stöd.                                                                                                                                                   Konklusion: Behovet av utbildning tydliggjordes då mer kunskap möjliggör för ett bättre bemötande och bättre hantering av de känslorna som sjuksköterskorna upplevde i mötet med de utsatta kvinnorna och kan därmed möjliggöra för en adekvat vård. 

    Nyckelord: Våld i nära relationer, Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter, Våldsutsatta kvinnor

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • Igel, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Nordberg, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Kunskap – nyckeln för att se och vårda personen bakom suicidförsöket2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Knowledge – the key to see and care for the person behind the suicide attempt

    Background: Attempted suicide is a personal tragedy not only for the patient but also the family and likewise has a major impact on the health care personnel. Therefore, it is important that the personnel have a positive attitude to this patient group to provide as safe and person-centered care as possible.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that contribute to the attitudes of the health care personnel to the patients who need hospitalised care following a suicide attempt.

    Methods: A literature study containing 10 quantitative articles was conducted. The articles were examined, analyzed and compiled in a result. 

    Results: The attitudes of health care personnel to the patients who have made suicide attempt were mainly positive, contributing factors as to why it was satisfactory included higher level of education and longer experience in the profession. Contributing factors to the opposite attitude included little experience of this patient group and less education in caring for patients who have made suicide attempt.

    Conclusion: The results show that the attitude amongst health care personnel to patients who have made suicide attempt is mainly good but more education in caring for this patient group is essential to create a safer and more person-centered nursing environment.

    Keywords: attitudes, attempted suicide, health care personnel, hospital, patient

  • Lindberg, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Taleb Baker, Kavin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Att leva med ett barn som insjuknat i anorexia nervosa: - En litteraturstudie om familjens upplevelser2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Living with a child diagnosed with anorexia nervosa - A literature review of the family's experiences

    Abstract (En)

    Background: Approximately 1 % of all women in Sweden is diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. When a child is diagnosed with anorexia nervosa the whole family is affected by the life change the dieses brings. The family's influence is an important part of the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Since the disease has an unknown cause, the family often blame themselves as the contributing factor to the onset.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to highlight the family members' experience of living with a child suffering from anorexia nervosa.

    Method: A literature study was conducted based on eleven articles using a qualitative approach. The results from each article has been reviewed, analysed and compiled.

    Results: The results were presented in two categories and seven subcategories. The main categories are to live in powerlessness and to live under lifechanging conditions.

    Conclusion: Living with a child suffering from anorexia is experienced by the family as stressful because the disease contributed to major life changes. Based on the result of this study, the nurse can adjust attitude and provide good care for all family members.

    Keywords: Family, child, experience, anorexia nervosa

  • Ekskär, Emelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Stenvall, Manuela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Att beskriva faktorer associerade med prevention av urinvägsinfektioner hos patienter i samband med kvarliggande urinkateter.2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Användningen av kvarliggande urinkateter har länge varit en viktig del av patientvården, men inte helt utan komplikationer. I samband med urinkateterisering ökar risken kraftigt att drabbas av urinvägsinfektion. Den vanligast förekommande vårdrelaterade infektionen på svenska sjukhus är idag kateterassocierad urinvägsinfektion.

  • Keijzer, Karl
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Svensson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Våldet mot vårdaren i akutsjukvården: Effekter av preventiva åtgärder för våld riktat mot sjukvårdspersonal - En kvantitativ litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Våldet mot vårdaren i akutsjukvården. Effekter av preventiva åtgärder för våld riktat mot akutvårdspersonal – En kvantitativ litteraturstudie

    Bakgrund: Flertalet studier visar på att vårdpersonal är utsatta för våld på arbetsplatsen. Vilket kan leda till minskad livskvalitet, stress, sämre omvårdnad och sjukskrivningar.

    Syfte: Att beskriva åtgärder för att förebygga våld, riktat mot sjukvårdspersonal på akutvårdsavdelningar samt värdera dess effekt.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie som omfattar nio kvantitativa artiklar. Artiklarna granskades utifrån relevans och kvalitét och resultatet kategoriserades.

    Resultat: Sammantaget finns det lite forskning som stödjer att det är möjligt att minska hur sjukvårdspersonal är utsatta för våld. Varken lagstiftning, utbildning eller andra konkreta åtgärder har långsiktigt positiva effekter. Vissa kortsiktiga effekter samt effekter på verbalt våld kan skönjas.

    Konklusion: Resultatet tyder på att om utbildning repeteras kan långsiktiga resultat påvisas. Eftersom få studier har långsiktigt perspektiv med repetitiv design behövs mer forskning för att kunna hitta en fungerande strategi för att tackla problemet: Våldet mot vårdaren. 

  • Lindgren, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Nilsson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Föräldrars upplevelse av sitt barns suicid: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Parents’ experience of their child’s suicide: A literature study.Background: Suicide is, from a public health perspective, a major problem. The number of suicide has not declined in the last few years and there is a lack of knowledge among health professionals regarding the care of suicide survivors.Aim: The aim of this study was to describe parents’ experience of their child’s suicide.Methods: This study is made out of eight analyzed and compiled qualitative articles.Results: The result was divided into four categories and thirteen subcategories. The four categories were: Parents' experience of grief, Factors that may give a positive effect on the grief, The surroundings effect on the grieving process and Parents’ need for support.Conclusion: The feeling of grief was deep, long-lasting and varied depending on the mental preparation. The results also showed that preserving the memory of their child was important for the grieving process. Going back to work was an problematic event during the grief and it often led to parents isolating themselves at work. Getting support early in the mourning could ease their suffering.Keywords: Parents, bereavement, child, suicide.

