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  • Kjellstrand, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Samar, Ouf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Brand Building in Born Global Firms: The role of digitalization in brand building in young B2B Born Global companies internationalization2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to create a deeper understanding of the impact of digitalization on branding and brand building in the internationalization of B2B Born Global SMEs.

    Design/methodology: The methods used were a mixed qualitative methodology including both interviews and open-ended surveys. With an explorative and descriptive purpose, this study aimed to deliver depth and specific knowledge. The sample companies were young SME, B2B companies in northern Sweden that either was, or are likely to become Born Global companies in the near future.

    Findings: All companies saw networking as important in their early steps of internationalization rather than using digital channels. However, as they developed their business some of them changed this network strategy towards digital or co-branding strategies. All Born Global companies use digital channels to promote their brand to some extent. Resource scarcity and trust are two common issues for Born Global companies, which both can be overcome by using, networks, co-branding and digital channels.

    Research implications and limitations: The two main contributors to B2B Born Global internationalization are networks and digital channels, preferably combined, or in a combination with co-branding. Digitalization improves the Born Globals brand building and internationalization by providing an opportunity to overcome the scarcity of resources. Since this is a qualitative study, it is based on a limited number of Born Global start-ups, which makes it hard to suggest large generalizations of the findings and the analysis.

    Practical implications: Practitioners that are starting a B2B company with an aim to go global in short time period should consider both brand building and how they use digital channels at an early stage. A conceptual model is created, emphasizing on important aspects of four stages in brand building in B2B Born Globals.

    Originality: To our knowledge the first study focusing on the role of digitalization in Born Global branding and brand building. Moreover the study contributes to brand building literature regarding SMEs and B2B companies. 

  • Isak, Nilsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broprojektering med visuell programmering2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis project is to investigate if it is possible to create a parametrically modifiable model in Tekla using visual programming. This procedure is then compared to traditional modeling to find out whether it is a viable alternative or not. The report starts with describing the bridge type chosen for the project, as well as describing the methods and different programs used during the work process. Thereafter follows an account of the "visual program" that has been developed where each part of the program is described in order for the reader to gain a deeper understanding of the approach. Then follows a discussion where the different delimitations and results are discussed.

  • Bengtsson, Karin
    et al.
    Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Box 480405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lie, Elisabeth
    Klingberg, Eva
    Dehlin, Mats
    Exarchou, Sofia
    Lindstrom, Ulf
    Askling, Johan
    Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.
    Are ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events?: A prospective nationwide population-based cohort study2017In: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 19, 102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To investigate the risk of first-time acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA), compared to each other and to the general population (GP).

    Methods: This is a prospective nationwide cohort study. Cohorts with AS (n = 6448), PsA (n = 16,063) and uSpA (n = 5190) patients and a GP (n = 266,435) cohort, were identified 2001–2009 in the Swedish National Patient and Population registers. The follow-up began 1 January 2006, or 6 months after the first registered spondyloarthritis (SpA) diagnosis thereafter, and ended at ACS/stroke/VTE event, death, emigration or 31 December 2012. Crude and age- and sex-standardized incidence rates (SIRs) and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for incident ACS, stroke or VTE, respectively.

    Results: Standardized to the GP cohort, SIRs for ACS were 4.3, 5.4 and 4.7 events per 1000 person-years at risk in the AS, PsA and uSpA cohort, respectively, compared to 3.2 in the GP cohort. SIRs for stroke were 5.4, 5.9 and 5.7 events per 1000 person-years at risk in the AS, PsA and uSpA cohort compared to 4.7 in the GP cohort. Corresponding SIRs for VTE were 3.6, 3.2 and 3.5 events per 1000 person-years at risk compared to 2.2 in the GP cohort. Age-and sex-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for ACS events were significantly increased in AS (1.54 (1.31–1.82)), PsA (1.76 (1.59–1.95)) and uSpA (1.36 (1.05–1.76)) compared to GP. Age-adjusted HRs for ACS was significantly decreased in female AS patients (0.59 (0.37–0.97)) compared to female PsA patients. Age-and sex-adjusted HRs for stroke events were significantly increased in AS (1.25 (1.06–1.48)) and PsA (1.34 (1.22–1.48)), and nonsignificantly increased in uSpA (1.16 (0.91–1.47)) compared to GP. For VTE the age-and sex-adjusted HRs for AS, PsA and uSpA were equally and significantly increased with about 50% compared to GP.

    Conclusions: Patients with AS, PsA and uSpA are at increased risk for ACS and stroke events, which emphasizes the importance of identification of and intervention against cardiovascular risk factors in SpA patients. Increased alertness for VTE is warranted in patients with SpA.

  • Östergren, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energiutredning av en hälsocentral samt förbättringsarbete av modulen Energi & Miljö i DeDU2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggnadssektorn är en av de tre största områdena inom världens energianvändning och den står för ungefär en tredjedel av den totala energianvändningen. Det är därför av stor vikt att byggnadssektorn effektiviseras för en mer hållbar framtid.

    I det här examensarbetet var syftet att utföra en energiutredning på en hälsocentral med hjälp av energistatistik från modulen Energi & Miljö i WSP:s egenutvecklade programvara DeDU. Den andra delen i arbetet var att med erfarenheter från energiutredningen undersöka hur modulen Energi & Miljö kan förbättras för att bättre uppmärksamma dess användare på energianvändning.

    Energiutredningen utfördes med hjälp av konstruktionsritningar och energistatistik från DeDU för total fjärrvärmeanvändning, total elanvändning samt timvärden för elanvändningen. Fördelning mellan fastighetsel och verksamhetsel togs fram med hjälp av statistik från studien STIL2 utförd av Energimyndigheten. Det visade sig att Hörnefors hälsocentral är relativt energieffektiv sett till andra liknande fastigheter. Byggnadens klimatskal visade sig vara bra med ett Umedel på 0,45 W/m2K. Av de energieffektiviseringsförslag som togs fram visade det sig att förslaget med störst besparingspotential är byte av 2-glasfönster till 3-glasfönster.

    Förbättringsarbetet av modulen Energi & Miljö i DeDU utfördes genom en enkätundersökning, en workshop samt en undersökning av befintliga energirapporter för att ta fram förslag på nya rapporter. Från enkätundersökningen framkom det att de tillfrågade kunderna generellt är nöjda med modulen Energi & Miljö men att det finns önskemål om en del förbättringsförslag. Tre förslag på nya energirapporter kopplade till DeDU togs fram. Huvudsakliga tanken bakom förslag 1 och 2 var att ge kunderna möjlighet att lättare göra jämförelser mellan olika fastigheter/byggnader samt jämförelse av energianvändningen för samma fastighet/byggnad. Tanken med förslag 3 var att ge möjlighet att uppskatta olika verksamheters fördelning mellan fastighetsel och verksamhetsel. Slutligen kan det konstateras att det är fördelaktigt att presentera färdig förbättringsförslag, då de flesta kunder inte själva vet vad de behöver eller vad som saknas.

  • Fries, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Uneven Image Point Distribution in Camera Pre-Calibration and its Eects on 3D Reconstruction Errors2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In camera pre-calibration, images of a calibration object are commonly used to determine the internal geometry of a camera. The calibration imaging is often optimized to have the calibration object cover as large image area as possible. This is likely to yield a larger concentration of measured image points near the center of the image sensor. In this report, the hypothesis is investigated that this non-uniform image point distribution results in a sub-optimal calibration. An area-based reweighting scheme is suggested to improve the calibration. Additionally, the effect of a choice between a 2D and a 3D calibration object is investigated.

