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  • Vedin, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bilden av svenska fotbollshuliganer i Aftonbladet och Expressen: En systematisk textanalys för att belysa papperspressens representationer av svenska fotbollshuliganer.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete är en kandidatuppsats i socialpsykologi som är skriven vid Umeå universitet 2016. Syftet för denna systematiska textanalys har varit att skapa en nyanserad bild av Aftonbladet och Expressens representationer av huliganer och huliganism. Samt att belysa möjlig påverkan dessa representationer kan ha för hur den svenska huliganismen beter sig. Resultaten av analysen har visat att tidningarna i urvalet stereotypiserar personer genom sociala miljöer och konkreta händelser. De naturaliserar en vilja eller ett behov av våld genom maskulinitet, publicerar för effekt och sensationaliserar i sina representationer av huliganer och huliganism. Aftonbladet och Expressen försöker ge en nyanserad bild främst genom maskulinitet och trots som individernas anledningar till att delta i sociala miljöer och konkreta händelseförlopp när de rapporterar om huliganer och huliganism. Samt att tidningarna framställer personer genom specifika personlighetsbeskrivningar och egenskaper, och händelser genom specifika händelseförlopp som kategoriseras eller stereotypiseras som huliganism. Analysen av dessa frågeställningar har lämnat en väl belyst bild av hur Aftonbladet och Expressens rapporteringar av huliganer och huliganism sett ut 2014 och 2015. Därigenom presenteras i uppsatsen, för att uppfylla arbetets syfte och för att försöka fylla kunskapsluckan inom forskningen om svensk huliganism, entypologi innehållande sex kategorier. Denna typologi består av kategorierna; 1. positiv supporterkultur, 2. gråzon, 3. negativ supporterkultur, 4. ultras/supras, 5. firmakultur och 6.huliganismkategorin.

  • Olsson, Elias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Vad krävs för att de ska vilja delta?: Studie av hur självpublicerade serietecknare kan involveras i bibliotekets programverksamhet.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att stärka kunskapsläget om hur kvalitativ programverksamhet som involverar skapare av egenutgivna serier kan bedrivas på bibliotek. Vilka tänkbara motiv finns för skapare av egenutgivna serier att delta i programverksamhetsliknande aktiviteter? Vad i programverksamhetsliknande aktiviteter upplever de som meningsfullt? Vilka rekommendationer för bibliotekens programverksamhet med fokus på denna grupp kan man ge med hänsyn till detta?

    Resultaten indikerar att gruppen har en professionell ambition med sitt skapande men att inte alla har en professionell identitet. Man tar sitt skapande på stort allvar och har konstnärliga och professionella mål. Motiven för att delta i serierelaterade aktiviteter hänger huvudsakligen ihop med dessa mål. Aktiviteter som på något sätt kan hjälpa dem att uppnå målen är attraktiva att delta i. Sociala aspekter spelar också stor roll. Även deltagande mot ekonomisk ersättning värderas högt av delar av gruppen.

    Det som upplevs som meningsfullt i aktiviteter är främst möjlighet att synas och nå sin målgrupp, möjlighet att nätverka med aktörer i branschen, möjlighet att få inspiration till det egna skapandet och möjlighet att träffa vänner. Man kan inte förutsätta att gruppen ska delta gratis i aktiviteter. Gratis deltagande förutsätter stor frihet och låga krav samt att man gagnas av det på andra sätt än ekonomiskt. Viktiga aktörer arrangörer av aktiviteter måste förhålla sig till är serietecknarnas vänner, uppdragsgivare/branschfolk och läsare. Lyckade aktiviteter förutsätter att dialog skapas mellan deltagarna. Man bör arbeta aktivt för att deltagarna ska nå sin målgrupp. Serieskapande är tidskrävande varför serieaktiviteter måste planeras långt i förväg. Respondenterna i studien ingår i ett nätverk av tecknare som knyts samman via sociala medier. Detta är en kanal via vilken man kan nå gruppen.

  • Carlberg, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Are normative probabilty judgments a "system two"-operation?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on human judgment and decision making has demonstrated systematic and predictable biases of judgment in experimental settings. One example of this is the tendency to intuitively violate the conjunction rule - a simple rule of probability. This was well illustrated in the famous Linda-problem. (Tversky & Kahneman, 1983). According to the dual-process theory of reasoning, (Kahneman, 2011) reasoning fallacies such as the conjunction fallacy occurs when people fail to use analytic reasoning and instead overly rely on their intuition. The dual process theory proposes that cognitive processes underlying our intuitive impulses and our conscious reasoning constitutes two different modes in the mind –system 1 and system 2- and that the intuitive system 1 are not able to compute probabilities. Furthermore, it is assumed that processes that are labeled system 1 are fast whereas system 2 are thought to be slow. We tested these time course assumptions of dual process theory in a within-subject design by comparing response time latencies between conjunction fallacy judgments and accurate probability judgments. The results showed that inducing accurate responding did not result in delayed response latency. This indicates that making accurate probability judgments does not require more processing time which goes against what would be expected by the dual-process framework.

  • Johansson, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Information seeking behavior hos ungdomar på Örnsköldsviks stadsbibliotek: En undersökning med stöd i Kuhlthaus Information Search Process -modell vid litteratursökning.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker informationssökningsprocessen hos en grupp utvalda ungdomar på Örnsköldsviks stadsbibliotek. Syftet har varit att undersöka och förstå unga biblioteksbesökares information seeking behavior i ett annorlunda bokuppställningssystem. Örnsköldsviks stadsbibliotek valde, efter KB:s beslut om nedläggning av SAB 2008, ett relativt nytt sätt att placera och ställa upp sina böcker på. Det nya systemet kallas Rainbow och det guidar besökaren genom tydliga ämneskategorier, klartext och färger. Med Carol. C. Kuhlthaus ISP- modell i sex steg som stöd, vilken beskriver tankar, känslor och ageranden under en informationssökningsprocess, undersöks hur de unga besökarna tog sig an sin informationssökning på Örnsköldsviks bibliotek. Genom intervjuer och observationer av de unga biblioteksanvändarna, samt ytterligare intervjuer med bibliotekets bibliotekarier, har material och information insamlats och analyserats kring hur ungdomarnas informationssökningsprocesser gått till. Resultaten från undersökningen visade att de intentioner som informationssökaren initialt bär med sig i sökprocessen påverkar sökresultatet. Det visade sig också att känslor, tankar och ageranden, som respondenterna förväntades att uppleva, till viss del skilde sig från de upplevelser som Kuhlthaus respondenter beskrivit vid sina informationssökningar, och vilka har legat till grund för ISP- modellen. I och med att studien behandlar folkbibliotek och ungdomarnas fritid var respondenterna på Örnsköldsviks bibliotek inte heller lika medvetna, något som tycktes tydligt redan från start, om sin egen sökproces som Kuhlthaus respondenter varit. Men denna undersöknings respondenter uppgav dock att bokuppställningen i sig fungerade bra för dem att söka information i.

  • Vestergård, Terese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Samers rätt till småviltsjakt och fiske i fjällen - En analys och problematisering med ett fastställande av Girjasmålet.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Adams, Brent Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Tran, Thi Bich Van
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Project Manager Competencies in managing International Development Projects: The Project Managers' Perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research studies the competencies of International Development (ID) project managers from their perspectives, taking into consideration the contextual factors and the challenges that they face when managing ID projects.

    The study adopts a constructionist ontological viewpoint and an interpretivist epistemological philosophical assumption. The nature of the research is exploratory with an inductive approach, using qualitative research method. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews with experienced project managers in International Development projects. Template analysis strategy was used to analyse the data.

    The findings show that contextual factors have a significant influence on the challenges that ID project managers face when managing projects. Contextual factors are operating environment, large network of stakeholders and intangible goals of ID projects. Five challenges were identified as the results of the context, namely stakeholder management challenge, beneficiary needs analysis challenge, the challenge of balancing strategic and operational views, capacity building and training challenge and sustainable funding challenge. To overcome these challenges, seven ID project manager competencies were identified management skills, personal qualities, interpersonal skills, stakeholder engagement skills, capacity building skills, and change management skills. These competencies are found to be interrelated and complementary. While the role and responsibilities of ID project managers were also uncovered during the research, the findings on contextual factors, challenges and competencies help to better understand the ID project manager role and responsibilities.

    This study makes the contributions from both theoretical and practical point of view. With regards to theoretical contribution, our findings expanded on ID project manager competencies as well as relating them to the context and challenges in ID projects. The role and responsibilities of ID project manager is another theoretical contribution in this study. From a practical point of view, this thesis’s findings would be useful for various organizations who deliver ID projects, particularly human resources management. In addition, it can act as knowledge sharing with ID project managers and help in designing and enhancing educational programmes in ID project management. Overall, this could result in better delivery and overcoming the challenges of International Development projects.