  • Elina, Andersson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Linda, Axelsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans preventiva arbete mor övervikt och fetma hos barn och ungdomar: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT Background: In 2014 around 41 million children worldwide under the age of five was estimated to suffer from obesity Society has changed, more environments creates and favors overweight and obesity in children. The nurse’s tasks in their preventative work is to prevent the occurrence of diseases and injuries as well as physical, psychological and social problems. Aim: The aim of this literature study was to describe the nurse’s experience of the preventive work against overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Method: A literature study based on eleven qualitative scientific articles from PubMed, CINHAL and PsycINFO, Audited according to the SBU quality review template and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The result is presented from four categories and eight under categories. The categories are: Resources in the nurse’s preventive work. Adversity in the nurse’s preventive work. The meeting with the family - an important part of the work. The aspects of society affects the preventive work. Conclusion: The nurse preventive work is often characterized by lots of obstacles and few possibilities to work with the growing problem. The community effects the work widely in the negative direction which puts the nurse in a big need of resources to see the wins in the work they put in. Keywords: Child, adolescents, obesity, nurse, prevent.

  • Lindgren, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Heinonen, Alexandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Jag har cancer!: Barns och ungdomars erfarenheter av livet med cancer2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Årligen insjuknar runt 250-300 barn och unga i Sverige i cancer. Att som ung drabbas av en svår sjukdom är en ny och omvälvande situation som påverkar hela livet för både den drabbade och alla andra i dennes närhet. Sjuksköterskans kunskaper om erfarenheter av att leva med cancer kan förhoppningsvis leda till omvårdnad som främjar barns och ungdomars hälsa och välbefinnande.

    Syfte: Beskriva barns och ungdomars erfarenheter av att leva med cancer

    Metod: En litteraturstudie baserad på 8 kvalitativa studier.

    Resultat: Resultatet presenterades i 2 kategorier vilka var: “barns och ungdomars behov” och “barns och ungdomars känslor” med tillhörande 7 underkategorier. Resultatet visade att barn och ungdomar som på grund av cancer förlorat sitt vanliga liv kände sig annorlunda, oroliga och ensamma samtidigt som de också erhöll känslan av tillfredsställelse. Barn och ungdomar med cancer har ett uttalat behov av stöd, aktivitet och lek och information för att skapa kontroll.

    Konklusion: För att främja behov av aktivitet, stöd samt kontroll, respekt och information antas lek- och gruppterapi vara värdefullt, liksom för att stärka barnens och ungdomarnas känsla av sammanhang. Lekterapi ger yngre barn verktyg till att hantera sin situation meningsfullt medan gruppterapi kan stärka samhörigheten hos ungdomar. Avslutningsvis behövs mer forskning kring barns och ungdomars erfarenheter av cancer.

  • Vasara-Hammare, Mathilda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Angelcheva Shiryaeva, Lyuba
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Erfarenheter av att vara förälder till barn med typ 1 diabetes: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Erfarenheter av att vara förälder till barn med typ 1 diabetes – En kvalitativ litteraturstudie.Bakgrund: Förekomsten av typ 1 diabetes har ökat bland barn under de senaste åren. Det är vanligt att sjukdomen medför svårigheter för föräldrarna till dessa barn. Det största ansvaret för egenvården läggs på föräldrarna och därmed har sjuksköterskor en viktig roll i att stödja föräldrarna i barnets vård.Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att belysa erfarenheter av att vara förälder till barn med diabetes mellitus typ 1.Metod: En litteraturstudie där resultatet av 13 kvalitativa artiklar granskats, analyserats och sammanställts.Resultat: Tre huvudkategorier och elva underkategorier identifierades. De tre huvudkategorierna var: “När barnet insjuknar”, “Konsekvenser i vardagen” och “Stöd respektive brist på stöd från omgivningen”.Konklusion: Stödgrupper bidrog med känslomässigt stöd, vilket var betydelsefullt för föräldrarna eftersom det upplevdes som en brist i vårdpersonalens stöd. Mammor visades vara mer utsatta för ohälsa, en aspekt till detta kan vara att det inte har forskats lika mycket om pappors erfarenheter

  • Gidlund, Josefine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Gustafsson, Alexandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Våld i sjuksköterskors vardag: - En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Threats and violence against nurses are common amongst emergency departments all over the world. Healthcare workers are at high risk of becoming victims of violence and nurses are the most exposed.

    Objective: The aim of the literature study was to illustrate nurses experiences of workplace violence, physical and psychological violence in emergency departments.

    Design: The literature study has been conducted by collecting qualitative data from the databases CINAHL and PubMed. The analysis was executed with inspiration of Fribergs method of analysis.

    Results: The study’s result showed that the nurses experienced frustration in relation to violent events. Furthermore, consequences due to the violence were obtained. Some nurse’s also expresses a need for support in connection to these events.

    Conclusion: When encountering threats and violence, the nurses experienced feelings such as anger and insecurity. The need for support in relation to the violence were also apparent. Further research concerning the topic is relevant due to a limited set of found qualitative articles. This is important since nurses encounter violence in their workplace, thus then rendering the nursing to being affected.