    A simulation study was performed where both a standard and area-weighted pre-calibration scheme was used in a parallel and a convergent scene. The estimated uncertainty and true errors were computed and compared to the first order predictions and results of perfect calibrations. The area-based calibration showed no reduction in estimation errors. Furthermore, the 3D calibration object did not give a noticeable improvement. However, for the standard and area-based calibrations, the true errors surpassed the estimated uncertainties by up to 26 and 58 percent, respectively.

  • Lantto, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nötningsrigg för länkkrokar: Länkkrokar för band på skogsmaskiner2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project was based on the development of a wear/fatigue rig for link hooks for Olofsfors AB. The goal was to find a solution for this and at a later stage also produce a prototype. The link hooks currently have a significantly shorter life than the rest of the construction. The purpose of the rig is to be able to compare materials against each other in the future, thus developing a better link system.

    In order to solve the problem and understand it, an analysis of the character of the wear is required. Careful studies were done before the actual work started. After that, the project went through two phases. The first phase was to develop a concept and phase two was then to realize this concept in a 3D prototype.

    The result ultimately did not meet the goals before the end of the course but is on the right track. There is a well-developed concept in form of a 3D prototype. The remaining work before a real prototype can begin to be manufactured is to review and reinforce the design where needed.

  • Bågling, Maximilian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Navigating to real life objects in indoor environments using an Augmented Reality headset2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented Reality (AR) headmounts are an rising technology with great chances to be a common gadget used by a lot of people in the near future. With the rise of this technology, new possibilities opens up on how to combine the interaction of the real world together with the virtual world. This thesis meets some of these upcoming interaction questions in terms of indoor navigation. The thesis introduces an approach for designing and implementing an AR-based system that is able to let users navigate around an indoor environment to find various real life objects while using an Augmented Reality headmount. The thesis also discusses how to personalize the navigation to different users in different environments. A proof-of concept was implemented and evaluated with several users inside different indoor environments, e.g., a real food store, where the results showed that users were more effective finding objects while using the AR-based system, compared to when not using the AR-basedsystem.

  • Gimbergsson, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Bättre ett kulturhus vid hamnen än tio byar i skogen?: En analys av texter från Umeå kommun med avseende på framställningen av landsbygd och stad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Debatten om staden och landsbygden har på senare år vuxit sig stark och många menar att det landsbygden och staden varken är eller porträtteras som jämlikar, och att obalansen dem emellan är till stadens fördel. Uppsatsens syfte är därför att undersöka hur landsbygden och staden framställs i myndighetstext. Syftet specificeras och utvidgas med följande frågeställningar: Vad ’gör’ landsbygden och staden? Hur framställs de i sina deltagarroller i processer? Hur beskrivs landsbygden och staden? Vilka egenskaper och karaktärsdrag tillskrivs de i bestämningarna när de är huvudord i nominalfraser? Hur beskrivs relationen mellan landsbygden och staden? Är maktförhållandet jämlikt eller ojämlikt? Umeå kommuns översiktsplan och dess tematiska tillägg för landsbygden analyseras utifrån dessa frågeställningar med metoderna processanalys, semantisk analys och kritisk diskursanalys. Resultatet visar att bilden av staden uppvisar tydliga drag av centrum och bilden av landsbygden tydliga drag av periferi, men delar av resultatet pekar dock mot en mer nyanserad skildring. I uppsatsens avslutning resoneras kring hur texternas framställning av stad och landsbygd kan påverka samhällsutvecklingen i Umeå kommun.

  • Brändström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The Silent Sick. Life-Histories of 19th Century Swedish Hospital Patients1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 343-368 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Frisk, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Real-Time Vehicle Trails in Deformable Terrain2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One way to make racing games more realistic is to have the vehicles in the game deform the terrain and leave permanent trails when driving them. This master thesis presents algorithms and theories about generating those trails behind the vehicles in real-time applications. The proposed trail system is based on Bézier curves to represent and store the path of the trails. All the steps in the algorithm needed to create the trail and handle some of the edge cases are explained in detail. The game called Snow Moto Racing Freedom by Zordix, which is used for testing and implementing the solutions, is covered as well. The finished trail system has both been implemented as a CPU and as a GPU based version, where the two implementations have been tested to see which one is the most effective in the game used.

    The report is summarized with a list of extensions which can be used to further develop and enhance the trail system. It ends with a summary of the project as a whole with some advices for a similar projects.

  • Rurangirwa, Akashi Andrew
    et al.
    Mogren, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia
    Ntaganira, Joseph
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Determinants of poor utilization of antenatal care services among recently delivered women in Rwanda: a population based study2017In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 17, 142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Rwanda, a majority of pregnant women visit antenatal care (ANC) services, however not to the extent that is recommended. Association between socio-demographic or psychosocial factors and poor utilization of antenatal care services (<= 2 visits during the course of pregnancy irrespective of the timing) among recently pregnant women in Rwanda were investigated. Methods: This population-based, cross sectional study included 921 women who gave birth within the past 13 months. Data was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. For the analyses, bi-and multivariable logistic regression was used and odds ratios were presented with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: About 54% of pregnant women did not make the recommended four visits to ANC during pregnancy. The risk of poor utilization of ANC services was higher among women aged 31 years or older (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.78), among single women (AOR, 2.99; 95% CI: 1.83, 4.75) and women with poor social support (AOR, 1.71; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.67). No significant associations were found for school attendance or household assets (proxy for socio-economic status) with poor utilization of ANC services. Conclusion: Older age, being single, divorced or widowed and poor social support were associated with poor utilization of ANC services. General awareness in communities should be raised on the importance of the number and timing of ANC visits. ANC clinics should further be easier to access, transport should be available, costs minimized and opening hours may be extended to facilitate visits for pregnant women.

  • Grieve, Adrian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of diet quality and quantity on resource use, growth and fatty-acid composition of a benthic generalist consumer.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in quality and quantity of food resources can affect consumer productivity responses throughout the food chain, particularly the efficiency at which basal resources are converted to consumer biomass. I performed a manipulative feeding experiment to investigate the somatic growth and fatty acid incorporation in the benthic generalist isopod Asellus aquaticus, in response to differing ratios of autochthonous (high quality algae) to allochthonous (low quality leaf litter) foods. I used stable isotopes to quantify the assimilated diet proportions across a range of diet treatments to determine the relative resources that contributed to growth. There were significant differences in growth between treatments, being lowest in treatments A (100% leaf litter) and G (100% algae), with highest growth experienced in treatment B (90% leaf litter/ 10% algae). Stable isotope data revealed that there was very little variation in algal assimilation among combined diet treatments. Fatty acids (FA) indicators eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):total FA and EPA:omega 3 (ω3) FA and arachidonic acid (ARA):total FA declined with increasing growth and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA):ω3 showed a positive relationship with growth. These findings provide support for previous feeding trials conducted with Asellus, though there are some contrasts with zooplankton. The results suggest a balance between allochthonous and autochthonous dietary sources combine to enhance primary consumer fitness, and the relative availability of each may interact to determine growth and accumulation of important FA compounds. In terms of FA and trophic transfer, temporal and spatial variation in consumer physiological demands might determine the retention and use of FA.

