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  • Edvardsson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia.
    Baxter, Rebecca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Corneliusson, Laura
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Anderson, Ruth A.
    Beeber, Anna
    Boas, Paulo Villas
    Corazzini, Kirsten
    Gordon, Adam L.
    Hanratty, Barbara
    Jacinto, Alessandro
    Lepore, Michael
    Leung, Angela Y. M.
    McGilton, Katherine S.
    Meyer, Julienne
    Schols, Jos M. G. A.
    Schwartz, Lindsay
    Shepherd, Victoria
    Skoldunger, Anders
    Thompson, Roy
    Toles, Mark
    Wachholz, Patrick
    Wang, Jing
    Wu, Bei
    Zuniga, Franziska
    Advancing Long-Term Care Science Through Using Common Data Elements: Candidate Measures for Care Outcomes of Personhood, Well-Being, and Quality of Life2019In: Gerontology and geriatric medicine, E-ISSN 2333-7214, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To support the development of internationally comparable common data elements (CDEs) that can be used to measure essential aspects of long-term care (LTC) across low-, middle-, and high-income countries, a group of researchers in medicine, nursing, behavioral, and social sciences from 21 different countries have joined forces and launched the Worldwide Elements to Harmonize Research in LTC Living Environments (WE-THRIVE) initiative. This initiative aims to develop a common data infrastructure for international use across the domains of organizational context, workforce and staffing, person-centered care, and care outcomes, as these are critical to LTC quality, experiences, and outcomes. This article reports measurement recommendations for the care outcomes domain, focusing on previously prioritized care outcomes concepts of well-being, quality of life (QoL), and personhood for residents in LTC. Through literature review and expert ranking, we recommend nine measures of well-being, QoL, and personhood, as a basis for developing CDEs for long-term care outcomes across countries. Data in LTC have often included deficit-oriented measures; while important, reductions do not necessarily mean that residents are concurrently experiencing well-being. Enhancing measurement efforts with the inclusion of these positive LTC outcomes across countries would facilitate international LTC research and align with global shifts toward healthy aging and person-centered LTC models.

  • ter Beek, Josy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Parkash, Vimal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Bylund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Osterman, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Sauer-Eriksson, A. Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Structural evidence for an essential Fe–S cluster in the catalytic core domain of DNA polymerase ϵ2019In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 5712-5722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DNA polymerase ϵ (Pol ϵ), the major leading-strand DNA polymerase in eukaryotes, has a catalytic subunit (Pol2) and three non-catalytic subunits. The N-terminal half of Pol2 (Pol2CORE) exhibits both polymerase and exonuclease activity. It has been suggested that both the non-catalytic C-terminal domain of Pol2 (with the two cysteine motifs CysA and CysB) and Pol2CORE (with the CysX cysteine motif) are likely to coordinate an Fe–S cluster. Here, we present two new crystal structures of Pol2CORE with an Fe–S cluster bound to the CysX motif, supported by an anomalous signal at that position. Furthermore we show that purified four-subunit Pol ϵ, Pol ϵ CysAMUT (C2111S/C2133S), and Pol ϵ CysBMUT (C2167S/C2181S) all have an Fe–S cluster that is not present in Pol ϵ CysXMUT (C665S/C668S). Pol ϵ CysAMUT and Pol ϵ CysBMUT behave similarly to wild-type Pol ϵ in in vitro assays, but Pol ϵ CysXMUT has severely compromised DNA polymerase activity that is not the result of an excessive exonuclease activity. Tetrad analyses show that haploid yeast strains carrying CysXMUT are inviable. In conclusion, Pol ϵ has a single Fe–S cluster bound at the base of the P-domain, and this Fe–S cluster is essential for cell viability and polymerase activity.

  • Johansson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Lindberg, Lene
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Protein-Reduced Complementary Foods Based on Nordic Ingredients Combined with Systematic Introduction of Taste Portions Increase Intake of Fruits and Vegetables in 9 Month Old Infants: A Randomised Controlled Trial2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods but under-consumed among infants and children. Approaches to increase their intake are urgently needed. This study investigated the effects of a systematic introduction of taste portions and a novel protein-reduced complementary diet based on Nordic foods on fruit and vegetable intake, growth and iron status to 9 months of age. Healthy, term infants (n = 250) were recruited and randomly allocated to either a Nordic diet group (NG) or a conventional diet group (CG). Infants were solely breast- or formula-fed at study start. From 4 to 6 months of age, the NG followed a systematic taste portions schedule consisting of home-made purées of Nordic produce for 24 days. Subsequently, the NG was supplied with baby food products and recipes of homemade baby foods based on Nordic ingredients but with reduced protein content compared to the CG. The CG was advised to follow current Swedish recommendations on complementary foods. A total of 232 participants (93%) completed the study. The NG had significantly higher intake of fruits and vegetables than the CG at 9 months of age; 225 ± 109 g/day vs. 156 ± 77 g/day (p < 0.001), respectively. Energy intake was similar, but protein intake was significantly lower in the NG (−26%, p < 0.001) compared to the CG. This lower protein intake was compensated for by higher intake of carbohydrate from fruits and vegetables. No significant group differences in growth or iron status were observed. The intervention resulted in significantly higher consumption of fruits and vegetables in infants introduced to complementary foods based on Nordic ingredients.

  • Mtintsilana, Asanda
    et al.
    Micklesfield, Lisa K.
    Chorell, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Shivappa, Nitin
    Hebert, James R.
    Kengne, Andre P.
    Goedecke, Julia H.
    Adiposity Mediates the Association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index and Markers of Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Middle-Aged Black South African Women2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dietary inflammatory index (DII®), a validated tool used to measure the inflammatory potential of the diet, has been associated with metabolic disorders in various settings, but not in African populations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the DII is associated with markers of type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, and if this association is mediated by adiposity and/or low-grade inflammation, in black South Africa women. Energy-adjusted-DII (E-DII) scores were calculated in 190 women (median age, 53 years) from the Birth-to-Twenty plus cohort using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and inflammatory cytokines were measured, and an oral glucose tolerance test performed. Basic anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived body fat, including estimate of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area, were measured. E-DII scores were associated with all markers of T2D risk, namely, fasting glucose and insulin, HbA1c, HOMA2-IR, two-hour glucose and Matsuda index (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, measures of adiposity, but not inflammatory cytokines, mediated the association between E-DII and markers of T2D risk (p < 0.05). Measures of central obesity had proportionally higher (range: 23.5–100%) mediation effects than total obesity (range: 10–60%). The E-DII is associated with T2D risk through obesity, in particular central obesity, among black middle-aged South African women.

  • Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Tornberg, Rasmus
    Böröy, Jan
    Effects of Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) on Sport-Specific Dispositional Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, and Self-Rated Athletic Performance in a Multiple-Sport Population: an RCT Study2019In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1518-1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine mediating effects of emotion regulation and sport-specific dispositional mindfulness on self-rated athletic training performance, following the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) intervention, compared to a Psychological Skills Training (PST) control group.

    Methods: Sixty-nine competitive elite athletes who did not have any prior experience with mindfulness- and acceptance-based exercises, were recruited and randomly assigned into either a MAC group or a traditional PST group. Latent growth curve analyses were performed to examine longitudinal relationships among the study variables. Mediation analyses were conducted to test if the growth trajectory of each of the proposed mediators mediated the relationship between the intervention and perceived performance (measured at T3).

    Results: Findings showed that the MAC intervention had an indirect effect on self-rated athletic training performance through changes in dispositional mindfulness and emotion regulation respectively. Further, the MAC- group obtained greater post-test improvements in athletic mindfulness, emotion regulation abilities, and perceived performance compared to the PST group.