  • Hariz, Marwan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience. Simon Sainsbury Chair of Functional Neurosurgery, Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, UCL-Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK.
    My 25 Stimulating Years with DBS in Parkinson's Disease2017In: Journal of Parkinson's Disease, ISSN 1877-7171, E-ISSN 1877-718X, Vol. 7, S35-S43 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The year 2017 marks the 30th anniversary of the birth of modern deep brain stimulation (DBS), which was introduced by Benabid, Pollak et al. in 1987, initially targeting the motor thalamus to treat tremor, and subsequently targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for treatment of symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). STN DBS is undoubtedly "the most important discovery since levodopa", as stated by David Marsden in 1994. In 2014, The Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award to "honor two scientists who developed deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus", was bestowed upon Benabid and DeLong. STN DBS remains today the main surgical procedure for PD, due to its effectiveness in ameliorating PD symptoms and because it is the only surgical procedure for PD that allows a radical decrease in medication. Future improvements of DBS include the possibility to deliver a "closed-loop", "on demand" stimulation, as highly preliminary studies suggest that it may improve both axial and appendicular symptoms and reduce side effects such as dysarthria. Even though DBS of the subthalamic nucleus is the main surgical procedure used today for patients with PD, all patients are not suitable for STN DBS; as a functional neurosurgeon performing since more than 25 years various surgical procedures the aim of which is not to save life but to improve the patient's quality of life, I consider that the surgery should be tailored to the patient's individual symptoms and needs, and that its safety is paramount.

  • Motaragheb Jafarpour, Saeed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Investigation of catalyst composition for cobalt and iron catalyst on the chirality of grown single walled carbon nanotubes2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis of type-enriched semiconducting or metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc/m-SWCNTs) with high quality by means of catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) are essential prerequisites for implementing of SWCNTs into nanodevices. In particular, the Fe−Co bimetallic catalysts system is promising due to its ability to grow SWCNTs by CCVD. However, there is still a gap in understanding how to adjust catalyst composition aiming further improvements in SWCNTs properties with respect to the electronic type. In particular, formation of well-defined nanoalloy of bimetallic catalysts during catalyst conditioning as well as its impact on SWCNTs growth are not clearly understood. Here we present a systematic investigation on effects of catalyst composition based on different Molar ratios of Fe:Co catalysts on the properties of CCVD grown SWCNTs using Raman spectroscopy. After CVD growth of SWCNTs on different molar ratios of Fe:Co, We find that by using molar ratio of Fe:Co=1:1.5, growth of SWNTs that are strongly dominated by two types of semiconducting tubes, the (7,5) and (12,1) tubes, can be achieved.

  • Motaragheb Jafarpour, Saeed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Patterned Nanocomposite of Carbon Nanotube/Polymer2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are carbon based nanostructures with extraordinary electronical and mechanical properties. They are used in a wide range of applications, usually embedded in polymer as fillers to form polymer based nanocomposites, in order to affect the electronic behavior of the polymer matrix. However, as the nanotubes properties are directly dependent on their intrinsic structure, it is necessary to select specific nanotubes depending on the application. In addition, as randomly oriented CNTs (as Filler) embedded in the polymer matrix show lower electrical conductivity than expected, alignment of CNTs in the polymer matrix can help to improve the nanocomposite electrical conductivity.

    In this thesis, focus is placed on the electrical properties of the produced SWCNTs/Polymer nanocomposites. A simple patterning method called nanoimprint lithography is presented which allows the use of extremely low amounts of nanotubes in order to increase the electrical conductivity of isolated polymers such as polystyrene (PS). In addition, a flexible mold to pattern nanocomposite films, leading to the creation of conducting nanotube networks, resulting in Alignment of SWCNTs (from the bottom of the film to the top of the imprinted patterns) inside the polymer matrix. The project further investigated the effect of different imprint temperatures and pressures on the electrical conductivity of produced nanocomposite and a trend is found due to the variation of parameters. Finally an optimum imprint condition based on maximum achieved conductivity is suggested. During different steps of sample preparations, the samples were characterized by different microscopic and spectroscopic techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), optical microscopy, Spectroscopic Ellipsometer, electrical measurements and Raman spectroscopy.

  • Rosenberg, Molly S.
    et al.
    Gomez-Olive, Francesc X.
    Rohr, Julia K.
    Houle, Brian C.
    Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.
    Wagner, Ryan G.
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Berkman, Lisa F.
    Tollman, Stephen M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Baernighausen, Till
    Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa2017In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, ISSN 1525-4135, E-ISSN 1944-7884, Vol. 74, no 1, E9-E17 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa.

    Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age–sex standardization.

    Results: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age–sex standardization.

    Conclusions: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa.

  • Brandl, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Continuous Collision Detection for Wires with Adaptive Resolution2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For interactive simulations using a physics engine, a fixed time step is often necessary in order to maintain real-time performance. Furthermore, collisions between the simulated geometric objects have to be detected by solving a computational problem called collision detection. In its discrete formulation, the geometric configurations of the bodies are evaluated at each simulation time step, whereas its continuous variant also considers the bodies’ motion in betweenthe time steps. A fixed simulation time step can lead to missed collisions if only discrete collision detection is performed. This problem arises especially when simulating thin objects such as wires, chains, or ropes for applications like heavy lifting or anchor handling. In order to be able to simulate wires interacting with each other in real-time simulations, continuous collision detection is therefore necessary.An existing simulation model for wires, chains, and ropes using adaptive wire resolution has been augmented using continuous collision detection. This addition has been integrated into the physics engine AGX Dynamics. Issues in existing methods for continuous collision detection of moving line segments caused by co-linearity and co-planarity have been identified, classified and addressed. Using this augmented approach to continuous collision detection allows for alarger fixed simulation step size compared to discrete collision detection, and thus decreases the total run time by up to 58.22% in relevant scenarios.