  • Kostet, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Månsson, Kim
    Utveckling av ett sydsamiskt fonemtest2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Andersson Kronlid, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Björklund, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Narrativ förmåga i återberättande hos elever med svag textförståelse i åk 22017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Much of children’s spontaneous communication is in the form of storytelling. By examining micro- and macrostructures in retelling, different aspects of linguistic ability can be mapped. Children with poor text comprehension show weakness in many linguistic areas and an appropriate analysis can serve as a basis for identifying individuals who need support, as well as guidance for intervention.

    Aim. The first part of this study investigates micro- and macrostructural differences in narrative retelling between students with and without poor text comprehension. The second part investigates narrative retelling by students identified with poor narrative quality.

    Methods. In the first part of the study, retellings from second grade students were analyzed at micro- and macrostructural levels. In the second part, a qualitative analysis of the retellings based on these levels was performed.

    Results. In part 1, no significant differences between the groups were observed. However, students with poor text comprehension tended to have a higher linguistic productivity in their retellings and students with good text comprehension had more complex structures. Part 2, it was found that the students with poor narrative quality tended to summarize the story and exclude parts.

    Conclusions. Students with language difficulties are not a homogeneous group. Hence, an intervention needs to be adapted to the needs of the student. Further, the results indicate that a short intervention has the potential to equalize possible differences in narrative retelling between students with and without poor text comprehension. 

  • Zäll, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Electroplating of selective surfaces for concentrating solar collectors2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The optical properties of the absorber pipe in a parabolic trough collector isessential for the performance of the solar collector. The desirable propertiesare high absorptance (α) of solar radiation and low emittance (ε) of thermalradiation. A surface with these properties is known as a solar selective surface. There are several techniques used to produce selective surfaces, but one of the most common ones is electroplating. Research done by Vargas, indicates that optical properties of α = 0.98 and ε = 0.03 [1], which is superior to the best commercial alternatives (α = 0.95 and ε = 0.04 [2]), can be achieved by electroplating a Co-Cr coating on a stainless steel substrate. Additionally, Vargas used an electrolyte of trivalent chromium dissolved in a deep eutectic solvent, as opposed to the traditionally used aqueous electrolytes containing hexavalent chromium, which is toxic and carcinogenic.

    In this project, a coating of Co-Cr was electroplated on a stainless steel substratewith a method similar to that of Vargas in order to obtain a solar selective surface. The electrolyte was composed of ethylene glycol, choline chloride, CrCl3•6H2O and CoCl2•6H2O in a molar ratio of 16:1:0.4:0.2. The plating process was conducted using chronoamperometric electrodeposition with an applied potential of -1.2 V (against an Ag/AgCl reference electrode) for 15 min. The system was investigated using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The total absorptance was measured using UV-Vis spectroscopy, while the emittance was measured using an IR-thermometer. The microstructure and chemical composition was investigated using Scanning ElectronMicroscopy (SEM), Focused Ion Beam (FIB), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the coating was investigated by exposingit to 400°C in air for 24 h.

    The electroplated coating is approximately 2.8 μm thick and exhibits a porousstructure with a surface of fine fiber-like flakes. The coating consists largely of Co hydroxides with low concentrations of Cr compounds, Co oxides and metallic Co. Hence, a satisfactory co-deposition was not accomplished, as the Cr concentration is low. The coating is not thermally stable up to 400°C, exhibiting signs of at least partially melting in the annealing process. The compounds in the coating were largely oxidized in the process. The electroplated surface does however exhibits strong selectivity, with a total solar absorptance of α = 0.952 and total emittance of ε = 0.32 at 160°C.

  • Gunnarsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Förstärkning av utsatta delar av elnätet med lokala energisystem: En undersökning om lokala energisystem kan implementeras i elnätet för att öka leveranssäkerheten av el till öar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska elnätet har en mycket hög leveranssäkerhet på den el som skickas till kunderna och på många ställen kan elen levereras från flera håll till samma punkt. I utkanterna av elnätet som exempelvis öar, har inte elnätet samma säkerhet längre och om ett avbrott uppstår kan det vara vid dåligt väder. Framkomligheten blir svår och det kan ta tid att få dit en reparatör som kan laga felet.

    Syftet med det här arbetet var att undersöka om Umeå Energi Elnät (UEEN) skulle kunna använda sig av lokala energisystem för att motverka svåravhjälpta avbrott på öar och områden som är utsatta för den typen av avbrott, samt undersöka vilka komponenter som skulle krävas i en sådan lösning. Målet var att skapa ett lösningspaket som kan skalas om till olika antal abonnenter.

    Lösningen togs fram genom att först undersöka vilka komponenter som vanligtvis används i lokala energisystem. Därefter undersöktes och jämfördes komponenternas styrkor och svagheter med hjälp av fakta och resultat från vetenskapliga artiklar. De komponenter som inte var lämpade för den här typen av applikation eller som inte var tillräckligt bra, valdes successivt bort tills den bäst lämpade lösningen kvarstod. Den bästa lösningen blev ett litiumjonbatteri som laddas direkt av elnätet då den kräver lite underhåll, kan leverera höga effekter utan att ta skada och har en låg kapacitetsförlust. Anledningen till varför ingen lokal elproduktionsanläggning var med i lösningen beror på att ingen lösning är tillräckligt pålitlig för att kunna användas vid uppladdning av batterilagret och blir för stora om de ska användas till att göra ön självförsörjande. Detta beror på att de lösningar som är bäst lämpade som lokala elproduktionsanläggningar är för väderberoende och de lösningar som inte beror av vädret blir för stora och dyra för att vara rimliga alternativ.

    Storleksdimensioneringen av batterilagret skedde utifrån avbrottsstatistik för Umeås landsbygdsnät. Genom att göra en täthetsfördelning över landsbygdsnätets avbrottsstatistik kunde sedan den bästa fördelningsfunktionen passas in till det datat. Den fördelning som passade bäst till datat var en weibullfördelning som visade i sin kumulativa täthetsfunktion att drygt 80 % av alla avbrott som sker i ett område, pågår i tre timmar eller mindre. Genom att anta att avbrotten på öar också följer den här funktionen sånär som på att deras avbrott blir längre, kunde en dimensioneringsmetod tas fram. Metoden gick ut på att energilagret dimensioneras efter de tre på varandra följande timmar med högst energiförbrukning i ett givet område under ett år, vilket garanterar att strömförsörjningen kan täckas i tre timmar. Med tanke på att energiförbrukningen varierar mycket beroende på årstid och tid på dygnet kan batterilagret därför också klara mycket längre avbrott än tre timmar. Anledningen till varför just tre timmar valdes beror på att ett större energilager inte täcker upp så många procent fler avbrott än ett energilager på tre timmar och ett mindre energilager skulle inte klara tillräckligt långa avbrott. Det finns teknologier som inom några år kan ha mognat tillräckligt för att vara en bättre lösning än den som presenteras i den här rapporten, men den här lösningen är fortfarande tillräckligt bra för att kunna användas till att motverka långa avbrott och är en lösning som troligen skulle fungera länge efter att den installerats.