    Conclusions: Overall, findings suggest that dispositional athletic mindfulness and emotion regulation may function as important mechanisms in MAC, and that the MAC approach is a more effective intervention compared to the PST condition in reducing emotion regulation difficulties, as well as enhancing sport-relevant mindfulness skills and perceived athletic training performance in elite sport.

  • Ahlqvist, Viktor H.
    et al.
    Persson, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Tynelius, Per
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Berglind, Daniel
    Birth weight and grip strength in young Swedish males: a longitudinal matched sibling analysis and across all body mass index ranges2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 9719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low birth weight is associated with a lower grip strength later in life. However, associations between birth weight among infants born at-term and factors driving associations between birth weight and grip strength are largely unknown. A cohort of 144,369 young men born at-term, including 10,791 individuals who had at least one male sibling/s, were followed until conscription where they performed a grip strength test. We used linear and non-linear regression analyses in the full cohort, and fixed-effects regression analyses in the sibling cohort, to address confounding by factors that are shared between siblings. After adjustment, each unit increase in birth weight z-score was associated with increases of 17.7 (95% CI, 17.2-18.2) and 13.4 (10.1-16.6) newton grip strength, which converts to approximately 1.8 and 1.4 kilogram-force in the full and within-families cohorts, respectively. The associations did not vary with young adulthood BMI. Birth weight, within the at-term range, is robustly positively associated with grip strength in young adulthood among men across all BMI categories and associations appears to be mainly driven by factors that are not shared between siblings. These findings underline the importance of recognizing the influence of low birth weight, also within the at-termrange, on young adulthood muscle strength.

  • Åström, Jeanette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Att särskilja en stickblödning från subaraknoidal blödning vid likvoranalys: Ett underlag för en korrektionsformel som kan kompensera för bilirubinökning i likvor till följd av en stickblödning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sundell, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Uppsättning av flow-FISH-metod för bedömning av relativ telomerlängd2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Seger, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Hel genom associationsstudie av densitet hos gran: Tre funna QTL som kontrollerar densiteten hos ung vårved2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Gullberg, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Omklassificering och bekräftelse av automatiskt klassificerade korta singel-avlednings EKG: Bedömning av manuella och automatiska metoder med fokus på detektion av förmaksflimmer2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Block, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    En jämförande neurografisk studie: Hur mätparametrar för utvärdering av neurofysiologisk sjukdom påverkas vid olika vinklar på armbågen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Chauhan, Deepika
    et al.
    Srivastava, Pulkit Anupam
    Ritzl, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Yennamalli, Ragothaman M.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Priyadarshini, Richa
    Amino Acid-Dependent Alterations in Cell Wall and Cell Morphology of Deinococcus indicus DR12019In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, article id 1449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deinococcus radiodurans exhibits growth medium-dependent morphological variation in cell shape, but there is no evidence whether this phenomenon is observed in other members of the Deinococcaceae family. In this study, we isolated a red-pigmented, aerobic, Deinococcus indicus strain DR1 from Dadri wetland, India. This D. indicus strain exhibited cell-morphology transition from rod-shaped cells to multi-cell chains in a growth-medium-dependent fashion. In response to addition of 1% casamino acids in the minimal growth medium, rod-shaped cells formed multi-cell chains. Addition of all 20 amino acids to the minimal medium was able to recapitulate the phenotype. Specifically, a combination of L-methionine, L-lysine, L-aspartate, and L-threonine caused morphological alterations. The transition from rod shape to multi-cell chains is due to delay in daughter cell separation after cell division. Minimal medium supplemented with L-ornithine alone was able to cause cell morphology changes. Furthermore, a comparative UPLC analysis of PG fragments isolated from D. indicus cells propagated in different growth media revealed alterations in the PG composition. An increase in the overall cross-linkage of PG was observed in muropeptides from nutrient-rich TSB and NB media versus PYE medium. Overall our study highlights that environmental conditions influence PG composition and cell morphology in D. indicus.

  • Sandström, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Hållbarhetsstudie av arton analyter i klinisk kemisk vardag: Plasmaprovets hållbarhet i centrifugerade primärrör förvarade vid rumstemperatur och kyla2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Johansson, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Utformning av tabletter med förlängd frisättning av ibuprofen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Zhang, Wei
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Robertson, William Brett
    Zhao, Jinmin
    Chen, Weiwei
    Xu, Jiake
    Emerging Trend in the Pharmacotherapy of Osteoarthritis2019In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, ISSN 1664-2392, E-ISSN 1664-2392, Vol. 10, article id 431Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disorder and one of the most prevalent diseases among the elderly population. Due to the limited spontaneous healing capacity of articular cartilage, it still remains challenging to find satisfactory treatment for OA. This review covers the emerging trends of pharmacologic therapies for OA such as traditional OA drugs (acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), intra-articular injections of corticosteroids, and dietary supplements), which are effective in pain relief but not in reversing damage, and are frequently associated with adverse events. Alternatively, disease-modifying drugs provide promising alternatives for the management of OA. The development of these emerging OA therapeutic agents requires a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of OA progression. The process of cartilage anabolism/catabolism, subchondral bone remodeling and synovial inflammation are identified as potential targets. These emerging OA drugs such as bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), fibroblast growth factor-18 (FGF-18), human serum albumin (HSA), interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitor, h-Nerve growth factor (beta-NGF) antibody, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MERE) and inverse agonist of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (ROR alpha) etc. have shown potential to modify progression of OA with minimal adverse effects. However, large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are needed to investigate the safety and efficacy before translation from bench to bedside.

  • Berggren, Kevin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Metodvalidering av IGF-1 med ECLIA på Cobas e601 system2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Elebrink, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Utveckling av en in vitro-modell för studier av sekundärt immunsvar mot Francisella tularensis2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Kumar, Vikash
    et al.
    Hainaut, Matthieu
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    Mannapperuma, Chanaka
    Immerzeel, Peter
    Street, Nathaniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Henrissat, Bernard
    Mellerowicz, Ewa J.
    Poplar carbohydrate-active enzymes: whole-genome annotation and functional analyses based on RNA expression data2019In: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) catalyze the formation and modification of glycoproteins, glycolipids, starch, secondary metabolites and cell wall biopolymers. They are key enzymes for the biosynthesis of food and renewable biomass. Woody biomass is particularly important for long-term carbon storage and as an abundant renewable natural resource for many industrial applications. This study presents a re-annotation of CAZyme genes in the current Populus trichocarpa genome assembly and in silico functional characterization, based on high-resolution RNA-Seq data sets. Altogether, 1914 CAZyme and expansin genes were annotated in 101 families. About 1797 of these genes were found expressed in at least one Populus organ. We identified genes involved in the biosynthesis of different cell wall polymers and their paralogs. Whereas similar families exist in poplar and Arabidopsis thaliana (with the exception of CBM13 found only in poplar), a few families had significantly different copy numbers between the two species. To identify the transcriptional coordination and functional relatedness within the CAZymes and other proteins, we performed co-expression network analysis of CAZymes in wood-forming tissues using the AspWood database () for Populus tremula. This provided an overview of the transcriptional changes in CAZymes during the transition from primary to secondary wall formation, and the clustering of transcripts into potential regulons. Candidate enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides were identified along with many tissue-specific uncharacterized genes and transcription factors. These collections offer a rich source of targets for the modification of secondary cell wall biosynthesis and other developmental processes in woody plants.