  • Jansson, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundström Rova, Ludwig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Feedback och Reflektion: En observationsstudie om idrott och hälsa lärares användande av feedback och reflektion i idrott och hälsaundervisningen.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med att den nya läroplanen för gymnasieskolan togs i bruk år 2011 har det blivit större fokus på att tydliggöra kunskapsobjekten där ämnet idrott och hälsa ska erbjuda kunskaper om såväl som i och genom undervisningen. Undervisningen ska därmed syfta till en ökad medvetenhet och djupare förståelse i ämnet. Som en konsekvens av detta har det sedan Gy11 blivit större fokus på reflektion i undervisningen. Mot denna bakgrund är syftet med denna studie att undersöka hur lärare stimulerar till reflektion bland eleverna, och hur lärarna använder sig utav olika typer av feedback för att främja reflektion hos eleverna. Observationsstudier användes där tre lärare observerades under totalt 14 lektioner. Under observationerna framkom det med tydlighet att de reflekterande momenten inte ägde rum så ofta. Vid några av lektionerna visar studien att reflektion iscensatt av läraren inte alls var förekommande eller mycket sparsamt. De gånger stimulans till reflektion skedde så visade det sig oftast vara i samband med neutrala yttranden från läraren till eleverna. Sammanfattningsvis indikerar studien att den aktivitetsdiskurs som dominerar undervisningen verkar begränsa lärares möjligheter att skapa ett reflekterande förhållningssätt i ämnet.

  • Lynöe, Kaj
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Methane flux from Carex ramenskii on coastal meadows and grazing lawns in western Alaska2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we determined the magnitude of plant mediated CH4 emission (flux) in two vegetation types of Carex ramenskii. The objectives of this paper were to quantify the proportion of CH4 emissions from plant mediated flux and the total flux (plant and soil). This information is needed in order to understand how grazing affects plant mediated CH4 flux. In addition, we differentiated between two vegetation morphs, grazed and ungrazed, and determined the plant mediated CH4 flux for vegetation type.  This study was conducted at a field site on the Tutakoke River (61 15’N, 165 30’W) which is located in the coastal region of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Three replicate plots of the two vegetation morphs of Carex ramenskii were established. Methane flux was measured with a total flux chamber (plant and soil) and a single leaf chamber using a Picarro Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Analyzer (Model G2308, Picarro Inc., Santa Clara, California). Plant density for the two plant types was determined. Temperature measurements were taken and correlated with gas flux. This study found that total net CH4 emissions from Carex ssp. were the same in both vegetation types. This similarity could indicate that plant mediated flux through vegetation is not affected by grazing in the sense that grazing is neither facilitating nor inhibiting plant mediated CH4 flux. The magnitude of plant mediated flux was still greater in the ungrazed meadow type, indicating on both greater facilitation of CH4 flux, and below ground oxygen transport enabling higher rates of CH4 consumption.

  • Raninen, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Metallförorenade bottensediment: En undersökning av fem sjöar påverkade av metallutvinning i Bergslagen och i Västerbottens inland2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess the potential environmental risks posed by sediments in five lakes affected by present or historical metallurgy. Special attention is paid to the lakes Dammsjön and Värlingen in mid Sweden, where the sediments were contaminated after a breach in a nearby tailings dam used for storing residue from a metal processing plant. The sediments were examined for their metal content by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) analysis of loose powder samples. A subset of the samples from Dammsjön and Värlingen was also used for a simple pH-analysis and an experimental XRF analysis of evaporated leachate. To obtain a larger variety of samples for the XRF analysis of evaporated leachate, loose powder sediment and leachate from three additional lakes affected by extractive metallurgy, Tisken, Gruvsjön and Storjuktan, were likewise examined with XRF. The sediments from all lakes contained high levels of metals, and environmental standards for Pb (in all lakes) and Cd (in Storjuktan) were exceeded. The leachate tests showed that metals can be extracted using this method, including Cu and Ni in lake Tisken. This might indicatehigher bioavailability, but further studies are needed to confirm this interpretation. Dammsjön andVärlingen are contaminated by several metals, including Hg and As. The pH-analysis indicated that the deposited sediment is not the source of the prolonged low pH in Dammsjön, and that another source, possibly continued leaks from the tailings dam, needs to be found. The results call for close environmental monitoring, to minimise further contamination and damage to the environment.

  • Thapper, Annica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Bollsport i idrottsundervisningen: Hur skapas, förstås och upplevs bollsporter i skolan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att öka förståelsen för hur lärare planerar och genomför sina lektioner med innehållet bollsporter. Enligt läroplanen Skolverket (2016) skall undervisningen främja alla elevers utveckling och lärande därför är det av intresse att ta reda på vad som avgör innehållet i ämnet idrott och hälsa. Studien bygger på observationer av två idrottslärares lektioner samt intervjuer med lärarna och 24 elever. Resultatet visar att en av lärarna värnar om traditionella bollsporter i undervisningen medan den andra inte använder sig av detta utan styr mer mot bollekar som ska fånga fler elever än bara de som är aktiva på fritiden. Eleverna har olika uppfattningar men uppskattar oftast det traditionella innehållet.