  • Johannisson, Karin
    Why Cure the Sick? Population Policy and Health Programs within18th-Century Swedish Mercantilism1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 323-330 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Castensson, Reinhold
    et al.
    Löwgren, Marianne
    Sundin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet.
    Urban Water Supply and Improvement of Health Conditions1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 273-298 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Kearns, Gerry
    The Urban Penalty and the Population History of England1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 213-236 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Scherer, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Performance and Scalability of Blockchain Networks and Smart Contracts2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The blockchain technology started as the innovation that powered the cryptocurrency Bitcoin. But in recent years, leaders in finance, banking, and many more companies has given this new innovation more attention than ever before. They seek a new technology to replace their system which are often inefficient and costly to operate. However, one of the reasons why it not possible to use a blockchain right away is because of the poor performance. Public blockchains, where anyone can participate, can only process a couple of transaction per second and is therefore far from usable in the world of finance. Permissioned blockchains is another type of blockchain where only a restricted set of users have the rights to decide what will be recorded in the blockchain. This allows permissioned blockchains to have a number of advantages over public blockchains. Most notably is the ability to split the network into segments where only a subset of nodes needs to validate transactions to aparticular application, allowing the use of parallel computing and better scaling. Moreover, the validating nodes can be trusted, allowing the use of consensus algorithm which offer much more through put.

    In this paper, we compare public blockchain with permissioned blockchain and address the notable trade-offs: decentralization, scalability and security, in the different blockchain networks. Furthermore, we examine the potential of using a permissioned blockchain to replace the old systems used in financial institutes and banks by launching a Hyperledger Fabric network and run stress tests.

    It is apparent that with less decentralization, the performance and scalability of Hyperledger Fabric network is improved and it is feasible that permissioned blockchain can be used in finance.

  • Bilander, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Transferring heterogeneous data from generic databases into a SQL database using HTTPPossibilities and Implementation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis investigates the possibility to create software that can synchronize heterogeneous data from generic databases through the Internet. To further enhance the conclusion, we implement a prototype that fetches data from numerous source system databases, and stores the data in another location, more accessible for processing. To achieve that, previous work with topics related to the area was inspected and analyzed. Based on the investigation, the implemented prototype uses a client-server approach which communicates with a REST-like design using JSON-strings and HTTP. This thesis and the resulting prototype proves that it is fully possible to create such software by combining and using existing protocols and frameworks.i

  • Sjödin, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Dolda budskap: En kvalitativ analys av tidningen FRIDA.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study's purpose is to use qualitative methods to analyze the image FRIDA conveys of reality through textual and visual communication. The study is interested in the ideals that are produced, how femininity, masculinity and sexuality are presented as well as how the content is mediated.

    The theories used in the study are mainly regarding representation, stereotypes and gender. This study involves the methods critical discours analysis based on Faircloughs threedimensional model and a semiotic analysis using expressions like denotation, connotation and myth.

    In summary, the study has shown that the magazine FRIDA hasn´t followed the objective that’s being conveyed as goals for its content. That to oppose normative values in society and to strengthen their readers. Instead, the mediated message is consistently lined with hegemonic thoughts and values regarding gender as well as sexuality.

  • Hedin, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Design and Implementation of Corporate Actions on a Decentralized Securities Depository2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trading securities is a process that requires multiple trusted intermediaries to ensure that the trade is done correctly. The securities industry is therefore very slow and expensive; the central securities depository (CSD) being one of the main contributors to the disruption. In an effort to fix this, financial institutions has recently started looking into the blockchain technology; the innovation behind the cryptocurrency Bitcoin. Bitcoin is a digital currency that can be traded peer-to-peer without the need for a trusted intermediary.

    If this concept could be used when trading securities it would simplify the process, making the settlement-time near instant. In addition to the speedup, it would also save the industry a lot of money since many processes could be automated.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the blockchain technology and its applications in the finance industry. The focus is on how a blockchain could be used to reduce the responsibility of the central securities depository as much as possible, and especially on how corporate actions could be automated. The goal is to answer these questions: Is blockchain a suitable platform for a decentralized corporate actions solution? Whatare the benefits and drawbacks of using a blockchain versus a traditional centralized solution?

    The aim is to provide an evaluation of the usage of blockchains in finance, with extra focus on the CSD and corporate actions

  • Olsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Kok, Eloise
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Herpes virus seroepidemiology in the adult Swedish population2017In: Immunity & Ageing, ISSN 1742-4933, E-ISSN 1742-4933, Vol. 14, 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Herpes viruses establish a life-long latency and can cause symptoms during both first-time infection and later reactivation. The aim of the present study was to describe the seroepidemiology of Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1), Herpes simplex type 2 (HSV2), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) and Human herpes virus type 6 (HHV6) in an adult Swedish population (35-95 years of age). Methods: Presence of antibodies against the respective viruses in serum from individuals in the Betula study was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Singular samples from 535 persons (53.9% women, mean age at inclusion 62.7 +/- 14.4 years) collected 2003-2005 were analyzed for the five HHVs mentioned above. In addition, samples including follow-up samples collected 1988-2010 from 3,444 persons were analyzed for HSV. Results: Prevalence of HSV1 was 79.4%, HSV2 12.9%, CMV 83.2%, VZV 97.9%, and HHV6 97.5%. Herpes virus infections were more common among women (p = 0.010) and a lower age-adjusted HSV seroprevalence was found in later birth cohorts (p < 0.001). The yearly incidence of HSV infection was estimated at 14.0/1000. Conclusion: Women are more often seropositive for HHV, especially HSV2. Age-adjusted seroprevalence for HSV was lower in later birth cohorts indicating a decreasing childhood and adolescent risk of infection.

  • Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Naesström, Matilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Deep brain stimulation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial forebrain bundle in a patient with major depressive disorder and anorexia nervosa2017In: Clinical Case Reports, E-ISSN 2050-0904, Vol. 5, no 5, 679-684 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key Clinical Message Deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be considered in severe cases of therapy-refractory major depressive disorder (MDD). However, DBS for MDD is still an experimental therapy. Therefore, it should only be administered in clinical studies driven by multidisciplinary teams, including surgeons with substantial experience of DBS in the treatment of other conditions.

  • Hällgren, Albin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Hur lokalproducerat går det att bygga i Skellefteå: How locally is it possible to build in Skellefteå2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry has made great progress when it comes to improving the energy performance in buildings. The focus should therefore now on be shifted to the manufacturing and transportation of building materials to gain further environmental advantages and lowering the need of energy.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the market of locally produced building materials in the vicinity of Skellefteå. The task is further to estimate the energy use and the carbon dioxide emissions the various building materials make during the manufacturing and transportation from the manufacturing plant to Skellefteå.

    Interviews with different manufacturer by email and telephone has been the method to obtaining the information in this report. The Environmental Product Declarations have been read for information on energy use and carbon dioxide emission for each building material.

    The results shows that it is possible to construct buildings with local materials in the most parts but you have too choose the right product, in this case wood and concrete. Many building materials that are manufactured in the neighborhood of Skellefteå are dependent on raw materials from other parts of in Sweden and Europe. 