  • Chen, Genqiang
    et al.
    Wu, Guochao
    Chen, Lin
    Wang, Wei
    Hong, Feng F.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Comparison of productivity and quality of bacterial nanocellulose synthesized using culture media based on seven sugars from biomass2019In: Microbial Biotechnology, ISSN 1751-7907, E-ISSN 1751-7915, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 677-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Komagataeibacter xylinus ATCC 23770 was statically cultivated in eight culture media based on different carbon sources, viz. seven biomass‐derived sugars and one sugar mixture. The productivity and quality of the bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) produced in the different media were compared. Highest volumetric productivity, yield on consumed sugar, viscometric degree of polymerization (DPv, 4350–4400) and thermal stability were achieved using media based on glucose or maltose. Growth in media based on xylose, mannose or galactose resulted in lower volumetric productivity and DPv, but in larger fibril diameter and higher crystallinity (76–78%). Growth in medium based on a synthetic sugar mixture resembling the composition of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate promoted BNC productivity and yield, but decreased fibril diameter, DPv, crystallinity and thermal stability. This work shows that volumetric productivity, yield and properties of BNC are highly affected by the carbon source, and indicates how industrially relevant sugar mixtures would affect these characteristics.

  • Landfors, Hedda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Ämnesövergripande undervisning relaterat till kost och hälsa i svenska grundskolor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Bakgrund I Sverige stöds individens hälsa bl. a. genom undervisning i grundskolan, där målet är att varje elev ska få förståelse för livsstilens betydelse för hälsan. Enligt läroplanen ska undervisning samordnas så att eleverna kan uppfatta kunskaper som en helhet och rektor har ansvar att initiera ämnesövergripande kunskapsområden. Forskning kring ämnesövergripande arbeten och lärande visar att ett arbetssätt där eleven möter kunskap som en helhet kan ge eleven djupare kunskaper och även handlingskompetenser.

    Syfte Undersökningens syfte var att studera förekomst och eventuella hinder för genomförande av ämnesövergripande arbeten inom kost och hälsa i svenska grundskolor.

    Metod Studien var en kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie, genomförd med en webbaserad enkät våren 2014 riktad till lärare i hem- och konsumentkunskap, idrott och hälsa, biologi, kemi och fysik.

    Resultat Ämnesövergripande arbeten inom kost och hälsa förekom i 40 % av skolorna och förekomsten var oberoende av årskurs, ämne och lärares kön. Största hindren för genomförande var tid till planering och schemaläggning och lärare i åk 7-9 upplevde schemaläggning som ett större hinder än lärare i de andra stadierna. Kvinnliga lärare upplevde tid till planering som ett större hinder än manliga lärare.

    Slutsats Lärarna i studien upplevde tid till planering och schemaläggning som de största hindren för ämnesövergripande arbete. Att få fler skolor att arbeta ämnesövergripande kring kost och hälsa skulle kunna möjliggöras om lärares arbete kring administration och ordningsfrågor minskades och rektor fick förfoga över mer av lärarnas förtroende tid för organisering och planering. Genom att de ingående skolämnenas arbetssätt och gemensamma ämnesinnehåll har goda förutsättningar att integrera kost- och hälsokunskaper som en helhet, skulle det främja elevernas möjlighet att implementera goda handlingsrutiner för hållbara matvanor och öka förståelsen för livsstilens betydelse för hälsan.

  • Shirokova, Liudmila S.
    et al.
    Chupakov, Artem V.
    Zabelina, Svetlana A.
    Neverova, Natalia V.
    Payandi-Rolland, Dahedrey
    Causserand, Carole
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC).
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    Humic surface waters of frozen peat bogs (permafrost zone) are highly resistant to bio- and photodegradation2019In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 16, no 12, p. 2511-2526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to the large number of studies on humic waters from permafrost-free regions and oligotrophic waters from permafrost-bearing regions, the bio- and photolability of DOM from the humic surface waters of permafrost-bearing regions has not been thoroughly evaluated. Following standardized protocol, we measured biodegradation (at low, intermediate and high temperatures) and photodegradation (at one intermediate temperature) of DOM in surface waters along the hydrological continuum (depression -> stream -> thermokarst lake -> Pechora River) within a frozen peatland in European Russia. In all systems, within the experimental resolution of 5% to 10 %, there was no bio- or photodegradation of DOM over a 1-month incubation period. It is possible that the main cause of the lack of degradation is the dominance of allochthonous refractory (soil, peat) DOM in all waters studied. However, all surface waters were supersaturated with CO2. Thus, this study suggests that, rather than bio- and photodegradation of DOM in the water column, other factors such as peat pore-water DOM processing and respiration of sediments are the main drivers of elevated pCO(2) and CO2 emission in humic boreal waters of frozen peat bogs.

  • Nyström, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, Australia.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wigforss, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Are physical activity and sedentary behavior related to depression?2019In: COGENT PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 1633810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is an increasing public health concern with rising prevalence. Nevertheless, far from everyone seeks help or receives adequate treatment. Although psychotherapy and antidepressants still constitute the bulk of treatments offered, recent research suggests that physical activity (PA) can be a powerful adjunct therapy while sedentary behavior (SB) is a definite risk factor for developing depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PA, SB and depressive symptoms in a population (n = 962) of applicants for an online treatment study. This study hypothesised that there will be; (1) a positive relationship between SB and depressive symptoms, and (2) a negative relationship between PA and depressive symptoms. In addition we investigated whether the combination of a sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity increased the risk for depressive symptoms. Finally, we also examined whether gender, age, marital status, educational level, or medication affected the relationship between PA, SB, and depressive symptoms. The results showed a positive correlation between SB and depression. There was, however, no statistically significant support for a negative relation between PA and depressive symptoms. Even though no conclusions about causality can be drawn, our results suggest that high SB, being a woman, being young, not being in a stable relationship, and current or previous medication are risk factors for depression. To be able to determine the causal direction, that is, whether high SB increases the risk for depressive symptoms, or if depressive symptoms increase the likelihood of high SB, further research is needed.

  • Reichard, Felix
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Söderlind, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    TRANSTEORETISKA MODELLEN OCH FYSISK AKTIVITET: EN UTVÄRDERING AV STADIUMANPASSAD VÄGLEDNING2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To promote both physical and mental health, reduce the risk of lifestyle-related diseases and prevent premature death, the World Health Organization recommends that adults aged 18-64 should participate in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity or 75-minute vigorous- intensity physical activity per week. In Sweden, more than one third of the population is physically inactive and there is a need for more effective methods to increase physical activity at the community level. The purpose of this study was to examine how the participants in the different stages of change differed in terms of the constructs in the Transtheoretical model (TTM), and whether a stage-matched intervention could contribute to increased psychological readiness and/or physical activity among participants in the Contemplation or Preparation stage. A survey followed by an intervention was conducted. The intervention was divided into two experimental groups and two control groups. For analysis purposes the two experimental groups (n = 32) and the two control groups (n = 49) were combined. The results showed that the stages of change were not completely separated from each other with respect to the constructs in TTM, and that the participants in the combined experimental group reported higher self-efficacy and fewer perceived Disadvantages after the intervention. In addition, an interaction effect for self-efficacy was demonstrated. Despite the study's limitations, the results show that stage-matched intervention has potential to increase self-efficacy and thus psychological readiness among the individuals who are in the Contemplation or Preparation stage.

    Keywords: Transtheoretical Model, physical activity, behavior change, e-mail.