  • Löfqvist, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Portfolio ett redskap för ny kunskap2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen växte fram i samråd med en grupp universitetslärare vid pedagogiska institutionen på Umeå Universitet som arbetade med utveckling av distanskurser. Under utvecklingen av dessa kurser genomförde lärarna bland annat ett portfolioprojekt med en grupp pedagogikstudenter. I diskussion med de inblandade pedagogerna väcktes flera intressanta frågeställningar, men för att avgränsa undersökningen så föll valet på tre frågeställningar. Syftet var att ta reda på hur studenten diskuterar runt det egna lärandet och den egna utvecklingen, samt att ta reda på hur studenterna resonerar kring den studiesociala situationen i sina distansstudier via sin portfoliouppgift. Undersökningen blev en kvalitativ analysstudie av studenternas portfolio material, där de studerande beskrivit hur deras inlärningssituation såg ut. För att hantera materialets omfattning avgränsades det in i olika teman. Tillvägagångssättet blev att gå igenom alla studenter som medgivit sitt deltagande i syfte att försöka hitta någon återkommande relation till de frågeställningar som fanns, där avsikten var att titta på både positiva och kritiska inlägg som studenterna valt att beskriva i deras portfoliouppgifter för att eventuellt se om något samband fanns i deras lärandemiljö. Utifrån studiens resultat så visar det att studenterna gav en positiv bild av sin individuella lärandemiljö där det egna engagemanget var av stor vikt för att portfoliometodiken skulle uppfylla sitt syfte. Även de flesta av studenterna gav positiva reflektioner i sina portfoliouppgifter över hur den sociala lärande interaktionen fungerat vid deras nätstudier. Studien visade att portfolio är ett spännande arbetsredskap för högre utbildning och att det definitivt är en metodik att utveckla och använda sig av i framtiden.

  • Swanström, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    That's when we uncover: En analys av jämställdhetsdebatten kring artisten Zara Larsson2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ”That’s when we uncover” is an ethnolocical study of the discourse on gender equality surrounding commercial pop stars, based on the debate evolving the Swedish singer Zara Larsson.

    In the summer of 2015, the seventeen year old singer criticized a major festival in Sweden, Bråvalla, for their lack of women represented among their headlines. She also questioned why she was to perform at 1.15 pm, since she was the artist who was the most popular at Spotify of all playing at the festival. In addition to that, she criticized Bråvalla for not putting her name at their posters. Zara Larssons critique generated harsh words from another, male artist, wich lead to a debate in Swedish media all through the summer. Zara Larsson was defended by both other musicians, and by politicians, but she also got thousands of offensive comments at social medias, and received threats from men who claimed they wanted to see her raped, or dead. Zara Larsson has since then continued to provoke, through feminist statements, combined with exposing pictures of herself.

    The study is based on articles found in the media online, and on the debate in social medias. Three pictures posted by Zara Larsson at Instagram was chosen to represent what makes her so provocative, and the following comments was analyzed through a discoursive perspective. The study showed that the discourse can be divided in two: The discourse on gender equality in the statistics among artists at festivals, and the discourse on norms surrounding female artists. Those two are connected, and represents the two dimensions quantity and quality when it comes to gender equality.

    The study also showed that the strong reactions to Zara Larssons opinions was related to her subject position as a young, female singer within the commercial pop music business, and that there is a hegemony saying that male artist are the norm at festivals. The discourse also says that the over-representation of men performing at festivals are fair, and that young, female artists should have a limited space when it comes to actions and expressing opinions, compared to their male peers.

  • Nordgren, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Från delaktighet till representation: En studie om subjektsförståelser i Betänkande av Kulturutredningen (SOU 2009:16)2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte har varit att undersöka vilka subjektspositioner som kommer till uttryck i Betänkande av Kulturutredningen (SOU 2009:16). Undersökningens ämnade att besvara frågeställningarna: Hur konstrueras subjekt i texten? Vilka begränsningar och möjligheter tillskrivs de olika subjektspositionerna?

    Denna studie är en foucauldianskinspirerad diskursanalys av Betänkande av Kulturutredningen (SOU 2009:16). De teoretiska utgångspunkterna för analysen har varit diskursteori, subjektivitet, intersektionalitet och representation. Resultatet visar att subjekt i olika positioner konstrueras i relation till såväl en målsättning om kulturell mångfald som till en konstruktion av ett normativt subjekt som maskulint, sekulariserat, medelålders, fött i Sverige och högutbildat. Vidare pekar studiens resultat på att individer som tillhör en överrepresentation ges större handlingsutrymme än de individer som befinner sig i underrepresenterade subjektspositioner. Resultatet visar en inbyggd subjektsbegränsning i inkluderingsprojektet, där underrepresentation leder till ett förminskat handlingsutrymme för det icke-normativa subjektet. Avslutningsvis visar studien en föreställning om att underrepresenterade identiteter ska integreras i kulturpolitiken på villkor som definieras av de subjekt som redan är inkluderade i kulturlivet.

  • Uusitalo, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Från norr till söder och tillbaka?: En studie av politikers retorik om Norrland i tre rikstäckande tidningar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse how politicians produce, reproduce and challenge notions of Norrland through newspaper media. The study is based on 60 different articles collected from three national newspaper agencies, Dagens Nyheter, Aftonbladet and Svenska Dagbladet. Adopting the discourseanalytical method called the logics approach, this paper explores which discourses dominate the politicians rhetoric about Norrland as well as how the discourses challenge and constitute conceptions about the northern region. The study shows that politicians often discuss Norrland in terms of economics, environmental issues or demographical conditions. Even though the politicians tend to reproduce notions of Norrland as a remote and rural region, thus enhancing conceptions of the place as a dying and problematic area, the study reveals attempts to redefine Norrlands' problems as a national matter and concern. By appealing to different subjects the politicians try to create feelings of recognition within the public to prevent the place from becoming the rural area they already represent it as. 

  • Liliequist, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    "Det ger någon slags mening i vardagen": En kulturanalytisk studie om volontärers upplevelser av att arbeta med flyktingar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract of “A meaningful work” The aim of this paper is to make a cultural analysis of Swedish voluntary workers’ experiences of their engagement with refugees during the fall and winter of 2015/2016. I have interviewed eight people between the age of 19 and 61 with experiences from working as volunteers with refugees. In addition to the interviews, I have conducted a participant observation on a refugee accommodation.      I have highlighted interesting themes brought up by the informants during the interviews.  These themes have been further analyzed from the theoretical concepts of self-identity, class and gender.       As the results show, my informants have had different motives and driving forces for engaging as volunteers, depending on their habitus and self-identities. For many the volunteer work fulfilled an important social aspect in their life. As volunteers they also got first hand information about the refugee situation, which they could pass on to their environment.       One of my informants had more negative experiences than the others. She experienced a lot of critique for her engagement, which partly was because of her norm-breaking leader position as a black, young woman.       Through my participant observation I got to experience the gloomy facilities of a refugee accommodation located in a distant, secluded environment. But I also experienced the informants’ joy when playing with the kids, and how their engagement created a more cheerful atmosphere.

  • Swanström, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Här för att stanna: En studie om medelålders kvinnor inom subkulturerna punk/hardcore, hårdrock/metal och folkmusik2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ”Here to stay” is the english title of this essay, about middle aged women who participates in these subcultures punk/hardcore, hard rock/metal and folk music in Sweden. The purpose is to explore the terms and conditions of participation for middle aged women in the subcultures. I have made interviews with six women between fortyseven och and sixtyseven years old who are organisers, musicians and in other ways taking part in these subcultures and scenes. I have also made observations at events and used autoethnography as method as I am part of the Swedish DIY punk scene. My analysis is based on poststructrural theory. I have used Judith Butlers theories on performativity and subject positions and used Jason Glynos and David Howarths theories on logics to explain the discourses I found. The results of this essay showed that the subcultures punk/hardcore and hard rock/metal are associated with male youth and that folk music include women of all ages at a higher extent than folk music. The more aggressive the music, the more the subcultures in my study evolve around hegemonic masculinity and male homosociality. On the other hand, women who take part in punk/hardcore and hard rock/metal have a chance to negotiate with and reject traditional femininity as a way of expressing their subcultural identity. The discourse implies that folk music is a welcoming subculture, which leads to the risk that excluding norms stand unchallenged. Women tend to leave the subculture they take part in as they become mothers, but those who stay gets to represent both their gender and their age.

  • Fjellstedt, Cornelia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Dopingfall i svenska medier: En kvalitativ textanalys av den svenska sportjournalistiken2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is through a qualitative textual analysis, examine how Swedish sports journalism portrays two Swedish doping scandals in three Swedish newspapers and tabloids. This essay will, in its stage of analysis, relate to three relevant theories regarding scandals, nationalism and discourse. The first theory about scandals were appearing in all articles thanks to the five main points from the Thompsons theory. It was also noticed by the journalists’ use of words related to scandals. Billig’s theory about nationalism was also proved by the journalists and their articles through their disapproval of the two athletes doping. The discourse theory turned out to be a useful tool for the analysis of the articles. The theory made it possible to use different instruments to help the analysis Altogether, 34 articles were analyzed by a qualitative text analysis method. The result of the analysis found three main themes. First, the articles were written differently depending on when they were written. Secondly, every article about the athletes could, according to the scandal theory, be considered as a scandal. Last, journalists demonstrated nationalism through the absence of words such as Sweden or Swedish. Further, the studied material showed that the journalists are critical, scrutinizing, but also not impartial. The conclusion of studying the 34 articles combined with the theories and the method was that depending on what time and which athlete, the articles were written differently by the journalists. Lastly, the result showed that the previous research, although it showed that journalists are both objective or not, was relevant and proven in the essay.

  • Uwanyirigira, Evode
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Nasirov, Oybek
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Managing Beneficiary Involvement in Non-Governmental Organisations: Implementing with, for, and by the Beneficiairies2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of appropriate level of beneficiary involvement during the project lifecycle may lead to mismatch between the project output and needs of beneficiaries. Therefore, involving beneficiaries in the project helps to assure that the Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) provide the right solution to needs of beneficiaries as well as sustaining project results. Although beneficiary involvement is useful, the challenge is to determine how and when to involve beneficiaries in the project.   