  • Wikström, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Underhåll av privat förvaltade vägbroar i Y och Z -län2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are 392 different privately managed bridges in Västernorrland and Jämtland, which are eligible for government grants. The cost of building these bridges is very high, and the responsibility of managing them lies with their owners. There are several different damages that can affect bridges depending on type and material and the loading to which they are exposed. For a private road owner without sufficient knowledge of degradation processes that attack the bridges, it can be difficult to know what actions to take, and above all, when to take them. If management is not satisfactory, you will in the long-run risk a significantly more expensive management, and lose the road safety. By delaying, or refusing to replace the waterproofing, the whole bridge deck may need repairing or replacing a few years later. The cost of a complete repair of the bridge will be very high in relation to the cost of replacing the waterproofing. The purpose of this work is to create an understanding of how the total cost of maintenance depends on the bridge administration. The work will examine how to keeping the bridges in an approved state, and the costs are as low as possible. The report shows an estimated cost of repairing the damage to the bridges within 10 years to SEK 27.4 million. The estimated future cost is compared to the restoration costs for the bridges since 2009 and is estimated at SEK 16 million, which indicates a significant increase in maintenance costs for the bridges. The increased maintenance cost may be due to the aging of the bridges when almost two thirds of the bridges were built between 1947 and 1977, and the number of newly built bridges has since decreased. The rising cost can also be due to the lack of maintenance and the consequence is more extensive damage that becomes expensive to fix. From the work, it is concluded that the owner’s knowledge about privately managed bridges is often insufficient, which implies that sufficient maintenance measures are not performed. Combined with the aging of the bridges, it means more damage and a more expensive maintenance result.

  • Küth, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Job Insecurity and its Association with Specific Health and Well-Being Outcomes2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived job insecurity (JI) among employees is a common problem in our globalized economy that is characterized by competition and demands flexibility from both employees and employers. The existing literature presents a lot of evidence for the impact of JI on general physical health and psychological well-being outcomes, but asks for more longitudinal research on the impact of JI on specific outcomes, controlled for their baseline levels. The current study addresses this gap in existing research and investigates the associations between JI and diagnosed major depression, diagnosed acute stress, sleep quality, and the health-related behaviors of smoking and snussing in two Swedish samples from Stockholm and Norrland, over long time spans (up to 17 years for the Stockholm sub-sample). Data was obtained from the WOLF study. Results are mixed. For the Stockholm sub-sample, job insecurity correlates with most outcome measures except diagnosed stress, and predicts small shares of variance of sleep quality, the number of cigarettes participants smoke, and if participants use snus. The Norrland sub-sample replicates the impact of JI on general health and hints at a relationship between JI and sleep quality, but no other correlations with health-related behaviors or diagnoses were significant. Reasons for the differences among the sub-samples and limitations of the study are discussed.

  • Pfister, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Barn på flykt – temporärt rotlösa men aldrig röstlösa: En multimodal textanalys av tre samtida svenska bilderböcker2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att belysa flyktingbarnens porträttering i tre samtida svenska bilderböcker för barn i för- och grundskoleålder, som har flyktingbarnens öden som huvudtema. Fokus ligger på protagonisternas utveckling vid flyktresornas olika stadier. Härvid tas särskild hänsyn till föräldrarnas roll – vilken inverkan har de och huruvida befrämjar föräldrarna sina barns integrering i mottagarländerna?

    Undersökningens teoretiska ramverk bildar den multimodala textteorin (Kress & van Leeuwen 2004; Björkvall 2009). Denna baserar sig på den systemisk-funktionella grammatiken (Halliday & Matthiessen 2004; Holmberg & Karlsson 2006), som lägger tonvikt vid grammatikens betydelse och funktion i konkreta sociala sammanhang och som således öppnar upp för flera, jämlikt samverkande sociosemiotiska resurser; här är bild och skrift aktuella.

    Två övergripande delanalyser till varje bok täcker den ideationella, erfarenhetsmässiga metafunktionens transitiva och ergativa del. Visuellt och verbalspråkligt undersöks såväl kvantitativt som kvalitativt dels processtyper, transitiva deltagare och omständigheter, dels ergativa roller. En kvalitativ granskning av centrala karaktärers visuella framställning bidrar till att komma åt flyktingbarnens och föräldrarnas (lexikogrammatiska) funktioner, hur frekvent dessa uppträder, om och på vilket sätt dessa ömsesidigt påverkar varandra och huruvida de förändrar sig under händelseförloppen.  

    Kvantitativt visar resultaten att, avseende processbetydelser, den materiella typen överväger genomgående medan den relationella typen är mest sällsynt. Detta och den frekventa förekomsten av kringliggande plats- och tidsomständigheter ger berättelserna dynamiska, framåtskridande karaktärer, förankrade såväl spatialt som temporalt. Då protagonisternas andel som tillhörande transitiva förstadeltagare generellt är högst, ges intrycket av att läsaren följer barnens flyktresor – en tes, vilken inte minst protagonisternas frekventa förekomst som upplevare i den mentala typen stödjer. Medan barnens uppträdande ökar respektive konstant är högt, minskar föräldrarnas förekomst som transitiva förstadeltagare successivt med handlingarnas framskridande. Även en kvantitativ granskning av ergativa roller vittnar om föräldrarnas marginella totala andel i relation till sina barn som - vanligast igenom rollen Medium i position som förstadeltagare – framstår som ständigt närvarande och handlingskraftiga.

    Kvalitativt tillägger i synnerhet den visuella symboliska processtypen och den visuella omständigheten bakgrund en andra dimension. Vid sidan av den fysiska resan genomgår protagonisterna en mental resa, som får sitt synliga uttryck i symboliska attribut och bakgrundens skiftande färgsättning. Flyktingbarnen är igenkännbara, individualiseras således medan ingen förälder uppvisar jämförliga drag. I interaktion med jämnåriga utvecklar sig protagonisterna, erkänner för sig själv och andra barn sina känslor och förmår slutligen att integrera sig i mottagarländerna. Självständigt, oberoende av sina föräldrar, får flyktingbarnen genom berättelserna en röst och även den temporära avsaknaden av hemmen kompenseras då de lyckliga sluten medför att barnen vinner ett andra hem.

  • Grenehed, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    "Det blev viktigt att veta vad som var sann kristen tro": En ideationell textanalys av ett läroboksavsnitt om kristendomen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka hur kristendomen framställs i ett läroboksavsnitt i ämnet religion på högstadienivå. För detta har jag använt den systemisk-funktionella grammatikens ideationella analys och undersökt fördelningen av processtyper, textens förstadeltagare samt positionerna för karaktärer relaterade till kristendomen. Analysen visar att kristna människor ofta förekommer som förstadeltagare och därmed framställs som aktiva i texten. Däremot förekommer karaktären Gud, och till viss del resten av treenigheten, framför allt i ganska abstrakta processer, och framstår på så sätt som ett mer abstrakt fenomen än kristna. Detta blir särskilt tydligt om man jämför med karaktären kejsar Konstantin, som är en drivande förstadeltagaren i texten. Detta kan kopplas till läroplanens mål om en icke-konfessionell skola och tolerans. I användningen av pronomenen man respektive vi kan man dock ana en vag antydan till att kristendomen kopplas till människor i dåtid medan människor i nutid antas vara icke-troende, men det skulle krävas en utförligare analys än den ideationella för att bekräfta en sådan hypotes.

  • Huuva, Christopher
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Miljöcertifiering i ett subarktiskt klimat2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is a comprehensive urban transformation going on in Kiruna and Malmberget. The two towns need to be moved to continue mining iron ore. The first building in the new centre in Kiruna is a new city hall named Kristallen. To build more sustainable and to secure that the building fulfils high standard within energy, indoor climate and built with good materials and quality, the municipality of Kiruna has the ambition to certify Kristallen with Miljöbyggnad level Silver.

    The purpose with this thesis has been to increase the knowledge of certification with Miljöbyggnad in a subarctic climate. To understand how Kristallen fulfils the requirements in Miljöbyggnad, documents including simulation- and calculation results has been collected and analysed. People that have been working with the project was interviewed in order to examine if Kiruna and its subarctic climate has meant some difficulties with the certification with Miljöbyggnad.