  • Mamani-Ortiz, Yercin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Biomedical and Social Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, San Simon University, Aniceto Arce Avenue, 371 Cochabamba, Bolivia.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Armaza, Ada X.
    Luizaga, Jenny M.
    Illanes, Daniel E.
    Ferrel, Marcia
    Mosquera, Paola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Prevalence and determinants of cardiovascular disease risk factors using the WHO STEPS approach in Cochabamba, Bolivia2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are considered the number one cause of death worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries, Bolivia included. Lack of reliable estimates of risk factor distribution can lead to delay in implementation of evidence-based interventions. However, little is known about the prevalence of risk factors in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of preventable risk factors associated with CVDs and to identify the demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with them in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among youth and adults (N = 10,704) with permanent residence in Cochabamba, selected through a multistage sampling technique, from July 2015 to November 2016. An adapted version of the WHO STEPS survey was used to collect information. The prevalence of relevant behavioural risk factors and anthropometric measures were obtained. The socio-demographic variables included were age, ethnicity, level of education, occupation, place of residence, and marital status. Proportions with 95% confidence intervals were first calculated, and prevalence ratios were estimated for each CVD risk factor, both with crude and adjusted models.

    Results: More than half (57.38%) were women, and the mean age was 37.89 ± 18 years. The prevalence of behavioural risk factors were: current smoking, 11.6%; current alcohol consumption, 42.76%; low consumption of fruits and vegetables, 76.73%; and low level of physical activity, 64.77%. The prevalence of overweight was 35.84%; obesity, 20.49%; waist risk or abdominal obesity, 54.13%; and raised blood pressure, 17.5%. Indigenous populations and those living in the Andean region showed in general a lower prevalence of most of the risk factors evaluated.

    Conclusion: We provide the first CVD risk factor profile of people living in Cochabamba, Bolivia, using a standardized methodology. Overall, findings suggest that the prevalence of CVD risk factors in Cochabamba is high. This result highlights the need for interventions to improve early diagnosis, monitoring, management, and especially prevention of these risk factors.

  • Karling, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lundgren, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Eklöf, Vincy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Improved monitoring of inflammatory activity in patients with ulcerative colitis by combination of faecal tests for haemoglobin and calprotectin2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faecal calprotectin (FC) tests and faecal immunological tests (FIT) for haemoglobin have been used to monitor disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) but used alone they have some limitation concerning the predictive ability. We aimed to test if an FC test used in combination with FIT could improve the predictive ability. Consecutive out-patients with UC (n = 93) who were admitted for colonoscopy completed a single faecal sample before the start of bowel preparation. A quantitative CALPRO (R) calprotectin ELISA test and a qualitative FIT (cut-off < 40 ng/mL) were analyzed. An estimated Mayo score and a score of histological inflammation was performed blinded to the result of the faecal tests. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value for endoscopic inflammation (Mayo score > 1) was for FIT 85%, 83%, 96%, 57% and for FC > 186 mu g/g 73%, 87%, 87%, 54%. Corresponding results for FIT*FC > 186 mu g/g (at least one test positive) were 92%, 69%, 97%, 43%. For detecting moderate/severe histological inflammation the results were for FIT 69%, 79%, 92%, 43%, for FC > 75 mu g/g 95%, 62%, 98%, 41%, and for FIT*FC > 75 mu g/g 100%, 60%, 100%, 36%. None of the markers alone or in combination were useful to predict deep remission (Mayo score = 0 and no histological inflammation). We conclude that using the combination of an FC test and FIT shows minor improvement in predictive ability for inflammatory activity and remission in patients with UC.

  • Stenling, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Centre for Sport Policy and Politics, School of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Sam, Michael
    Professionalization and its consequences: how active advocacy may undermine democracy2019In: European Sport Management Quarterly, ISSN 1618-4742, E-ISSN 1746-031XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question: The paper aims to build knowledge on the trade-offs and unintended consequences of professionalization in the context of sport policy advocacy. Two questions are addressed: (1) What institutional roles make up the sport policy 'advocacy team' and what trade-offs are inherent in the formation of this team? (2) How do the unintended consequences of this trade-off precipitate a cross-level diffusion of professionalization? 

    Research methods: Data from interviews with 46 staff and elected representatives of 19 Swedish Regional Sport Federations form the empirical base. 

    Results and findings: The formation of the advocacy team points to an efficiency/democracy trade-off. An uninteded consequence of this is a cross-level difussion of professionalization that undermines the general standing of elected boards. 

    Implications: Management should consider the trade-offs inherent in professionalization reforms, because in some cases they may contain the seed of their own reconstruction and reflect ill-considered management practice. 

  • Joffer, Junia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Center for Clinical Research Dalarna-Uppsala University, Nissers väg 3, SE-791 82 Falun, Sweden.
    Flacking, Renee
    Bergström, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Randell, Eva
    Jerdén, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Center for Clinical Research Dalarna-Uppsala University, Nissers väg 3, SE-791 82 Falun, Sweden; School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, SE-791 88 Falun, Sweden.
    Self-rated health, subjective social status in school and socioeconomic status in adolescents: a cross-sectional study2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social position, traditionally measured by objective data on socioeconomic status (SES), is linked to health status in adults. In adolescents, the association is more uncertain and there are some studies suggesting that subjective social status (SSS) might be more adequate in relation to health. This study aimed to examine associations between SSS in school, SES and self-rated health (SRH) in adolescent boys and girls.

    Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional research design with quantitative survey data was used. The study involved 705 Swedish adolescents in upper secondary school (17–18-year-olds). SRH was measured with a single-item question and SSS by a question where adolescents were asked to assess their social position within their school. Formal education level of the parents was used as a proxy for objective SES. Univariable and multivariable ordinal regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between SRH and SSS in school and SES.

    Results: In the multivariable analysis, SSS in school was positively associated with SRH, whereas no significant association between SES and SRH was found. The proportion of adolescents with high SRH increased with higher steps on the SSS ladder. Significant gender differences were found in that boys rated their SRH and SSS in school higher than girls did.

    Conclusions: The study shows that self-rated health in adolescents is related to perceived social position in school. Subjective social status in school seems to be a useful health-related measure of social position in adolescents.

  • Overud, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Memory-making in Kiruna: Representations of Colonial Pioneerism in the Transformation of a Scandinavian Mining Town2019In: Culture Unbound. Journal of Current Cultural Research, ISSN 2000-1525, E-ISSN 2000-1525, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 104-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers colonial rhetoric manifested in representations of early settlement in the mining town of Kiruna in northernmost Sweden. Kiruna was founded more than 100 years ago by the LKAB Company with its centre the prosperous mine on Sami land. Continued iron ore mining has made it necessary to relocate the town centre a few kilometres north-east of its original location to ensure the safety of the people. The ongoing process of the town’s transformation due to industrial expansion has given rise to the creation of a memorial park between the town and the mine, in which two historical photographs have been erected on huge concrete blocks. For the Swedish Sami, the indigenous people, the transformation means further exploitation of their reindeer grazing lands and forced adaption to industrial expansion. The historical photographs in the memorial park fit into narratives of colonial expansion and exploration that represent the town’s colonial past. Both pictures are connected to colonial, racialised and gendered space during the early days of industrial colonialism. The context has been set by discussions about what Kiruna “is”, and how it originated.

    My aim is to study the role of collective memory in mediating a colonial past, by exploring the representations that are connected to and evoked by these pictures. In this progressive transformation of the town, what do these photographic memorials represent in relation to space? What are the values made visible in these photographs? I also discuss the ways in which Kiruna’s history becomes manifested in the town’s transformation and the use of history in urban planning. I argue that, in addressing the colonial history of Kiruna, it is timely to reconsider how memories of a town are communicated into the future by references to the past. I also claim that memory, history, and remembrance and forgetting are represented in this process of history-making and that they intersect gender, class and ethnicity.