  • Rodriguez Lind, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    "Man ska prata om matematiken": Matematikundervisning som gynnar andraspråkseleversspråk- och kunskapsutveckling2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Elever med svenska som andraspråk uppnår sämre resultat i matematik än i andra skolämnen.Syftet med denna studie har varit att analysera hur andraspråkselever själva, respektivematematiklärare, upplever matematikundervisning för andraspråkselever, samt att ta reda på vadeleverna och lärarna har för tankar om hur man bör lägga upp undervisningen så att den på bästasätt gynnar andraspråkselever. Studien är baserad på kvalitativa intervjuer med åttaandraspråkselever i årskurs 4 och tre matematiklärare i årskurs 1-3. Studien har analyserats medutgångspunkt i aktuella forskningsrön och vedertagna teorier, vilka säger att andraspråkseleverska mötas av en elevcentrerad, språkutvecklande ämnesundervisning med utmaningar och högaförväntningar. Intervjuerna visar att eleverna inte upplever språket som något större hinder, ochatt de tycker att det går relativt bra för dem i matematik. Resultatet tyder på att de lär sig bäst närde får ta del av en varierad undervisning med höga förväntningar och rikliga möjligheter tillinteraktion och kommunikation. Lärarna har en positiv hållning och ser inga större hinder i att haandraspråkselever i undervisningsgruppen. Tvärtom är de inställda på att anpassa sinundervisning så att den passar alla elever, vilket är positivt ur specialpedagogisk synvinkel. Detycker att andraspråkselevernas medverkan gör att de måste vara extra tydliga, vilket gynnar allaelever.Nyckelord:

  • Azam, Asad Muhammad
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ali, A.
    Khan, H.
    Yasin, T.
    Mehmood, M. S.
    Analysis of degradation in UHMWPE a comparative study among the various commercial and laboratory grades UHMWPE2016In: 14TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ADVANCED MATERIALS (ISAM 2015) / [ed] Qaisar, S., Khan, A.N., Mukhtar, E.A., IOP PUBLISHING LTD , 2016, Vol. 146, 012025Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidative degradation of the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene ( UHMWPE) limits the life of implants. This degradation can be monitored to estimate the service life of UHMWPE following the standard protocols as defined by American Standards for Testing Materials ( ASTM). In this work, a comparative study has been carried on two commercially available UHMWPE grades i. e. GUR 1020 and GUR 1050 and one laboratory grade UHMWPE which was purchased from Sigma Aldrich. These powder samples were pressed while using hot press with controlled heating and cooling setup in open air under 200 bar of external pressure. These sheets were then subjected to accelerated aging in an oven at 80 degrees C for three weeks. The degradation of the UHMWPE was monitored by ATR-FTIR techniquefor three weeks. The oxidation index ( OI) measurement showed that the commercial grade UHMWPE i. e. GUR-1020 and GUR-1050 degrade more as compared to laboratory grade UHMWPE. The values of OI after three weeks of accelerating aging were found 0.18, 0.14, and 0.09 for GUR-1020, GUR-1050, and Sigma Aldrich, respectively. In addition to this, it was found that commercial grades of UHMWPE suffer more structural alterations as compared to laboratory grade one. We hope that these results will be of particular and fundamental importance for the researchers and orthopaedic industry.

  • Skoog, Emma C.
    et al.
    Padra, Medea
    Åberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gideonsson, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Obi, Ikenna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Quintana-Hayashi, Macarena P.
    Arnqvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Linden, Sara K.
    BabA dependent binding of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric mucins cause aggregation that inhibits proliferation and is regulated via ArsS2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 40656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mucins in the gastric mucus layer carry a range of glycan structures, which vary between individuals, can have antimicrobial effect or act as ligands for Helicobacter pylori. Mucins from various individuals and disease states modulate H. pylori proliferation and adhesin gene expression differently. Here we investigate the relationship between adhesin mediated binding, aggregation, proliferation and adhesin gene expression using human gastric mucins and synthetic adhesin ligand conjugates. By combining measurements of optical density, bacterial metabolic activity and live/dead stains, we could distinguish bacterial aggregation from viability changes, enabling elucidation of mechanisms behind the anti-prolific effects that mucins can have. Binding of H. pylori to Leb-glycoconjugates inhibited the proliferation of the bacteria in a BabA dependent manner, similarly to the effect of mucins carrying Leb. Furthermore, deletion of arsS lead to a decrease in binding to Leb-glycoconjugates and Leb-decorated mucins, accompanied by decreased aggregation and absence of anti-prolific effect of mucins and Leb-glycoconjugates. Inhibition of proliferation caused by adhesin dependent binding to mucins, and the subsequent aggregation suggests a new role of mucins in the host defense against H. pylori. This aggregating trait of mucins may be useful to incorporate into the design of adhesin inhibitors and other disease intervention molecules.

  • Stigbrand, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Intranasalt fentanyl för behandling av genombrottssmärta vid cancersjukdom: En litteraturstudie med fokus på farmakokinetik, klinisk effekt, biverkningar och patientacceptans.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Gerdle, Bjorn
    et al.
    Molander, Peter
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Stalnacke, Britt-Marie
    Enthoven, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine. Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden.
    Weak outcome predictors of multimodal rehabilitation at one-year follow-up in patients with chronic pain-a practice based evidence study from two SQRP centres2016In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 17, 490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: For patients with chronic pain, the heterogeneity of clinical presentations makes it difficult to identify patients who would benefit from multimodal rehabilitation programs (MMRP). Yet, there is limited knowledge regarding the predictors of MMRP’s outcomes. This study identifies predictors of outcome of MMRPs at a 12-month follow-up (FU-12) based on data from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP).