    The results of this study shows that some of the interviewed persons experienced some difficulties to fulfil the requirements for indicator solar heat load, fraction of energy carriers, thermal climate summer and daylight. The difficulties were considered mostly because of the solar insolation and the midnight sun that occur during the summer period in Kiruna. All of the interviewed people experienced that the certification resulted in higher building costs but agreed that Kristallen fulfils high standard within energy, indoor climate and quality.

    Miljöbyggnad is a complex subject that is depending on many factors when deciding if the certification results in higher building costs, added values for the building or difficulties with the certification. This study shows experienced difficulties and factors that results in higher building costs for just one building in a subarctic climate. Therefore, more studies about certification with Miljöbyggnad in similar climate should be done to decide if the climate or a buildings design is the reason for the experienced difficulties. 

  • Baker, Taleb
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Molecular Computer Simulations of Graphene oxide intercalated with methanol: Swelling Properties and Interlayer Structure2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lindmark, Isak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Mediacentral för skogsmaskiner: Ny konstruktion för Komatsu Forest AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Komatsu Forrest AB have a demand for a media solution where the user can select between different input sources as well as output channels. The input sources are Radio, Bluetooth, AUX, two microphones and PC. The system shall also be able to mix sound from an ANC unit (Active Noise Control). Due to the demands from the company, the system must be able to be digitally controlled. The goal is to present a concept that offers the solution for these demands.To specify the needs from the user a dialog with employees with more knowledge about the user’s use have resulted in a table. From this a technical design has been created and resulted in a technical design requirement. With the design structure as a base, simulations have been done. After the structure has been verified by simulations a prototype with the basic functions have been designed and programmed and verified to clarify the function.Simulations and measurements have shown that the design works as desired. The result shows that the unit can meet the requirements set by the company in a user-friendly manner. The project has resulted in different solutions and these evaluated for pros and cons compared to the chosen solution.

  • Borg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ny modell av lyftpunkt: En teoretisk och praktisk utredning av dess bärförmåga2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lättelement AB designs and manufactures building elements in the form of ceilings, walls and floor tiles for the Nordic market. The majority are roof elements and the main market is Sweden. Each element has 4 lifting points. Lifting points are used for lifting elements, pulling together elements as well as attachment for fall protection equipment. Lättelement AB has designed a new model of lifting point that they want tested and intend to replace the current lifting point if the new model has the same or better capacity.

    The purpose of this work is to investigate if the new model of lifting point manages the forces that arise during its applications. This new model would facilitate the manufacture and assembly of lifting points.

    According to the theoretical calculations, the new model of lifting point would have better capacity than the current one. During tensile testing, unforeseen material failure were shown and the practical values ​​were significantly lower than expected. After tensile testing, the load capacity was calculated based on the current material failure and it was found that the calculations and test results are relatively well matched. Based on the requirements set for the new model of lifting point, the desired strength values ​​are not achieved to replace the current model.

    However, this work is a good basis for further development of the lifting point. Now it is known what happens at the material failure for this kind of lifting point. It provides an opportunity to construct a lifting point that will handle the desired capacity while at the same time being flexible from a production engineering perspective. 

  • Mäkelä, Mikko
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Division of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, SE- 90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Edler, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Geladi, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Low-temperature drying of industrial biosludge with simulated secondary heat2017In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 116, 792-798 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drying is an energy-intensive unit operation and future sludge dryers should be able to take advantage of the secondary energy of industrial environments. This work reports the use of a pilot cyclone for drying biosludge at low temperatures and simulating the use of secondary waste heat. The pilot-scale experiments were performed according to an experimental design and the results interpreted using principal components and multiple linear regression. The dry solids content of processed sludge increased from 9 to 19-68% during the experiments with a predicted energy consumption of <1.7 kWh kri H2O. However, the combined energy consumption was 80-230% higher indicating that the efficiency of sludge drying was governed by the availability of secondary heat. Drying sludge to solid contents sustainable for fossil fuel replacement at pulp and paper mills could be performed with secondary heat at a temperature of 70 degrees C, a pilot-scale feeding capacity of 170 kg h(-1) and a corresponding energy consumption of 1.0 kWh kg(-1) H2O. The results suggest that the use cyclones could be an efficient option for future sludge drying at pulp and paper mills.

  • Kudrin, Pavel
    et al.
    Varik, Vallo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Oliveira, Sofia Raquel Alves
    Beljantseva, Jelena
    Santos, Teresa Del Peso
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Dzhygyr, Ievgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Rejman, Dominik
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Tenson, Tanel
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Subinhibitory Concentrations of Bacteriostatic Antibiotics Induce relA-Dependent and relA-Independent Tolerance to beta-Lactams2017In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 61, no 4, e02173-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nucleotide (p) ppGpp is a key regulator of bacterial metabolism, growth, stress tolerance, and virulence. During amino acid starvation, the Escherichia coli (p) ppGpp synthetase RelA is activated by deacylated tRNA in the ribosomal A-site. An increase in (p) ppGpp is believed to drive the formation of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells, prompting the development of strategies to inhibit (p) ppGpp synthesis. We show that in a biochemical system from purified E. coli components, the antibiotic thiostrepton efficiently inhibits RelA activation by the A-site tRNA. In bacterial cultures, the ribosomal inhibitors thiostrepton, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline all efficiently abolish accumulation of (p) ppGpp induced by the Ile-tRNA synthetase inhibitor mupirocin. This abolishment, however, does not reduce the persister level. In contrast, the combination of dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor trimethoprim with mupirocin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol leads to ampicillin tolerance. The effect is independent of RelA functionality, specific to beta-lactams, and not observed with the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin. These results refine our understanding of (p) ppGpp's role in antibiotic tolerance and persistence and demonstrate unexpected drug interactions that lead to tolerance to bactericidal antibiotics.

  • Deutgen, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Forsberg, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Planeringsprogram för kassettlastningen på SCA Sourcing & Logistics AB i Umeå: Ett planeringsprogram baserat på heuristiska Bin Packing-algoritmer och dagens manuella planeringsmetoder2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SCA Sourcing & Logistics in Umeå is a transport and logistics company that is a part of SCA Forest Products. This company transports, for example, kraftliner reels on roro-vessels to terminals in the northern part of Europe. Before each departure from the terminal in Umeå a planning process is carried out where each kraftliner reel is assigned to a goods carrier called a cassette. The planning process is carried out manually without any planning program making it time consuming, especially when the loading plan needs to be adjusted after completion. Further, there are certain operational safety risks when loading the reels due to the manual nature of the planning process. At another terminal within SCA Sourcing & Logistics in Sundsvall a planning program for cassette loading is used, but this program is not adapted for the terminal in Umeå.

     

    The purpose of the project has been to make the planning process for the cassette loading at SCA Sourcing & Logistics in Umeå more efficient by creating a planning program for the cassette loading at the terminal. The purpose has also been to show how today’s planning process can be developed with the benefit of a planning program. The program has been written in Visual Basic, and it is based on an in-depth analysis of today´s planning process and includes various modified heuristic Bin Packing algorithms. The program generates loading plans with higher-than-average weight per cassette compared to the corresponding manual loading plan. This is at the expense of more unique reel types per cassette. The planning program decreases the planning time from several hours to under one minute and it can be adjusted to prioritize high weight per cassette or few unique reel types per cassette. It gives each reel a position on the cassettes, which decreases the probability of mistakes when the cassettes are loaded. Further, the project has shown the possible gain that can be realized when the allowed maximum weight of the cassettes is increased, the profitability of shipment routes that have higher-than-average weight per cassette and proposes suggestions on how the role of the planner can be developed in the future.