  • B. Torretta, Nicholas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Reitsma, Lizette
    RISE Interactive.
    Design, power and colonisation: decolonial and antioppressive explorations on three approaches for Designfor Sustainability2019In: Academy for Design Innovation Management 2019 (ADIM2019), Loughborough University London, 18th - 21st June, 2019, London, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our contemporary world is organized in a modern/colonial structure. As people,professions and practices engage in cross-country Design for Sustainability (DfS), projectshave the potential of sustaining or changing modern/colonial power structures. In suchproject relations, good intentions in working for sustainability do not directly result inliberation from modern/colonial power structures. In this paper we introduce threeapproaches in DfS that deal with power relations. Using a Freirean (1970) decolonialperspective, we analyse these approaches to see how they can inform DfS towards beingdecolonial and anti-oppressive. We conclude that steering DfS to become decolonial orcolonizing is a relational issue based on the interplay between the designers’ position inthe modern/colonial structure, the design approach chosen, the place and the peopleinvolved in DfS. Hence, a continuous critical reflexive practice is needed in order to preventDfS from becoming yet another colonial tool.

  • Holmgren, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kiselalgssamhällena i norra Sverige: en studie av 12 undersökta vattendrag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze water chemical samples and diatoms to determine if there are any differences between the sample points in deformations, tax numbers and metal contents. Furthermore the aim is to investigate whether there is a correlation between metals and deformations, to study the bioavailable content of metals and whether deformations and tax loss are area specific. The data is from the years 2015-2018 and comprises 114 sample points from water streams in northern Sweden. The data includes diatoms, deformations, tax numbers and content measurements from the metals As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, U and Zn. Regression analysis was performed between the bioavailable content of metal (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) and dissolved content, and also between the metal contents and the deformations to investigate a possible correlation. Two different regression analyzes where made for the metal contents and the deformations, because there are two test points that have very high deformations (10,5% and 9,5%). The comparison between the different sample points shows that it is not obvious that elevated metal contents have an influence on the diatom community. The first regression analysis (n=114) for metals and deformations indicates that Ni and Zn are significant, both the bioavailable- and the dissolved content. The second regression analysis (n=112) indicates that the bioavailable content of Cu and the dissolved content of U are significant. For both analysis the coefficient of determination is far too low for it to be reliable. More studies need to be done, including more metals and diatom species.

  • Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eye-tracking data and mathematical tasks with focus on mathematical reasoning2019In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 25, article id 104216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This data article contains eye-tracking data (i.e., dwell time and fixations), Z-transformed cognitive data (i.e., Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and Operation span), and practice and test scores from a study in mathematics education. This data is provided in a supplementary file. The method section describes the mathematics tasks used in the study. These mathematics tasks are of two kinds, with and without solution templates, to induce different types of mathematical reasoning.

  • Eklund, Oskar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Eriksson, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Att sylta eller inte sylta: En analys av fermenteringsmetoder beskrivna i svenska kok- och hushållsböcker under perioden 1736 - 19202019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically speaking, methods of fermentation have primarily been used in preservation of food stuffs, and hence for a purpose of survival. Today, the interest in fermentation grows, but within new areas of interest like the increased nutritional value and the methods flavour enhancing properties. This essay focuses on the fermentation methods described in Swedish cookbooks between the year of 1736 to 1920, where the recipes are categorized by a quantitative content analysis after the type of fermentation and the publishing year of the cookbook. Out of the different methods for fermenting food stuff, particular focus has been directed towards fermentation by lactic acid bacteria, production of alcoholic beverages and production of vinegar. The source material consists of 43 cookbooks from the studied period, and from these, the occurrence of the fermentation methods is portrayed, which furthermore is discussed to identify societal changes which could have influenced their presence in these books. The result shows a slight declining occurrence of the methods towards the end of the 19th century, and that fermentation by lactic acid bacteria and alcoholic fermentation were similarly frequent, while the production of vinegar was less included in the cookbooks. Furthermore, the result shows a slight correlation between the occurrence of the studied recipes, which are simultaneously declining with the exception for the method of producing vinegar, which frequency was declining closer to the turn of the century. Possible reasons for this are the societal changes brought by the industrialization, a new ideal of hygiene and sobriety movements.

  • Fridlund, Angelica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Strömberg, Susanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Fina fisken: Krögares erfarenheter av etiskt märkt fisk & hållbarhet i haven2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The large consumption is expected to increase largely due to an increase of the population on earth. The food consumption stands for a 25 % of the emissions in Sweden and the restaurant visits contribute to this.

    The restaurant industry is a consumer-driven market, where the large range of restaurants make the restaurants dependent to offer something the costumer wants. More people are eating their everyday meals at restaurants. Even though surveys show that Swedish people are well aware about sustainability, there is a lack of knownledge garding sustainabe choices at restaurants. 

    The purpose of this study is to examine how restauranteurs at fish-restaurants sees their own contribution, along with the costumers, and other organisations contribution, in promoting sustainable fishing.

    Qualitative studies have been carried out with the help of semi-structured interviews with three restaurateurs who are active in fish restaurants. An interview with a MSC employee has also been conducted. The interviews have been conducted both physically and via telephone. The focus of the study has been the restauranteur's perspective on how they experience consumption, knowledge and the future in sustainable fish at a restaurant.

    Everyone who participated in the study believes that a change in the industry and a changed consumer behavior are required for the fish to remain on our plate. A changeover is inevitable since the world's population is growing and the human pressures on the oceans increase at the same rate.

    Globally, the development of new fishing methods are on-going to avoid ending up in the negative spiral of depleted oceans.

    Firstly, countries are trying to agree on politics and to set up rules and regulations, and secondly, organisations such as MSC are working with developing new tools and monitor the fishing offshore.

    Due to an ongoing social debate and exposure in the media, consumers become more aware of sustainability and endangered fish species. Something that was not previously available to the same extent.

    Because of new availability of information with both traceability of fishing and knowledge in the industry, more restaurateurs want to choose certified fish and opt out of endangered species. This is also something shown in the interviews where the restauranteurs has opted out of working with endangered fish and there is hope that consumers will have higher demands for sustainable options in the future. Consumers and restauranteurs have a common goal to work towards a more sustainable future.

  • Nykvist, Fanny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    SPECIALKOST VID MÅLTIDSSERVICE: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Allergies, oversensitivity, and intolerances towards food are more becoming more common found amongst children. For these kinds of diseases, a nutritious special diet is required. Same thing is necessary for children with coeliac disease, that due to the certain condition requires a strict gluten free diet for a good wellbeing. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how the food service in Umeå county is working with special diets for preschools in the different production kitchens. Seven qualitative interviews that were semi structured where collected. This data was thereafter analyzed with content analysis. The result showed that the production kitchens had strict routines regarding special diets, and a good communication is a vital part for the safety between kitchen staff and the children's parents. Further on, the result indicates that the children need to have a certain certificate and that special diets are perceived as a time consuming. Education about special diets were seen as good in the production kitchens, whereas at the preschools the educational level and possibility to educate themselves were more varied. Strict routines are followed to guarantee a non-contaminated meal for the children that are required to follow a special diet.