    The purpose of this study is to improve the process of managing beneficiary involvement in NGOs. To achieve this, a review of the existing literature was done to have an initial understanding of beneficiary involvement. During our literature review, we identified six progressive levels of involvement which include: information sharing, listening and learning, joint assessment, shared decision-making, collaboration and empowerment.  Based on this literature review, we suggested a framework for managing beneficiary involvement.  

    In addition, we conducted a multiple case study and collected data from five different cases through interviews. Our respondents were professionals with several years of experience in developing and implementing development projects which are aimed at improving the livelihood of vulnerable communities. Through the analysis of the empirical findings, we got new insights on how the process of beneficiary involvement is managed. We identified four additional levels of beneficiary involvement within the project cycle. These include incentive system, peer facilitators, group forming, and cost sharing.

    The study also reveals the factors that affect beneficiary involvement, such as cultural context and, donors’ influence and requirements. We also highlighted that the appropriate level of beneficiary involvement should be chosen depending on the project context. Regardless of these factors, the research findings show that beneficiary involvement creates a sense of ownership, enhances project outcome and is useful in sustaining a project’s results in the long term. Therefore, NGOs should endeavour to involve beneficiaries as much as possible to ensure that the projects being implemented are addressing community needs.

  • Pena Vela, Maria Emilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Koong, Shy-Nien
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Designing a Fitted House of Dynamic Knowledge Management Strategy to Strengthen Competitive Advantage: Qualitative Research among UN Agencies and their Partners2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “Knowledge is the only treasure you can give entirely without running short of it (African proverb cited in IFAD, 2007).” And it has been largely recognised by organisations that knowledge is a resource that they can leverage on. As Bryan (2004) mentioned, the proprietary knowledge that resides in the minds of a company’s top professionals are a source of Competitive Advantage. Therefore, organisations that leverage on Knowledge Management to promote a Knowledge Management Strategy can achieve Competitive Advantage in a world of rapid change and growth where only organisations who keep on learning and adapting will survive.

    Therefore, this thesis work aims to answer the following research question: “How does leveraging on Knowledge Management promotes the delivery of Knowledge Management Strategy to achieve Competitive Advantage through the Dynamic Capabilities View?” The purpose of this research is to understand more about the practical path which aims to evolve into a dynamic path for organisations to leverage on Knowledge Management (KM) in order that its strategy consecution delivers Competitive Advantage.

    The authors explore the subject matter by building from existing literature on the main theoretical areas encountered, and then design the research and its approach from the research question. The research followed a qualitative approach and method by utilising semi-structured interviews done to 7 international development organisations, where 13 respondents contributed with their experiences and insights from their involvement in KM in their organisations. Moreover, secondary data was used to complement, support, compare and contrast the findings of the empirical research as the authors used qualitative documents related to the topic published by the organisations. As a result, all primary and secondary data were analysed in an inter-subjective interpretative way deriving from the theoretical framework in order to answer the research question.

    The research revealed that the identified gap in literature between Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Strategy is also existing in practice. It was identified that it depends on the maturity of KM in the organisation and/or the organisation’ maturity itself. But is not only restricted to that, the success of a KMS is directly linked to how the organisation articulates KM, and the importance given to it is based on the sense and utilisation of the dynamic nature of KM. Thus, it can turn its organisational capabilities into Dynamic Capabilities and achieve a Competitive Advantage, this is fundamental in international development organisations in the nonprofit sector, which is increasingly striving for resources where every organisation aims to be “the partner of choice.” 

  • Azad, Nathalie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Parpala, Ivanka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Why change a winning concept?: A qualitative study on organizational structure and entrepreneurial orientation within one large company2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The competition on the business market is constantly growing among entrepreneurial organizations. Competitive advantages and strategies is a must in order to survive the environmental triggers of change. One of those strategies is to increase the entrepreneurial activity. However, entrepreneurial adaption is a phenomenon that is represented by continuous change. It is rather an on-going strategy for organizations than a conclusion or a settling point. The entrepreneurial activity needs to flourish through the whole organization i.e. in the people, groups and hierarchical levels. Therefore, other organizational elements affect in how successful an organization can operate in an entrepreneurial way. Organizational structure is one of those elements, which not only lay the foundation for the operation but also affect other organizational factors. Hence, organizations require the knowledge on which factors that can impact the entrepreneurial activity, before it is even essential to change the strategies.

    This qualitative research aims to gain knowledge in how organizational structure affects the entrepreneurial orientation. Three different dimensions, of both organizational structure and entrepreneurial orientation, are going to be acknowledged in order to measure the elements and find a relation between them. This will not just enhance the understanding of the area, but also fulfil the thesis purpose and research question.

    The focus of the study lies within one large entrepreneurial organization, namely Scandic Hotels that operate in an industry with an immense competition, which do not possesses the most evident entrepreneurial business market. The empirical findings are based on semi-structured interviews, which will be analysed in conjunction with the theoretical frame of references. Further, the empirical findings are thus used to analyse the research results to then answer the purpose of this thesis.

    The study showed that the organizational structure at Scandic Hotels is represented by high complexity, formalization and centralization. Besides that, the main structural approach is that the operation is run by a concept driven strategy. Through the analysis it was shown that these findings affected the entrepreneurial orientation within the organization. The entrepreneurial dimensions of innovation, proactiveness and risk- taking proved degrees that were considerably lower. On this basis, the study finds that organizational structure has an impact on entrepreneurial orientation. The relation between the dimensions is highly complex and not a clear line i.e. they all affect each other in some matter. However, a structural change is difficult for a large organization as Scandic Hotels. But there are structural strategies that can be made to increase the entrepreneurial orientation through the whole organization. 

  • Valenzuela Musura, Rafael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Albarosa, Francesco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Social Sustainability Aspects of Agile Project Management: An Exploratory Study of Social Sustainability Aspects in Agile Project Management2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore a new perspective within the sustainability of project management theoretical area. The research focuses on verifying the existence of  interconnections between Agile Project Management and Social Sustainability, and on understanding how Agile Project Management impacts organisational social dynamics from a Social Sustainability point of view.

    Research Methodology/ Approach/ Design: Through an in-depth single-holistic case study,  the research investigates the social dynamics taking place amongst the members of an international IT company, applying an agile project management framework since more than two years. A total of six extensive semi-structured interviews have been carried out with people covering different positions within the company. By working on qualitative data from the interviews, the researchers obtained an in-vivo set of interconnected concepts. The analysis work consisted in qualitatively analysing these concepts and relations in order to build a network diagram reproducing graphically the interconnections existing between Agile Project Management elements and the Social Sustainability factors proposed by Missimer et al. (2016a, 2016b).

    Research Findings: The findings - obtained through the analysis of the network diagram - have been analysed with the lenses of the five factors, that have not to be degraded in order to ensure the social sustainability of a social system. It has been found that implementation of Agile Project Management, within the company’s environment, has impacted the organisation’s social dynamics in several ways. These impacts influenced in a direct or indirect way individual’s “Health”, their “Capacity to Influence”, their “Capacity to Acquire New Competences”, and their “Capacity of Meaning-Making”. By analysing the type of influence APM has on these four aforementioned factors, it has been found that it influences positively all of them. This allowed us to conclude that, according to Missimer et al. definition of Social Sustainability, Agile Project Management shows several interconnections to Social Sustainability and that it seems to benefit organisational internal social dynamics making them more socially sustainable.

    Research limitations: Because of the exploratory nature of the research, the empirical study has been based on a single in-depth case study. However, generalisability of the findings are limited by the inherent limitations of this inquiry strategy. Further researches will allow to verify and eventually expand or complete the proposed model.

    Originality/value: This research contributes to a detailed understanding of the existing relations between Agile Project Management and Social Sustainability theory. This represents a completely new point of view in the studies of Sustainability of Project Management, suggesting the validity of a new stream of research focusing on Agile Project Management as a new project management process through which promote corporate sustainability.

  • van Geelen, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    The Influence of Powder on Accuracy of Digital Imprint Techniques: Varying Spraying Duration2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lindström, Victoria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ali, Marwan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Utsatthet - en del av jobbet?: En kvalitativ studie om att känna sig säker och utsatt som socialsekreterare2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to previous scientific research and reports it states that the exposure towards social welfare secretaries has increased in the recent years. The main purpose of this study was to examine and analyse how the employees at swedish social welfare services experience exposure and security in their place of work. The experiences of security were analysed through three theories; violence normalization process, cognitive dissonance and theory about client relations. In order to use a correct method, six interviews were carried out with the employees. The data found through the material was transcribed and analysed based on an thematic analysis. The main results that were found in the empirical material concluded that the secretaries thoroughly felt safe in their workplace. These feelings could however fade whenever targeted by a client, mostly by verbal attacks. A conclusion that was drawn is that a feeling of pseudo-security can be notable in the profession of the social secretary. This might be a risk factor for social secretaries mental health and therefore it may be important to make further rechears about that subject.

  • Bleeker, Pommeline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lindén, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Dahlström, Lovisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Min oskuld - deras heder: En kvalitativ studie om utvecklandet av insatser kring hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Karlsson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att må bra i sin uniform: Om arbetsrelaterat välbefinnande bland kriminalvårdare i häkteIndependent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout and staff turnover among correctional officers can be the result of low well-being. These are problems that can be devastating for both the individual, his or her colleagues, the inmates and the organization if not prevented. Well-being among correctional officers is an important and well-researched subject. However, the majority of all studies are made in American prisons, and very few consider jail specifically. Jails are often smaller workplaces than prisons in terms of number of employees, which makes them more exposed to staff turnover. In addition, they have difficulty competing with other organizations in terms of high salary and other benefits, and must therefore invest extra hard in a healthy work environment that promotes well-being among their employees. This study is based on a web survey and made in about half of all jails in Sweden. The purpose is to explore, with support of the Self-Determination Theory, how correctional officers in jail are experiencing well-being at work, and if there may be any correlation between perceived well-being and individual factors. The results show that the well-being are generally good, although some weaker aspects are identified, such as percieved autonomy. No significant differences between men and women were found when it comes to work related well-being. Factors that, on the other hand, seems to have a slight impact on the perceived well-being is tenure, education and age.