    Methods: Patients with chronic pain from two clinical departments in Sweden completed the SQRP questionnaires—background, pain characteristics, psychological symptoms, function, activity/participation, health and quality of life—on three occasions: 1) during their first visit; 2) immediately after the completion of their MMRP; and 3) 12 months after completing the MMRP (n = 227). During the FU-12, the patients also retrospectively reported their global impressions of any changes in their perception of pain and their ability to handle their life situation in general.

    Results: Significant improvements were found for pain, psychological symptoms, activity/participation, health, and quality of life aspects with low/medium strong effects.

    A general pattern was observed from the analyses of the changes from baseline to FU-12; the largest improvements in outcomes were significantly associated with poor situations according to their respective baseline scores. Although significant regressors of the investigated outcomes were found, the significant predictors were weak and explained a minor part of the variation in outcomes (15–25%). At the FU-12, 53.6% of the patients reported that their pain had decreased and 80.1% reported that their life situation in general had improved. These improvements were associated with high education, low pain intensity, high health level, and work importance (only pain perception). The explained variations were low (9–11%).

    Conclusions: Representing patients in real-world clinical settings, this study confirmed systematic reviews that outcomes of MMRP are associated with broad positive effects. A mix of background and baseline variables influenced the outcomes investigated, but the explained variations in outcomes were low. There is still a need to develop standardized and relatively simple outcomes that can be used to evaluate MMRP in trials, in clinical evaluations at group level, and for individual patients.

  • Fakhouri Alharidi, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Läkemedelsbehandling av graviditetsinducerad hypertoni: En jämförelse mellan oral nifedipin, intravenös labetalol och intravenös hydalazin vid behandling av svår graviditetsinducerad hypertoni2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Eklund, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    C-vitamin och övre luftvägsinfektioner: En litteraturstudie om c-vitaminets effekt på övre luftvägsinfektioner i avseende att motverka eller förkorta sjukdomsperioden.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Fakhouri, Rasha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    ACE-hämmare/ARB som monoterapi versus som kombinationsterapi med en kalciumantagonist hos hypertoniska diabetiker2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Elander, Astrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Läkemedelsbehandling vid CTEPH: Behandling med bosentan och sildenafil vid pulmonell hypertension vid kronisk lungemboli2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Zahra, Kandiel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Dimensionering av överbyggnader i Nordiska länder2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Different countries are using different methods when designing pavements. This report will focus on the methods used in Nordic countries including; Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The required input parameters to use these methods will also be included. Furthermore, PMS Object (Pavement Management Systems), Index method and MMOPP (Mathematical Modelling of Pavement Performance) will also be presented heir in. The Swedish software “PMS Object” is a design tool for pavements to be used at new building sites as well as for maintenance and reinforcement. The software is approved by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) and is most commonly used in Sweden. Index method is the software, which is being used in Norway, it gives clear results and is very easy to use. It is based on material properties, climate and other factors. In Denmark, MMOPP is being used for pavement design which can be divided into three different levels; design by selection in a standard catalogue, Analytical- Empirical design method and design by simulation. This report is aiming to investigate these methods and compare their pros and cons. The aim is also to give the reader an increased understanding of the usage of pavement design methods that are being used in Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The PMS Objekt method aids in achieving layer thickness as output. Thickness of all the different layers that exist within a pavement. While the Index method is a method to calculate buoyancy and E-modulus for different materials. MMOPP- method is used to determine: E-modulus, lifespan in years and response value and finally the allowed response value. In conclusion, this study indicates that Sweden, Norway and Denmark is using different methods however, they are considering almost the same factors that can affect the road construction. In order to complete this study, a literature review of reports and previous dissertations was performed, data was collected from different websites including the Swedish, Norwegian and Danish transport administration. 

  • Mathisen, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Environmental factors selecting for predation resistant and potentially pathogenic bacteria in aquatic environments2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The long history of co-existence of bacteria and their protozoan predators in aquatic environments has led to evolution of protozoa resistant bacteria (PRB). Many of these bacteria are also pathogenic to humans. However, the ecological drivers determining the occurrence of different types of PRB in aquatic environments, and the eco-evolutionary link between bacterial adaptation and the resulting implications for mammalian hosts are poorly known. This thesis examines the impact of nutrients and predation on PRB, as well as the ecological and evolutionary connection between their life in aquatic environments and mammalian hosts. In the first study seven bacterial isolates from the Baltic Sea were investigated for their plasticity of adaptation to predation. The response to predation showed large variation where some bacteria rapidly developed a degree of grazing resistance when exposed to predators. The rapid adaptation observed may result in bacterial communities being resilient or resistant to predation, and thus rapid adaptation may be a structuring force in the food web. With the aim to elucidate the link between occurrence of PRB and environmental conditions, a field study and a laboratory experiment were performed. In both studies three PRB genera were found: Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas and Rickettsia. PRB were found both in oligotrophic and eutrophic waters, indicating that waters of all nutrient states can harbor pathogenic bacteria. However, the ecological strategy of the PRB varied depending on environmental nutrient level and disturbance. Using an advanced bioinformatic analysis, it was shown that ecotypes within the same PRB genus can be linked to specific environmental conditions or the presence of specific protozoa, cyanobacteria or phytoplankton taxa. These environmental conditions or specific plankton taxa could potentially act as indicators for occurrence of PRB. Finally, using four mutants (with specific protein deletions) of the pathogenic and predation resistant Francisella tularensis ssp. holarctica, I found evidence of an eco-evolutionary connection between the bacterium´s life in aquatic and mammalian hosts (aquatic amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and a murine macrophage).  To a large extent F. t. holarctica use similar mechanisms to persist predation by protozoa and to resist degradation by mammal macrophages. To summarize I found a link between predation resistant bacteria in aquatic environments and bacteria that are pathogenic to mammals. Further, I showed that different environmental conditions rapidly selects for PRB with either intracellular or extracellular lifestyles. This thesis provides insights regarding environmental conditions and biomarkers that can be used for assessment of aquatic environments at risk for spreading pathogenic bacteria.  