  • Wojtowicz, Radoslaw
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Henricson, Anders
    Nilsson, Kjell G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Crnalic, Sead
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Uncemented monoblock trabecular metal posterior stabilized high-flex total knee arthroplasty: similar pattern of migration to the cruciate-retaining design - a prospective radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and clinical evaluation of 40 patients (49 knees) 60 years or younger with 9 years' follow-up2019In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose — Uncemented monoblock cruciate retaining (CR) trabecular metal (TM) tibial components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) work well in the long-term perspective in patients ≤ 60 years. Younger persons expect nearly normal knee flexion after TKA, but CR implants generally achieve less knee flexion compared with posterior stabilized (PS) implants. Cemented PS implants have higher revision rate than CR implants. Can an uncemented monoblock PS TM implant be used safely in younger patients?

    Patients and methods — 40 patients (49 knees) age ≤ 60 years with primary (20 knees) or posttraumatic osteoarthritis (OA) were operated with a high-flex TKA using an uncemented monoblock PS TM tibial component. Knees were evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) a mean 3 days (1–5) postoperatively, and thereafter at 6 weeks, 3 months, 1, 2, 5, and 9 years. Clinical outcome was measured with patient-related outcome measures (PROMs).

    Results — The implants showed a pattern of migration with initial large migration followed by early stabilization lasting up to 9 years, a pattern known to be compatible with good long-term results. Clinical and radiological outcome was excellent with 38 of the 40 patients being satisfied or very satisfied with the procedure and bone apposition to the entire implant surface in 46 of 49 knees. Mean knee flexion was 130°. 1 knee was revised at 3 months due to medial tibial condyle collapse.

    Interpretation — The uncemented monoblock PS TM implant works well in younger persons operated with TKA due to primary or secondary OA.

  • Siebert, Claire
    et al.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Ferre, Sabrina
    Villers, Corinne
    Boisset, Sandrine
    Perard, Julien
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Maurin, Max
    Brochier-Armanet, Celine
    Coute, Yohann
    Renesto, Patricia
    Francisella tularensis: FupA mutation contributes to fluoroquinolone resistance by increasing vesicle secretion and biofilm formation2019In: Emerging Microbes & Infections, ISSN 2222-1751, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Francisella tularensis is the causative agent in tularemia for which the high prevalence of treatment failure and relapse is a major concern. Directed-evolution experiments revealed that acquisition of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance was linked to factors in addition to mutations in DNA gyrase. Here, using F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) as a model, we demonstrated that FupA/B (Fer-Utilization Protein) expression is linked to FQ susceptibility, and that the virulent strain F. tularensis subsp. tularensisSCHU S4 deleted for the homologous FupA protein exhibited even higher FQ resistance. In addition to an increased FQ minimal inhibitory concentration, LVSΔfupA/B displayed tolerance toward bactericidal compounds including ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Interestingly, the FupA/B deletion was found to promote increased secretion of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic characterization of vesicles from LVS and LVS∆fupA/B identified 801 proteins, including a subset of 23 proteins exhibiting differential abundance between both strains which may therefore contribute to the reduced antibiotic susceptibility of the FupA/B-deleted strain. We also demonstrated that OMVs are key structural elements of LVSΔfupA/Bbiofilms providing protection against FQ. These results provide a new basis for understanding and tackling antibiotic resistance and/or persistence of Francisella and other pathogenic members of the Thiotrichales class.

  • Javadi, Ala
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Söderholm, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Olofsson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Flärdh, Klas
    Sandblad, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Assembly mechanisms of the bacterial cytoskeletal protein FilP2019In: Life Science Alliance, ISSN 2575-1077, Vol. 2, no 3, article id e201800290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite low-sequence homology, the intermediate filament (IF)–like protein FilP from Streptomyces coelicolor displays structural and biochemical similarities to the metazoan nuclear IF lamin. FilP, like IF proteins, is composed of central coiled-coil domains interrupted by short linkers and flanked by head and tail domains. FilP polymerizes into repetitive filament bundles with paracrystalline properties. However, the cations Na+ and K+ are found to induce the formation of a FilP hexagonal meshwork with the same 60-nm repetitive unit as the filaments. Studies of polymerization kinetics, in combination with EM techniques, enabled visualization of the basic building block — a transiently soluble rod-shaped FilP molecule—and its assembly into protofilaments and filament bundles. Cryoelectron tomography provided a 3D view of the FilP bundle structure and an original assembly model of an IF-like protein of prokaryotic origin, thereby enabling a comparison with the assembly of metazoan IF.

  • Oscarsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Claesson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lindholm, Mark
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Höglund-Åberg, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Tools of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to Evade the Host Response2019In: Journal of Clinical Medicine, ISSN 2077-0383, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 1079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodontitis is an infection-induced inflammatory disease that affects the tooth supporting tissues, i.e., bone and connective tissues. The initiation and progression of this disease depend on dysbiotic ecological changes in the oral microbiome, thereby affecting the severity of disease through multiple immune-inflammatory responses. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium associated with such cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. In the present review, we outline virulence mechanisms that help the bacterium to escape the host response. These properties include invasiveness, secretion of exotoxins, serum resistance, and release of outer membrane vesicles. Virulence properties of A. actinomycetemcomitans that can contribute to treatment resistance in the infected individuals and upon translocation to the circulation, also induce pathogenic mechanisms associated with several systemic diseases.

  • Latham, Kenneth G.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Discipline of Chemistry, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.
    Ferguson, Adam
    Donne, Scott W.
    Influence of ammonium salts and temperature on the yield, morphology and chemical structure of hydrothermally carbonized saccharides2019In: SN Applied Sciences, ISSN 2523-3963, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the influence of (NH4)(2)SO4 and (NH4)(2)HPO4 as well as temperature is examined on the hydrothermal carbonization of glucose, fructose and sucrose. Increasing the temperature from 160 to 220 degrees C increased the yield of hydrothermal carbon for each saccharide for the (NH4)(2)SO4 solution, whereas (NH4)(2)HPO4 produced a yield that was independent of temperature. The addition of (NH4)(2)SO4 increased the yield obtained at 220 degrees C by 4.27, 7.03 and 2.01 wt% for glucose, fructose and sucrose over the baseline salt free solution, respectively. (NH4)(2)SO4 also increased the quantity of acid produced and the average size of the hydrothermal carbon spheres. Conversely, (NH4)(2)HPO4 produced carbon structures consisting of interlocked spherical shapes and produced almost no acidic products. XPS analysis revealed that (NH4)(2)SO4 incorporated nitrogen and sulfur into the hydrothermal structure, while (NH4)(2)HPO4 only allowed nitrogen to be incorporated. It was assessed that NH4(+) enhances the production of hydrothermal carbon, except in the presence of PO43-, which prevents the reaction from effectively forming hydrothermal carbon and organic acids. [GRAPHICS] .

  • Båmstedt, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Productivity related to ambient photon flux for phytoplankton communities under different turbid conditions2019In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 837, no 1, p. 109-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoplankton productivity standardized to chlorophyll a and photon flux (mg C mg chl. a(-1) mol photons(-1)) of natural communities from northern Bothnian Sea under dynamic (vertically rotating) incubations and different optical conditions was studied during four mesocosm experiments between April 2013 and April 2016. The standardized productivity showed a positive exponential relationship with calculated optical depth (P<0.001 in all four cases) although a considerably weaker one for one of the series where the community was pre-adapted to the same optical condition as used in the measurements. This series also showed a lower regression slope than the three non-adapted series, which in turn showed identical regression slopes, thus indicating a similar response on the standardized productivity to short-term changes in average ambient photon flux and mixing depth. These results indicate that phytoplankton communities in environments with episodic inflow and mixing of humus-rich water can partly compensate for the reduced photon flux by increased production efficiency.