  • Dejby, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Capturing continuous human movement on a linear network with mobile phone towers2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymous Call Detail Records (CDR’s) from mobile phone towers provide a unique opportunity to aggregate individual location data to overall human mobility patterns. Flowminder uses this data to improve the welfare of low- and middle-income countries. The movement patterns are studied through key measurements of mobility. This thesis seeks to evaluate the estimates of key measurements obtained with mobile phone towers through simulation of continuous human movement on a linear network. Simulation is made with an agent based approach. Spatial point processes are used to distribute continuous start points of the agents on the linear network. The start point is then equipped with a mark, a path with an end point dependent on the start point. A path from the start point to the end point of an agent is modeled with a Markov Decision Process. The simulated human movement can then be captured with different types of mobile phone tower distributions realized from spatial point processes. The thesis will initially consider homogeneous Poisson and Simple Sequential Inhibition (SSI) processes on a plane and then introduce local clusters (heterogeneity) with Matérn Cluster and SSI processes. The goal of the thesis is to investigate the effects of change in mobile phone tower distribution and call frequency on the estimates of key measurements of mobility. The effects of call frequency are unclear and invite more detailed study. The results suggest that a decrease in the total number of towers generally worsens the estimates and that introducing local clusters also has a negative effect on the estimates. The presented methodology provides a flexible and new way to model continuous human movement along a linear network.

  • Lindvall, Hannah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Öhman, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Lagstadgat krav på hållbarhetsrapportering: En kvalitativ studie om vad det nya lagkravet medfört för effekter och förändringar för företag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ämnet hållbarhet diskuteras ständigt i media och medvetenheten för ett globalt samhällsansvar ökar alltmer hos både konsumenter och företag. Många svenska företag bedriver idag något slags arbete med hållbarhet samt redovisar om det på olika sätt. Dock bemöts företagens hållbarhetsrapporter med viss kritik och skepticism, då somliga anser att den bara används för att skönmåla verksamheten och att den därmed inte känns trovärdig.

     

    I syftet att öka transparensen i företags hållbarhetsrapporter, samt göra dessa jämförbara beslutade Sveriges regering den 1 december år 2016 om ett nytt lagkrav på hållbarhetsrapportering i Årsredovisningslagen. Lagkravet innebär att företag som uppfyller vissa villkor måste upplysa om specifika frågor angående deras hållbarhetsarbete. I och med lagkravet uppstår en diskussion kring vad detta får för konsekvenser. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vad det nya lagkravet på hållbarhetsrapportering gett för effekter och förändringar hos organisationer. Författarna ämnar att genom en kvalitativ undersökning studera hur fyra företags tidigare val och agerande inom hållbarhet samt hur deras syn på lagkravet påverkat de effekter och förändringar som lagkravet medfört. Utifrån syftet och den forskningsfråga författarna ämnar att besvara har den institutionella-, legitimitets- och intressentteorin, samt tidigare forskning inom ämnet inkluderats i studiens teoretiska referensram.

     

    Den empiriska datan har insamlats genom intervjuer och utifrån analysen av denna indikerar det övergripande resultatet på att lagkravet inte medfört några större effekter eller några omfattande förändringar hos företagen, men de effekter och förändringar som författarna kan se är dels att hållbarhet fått en ökad uppmärksamhet i företagsledningen och styrelsen, samt att dessa fått en ökad medvetenhet om hållbarhet. Lagkravet har till viss mån medfört att hållbarhetsarbetet blivit mer integrerat i organisationernas verksamhet, att fler personer blivit involverade samt att ansvaret blivit mer utspritt. Till viss mån prioriteras rapporteringen högre då mer resurser tillsätts och arbetet med rapporten startar i ett tidigare skede samt utförs med en större noggrannhet.

     

    Resultatet tyder vidare på att lagkravet medfört förändringar och effekter i liten utsträckning. Det tyder på att anledningen till att företagen inte ser något behov av att utvidga eller förbättra sitt arbete till följd av lagkravet är för att företagen är nöjda med sitt arbete samt anser att de idag redan arbetar i tillräcklig omfattning. Vidare indikerar resultatet på att företagens tidigare val och agerande inom området samt hur de ställer sig till lagkravet till hög grad påverkat de effekter och förändringar som kravet medfört.

     

    Nyckelord: Lagkrav, Hållbarhetsredovisning, Effekter, Förändringar, Hållbarhetsarbete. 

  • Jonzén, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Designing for diversity: A tablet-based ePRO system to assist stroke rehabilitation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, a web- and tablet-based ePRO system to assist stroke rehabilitation was developed in an iterative and user-centered design process involving elderly and people with personal and professional experience of stroke. A limited part of a paper-based PRO questionnaire was transitioned into the developed electronic format and evaluated on five stroke patients using a qualitative usability testing approach, including observation and feedback through discussion and a post-test questionnaire. The results indicated that a tablet-based ePRO questionnaire could be both usable and applicable in this target group, with a majority of the patients preferring it over the paper-based questionnaire. Furthermore, the findings suggest tapping problems and cognitive overload to be specifically considered when designing ePROs for this target group, which may also benefit from a certain level of adaptivity to achieve personalized user interfaces and increased accessibility.

  • Svahn, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Att tala eller tiga?: Om kritik och dess konsekvenser för lärare inom skolans organisation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of overall democratic and normative values for Swedish education, including freedom of expression, the aim of this study was to examine how teachers’ critical comments on a school organization at upper secondary level (post-16 education) can be received and possible implications for teachers who express such criticism and for the school organization. The questions focused on criticism in relation to the core values of education and freedom of expression, in a policy context of marketization of the Swedish school system. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study; empirical data were collected from depth interviews with five teachers in two different municipalities in different parts of the country. The theoretical framework regarding criticism as a Phenom is based on the model of the whistle-blowing process by Miceli & Near (1992) and Hedin et. al. (2008). The informants’ statements are interpreted from two normative ethical theories: a deontological and a teleological perspective. Possibilities and limitations for criticism are looked upon in relation to the economic management ideology of New Public Management. The study identifies a critic process which is linked to the ideology and the school governance; in particular, in relation to the school and the school's Educational Marketization adjustment. It also shows on retaliation for the teachers - in this case study, among others, negative salary developments, redeployment but also shutdowns and buyouts. The interviewed teachers often had high confidence and high status within the school but the whistle-blowing process changed their position as self-confidence and hollowed working drive. Critical implications regarding the school's organization remained unchanged in four of five cases. The study notes, finally, that in today's school there seem to be two parallel discourses; one of speaking up and another of silence. Furthermore, the study indicates that the two discourses shape different kinds of loyalty structures in a kind of reward and punishment system.

  • Brunefeldt, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Mitt eget ansvar för lärande: Hur ser elever på eget ansvar och motiv till att ta ansvar?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns mycket forskning kring vad som visar sig vara bra för elevers lärande och hur vi ska arbeta för att komma dit men inte mycket kring hur eleven tar eget ansvar för sitt lärande. Jag valde att göra en studie baserad på skriftliga intervjuer skapade i ett enkätformulär med fasta och öppna frågor presenterade i diagram och löpande text.