  • Kirst, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Flyktingkatastrofen i massmedia: En diskursanalys av medias rapportering kring flyktingkatastrofen 2015/20162016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under åren 2015 till 2016 inträffade en stor flyktingkatastrof där miljontalsmänniskor flydde för sina liv runt om i världen. En del av dessa människor ansökte under dessa år om asyl i Sverige, närmare bestämt 162 877 år 2015. Denna stora ökning av asylsökande i Sverige och övriga Europa fick stor uppmärksamhet i media och det rapporterades dagligen om flyktingkatastrofen. Mitt syfte med den här studien är därför att undersöka de centrala diskurserna i medias framställning av flyktingkatastrofen från dess början 2015 till 2016 då den nya asyllagen trädde i kraft. Samt undersöka om och i så fall hur diskurserna förändrats över denna tidsperiod. För att besvara mitt syfte har jag genomfört en diskursanalys av totalt nio tidningsartiklar från tre olika dagstidningar och från olika delar av denna tidsperiod. Resultaten visar att de centrala diskurserna handlade om dels flyktingkatastrofen i sig som händelse och dels effekterna av flyktingkatastrofen, det vill säga det stora antalet asylsökande inom framförallt EU samt hur dessa skulle hanteras. Vidare visade också resultaten att det skett en förändring inom medias rapportering om flyktingkatastrofen. Denna förändring gestaltades genom en strängare migrationspolitik som kom att spela en central del i medias rapportering om flyktingkatastrofen.

  • Norman, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Amyotrofisk lateral skleros och superoxiddismutas typ 12017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Spang, Christoph
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Dr Alfen Orthopedic Spine Center, 97080 Würzburg, Germany.
    Chen, Jialin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Backman, Ludvig J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    The tenocyte phenotype of human primary tendon cells in vitro is reduced by glucocorticoids2016In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 17, 467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The use of corticosteroids (e.g., dexamethasone) as treatment for tendinopathy has recently been questioned as higher risks for ruptures have been observed clinically. In vitro studies have reported that dexamethasone exposed tendon cells, tenocytes, show reduced cell viability and collagen production. Little is known about the effect of dexamethasone on the characteristics of tenocytes. Furthermore, there are uncertainties about the existence of apoptosis and if the reduction of collagen affects all collagen subtypes.

    Methods: We evaluated these aspects by exposing primary tendon cells to dexamethasone (Dex) in concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 nM. Gene expression of the specific tenocyte markers scleraxis (Scx) and tenomodulin (Tnmd) and markers for other mesenchymal lineages, such as bone (AlplOcn), cartilage (AcanSox9) and fat (CebpαPparg) was measured via qPCR. Cell viability and proliferation was calculated using a MTS Assay. Cell death was measured by LDH assay and cleaved caspase-3 using Western Blot. Gene expression of collagen subtypes Col1Col3 and Col14 was analyzed using qPCR.

    Results: Stimulation with Dex decreased cell viability and LDH levels. Dex also induced a significant reduction of Scx gene expression and a marked loss of fibroblast like cell shape. The mRNA for all examined collagen subtypes was found to be down-regulated. Among non-tendinous genes only Pparg was significantly increased, whereas AcanAlpl and Sox9 were reduced.

    Conclusions: These results indicate a Dex induced phenotype drift of the tenocytes by reducing scleraxis expression. Reduction of several collagen subtypes, but not cell death, seems to be a feature of Dex induced tissue degeneration.

  • Silfverhielm, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Fördröjningsbädd på bjälklagsgård: Reducerad dagvattenavrinning i täta hårdgjorda miljöer2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Managing stormwater in dense urban environments is and will in the future be a challenge for all the parts affected by it. The climate is changing and with it the extent of extreme rainfalls.

    This Bachelor´s thesis aims to analyze if raingardens could be of use when managing stormwater on courtyards on beam supported slabs. It is not uncommon that water drainage systems in these places are insufficient which in some cases leads to water damaged buildings. By locally treating and storing stormwater it could be possible to prevent damages on buildings and the environment even though the climate is changing.

     

    A case in Stockholm Sweden, a privately-owned property, was investigated. In which a solution of managing storm water by using rain gardens was suggested. The study concludes that locally managing storm water could prevent flooding and water damages on those kinds of courtyards and the buildings in its vicinity.  