  • Mao, Haian
    et al.
    Hamodeh, Salah
    Skodras, Angelos
    Sultan, Fahad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Quantitative organization of the excitatory synapses of the primate cerebellar nuclei: further evidence for a specialized architecture underlying the primate cerebellum2019In: Brain Structure and Function, ISSN 1863-2653, E-ISSN 1863-2661, Vol. 224, no 6, p. 1987-1998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cerebellar intrinsic connectivity is of remarkable regularity with a similar build repeated many times over. However, several modifications of this basic circuitry occur that can provide important clues to evolutionary adaptations. We have observed differences in the wiring of the cerebellar output structures (the deep cerebellar nuclei, DCN) with higher dendritic length density in the phylogenetically newer DCN. In rats, we showed that an increase in wiring is associated with an increase in the presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1). In this study, we have extended our analysis to the rhesus monkey and can show similarities and differences between the two species. The similarities confirm a higher density in vGluT1+ boutons in the lateral (LN/dentate) and posterior interpositus nucleus compared to the phylogenetically older DCN. In general, we also observe a lower density of vGluT1 and 2+boutons in the monkey, which however, yields a similar number of excitatory boutons per neuron in both species. The only exception is the vGlut1+boutons in the macaque LN/dentate, which showed a significantly lower number of vGluT1+boutons per neuron. We also detected a higher percentage of co-labelled vGluT1 and 2 boutons in the macaque than we found in the rat. In summary, these results confirm that the hyposcalled dendrites of the monkey LN/dentate also show a lower number of vGluT1+boutons per neuron. These results provide further support of our model relating the dendritic morphology of the LN/dentate neurons to the morphology of the specially enlarged LN/dentate nucleus in primates.

  • Nilsson, Lena Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Esberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Dairy Products and Cancer Risk in a Northern Sweden Population2019In: Nutrition and Cancer, ISSN 0163-5581, E-ISSN 1532-7914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of dairy products in cancer is unclear. We assessed consumption of fermented milk, non-fermented milk, cheese, and butter, estimated from semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires, in relation to prospective risk of breast, prostate, colorectal, smoking-, and obesity-related cancers in 101,235 subjects, including 12,552 cancer cases, in the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Most analyses (n = 20) rendered null results. In men, we observed an increased prostate cancer risk among high-consumers of cheese (hazard ratio (HR) for highest vs. lowest quintile (Q5-Q1), 1.11; 95% CI, 0.97-1.27; Ptrend = 0.013). In women, high-consumers of cheese had a decreased risk of overall cancer (HR Q5-Q1, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.04; Ptrend = 0.039), smoking-related (HR Q5-Q1, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.97; Ptrend ≤ 0.001), and colorectal cancers (HR Q5-Q1, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.63-1.07; Ptrend = 0.048). Butter yielded a weak decreased obesity-related cancer risk in women (HR Q5-Q1, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.81-1.02; Ptrend = 0.049). Fermented milk yielded HRs below zero in women, but with no clear linear associations. In conclusion, this study does not support any major adverse or beneficial effects of fermented milk, non-fermented milk, cheese, and butter in the diet from a cancer risk perspective.

  • Pedale, Tiziana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Via dei Marsi, 78, 00158 Rome, Italy; Neuroimaging Laboratory, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Via Ardeatina, 306, 00179 Rome, Italy.
    Macaluso, Emiliano
    Santangelo, Valerio
    Enhanced insular/prefrontal connectivity when resisting from emotional distraction during visual search2019In: Brain Structure and Function, ISSN 1863-2653, E-ISSN 1863-2661, Vol. 224, no 6, p. 2009-2026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous literature demonstrated that the processing of emotional stimuli can interfere with goal-directed behavior. This has been shown primarily in the context of working memory tasks, but emotional distraction may affect also other processes, such as the orienting of visuo-spatial attention. During fMRI, we presented human subjects with emotional stimuli embedded within complex everyday life visual scenes. Emotional stimuli could be either the current target to be searched for or task-irrelevant distractors. Behavioral and eye-movement data revealed faster detection of emotional than neutral targets. Emotional distractors were found to be fixated later and for a shorter duration than emotional targets, suggesting efficient top-down control in avoiding emotional distraction. The fMRI data demonstrated that negative (but not positive) stimuli were mandatorily processed by limbic/para-limbic regions (namely, the right amygdala and the left insula), irrespective of current task relevance: that is, these regions activated for both emotional targets and distractors. However, analyses of inter-regional connectivity revealed a functional coupling between the left insula and the right prefrontal cortex that increased specifically during search in the presence of emotional distractors. This indicates that increased functional coupling between affective limbic/para-limbic regions and control regions in the frontal cortex can attenuate emotional distraction, permitting the allocation of spatial attentional resources toward task-relevant neutral targets in the presence of distracting emotional signals.

  • Dubois, Alexandre
    et al.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Die hard: On the persistence of Swedish upland farming2019In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 69, p. 41-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an inductive quantitative approach, this article examines empirically the main characteristics of upland farming in the northern periphery of Sweden. This approach allows us to stepwise 'reconstruct' upland farming in its north Swedish manifestation. The data features farm-level and aggregated data from four municipalities stretching from the Bothnian Golf to the Norwegian border. The combination of GIS and advanced statistical analysis (clustering and regression) provides a robust evidence-base characterising upland farming at the nexus of multiple dimensions: territoriality (e.g. remote location, harsh climate, scattered settlement structure), style (e.g. labour extensive, small-scale, mixed fanning) and livelihood (e.g. plurlactive, diversification, subsidy dependent). The article emphasizes the potentially central role of upland farming in bringing into coherent policy initiatives promoting sustainable community development in the periphery. The study also looks ahead and urges scholars to adopt more systematically mixed methods in future upland farming studies in order to render the complexity of this socio-spatial phenomenon.

  • Adolfsson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Claesson, Tom
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Estimation methods for Asian Quanto Basket options2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All financial institutions that provide options to counterparties will in most cases get involved withMonte Carlo simulations. Options with a payoff function that depends on asset’s value at differenttime points over its lifespan are so called path dependent options. This path dependency impli-cates that there exists no parametric solution and the price must hence be estimated, it is hereMonte Carlo methods come into the picture. The problem though with this fundamental optionpricing method is the computational time. Prices fluctuate continuously on the open market withrespect to different risk factors and since it’s impossible to re-evaluate the option for all shifts dueto its computing intensive nature, estimations of the option price must be used. Estimating theprice from known points will of course never produce the same result as a full re-evaluation but anestimation method that produces reliable results and greatly reduces computing time is desirable.This thesis will evaluate different approaches and try to minimize the estimation error with respectto a certain number of risk factors.This is the background for our master thesis at Swedbank. The goal is to create multiple estima-tion methods and compare them to Swedbank’s current estimation model. By doing this we couldpotentially provide Swedbank with improvement ideas regarding some of its option products andrisk measurements. This thesis is primarily based on two estimation methods that estimate optionprices with respect to two variable risk factors, the value of the underlying assets and volatility.The first method is a grid that uses a second order Taylor expansion and the sensitivities delta,gamma and vega. The other method uses a grid of pre-simulated option prices for different shiftsin risk factors. The interpolation technique that is used in this method is calledPiecewise CubicHermiteinterpolation. The methods (or referred to as approaches in the report) are implementedto handle a relative change of 50 percent in the underlying asset’s index value, which is the firstrisk factor. Concerning the second risk factor, volatility, both methods estimate prices for a 50percent relative downward change and an upward change of 400 percent from the initial volatility.Should there emerge even more extreme market conditions both methods use linear extrapolationto estimate a new option price.