  • Björkenvall, Anna-Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    La lingua italiana e il suo rapporto con gli anglicismi: storia, ruolo e modalità della penetrazione2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of English words in Italian has been an active phenomenon for centuries. Opinions diverge whether this is a positive part of a natural linguistic evolution in a globalized world, or a linguistic breakdown to be avoided at all cost. In the present study, the history of anglicisms in Italian language will be examined, as well as modern day characteristics of Anglo-Saxon influence and adaptation on the Italian peninsula. The result is a colorful portrait of an Italian language in movement, with anglicisms being part of the linguistic field in both the written and spoken contemporary language. The view of the Accademia della Crusca, the Italian academy for linguistic preservation, is explored, as well as some potential social factors contributing to this form of linguistic innovation.

  • Bergman, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Dring, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Blennow, Kaj
    Norgren, Niklas
    Gilthorpe, Jonathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Bergenheim, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Svenningsson, Anders
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital AB, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Neurofilament light in CSF and serum is a sensitive marker for axonal white matter injury in MS2016In: Neurology: Neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation, ISSN 0948-6259, E-ISSN 2332-7812, Vol. 3, no 5, e271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: In an ongoing, open-label, phase 1b study on the intrathecal administration of rituximab for progressive multiple sclerosis, an intraventricular catheter was inserted for drug delivery. The objective of this study was to characterize the limited white matter axonal injury evoked by catheter insertion by analyzing a panel of markers for tissue damage in CSF and serum.

    METHODS: Lumbar CSF and serum were collected before catheter insertion and at regular intervals during the follow-up period of 1 year. Levels of neurofilament light polypeptide (NF-L), glial fibrillary acidic protein, microtubule-associated protein tau, and S100 calcium binding protein B were measured in the CSF, and NF-L was also quantified in serum at each time point.

    RESULTS: One month after neurosurgical trauma, there was a distinct peak in NF-L concentration in both CSF and serum. In contrast, the biomarkers S100 calcium binding protein B, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and microtubule-associated protein tau did not show any significant changes. NF-L levels in both CSF and serum peaked at 1 month post surgery, returning to baseline after 6 to 9 months. A strong correlation was observed between the concentrations of NF-L in CSF and serum.

    CONCLUSIONS: The NF-L level, in CSF and serum, appears to be both a sensitive and specific marker for white matter axonal injury. This makes NF-L a valuable tool with which to evaluate acute white matter axonal damage in a clinical setting. Serum analysis of NF-L may become a convenient way to follow white matter axonal damage longitudinally.

  • Mollet, Pierre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ni ska bara veta vad som väntar er: Rektorers och lärares upplevelser och utmaningar avseende insparken2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Media har rapporterat om incidenter kopplade till initieringsriter på gymnasieskolor runt om i Sverige. Dessa benämns ofta som inspark eller nollning och innebär att nykomna elever ska initieras in i den nya kontexten av de äldre eleverna. Syftet med denna studie var att bidra med kunskap om vilka utmaningar och problem rektorer och lärare upplever att initieringsriten insparken för med sig samt hur rektorer och lärare upplever att den enskilde eleven påverkas av att delta, eller inte delta, i insparken. Frågeställningarna, som låg till grund i för studien, handlade om vilka utmaningar rektorer och lärare ansåg att initieringsriten för med sig i deras arbete, hur rektorer och lärare arbetar med den problematik som eventuellt kan uppstå i samband med insparksaktiviteter samt hur rektorer och lärare upplever att den enskilde eleven påverkas av att delta, eller inte delta i insparken. Studiens kvalitativa tillvägagångssätt baserades på en hermeneutisk tradition och data samlades in med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer med tre rektorer och tre lärare på en gymnasieskola i södra Sverige. Resultatet visade att de utmaningarna initieringsriten insparken för med sig är att olämpliga aktiviteter hittat in på skolan, att personal medverkat i dessa aktiviteter och att de innehåller inslag som kan upplevas kränkande, vilket enligt respondenterna strider mot skolans styrdokument. Vidare framkom att skolan saknar tydliga arbetssätt för att motverka dessa initieringsriter då respondenterna framhävt att skolan har tydliga riktlinjer om att de inte ska förhålla sig till insparken. Resultatet visade även på att sammanhållning och att lära känna varandra var önskvärda effekter av insparksaktiviteter men det visade sig även att elever har påverkats negativt av aktiviteterna. Sådant som elever framfört till lärare är ängslan, oro, hot, mobbning, grupptryck och kränkningar. Anmärkningsvärt var att rektorerna inte nämnde dessa negativa aspekter, vilket kan tyda på att rektorerna ej fått kännedom om desamma.

  • Skog, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westman, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Tidiga insatser: En studie om speciallärares och specialpedagogers insatser för elever med svårigheter i sin inledande läsinlärning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate how schools identify primary school children with early reading difficulties and what kind of early intervention special education teachers use to support these students. This study also investigates early interventions that special education teachers con­sider to be effective. Ten special education teachers were interviewed regarding early intervention. The result showed that the schools use several screenings from within the age group of 6-9 year olds. The special education teachers can at an early stage identify primary school children with difficulties in their reading and they use a range of different interventions. It is found in this study that an intense period of individual tuition is the intervention that most special education teachers think leads to good results for primary school children with difficulties in their early reading. That finding is also supported in previous research. It is clear that special education teachers and special education teachers need more time for early intervention. The teachers' opportunities for doing this should be reviewed.

  • Kroik, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Differential object marking in South Saami2016Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis investigates the case and the syntactic position of the direct object in South Saami. The focus is on plural direct objects, which have Differential Object Marking, a phenomenon in which the case alternates between different types of direct objects. In South Saami, some direct objects carry the accusative case form in the plural, while others only carry the plural marker. This variation of suffix displayed on the direct object is contingent on definiteness; definite direct objects consistently display the accusative case form in the plural while indefinite direct objects, specific and nonspecific alike, lack accusative morphology. In addition to case marking, the study presents an analysis of the alternation of the syntactic position of some direct objects. Definite and indefinite specific direct objects can be realized in two positions: as the complement of the verb or in a position as specifier of the light verb projection. By contrast, indefinite nonspecific direct objects obligatorily surface in the complement position of the verb. This variability in syntactic position of some direct objects is analyzed by means of a Specificity Operator, adjoined to the DP-level of every specific NP, definite and indefinite. The operator moves as an instance of quantifier raising in order to take scope over Existential Closure (EC). EC binds NPs in its domain and give them an existential reading. Therefore, when the Specificity Operator raises, it anchors the DP it is adjoined to in a domain, which is unbound by EC and therefore facilitates a specific interpretation. The operator, void of phonological content, can raise alone to the specifier of vP as an instance of covert movement. The operator can also Pied-pipe the DP it is adjoined to, which results in overt movement of the DP. Indefinite nonspecific direct objects lack the Specificity Operator and therefore they remain in-situ in the VP, where they are bound by EC.

    In addition to its theoretical value, the thesis will be of use for teachers, students and others with an interest in a better understanding of the case form and the position of the direct object in South Saami.

  • Skoog, Lina
    et al.
    Westling, Linnéa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Förstagångsmammors upplevelse av amning: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Amningsdurationen har minskat i Sverige sedan mitten på 1990-talet och 2014 var det bara 15,4% av alla mammor som helammade upp till sex månader. World Health Organization (WHO) globala rekommendation är helamning i sex månader, något som också används i Sverige. Att det finns hälsofördelar med amning för såväl mamma som barn är väl dokumenterat, men trots de rekommendationer och hälsofördelar som finns, var det bara 24,6% som helammade upp till sex månader i Västerbotten 2013. Syfte Studiens syfte var att undersöka tankar och upplevelser relaterat till hjälp och stöd från vården, inför och under amning hos förstagångsmammor.

    Metod Nio enskilda, kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med förstagångsmammor. Mammorna rekryterades via annonsering på barnavårdscentral (BVC) och Facebook. Vid intervjuerna användes en semistrukturerad frågeguide. Intervjuerna spelades in med mp3-spelare och transkriberades i anslutning till intervjuerna. Data som samlats in har sedan analyserats med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat Mammorna upplevde ett varierande stöd från vården när det gällde amning. Det fanns mammor som uttryckte önskemål om mer stöd och hjälp, medan andra var nöjda. Mammorna i studien upplevde både psykologiska och fysiologiska problem med amningen. Mammorna var överlag nöjda med den hjälp de fått på BVC, medan däremot BB fick mer kritik. Slutsats Studien visade att det fanns ett behov av mer stöd och hjälp till förstagångsmammor när det gäller amning. Att ge dem mer praktisk hjälp med amningsteknik, amningsobservation samt att varje vårdarbetsplats har en hanledningsplan för hur man arbetar med amningsfrågor, är exempel på insatser man skulle kunna göra för att eventuellt förbättra stödet till förstagångsmammor kring amning. I de fall där flera yrkesgruppers kompetens behövs, skulle man även kunna arbeta tvärprofessionellt.