  • Diehl, Monika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    -Måste det här vara som en väckelserörelse?: en studie om (det som kallas) entreprenöriellt lärande i grundskolan, utifrån Basil Bernsteins begreppsapparat2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this compilation thesis is to describe prerequisites for what, in a Swedish educational context, is often called ‘entrepreneurial learning’ and to examine the possible influence that this has on school practice. The study was carried out in two lower secondary schools and was guided by the following two research questions. First, how is entrepreneurial learning reflected in educational practice regarding teaching, learning and assessment? Second, how has the phenomenon of entrepreneurship been recontextualized in educational discourse through politics and policy? Basil Bernstein’s concepts and theories have consistently been the point of departure for analysis. Altogether, 52 classroom observations were made, particularly focusing on the subjects of social science, science and mathematics. In addition, 8 individual interviews with teachers and 15 group interviews with pupils were conducted. For decades, national and international policy documents have promoted the need for a creative, innovative and flexible future working force; bringing this about has highly involved the education system. In Sweden, entrepreneurship was inscribed in the curriculum in 2011, and it is meant to run like a thread throughout education. In this study the broad approach of entrepreneurship in education, which is about generating an entrepreneurial mindset, is focused. Research points out various difficulties and dilemmas regarding the implementation of entrepreneurial learning. These difficulties and dilemmas are connected to concerns about perceived difficulties in relation to differences in school subjects, pupils’ backgrounds, degree of managerial support and/or collegial consensus and cooperation. The main findings are linked to recurrent difficulties regarding teaching methods and assessments in relation to entrepreneurial learning. Curricula and syllabi express explicit learning outcomes, which both teachers and learners perceive as being challenging to combine with entrepreneurial classroom work. This in turn links to an aspect which is often addressed in research—that is, the question about whether to use traditional or entrepreneurial (progressive) teaching methods. Curricula express a need for both, and teachers often find it difficult to find a functioning balance between them, not least because of current societal discussions and demands. In many respects, the implementation of entrepreneurial learning sends mixed messages. On the one hand, pupils are meant to develop entrepreneurial skills and competencies through cooperation and interaction within groups, and, on the other hand, the essence of entrepreneurship indicates competition; this is yet another dilemma addressed in the study. The study shows that, due to the schools’ different prerequisites regarding, for instance, teachers’ approaches and understandings and the schools’ catchment areas, entrepreneurial learning is performed somewhat different. Bernstein’s concepts and theories offer tools to explain and understand different aspects, including dilemmas and difficulties in relation to both classroom practice and social discourse.

  • Popova, Dina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    In vitro cellular models for neurotoxicity studies: neurons derived from P19 cells2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are exposed to a variety of chemicals including environmental pollutants, cosmetics, food preservatives and drugs. Some of these substances might be harmful to the human body. Traditional toxicological and behavioural investigations performed in animal models are not suitable for the screening of a large number of compounds for potential toxic effects. There is a need for simple and robust in vitro cellular models that allow high-throughput toxicity testing of chemicals, as well as investigation of specific mechanisms of cytotoxicity. The overall aim of the thesis has been to evaluate neuronally differentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells (P19 neurons) as a model for such testing. The model has been compared to other cellular models used for neurotoxicity assessment: retinoic acid-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and nerve growth factor-treated rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. The chemicals assessed in the studies included the neurotoxicants methylmercury, okadaic acid and acrylamide, the drug of abuse MDMA (“ecstasy”) and a group of piperazine derivatives known as “party pills”. Effects of the chemicals on cell survival, neurite outgrowth and mitochondrial function have been assessed.

    In Paper I, we describe a fluorescence-based microplate method to detect chemical-induced effects on neurite outgrowth in P19 neurons immunostained against the neuron-specific cytoskeletal protein βIII-tubulin. In Paper II, we show that P19 neurons are more sensitive than differentiated SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells for detection of cytotoxic effects of methylmercury, okadaic acid and acrylamide. Additionally, in P19 neurons and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, we could demonstrate that toxicity of methylmercury was attenuated by the antioxidant glutathione. In Paper III, we show a time- and temperature-dependent toxicity produced by MDMA in P19 neurons. The mechanisms of MDMA toxicity did not involve inhibition of the serotonin re-uptake transporter or monoamine oxidase, stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors, oxidative stress or loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In Paper IV, the piperazine derivatives are evaluated for cytotoxicity in P19 neurons and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. The most toxic compound in both cell models was TFMPP. In P19 neurons, the mechanism of action of TFMPP included loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, P19 neurons are a robust cellular model that may be useful in conjunction with other models for the assessment of chemical-induced neurotoxicity.

  • Wikström, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Intensivträning i avkodning och stavning för två äldre elever med diagnostiserad dyslexi: En interventions- och intervjustudie med Wendick-modellen Intensivläsning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of an intensive training period in decoding and spelling with the Wendick model Intensive Reading for students diagnosed with dyslexia. A further aim of the study was to examine the students’ experience of the intense training period. The study included three students, two intervention students in grades 5 and 7 and a control student in grade 5, with diagnosed dyslexia. During five weeks, the two intervention students were involved in intensive training in decoding and spelling with the Wendick model Intensive Reading. The results showed that the intervention students had become more confident in their decoding and spelling on the lists and words included in the training materials. Normalized and standardized pre- and posttests, conducted before and after the intervention, showed positive effects in decoding ability. However, no significant changes had occurred in spelling ability, although the intervention student in grade 7 showed some progress. The students' experience of the training were positive: their motivation had increased, they felt that they had improved both in reading and spelling, and they affirmed their willingness to continue training with reading lists. In conclusion, this study proposes that also older students with diagnosed dyslexia can benefit from intensive training in decoding and spelling.