    En övergripande punkt som resultatet visade är att eleverna vill ha ett tydligt ramverk kring vad som förväntas av dem i skolarbetet. Eleverna vill även ha variation i undervisningen och att den ska vara autentisk. De vill ha inflytande i vilka ämnen som undervisningen baseras på. För att elever ska ta mer eget ansvar behöver de motivation i form av tron på sin egen kapacitet, den yttre och inre motivationen, det sociala samspelet och självkänsla och för det behöver läraren vara tydlig i vad som krävs av dem, planera sin undervisning väl, skapa en varierad och intressant undervisning som eleven kan ta till sig och som leder utvecklingen framåt. 

  • Mehret Teku, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Nyanlända elevers studieframgång: En studie om möjligheter och hinder2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har gjort en undersökning om nyanlända elevers studieframgång. Det jag ville titta och komma närmare var, aspekter och fenomen som kan ha betydelse för nyanlända elever studieframgång.

    Jag har intervjuat de som sysslar med yrket d. v. s ämneslärarna, studiehandledarna och språkutvecklarna. Det har varit en intressant process att få möjlighet samtala och prata med intervjudeltagarna och få deras synpunkter om ämnen som är ytterst aktuella.

    Jag anser att jag har lyckats tydliggöra de faktorer som kan påverka nyanlända elevers lärandesituationer.

    Undersökningens resultat visar deltagarnas uppfattningar om möjligheter och hinder som finns i den verksamhet de verkar i.

    Intressanta fenomen tydliggörs i undersökningen. Organisatoriska faktorer, kartläggning och betydelse av samarbete var viktiga aspekter i undersökningen. I arbetet framkom resultat som har associationer med ledningsfråga, kompetens, arbetsformer och samarbete.

  • Edeblom, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Högläsning som pedagogiskt verktyg: Förskollärares syn på högläsning2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att bidra med kunskap angående förskollärares förhållande till högläsning. I studien gjordes kvalitativa intervjuer med yrkesverksamma förskollärare, där frågorna handlade om deras syfte, metodik och material för högläsning. Förskollärarna i studien arbetade med högläsning med språkligt, socialt, emotionellt, identitetsskapande och styrdokumentsuppfyllande syfte samt för vila och lugn. Högläsningslitteraturen lånades oftast på bibliotek och oftast med barnens hjälp. De böcker som lånades var oftast kopplade till barns inflytande eller till projekt och tema. Vad gäller själva läsmomentet så visade pedagogerna i studien framförallt tankegångar kring placering av barn, läsare och bok, men också själva läshörnans placering. Resultatet visade även på vissa svårigheter för intervjupersonerna att förklara på vilket sätt högläsningen var språkutvecklande, motsättningar mellan avskildhet och öppna platser för högläsning, knapp användning av analytiska boksamtal och vikten av barnens delaktighet vid bibliotekslån.

  • Silier, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Kamratbedömning och självbedömning i hem- och konsumentkunskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka och analysera om och hur framförallt kamratbedömning men även självbedömning används i ämnet hem- och konsumentkunskap med fokus på lärarens inställning. Metoden som används är halvstrukturerade intervjuer och en enkät. Sju lärare från sex skolor intervjuades om deras uppfattning och användning kring metoden kamratbedömning och självbedömning i ett praktisk-estetiskt ämne.

    Studien visar att självbedömning används av alla intervjuade och många respondenter av enkäten. Kamratbedömning används i mindre utsträckning såväl av de intervjuade än av dem som svarade på enkäten. Det kom fram att det finns många sätt att genomföra kamratbedömning i ämnet samt att det finns bra möjligheter eftersom ämnet naturligt bjuder på autentiska bedömningssituationer. Svårigheten som uppfattas som störst hinder i att använda metoderna är trygghetskänslan i gruppen eller klassen samt den strama tidsramen som anses finnas i ämnet.

    En slutsats utifrån studien är att att kamrat- och självbedömning är metoder som används och är mycket användbara i hem- och konsumentkunskap. De används dock inte i den graden som det skulle kunna vara, eftersom tidsaspekten och tryggheten i klassrummet sätter hinder.

  • Matti, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Communication – the road to innovation: A qualitative case study of a municipality's use of social media for innovation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media for innovation have been used by organizations all over the world to involve users in the innovation process. However, it has not been studied to a great extent within the public sector. The public sector context is different from other organization and focus on innovation to improve citizens’ service. This study aims to investigate how the public sector uses social media for innovation purposes, by conducting semi-structured interviews with employees at a municipality. The study showed that the public sectors adoptions of social media in their innovation process are sporadically applied. It showed that they do involve users in innovation, but mainly through face-to-face meetings. Communication is the common denominator in both the innovation procedures and the social media usage within the public sector. In conclusion, communication can be the road to innovation for the public sector.

  • Hassan, Ahmed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Knowledge Sharing in IT consultancy firms: Exploring the knowledge sharing mechanisms in small IT consultancy firms2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge management is a key avenue for consulting firms to ensure survival and maintain competitive advantage. Prior research has focused on many different aspects of knowledge sharing in IT firms and projects. However, even when the importance of KS is acknowledged in IT consulting firms, little is known about how the mechanisms look like inside these firms. The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge sharing mechanisms in small IT consulting firms or offices. Qualitative methods were used to approach the KS phenomenon, which involves six interviews that included senior consultants and managers from various firms. The results show that the small firms have a better advantage when it comes to sharing. Furthermore, that most knowledge sharing in these firms occur in an informal way since consultants prefer social interaction than using systems. Finally, the results show that a concept labelled as “Knowledge market” strongly exist in consultancy firms in small cities like Umeå.

  • Norman, Hans
    Comments on the Session Urban Disease and Mortality1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 173-178 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • B. Lindahl, B. Ingemar
    On Weighting Causes of Death. An Analysis of Purposes and Criteria of Selection1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändstöm and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 131-156 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Jonėnaitė, Ema
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Wärja, Izabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Are you a Mind Full or a Mindful consumer?: A case study exploring which factors influence the mindful consumption mindset and behavior of Swedish students2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to contribute to existing gap in the literature regarding mindful consumption, which is the fundamental subject of this thesis. The research is focused on the identification of factors that influence the sense of caring in Swedish student’s mindset and temperance in their behavior with respect to mindful consumption. The literature search revealed that these factors are yet to be identified. Therefore, the present study aims to contribute to existing gap in literature by exploring Swedish students’ mindful consumption and extracting the internal and external factors that influence it.

    Research Methodology: By conducting an in-depth case study analysis, the present research relied on the application of mindful consumption framework in order to accomplish the above-mentioned purpose of the research. The present paper was conducted by applying a qualitative research strategy. A total of six in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and the collected data were further analyzed by applying thematic analysis method for qualitative data analysis in which the data were first coded and later these codes were analyzed and grouped together in order to develop themes that would further indicate the factors that influence the sense of caring in mindset and temperance in behavior among Swedish students.

    Findings: The findings have revealed that internal and external factors influence mindful consumption mindset and behavior of Swedish students. Furthermore, it was revealed that these factors highly interact which each other and together reinforce mindful consumption mindset and behavior. The findings further revealed that mindful consumption needs to be further promoted by governments, the media, lobby institutions and other organizations, especially because people view it as important and capable of contributing and changing current unsustainable consumption patterns.