  • Englund, Claire
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå University Library, Centre for teaching and learning (UPL).
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Gallego, Gisselle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology. School of Medicine, The University of Notre Dame, Australia, New South Wales 2010, Australia.
    Pharmacy Students' Attitudes and Perceptions of "Virtual Worlds" as an Instructional Tool for Clinical Pharmacy Teaching2017In: Pharmacy, ISSN 2226-4787, Vol. 5, no 1, 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to explore pharmacy students’ perceptions and experiences of three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVWs) as an instructional tool for clinical pharmacy teaching. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with Master of Science in Pharmacy students who had participated in communicative exercises in a 3DVW. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. More than half of the students were positive to using 3DVWs for educational purposes and see the advantages of having a setting where communication can be practiced in an authentic but ‘safe’ environment available online. However, many students also reported technical difficulties in using the 3DVW which impacted negatively on the learning experience. Perceived ease of use and usefulness of 3DVWs appears to play an important role for students. The students’ level of engagement relates to not only their computer skills, but also to the value they place on 3DVWs as an instructional tool.

  • Lindström, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    How do functional riparian groups from northern Sweden respond to hydropeaking?: Short-term indoors study on germination, mortality and performance of Swedish riparian species from different species groups subjected to water treatments mimicking hydropeaking2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the ever increasing reliance on hydropower in the world, it is important that its effects on riparian vegetation is well understood. This study aimed to explore the effects of different forms of hydropeaking, which results from the rapid and frequent opening and closure of hydroturbines, on different species groups of riparian species native to northern Sweden. Thirteen riparian species belonging to three different species groups, forbs, graminoids and woody species, were subjected to three different watering treatments simulating water stress, rapid fluctuation and prolonged flooding, which often correspond to different hydropeaking conditions. A fourth treatment maintained individuals under controlled conditions and simulated a non-regulated stream. The treatments were carried out over seven weeks. The results showed that the treatments affect the three tested species groups differently. Woody species responded to all treatments with lower germination, higher mortality and lower root elongation, while forbs and graminoids responded to flooding and fluctuation with increased germination but higher mortality and lower root elongation. Fluctuation and flooding had in general positive effects on germination and short term growth but also increased mortality, particularly fluctuation. There were no significant results regarding change in number of leaves for any treatment or species group. As this study only covered seven weeks it can only account for short-term trends, but it still provides interesting information about general expected trends for a wide variety of species native to northern Sweden and belonging to the main three species groups. Such information is key for river management.

  • Calvo, Ester
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of pharmaceuticals on fishbehavior: Oxazepam impact on social preferences and responses onpredation risk (olfactory cue mixture) in guppies2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of oxazepam concerning on social behavior in guppies are still unknown. The purpose ofthis thesis is to investigate if the benzodiazepine oxazepam has effects on fish behavior in terms ofsocial preferences and responses to predation risk using an olfactory cue mixture. After anexposure period of 15 days to 100 μg/l of oxazepam, behavioral experiments were performed overtwo days. Results indicate that oxazepam exposed fish were more social at the beginning of theexperiment, which differ from what was expected and from previous social preferences studies.Moreover, less social behavior was found as a result of combining oxazepam treatment andolfactory cue mixture (predator cues and guppy skin extract) treatment.

  • Sundström, Alice Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tillväxt och blandskogseffekt i återplanterade objekt: Tecken på spatial inverkan på blandskogseffekt i unga trädbestånd2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001 there was a serious outbreak of Gremmeniella abietina (Lagerb.) M. Morelet in the municipality of Bergvik in Dalarna, Sweden. The forest owners were forced to effectively cut their Pine stands in an attempt to halt the onslaught of the fungus. In the areas where new trees were planted after the cuttings, different compositions of species were implemented. Instead of only Pine (Pinus sylvestris), most of the new plantations consisted of spruce (Picea abies) or mixtures of the two species. In this study the average height of these replanted trees was measured to assess the success that the different species had in the different replanted areas. Spruce seemed to be the species that was best adapted to the local area because it grew significantly higher then what had been predicted. A positive effect of mixed-stands was also observed. The sample areas with three species, pine, spruce and birch (Betula pendula) had a higher average height then the sample areas that contained less species. The degree of mixture in the plantation as a whole had no significant effect on tree height. This implies that the spatial composition of species is of bigger importance then the quota of different species in the whole plantation. This could be explained by niche-complementation and by facilitation, probably via interactions between mykorrhiza. Intra-specific competition is another possible explanation for the greater height in sample areas with more species.  Most likely because a decrease in intra-specific competition allows a division of niches and therefore permits the resources in the soil to be utilized more efficiently. The implication of this being that small-scale specie composition is of importance. 

  • Garteizgogeascoa, María
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Do riparian plant functional groups from northern Sweden respond differently to hydropeaking?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, global warming awareness has resulted in an increased demand for clean sources of energy such as hydropower. As a consequence, its impact on riparian vegetation must be studied. In this research, I aimed to assess how different functional riparian groups from northern Sweden respond to hydropeaking (i.e. short-term flow regime changes due to differences in the daily energy requirements). I selected seedlings of eight species natural from Swedish riparian ecosystems which can be grouped in three different guilds (forbs, graminoids and woody) according to their habitat and morphological traits.  A seven week greenhouse experiment in which the seedlings were subjected to two watering treatments that simulated prolonged and deep submergence and frequent and short shallow submergence conditions was developed. I measured the root, stem and leaf biomass, followed leaf changes and stem growth over the weeks and evaluated the health status. The study showed how some species and guilds responded differently to the treatments although survival rates were similar. Forbs was the most resilient group unlike the woody guild.  Graminoids grew longer and thinner roots in frequent submergence situations. Small seedlings appeared to be more sensitive to prolonged submergence. No significant differences were found for leaf variables. Collectively, these results suggest that hydropeaking could significantly modify the riparian vegetation. More and longer studies are needed in order to understand the capacity that hydropower has to modify the riparian vegetation and therefore the riverine ecosystems.

  • Amundsson, Katharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Control of marine plankton respiration: High temperature sensitivity at low temperatures influenced by substrate availability2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature dependence of marine plankton respiration is an important factor in understanding the function and changes in the ecosystem of the ocean. The aim of this study is to test the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of plankton respiration. The oxygen optode method was used to measure plankton respiration. Natural water samples from the Baltic Sea was incubated at short (in situ +1, +2, +3°C) and long (in situ +5, +10, +20°C) temperature intervals with influence of dissolved organic matter (DOC). The Arrhenius equation and Q10-model was used to determine the temperature dependence (Q10) of respiration at different temperatures. There was a significant difference in Q10 between short temperature intervals at low temperatures (p=0,008) and long temperature intervals at higher temperatures. There was no significant difference between long and short temperature intervals when DOC was added (p=0,094). A significant effect could be seen with the DOC enrichment at low temperatures, where the Q10-values became significantly lower (p=0,002) after DOC addition. This effect could, however, not be seen at higher temperatures (p=0,117). Together with results from earlier studies it was concluded that the difference in temperature depends on the actual temperature and not the length of the interval. Lowered temperature dependence at raised DOC concentration, was the opposite of what was expected. The results suggest that the importance of temperature for CO2 emissions and development of hypoxia in the sea may have been underestimated.

  • Mohammed, Shehab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kinematic Motion Planning for a 7-AxisRobotic Arm (LWA70 by Schunk)2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Redundant manipulators are widely used because they have a greater dexterity andversatility than nonredundant manipulators. In the redundant manipulators, thenumber of degrees of freedom are more than the required to manipulate objects atthe task space, which leads to a possibility to generate infinite number of solutions.For this reasons it has been a hot research topic to exploit the redundancy. Thisthesis work is focus on modeling and controlling redundant robot manipulator withseven degree of freedom (LWA 10 kg payload by Schunk). A literature review hasbeen prepared on the existing methods of exploiting the redundancy in the 7-DOFmanipulators at the velocity and position levels. The forward kinematic equationsare derived using the Denavit-Hartenberg method. The inverse kinematic problem issolved and the redundancy is exploited at the position level to avoid the computationalcomplexity and inaccuracy associated with exploiting the redundancy at the velocitylevel. The joint angles of the manipulator are computed in term of a redundancyparameter defining the self-motion in the manipulator. The relation between the jointangles and the redundancy parameter is exploited to avoid selecting the arm anglesthat violate the joint limits. The singularity configurations and robot workspace arealso studied in this thesis. An example is presented on how the self-motion of thearm appears when the end-effector is stationary. The methods are applied to followstraight line trajectories while preventing the joints to exceed the limits. The resultsfound showed how exploiting the redundancy at the position level is being exact withlow computational cost. The validity of the methods is verified by Robotics Toolboxsimulations.

  • Sevä, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Att arbeta med förmågorna: En analys av matematikuppgifter i en svensk och en finsk lärobok i matematik för årskurs 32016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att se vilka möjligheter som två olika läromedel för årskurs 3, ett svenskt och ett i grunden finskt, erbjuder eleverna när det gäller att utveckla de matematiska förmågorna. Målen i matematik för grundskolan uttrycks som matematiska förmågor, vilka eleverna ska få möjlighet att utveckla i undervisningen. Till de matematiska förmågorna räknas problemlösningsförmåga, metodförmåga, begreppsförmåga, kommunikationsförmåga, och resonemangsförmåga.