  • Wintersparv, Spoke
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren Leavenworth, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Teaching fiction in the age of measurability: Teachers’ perspectives on the hows and whats in Swedish L1 classrooms2019In: L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature, ISSN 1578-6617, Vol. 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown a slow but steady change in reading habits among students in Swedish upper secondary schools. The frequency with which they read fiction on a daily basis has decreased and reading comprehension has declined. Consequently, Swedish politicians and school authorities have taken measures to reverse these trends. Fiction reading has traditionally been a part of the Swedish subject, but whereas the course syllabi in the upper secondary school stipulate that fiction be taught, they pay little attention to how. This study examines how teachers describe the process of literary education. In doing so, it suggests that monitoring students is central to teachers’ didactic decisions, and that both teachers and students regard printed books more highly than both audiobooks and e-books. The data was collected using two focus groups interviews with upper secondary school teachers of Swedish, seven female and five male, age 28 to 61. The analysis was grounded in a phenomenographic examination of experience, allowing themes to emerge through iterative coding. The findings show that the teachers’ view on literary education is associated with instrumentality and teacher-centered activities—the discussions circled around practical aspects, with no mention of teaching objectives, approaches, or literary experience.

  • Wegrzyn, Jill L.
    et al.
    Staton, Margaret A.
    Street, Nathaniel R.
    Main, Dorrie
    Grau, Emily
    Herndon, Nic
    Buehler, Sean
    Falk, Taylor
    Zaman, Sumaira
    Ramnath, Risharde
    Richter, Peter
    Sun, Lang
    Condon, Bradford
    Almsaeed, Abdullah
    Chen, Ming
    Mannapperuma, Chanaka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Jung, Sook
    Ficklin, Stephen
    Cyberinfrastructure to Improve Forest Health and Productivity: The Role of Tree Databases in Connecting Genomes, Phenomes, and the Environment2019In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 10, article id 813Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite tremendous advancements in high throughput sequencing, the vast majority of tree genomes, and in particular, forest trees, remain elusive. Although primary databases store genetic resources for just over 2,000 forest tree species, these are largely focused on sequence storage, basic genome assemblies, and functional assignment through existing pipelines. The tree databases reviewed here serve as secondary repositories for community data. They vary in their focal species, the data they curate, and the analytics provided, but they are united in moving toward a goal of centralizing both data access and analysis. They provide frameworks to view and update annotations for complex genomes, interrogate systems level expression profiles, curate data for comparative genomics, and perform real-time analysis with genotype and phenotype data. The organism databases of today are no longer simply catalogs or containers of genetic information. These repositories represent integrated cyberinfrastructure that support cross-site queries and analysis in web-based environments. These resources are striving to integrate across diverse experimental designs, sequence types, and related measures through ontologies, community standards, and web services. Efficient, simple, and robust platforms that enhance the data generated by the research community, contribute to improving forest health and productivity.

  • Alagna, F.
    et al.
    Caceres, M. E.
    Pandolfi, S.
    Collani, Silvio
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Mousavi, S.
    Mariotti, R.
    Cultrera, N. G. M.
    Baldoni, L.
    Barcaccia, G.
    The Paradox of Self-Fertile Varieties in the Context of Self-Incompatible Genotypes in Olive2019In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 10, article id 725Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olive, representing one of the most important fruit crops of the Mediterranean area, is characterized by a general low fruit yield, due to numerous constraints, including alternate bearing, low flower viability, male-sterility, inter-incompatibility, and self-incompatibility (SI). Early efforts to clarify the genetic control of SI in olive gave conflicting results, and only recently, the genetic control of SI has been disclosed, revealing that olive possesses an unconventional homomorphic sporophytic diallelic system of SI, dissimilar from other described plants. This system, characterized by the presence of two SI groups, prevents self-fertilization and regulates inter-compatibility between cultivars, such that cultivars bearing the same incompatibility group are incompatible. Despite the presence of a functional SI, some varieties, in particular conditions, are able to set seeds following self-fertilization, a mechanism known as pseudo-self-compatibility (PSC), as widely reported in previous literature. Here, we summarize the results of previous works on SI in olive, particularly focusing on the occurrence of self-fertility, and offer a new perspective in view of the recent elucidation of the genetic architecture of the SI system in olive. Recent advances in research aimed at unraveling the molecular bases of SI and its breakdown in olive are also presented. The clarification of these mechanisms may have a huge impact on orchard management and will provide fundamental information for the future of olive breeding programs.

  • Shungin, Dmitry
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; .
    Hawort, Simon
    Divaris, Kimon
    Agler, Cary S.
    Kamatani, Yoichiro
    Lee, Myoung Keun
    Grinde, Kelsey
    Hindy, George
    Alaraudanjoki, Viivi
    Pesonen, Paula
    Teumer, Alexander
    Holtfreter, Birte
    Sakaue, Saori
    Hirata, Jun
    Yu, Yau-Hua
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Giulianini, Franco
    Chasman, Daniel, I
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Sudo, Takeaki
    Okada, Yukinori
    Voelker, Uwe
    Kocher, Thomas
    Anttonen, Vuokko
    Laitala, Marja-Liisa
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Sofer, Tamar
    Shaffer, John R.
    Vieira, Alexandre
    Marazita, Mary L.
    Kubo, Michiaki
    Furuichi, Yasushi
    North, Kari E.
    Offenbacher, Steve
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Malmö SE-214 28, Sweden; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Timpson, Nicholas J.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Genome-wide analysis of dental caries and periodontitis combining clinical and self-reported data2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 2773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental caries and periodontitis account for a vast burden of morbidity and healthcare spending, yet their genetic basis remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify self-reported dental disease proxies which have similar underlying genetic contributions to clinical disease measures and then combine these in a genome-wide association study meta-analysis, identifying 47 novel and conditionally-independent risk loci for dental caries. We show that the heritability of dental caries is enriched for conserved genomic regions and partially overlapping with a range of complex traits including smoking, education, personality traits and metabolic measures. Using cardio-metabolic traits as an example in Mendelian randomization analysis, we estimate causal relationships and provide evidence suggesting that the processes contributing to dental caries may have undesirable downstream effects on health.

  • Myburg, Alexander A.
    et al.
    Hussey, Steven G.
    Street, Nathaniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Street, Nathaniel R.
    Mizrachi, Eshchar
    Systems and Synthetic Biology of Forest Trees: A Bioengineering Paradigm for Woody Biomass Feedstocks2019In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 10, article id 775Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast-growing forest plantations are sustainable feedstocks of plant biomass that can serve as alternatives to fossil carbon resources for materials, chemicals, and energy. Their ability to efficiently harvest light energy and carbon from the atmosphere and sequester this into metabolic precursors for lignocellulosic biopolymers and a wide range of plant specialized metabolites make them excellent biochemical production platforms and living biorefineries. Their large sizes have facilitated multi-omics analyses and systems modeling of key biological processes such as lignin biosynthesis in trees. High-throughput 'omics' approaches have also been applied in segregating tree populations where genetic variation creates abundant genetic perturbations of system components allowing construction of systems genetics models linking genes and pathways to complex trait variation. With this information in hand, it is now possible to start using synthetic biology and genome editing techniques in a bioengineering approach based on a deeper understanding and rational design of biological parts, devices, and integrated systems. However, the complexity of the biology and interacting components will require investment in big data informatics, machine learning, and intuitive visualization to fully explore multi-dimensional patterns and identify emergent properties of biological systems. Predictive systems models could be tested rapidly through high-throughput synthetic biology approaches and multigene editing. Such a bioengineering paradigm, together with accelerated genomic breeding, will be crucial for the development of a new generation of woody biorefinery crops.