    Bakgrunden till studiens frågeställningar är svenska elevers resultat i deinternationella undersökningarna PISA och TIMSS. Båda dessa undersökningar visar att svenska elevers resultat har sjunkit de senaste åren och att elever i Finland har bättre resultat i matematik. En fråga som kommit upp är om det kan bero på läromedlen som används i de båda länderna. Till undersökningsmetod i denna studie valdes en textanalys ochläroböckerna analyserades med hjälp innehållsanalysens arbetssätt.

    Frågeställningarna till studien är följande:

    - I vilken utsträckning och på vilket sätt tar de två studerade läroböckerna upp de fem förmågorna som finns i läroplanen?

    - Vilka likheter och skillnader finns det mellan hur förmågorna behandlas i de två olika läroböckerna?

    Resultatet visar att i den svenska läroboken Mattedetektiverna, har eleverna möjlighet att träna på alla fem förmågorna. I den finska läroboken Favorit matematik saknades uppgifter där problemlösningsförmågan tränas.

  • Bergsten, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Om jag ger frågorna först?: Kunskapsmätning före och efter ett moment.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Elever kommer idag till gymnasieskolan med varierande bakgrundskunskaper, dessa kunskaper inom ett område borde vara något som eleverna kan dra nytta av inom olika kurser. Mitt syfte med den här uppsatsen var att dels försöka se om förkunskaperna gav någon fördel på ett slutprov inom ett moment, men också att se hur stor den faktiska kunskapsökningen kunde bli för en grupp elever. Detta åstadkoms genom att skapa ett prov som eleverna i årskurs 1 på Teknikprogrammet fick göra innan ett givet moment i kursen Teknik 1 påbörjades. De gjorde sedan om samma prov igen i slutet av momentet som ett slutprov. Därefter analyserades resultaten från de båda proven och jämfördes med varandra. Undersökningen visade på en procentuell kunskapsökning, det vill säga en differens mellan slutprov och förkunskapsprov, på ca:43 % efter ca: 3 veckors studier. Däremot gick det inte att utläsa huruvida en elev med goda förkunskaper hade ett bättre eller sämre slutresultat jämfört med elever med sämre förkunskaper.

  • Orru, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Assessment of long-term health impacts of air quality with different guideline values for NOX in the planned by-pass tunnel Förbifart Stockholm2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet increased needs of transports in the Stockholm region and reduce the problems with traffic congestion in central parts, a 21 km long by-pass (18 km in a tunnel) is planned. The bypass is expected to reduce traffic and emissions in central Stockholm, but at the same time tunnel users could be exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants from traffic. Thus to control the air quality in the tunnel system, air pollution guideline values have been proposed. The current study is initiated and funded by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), and the aim is to assess the potential health impacts of applying different NOX guideline values (1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 μg/m3 as hourly average max values all-over the tunnel system). The passengers’ exposure was estimated based on annual average NOX exposures, time spent in the tunnel and the number of tunnel users. Health impacts were assessed following health impact assessment principles using equations and WHO’s software AirQPlus.

    With minimal ventilation and maximal traffic amounts during rush hours the NOX hourly average concentrations could raise up to 3500 μg/m3 and even when the planned maximum ventilation would be in use, the maximum concentration would stay as high as 1789 μg/m3. Thus, it is in principle with planned the technology impossible to meet the lowest proposed guideline value of 1000 μg/m3 in the whole tunnel system. However, the effects would be with this guideline still the smallest, resulting annually in 22.2 (CI 95% 16.8–30.1) more premature deaths and 480.4 (95% CI 364.1–650.6) years of life lost (assuming travellers to come from the age group 30–74). If the guideline value would be 2000 μg/m3, the exposure would annually in the same age group cause 35.2 (CI 95% 26.7–47.6) premature deaths with 760.9 (480.4–650.6) years of life lost. With the lowest guideline level, passing the whole tunnel during rush hours on working days would increase mortality risk by 7.4% (95% CI 5.5-10.1), on average corresponding to a life expectancy decrease by 0.27 (95% CI 0.20-0.37) years for people aged 30–74 years.

    Among different tunnel links, the biggest exposure is expected in link 5N, where 28.6-37.2% (depending on limit value scenario) of the total health impact could be generated. The link 3N has high NOX concentration, large number of passengers and long exposure time (time spent in the tunnel link). Even the NOX concentrations are expected to be highest in links 411 and 314, the exposure time there would be shorter and the number of exposed passengers smaller. For the separate links the differences in exposure between limit value scenarios could also vary largely: while the difference was big for link 5N, it was rather small for link 7N.

    If we compare these results with the previously estimated beneficial effect on the health of the local population due to decrease of urban air pollution exposure (expecting annually 23.7 (95% CI 17.7–32.3) fewer premature deaths), only with most favourable assumptions as less older persons using tunnel and with highest ventilation the tunnel could have smaller negative health effects compared to the alternative current open road E4. In all other cases the health effects in the by-pass tunnel Förbifart Stockholm are expected to be higher. Also the exposure levels in the tunnel are expected to be somewhat higher compared to previous analysis due to more 5 enhanced dispersion modelling for the tunnel, including also ramps in the impact assessment and predicting higher numbers of cars than previously.

  • Weeks, Susan Jane
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Scialdone, Francesca Clotilde
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Management of Uncertain Resources in Film Festival Organisations: a first European Picture2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how film festivals use project management techniques to manage uncertain resources.

    Design/methodology/approach – Fourteen case studies are used to explore the project management techniques used by film festivals across Europe. An extensive theoretical framework brings together a number of key fields for the first time and provides an informative background to the study. Based on this theoretical framework a conceptual model was developed, ‘the film festival ‘smoothie’ model’, which provides a guide for data collection and analysis. The research focuses on traditional and contemporary project management techniques, but also contextual factors that impact upon the project management of film festivals.

    Findings – The findings show that a creative, reactive and flexible approach to project management is vital within film festival organisations and supports earlier research calling for a rethinking of project management to consider the growing presence of ‘soft projects’ and contextual factors of projects. Furthermore, it highlights interesting characteristics and lessons that can be learnt from film festivals, warranting further investigation, since film festivals are ‘interesting repositories of knowledge that provide rich data for organisation and management researchers’ (Rüling and Strandgaard Pedersen, 2010, p. 322) and that cultural projects can be source of inspiration for refreshing project management techniques (Cwikla and Jalocha, 2015).

    Research limitations – The research gives an initial picture of the European panorama and presents studies of film festivals from Italy, Portugal, United Kingdom and Sweden.

    Originality/value – Our research contributes to a detailed understanding of the project management processes within film festivals and the way film festivals minimise the negative impact of uncertain resources, and exercise control without stifling creativity.

    Practical implications - This thesis intends to be descriptive, and therefore does not provide solid ground for practical recommendations of a recipe for success for project management within film festivals. The research does, however, provide evidence of the interesting project management approaches within film festival organisations and therefore advocates further research to be done in this field. 

  • Söderström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Cancercentrum, VLL.
    Radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: costs and benefits of time, dose and volume2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In the treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs), radiotherapy (RT) has the advantage of organ preservation compared to surgery. However, treatment toxicities associated with RT can affect important functions for everyday life, both in the acute and late stage. RT to macroscopic tumour in HNC is commonly combined with elective RT to cervical lymph nodes at risk of microscopic involvement. The resulting risk reduction of the elective treatment based on dose-volume parameters is sparsely evaluated. So is the relationship between the elective treatment and treatment toxicity. The present thesis addresses these aspects.

    A strategy aimed at improving the outcome of RT is accelerated fractionation (AF). AF strives to shorten total treatment time to minimise proliferation of the tumour tissue during the RT period. We have investigated the impact of AF on both disease control and toxicity.

    Methods In the ARTSCAN study, 750 patients with localised HNC were randomised between AF (68 Gy in 4.5 weeks) and conventional fractionation (CF) (68 Gy in 7 weeks). The elective treatment volume was prescribed 46 Gy with CF in both treatment arms. The thesis is based on four individual papers, investigating the issues above in the whole study population or in sub-populations.

    Results No difference in disease control or late toxicity between CF and AF was observed at five years. However, there was an increased acute toxicity with AF. Weight loss was associated with treatment volume, independent of tumour stage. The elective treatment volume was found to be an independent risk factor for late aspiration, as well as mean dose to the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, neck dissection, and age at randomisation. There was a significant risk reduction for node relapses in volumes treated to an elective dose. Only a relapse in volumes treated to >60 Gy affected the survival.

    Conclusion The present thesis questions the benefit of AF in definitive RT as well as extensive elective treatment of the cervical nodes.

  • Khalil, Jihad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Love as Seen in selected poems of  Robert Browning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the concept of love in some of Browning`s poems during the Victorian era in which he tried to discuss love from his own perspective. Thus the study explains the concept of love which has been a main theme in some of Browning`s poems.

     My study will illustrate using the feminist theory. This theory was founded in 1792 when the struggle for women’s equality was much in demand. Thus, I will try to explain Browning`s poems by application of this theory.

    Browning sees love as a basic need for the human soul; therefore, the study reveals how Browning saw love from his religious perspective through which he tried to tell his readers that love is a gift of God and that women are allowed to love and be loved despite the concept of the Victorian age that treated women as inferiors in comparison to men. 

  • Lett, Signe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mosses as mediators of climate change: implications for tree seedling establishment in the tundra2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpine and arctic tree line expansion depends on the establishment of tree seedlings above the current tree line, which is expected to occur with climate warming. However, tree lines often fail to respond to higher temperatures. Other environmental factors are therefore likely important for tree seedling establishment. Above the tree line, establishing seedlings encounter existing vegetation such as bryophytes, which often dominate in arctic and alpine tundra. Bryophytes modify their environment in various ways and may mediate climate change effects on establishing tree seedlings, and with that tree line expansion. The aim of this thesis was to understand if and how the environment, in particular bryophytes, mediates the impact of climate change on tree seedling establishment at the alpine and arctic tree line. This was explored by reviewing literature on tree seedling establishment at alpine and arctic tree lines globally. In addition, tree seedling survival and growth of Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris were assessed experimentally. Here, individuals were planted into mono-specific mats of different bryophytes species and exposed to warming and different precipitation regimes. The literature review revealed that besides from temperature, tree seedling establishment is affected by a wide range of abiotic and biotic factors including water, snow, nutrients, light, disturbance and surrounding vegetation. Furthermore the review revealed that for example vegetation can change tree seedling responses to climate change. The experiments showed that especially tree seedling survival was adversely affected by the presence of bryophytes and that the impacts of bryophytes were larger than those of the climate treatments. Seedling growth, on the other hand, was not hampered by the presence of bryophytes, which is in line with earlier findings that seedling survival, growth and seed germination do not respond similarly to changes in environmental conditions. Moreover, we found several indications that vegetation above the tree line, including bryophytes, mediated tree seedling responses to warming and precipitation or snow cover. This thesis shows that temperature alone should not be used to predict future tree seedling establishment above the alpine and arctic tree line and that extrapolations from climate envelope models could strongly over or under estimate tree line responses to warming. This underlines the value of multi-factorial studies for understanding the interplay between warming and other environmental factors and their effects on tree seedling establishment across current tree lines.

  • Córdoba Doña, Juan Antonio
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Withstanding austerity: economic crisis and health inequalities in Spain2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Along with the austerity measures introduced in many countries, the economic crisis affecting Europe since 2008 seems to have impacted many aspects of the health of the Spanish population and has had a negative effect on the provision health services. An increasing body of knowledge has shown a clear impact of the current crisis on suicidal behaviour and mental health, and a less consistent effect on physical health and access to healthcare. However, little is known about the impact of the crisis on social inequalities in health and healthcare access, an area on which the present study seeks to shed light in the context of Spain, and specifically Andalusia, a region hit very hard by the crisis.

    Objective: To study the impact of the economic crisis starting in 2008 on health, health inequalities and health service utilisation in Spain and Andalusia and the roles of socio-demographic factors in these associations.

    Methods: Death rates were analysed to study the annual percent change in overall and cause-specific mortality in Spain between 1999 and 2011, and the Longitudinal Database of the Andalusian Population was used to study educational inequalities in overall mortality from 2002 to 2010 (study 1). To calculate suicide attempt rates, information from 2003 to 2012 on 11,494 men and 12,886 women provided by the Health Emergencies Public Enterprise Information System in Andalusia was utilised. The association between unemployment and suicide attempts was studied through linear regression models (study 2). Two waves of the Andalusian Health Survey (2007 and 2011–12) provided data for the third and fourth studies of this thesis. Educational and employment status inequalities in poor mental health in relation with the crisis were analysed through Poisson regression models (study 3). The change in inequalities (pre-crisis–crisis) in health care utilisation outcomes (general practitioner, specialist, hospitalisation and emergency attendance) was measured by the change in horizontal inequality indices. A decomposition analysis of change in inequality between periods was performed using the Oaxaca approach (study 4).

    Results: Study 1: Overall mortality in Spain decreased steadily during the period, with annual percent changes of -2.44% in men and -2.20% in women. An increase in educational inequality in mortality was observed in men in Andalusia. In women, the inequalities instead remained stable. Suicide mortality showed a downward trend in both sexes in Spain. Study 2: A sharp increase in suicide attempts in Andalusia was detected after the onset of the crisis in both sexes, with adults aged 35 to 54 years being the most affected. Suicide attempts were associated with unemployment rates only in men. Study 3: Poor mental health increased in working individuals with secondary and primary studies during the crisis compared to the pre-crisis period, while it decreased in the university study group. However, in unemployed individuals poor mental health increased only in the secondary studies group. Financial strain could partly explain the crisis effect on mental health among the unemployed. Study 4: Horizontal inequality in utilisation changed to a greater equality or a more pro-poor inequality in both sexes. In the decomposition analysis, socioeconomic position and health status showed greater contributions to the changes in inequalities.

    Conclusion: This thesis illustrates the complexity of the influences of the current economic crisis on health inequalities in a Southern European region. Specifically, no noticeable effects of the crisis on overall and suicide mortality were detected; instead, increasing educational inequalities in mortality in men and a large increase in suicide attempts in middle aged men and women were observed. The deterioration in poor mental health was mainly detected in those of intermediate educational level. Economic conditions such as unemployment and financial strain proved to be relevant. Finally, in the light of no increased inequalities in healthcare utilisation, the universal coverage health system seems to buffer the deleterious effect of the crisis and austerity policies in this context.

  • Jeansson, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    Vad, hur och varför i slöjdämnet: textillärares uppfattningar om innehåll och undervisning i relation till kursplanen2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis deals with questions of how the purpose and content in the Swedish school subject Sloyd can be understood in the present, some years after a new curriculum came into effect in 2011. Through sloyd teachers’ stories of their knowledge and the historical traces that have left a mark on their teaching, such as older syllabuses and mediated experiences, the intention is to examine the pedagogical thinking that forms the classroom’s activities. The overall purpose is to develop knowledge of what shapes the design of sloyd, based on how the subject is expressed in the syllabus and in teachers' understandings of teaching and the subject. Based on previous knowledge and interviews, a hermeneutic research process has been designed and developed over time. Seventeen semi-structured interviews with textiles teachers where conducted, recorded and transcribed for the study. The hermeneutic interpretation process involved repeatedly reading and listening, and the material was coded using the digital analysis tool ATLAS.ti. Through repeated reading of the codes, three overarching themes were found: Textiles teachers' perceptions of Sloyd’s purpose and content, Textiles teachers’ teaching, and Manual and intellectual work in unity. The perspective of curriculum theory using a frame factor model is intended to highlight how Sloyd manifests itself at different levels of interpretation, which may impact how sloyd takes shape in the classroom. For a functional perspective on the study's data, didactic theory is used with a focus on subject didactics. The transformation phase is central to the shaping of Sloyd, where teachers’ beliefs and perceptions about the subject will influence their interpretation of the syllabus. Shulman's model of pedagogical thinking and action linked to pedagogical content knowledge, PCK, form the basis for the analysis together with theoretical perspectives on teachers’ pedagogical thinking as Kansanen and Hansén describes it. In summary, two levels of pedagogical thinking are distinguished by analysis. Firstly, based on those teachers who transform and implement teaching in sloyd based on an interpretation that follows the syllabus closely, and secondly, based on those who proceed from an interpretation that is closer to sloyd’s field of knowledge, based on handicraft. This results in two subject conceptions relating to sloyd. Teachers can ascribe to one of these, or move between them in the different phases of pedagogical planning and reflection. The conclusions also include an understanding of why the knowledge requirements in the syllabus largely relate to the students expressing themselves in words regarding their learning and their choices during the process. The curriculum is results-oriented and the knowledge that is evaluated must therefore be measurable and comparable, and be made possible to learn through the subject content. It can also be interpreted as an approximation of a practical knowledge culture to a theoretical knowledge culture, and therefore a legitimation of a practical subject in the school context that elementary school constitutes.

  • Arnqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Functional clustering methods and marital fertility modelling2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of two parts.The first part considers further development of a model used for marital fertility, the Coale-Trussell's fertility model, which is based on age-specific fertility rates. A new model is suggested using individual fertility data and a waiting time after pregnancies. The model is named the waiting model and can be understood as an alternating renewal process with age-specific intensities. Due to the complicated form of the waiting model and the way data is presented, as given in the United Nation Demographic Year Book 1965, a normal approximation is suggested together with a normal approximation of the mean and variance of the number of births per summarized interval. A further refinement of the model was then introduced to allow for left truncated and censored individual data, summarized as table data. The waiting model suggested gives better understanding of marital fertility and by a simulation study it is shown that the waiting model outperforms the Coale-Trussell model when it comes to estimating the fertility intensity and to predict the mean and variance of the number of births for a population.

    The second part of the thesis focus on developing functional clustering methods.The methods are motivated by and applied to varved (annually laminated) sediment data from lake Kassj\"on in northern Sweden. The rich but complex information (with respect to climate) in the varves, including the shapes of the seasonal patterns, the varying varve thickness, and the non-linear sediment accumulation rates makes it non-trivial to cluster the varves. Functional representations, smoothing and alignment are functional data tools used to make the seasonal patterns comparable.Functional clustering is used to group the seasonal patterns into different types, which can be associated with different weather conditions.

    A new non-parametric functional clustering method is suggested, the Bagging Voronoi K-mediod Alignment algorithm, (BVKMA), which simultaneously clusters and aligns spatially dependent curves. BVKMA is used on the varved lake sediment, to infer on climate, defined as frequencies of different weather types, over longer time periods.

    Furthermore, a functional model-based clustering method is proposed that clusters subjects for which both functional data and covariates are observed, allowing different covariance structures in the different clusters. The model extends a model-based functional clustering method proposed by James and Suger (2003). An EM algorithm is derived to estimate the parameters of the model.

  • Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Power to the people: electricity demand and household behavior2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper [I] Using a unique and highly detailed data set on energy consumption at the appliance-level for 200 Swedish households, seemingly unrelated regression (SUR)-based end-use specific load curves are estimated. The estimated load curves are then used to explore possible restrictions on load shifting (e.g. the office hours schedule) as well as the cost implications of different load shift patterns. The cost implications of shifting load from "expensive" to "cheap" hours, using the Nord Pool spot prices as a proxy for a dynamic price, are computed to be very small; roughly 2-4% reduction in total daily costs from shifting load up to five hours ahead, indicating small incentives for households (and retailers) to adopt dynamic pricing of electricity.

    Paper [II] Using a detailed data set on appliance-level electricity consumption at the hourly level, we provide the first estimates of hourly and end-use-specific income elasticities for electricity. Such estimates are informative about how consumption patterns in general, and peak demand in particular, will develop as households’ income changes. We find that the income elasticities are highest during peak hours for kitchen and lighting, with point estimates of roughly 0.4, but insignificant for space heating.

    Paper [III] In this paper, I estimate the price elasticity of electricity as a function of the choice between fixed-price and variable-price contracts. Further, assuming that households have imperfect information about electricity prices and usage, I explore how media coverage of electricity prices affects electricity demand, both by augmenting price responsiveness and as a direct effect of media coverage on electricity demand, independent of prices. I also address the endogeneity of the choice of electricity contract. The parameters in the model are estimated using unique and detailed Swedish panel data on monthly household-level electricity consumption. I find that price elasticities range between −0.025 and −0.07 at the mean level of media coverage, depending on contract choice, and that households with monthly variation in electricity prices respond more to prices when there is extensive media coverage of electricity prices. When media coverage is high, for example 840 news articles per month (which corresponds to the mean plus two standard deviations), the price elasticity is −0.12, or 1.7 times the elasticity at the mean media coverage. Similarly, media coverage is also found to have a direct effect on electricity demand.

    Paper [IV] I explore how households switch between fixed-price and variable-price electricity contracts in response to variations in price and temperature, conditional on previous contract choice. Using panel data with roughly 54000 Swedish households, a dynamic probit model is estimated. The results suggest that the choice of contract exhibits substantial state dependence, with an estimated marginal effect of previous contractchoiceof0.96, andthattheeffectofvariationinpricesandtemperatureonthechoice of electricity contract is small. Further, the state dependence and price responsiveness are similar across housing types, income levels and other dimensions. A plausible explanation of these results is that transaction costs are larger than the relatively small cost savings from switching between contracts.

  • Karampela, Olympia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring models of time processing: effects of training and modality, and the relationship with cognition in rhythmic motor tasks2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Timing can be defined as the ability to perceive temporal sequences and regulate timed behaviors. As in other animals, our ability to make accurate time estimations is crucial in order to accomplish several activities. Organisms can process time over a wide range of durations ranging from microseconds to days. In the middle of these extremes is the hundreds of milliseconds to seconds range which is important for many everyday behaviors, such as walking, speaking and dancing. Yet, how this is managed remains poorly understood. Some central issues with regard time processing in this particular time range are whether timing is governed by one, or by several different mechanisms, possibly invoked by different effectors used to perform the timing task, as well as, if cognitive capacities are also involved in rhythmic motor timing.

    This thesis includes three studies. Study I investigated the effects of short- term practice on a motor timing task. Analyses of the timing variability indicated that a substantial amount of learning occurred in the first hour of practice and declined afterwards, exhibiting no trend for further decrease across the remaining 60 or 210 minutes. This effect was similar across effector, amount of feedback, and interval duration. Our results suggested that training effects influenced mainly motor precision and raised the question of whether motor timing training influenced also cognitive capacities.

    Study II investigated the relationship between motor timing and cognition. Specifically, participants had to train a sensorimotor synchronization task (SMS) over several days, and the question was whether this training would improve cognitive performance. A near transfer effect was found between the sensorimotor synchronization task and the sustained attention task, indicating that sustained attention is involved in motor timing.

    Study III compared the timing variability between the eyes and the hands, as a function of four different intervals, in order to examine whether these systems are temporally controlled by the same or different mechanism(s). The results showed several positive correlations in variability, between the eye and the finger movements, which, however, were significant only for the longer intervals. In addition, they were differences in variability between the eye and the hand, for the different interval durations.

    In general, the pattern of results from these studies suggested that voluntary motor timing is managed by overlapping distributed mechanisms and that these mechanisms are related to systems that manage cognitive processes, such as attention. The results partially explain the well-known relationships between cognitive ability and timing.

     

  • Abiib, Ahmed
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Johansson Garellick, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Haines Gärding, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Pojkar och Mäns heder - Finns den?: En kvalitativ studie om mäns utsatthet i hedersrelaterade förhållanden.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Orahim, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lordini, Narin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    “En socialtjänst utan själ”: En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares beskrivningar av sin psykosociala arbetsmiljö på en barnenhet.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utgår från rapporter och studier om att arbetsmiljön bland socialsekreterare som arbetar inom socialtjänsten med ärenden som rör barn, inte är tillfredsställande. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur de intervjuade socialsekreterarna på barnenheten vid de valda socialtjänsterna beskriver sin psykosociala arbetsmiljö. Ambitionen med studien är att åskådliggöra samt bidra till en utökad och fördjupad kunskap om den psykosociala arbetsmiljön utifrån de intervjuade socialsekreterares beskrivningar. Tidigare forskning har visat att för hög stress är väldigt förekommande inom de aktuella enheterna och i samband med ett bristande stöd för de anställda kan detta i sin tur leda till att många socialsekreterare inom barnenheten väljer att sjukskriva sig och i värsta fall säga upp sig från arbetsplatsen. Tidigare studier påvisar även den psykosociala arbetsmiljöns brister inom socialtjänsten samt vilka konsekvenser det har för socialsekreterares välmående.

    Studien har en kvalitativ abduktiv ansats och har genom en meningskoncentrering som analysmetod tolkat den insamlade empirin. Empirin visade att den psykosociala arbetsmiljön var väldigt påfrestande och stressfull vilket bidrog till att flera intervjupersoner många gånger behövde jobba över eller ta med sig sitt arbete hem. Intervjupersonerna beskrev även en maktlöshet över att inte kunna påverka sin arbetssituation. Slutsatsen är att intervjupersonerna på socialtjänsten inom barnenheten beskriver att de har en hög arbetsbelastning som i sin tur bidrar till stress och press hos intervjupersonerna.

  • Marklund, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Förekommer sekundär traumatisering bland professionella i arbetet med traumatiserade människor?: En kvalitativ studie om påverkan av traumatiserade berättelser2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fenomenet sekundär traumatisering är främst utforskat i USA, och är ett relativt okänt begrepp i Sverige. Denna studie undersöker om sekundär traumatisering förekommer bland svenska professionella som möter traumatiserade individer i sitt arbete. Det empiriska underlaget består av fyra kvalitativa intervjuer. Intervjupersonerna valdes ut genom snöbolls/kedjeurval respektive subjektivt urval. Kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes som analysmetod av det empiriska materialet. Resultatet visar att det förekommer symtom som kan förklaras som sekundär traumatisering men är svårt att fastställa eftersom begreppet är komplext och saknar  tydliga gränser mellan redan vedertagna liknande fenomen som utbrändhet och motöverföring. Oavsett hur fenomenet rubriceras visar resultatet att det finns ett problem där professionella inte har nog med kunskap om vilka risker detta fält kan medföra och hur det påverkar det professionella- och inte minst det privata välbefinnandet. De främsta organisatoriska skyddsfaktorerna ansågs vara handledning, kollegialt stöd och tid för reflektion. Socialt stöd från nära relationer nämnes som en privat skyddsfaktor. Copingstrategier som nämnes var fysisk aktivitet, positivt förhållningssätt och bibehålla ett socialt liv. Personlig terapi framfördes som ett förslag till egenvård.

  • Gwatidzo, Shingai Douglas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Diabetes mellitus medication use and catastrophic healthcare expenditure among adults aged 50+ years in China and India: results from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)2017In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, no 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Expenditure on medications for highly prevalent chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in financial impoverishment. People in developing countries and in low socioeconomic status groups are particularly vulnerable. China and India currently hold the world's two largest DM populations. Both countries are ageing and undergoing rapid economic development, urbanisation and social change. This paper assesses the determinants of DM medication use and catastrophic expenditure on medications in older adults with DM in China and India.

    METHODS: Using national standardised data collected from adults aged 50 years and above with DM (self-reported) in China (N = 773) and India (N = 463), multivariable logistic regression describes: 1) association between respondents' socio-demographic and health behavioural characteristics and the dependent variable, DM medication use, and 2) association between DM medication use (independent variable) and household catastrophic expenditure on medications (dependent variable) (China: N = 630; India: N = 439). The data source is the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 (2007-2010).

    RESULTS: Prevalence of DM medication use was 87% in China and 71% in India. Multivariable analysis indicates that people reporting lifestyle modification were more likely to use DM medications in China (OR = 6.22) and India (OR = 8.45). Women were more likely to use DM medications in China (OR = 1.56). Respondents in poorer wealth quintiles in China were more likely to use DM medications whereas the reverse was true in India. Almost 17% of people with DM in China experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure on medications compared with 7% in India. Diabetes medication use was not a statistically significant predictor of catastrophic healthcare expenditure on medications in either country, although the odds were 33% higher among DM medications users in China (OR = 1.33).

    CONCLUSIONS: The country comparison reflects major public policy differences underpinned by divergent political and ideological frameworks. The DM epidemic poses huge public health challenges for China and India. Ensuring equitable and affordable access to medications for DM is fundamental for healthy ageing cohorts, and is consistent with the global agenda for universal healthcare coverage.