umu.sePublications
1234 151 - 197 of 197
rss atomLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Ostovar, Ahmad
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. Division of Forestry and Forest Resources, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), P.O. Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway.
    Talbot, Bruce
    Puliti, Stefano
    Astrup, Rasmus
    Ringdahl, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Detection and classification of Root and Butt-Rot (RBR) in Stumps of Norway Spruce Using RGB Images and Machine Learning2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 7, article id 1579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Root and butt-rot (RBR) has a significant impact on both the material and economic outcome of timber harvesting, and therewith on the individual forest owner and collectively on the forest and wood processing industries. An accurate recording of the presence of RBR during timber harvesting would enable a mapping of the location and extent of the problem, providing a basis for evaluating spread in a climate anticipated to enhance pathogenic growth in the future. Therefore, a system to automatically identify and detect the presence of RBR would constitute an important contribution to addressing the problem without increasing workload complexity for the machine operator. In this study, we developed and evaluated an approach based on RGB images to automatically detect tree stumps and classify them as to the absence or presence of rot. Furthermore, since knowledge of the extent of RBR is valuable in categorizing logs, we also classify stumps into three classes of infestation; rot = 0%, 0% < rot > 50% and rot ≥ 50%. In this work we used deep-learning approaches and conventional machine-learning algorithms for detection and classification tasks. The results showed that tree stumps were detected with precision rate of 95% and recall of 80%. Using only the correct output (TP) of the stump detector, stumps without and with RBR were correctly classified with accuracy of 83.5% and 77.5%, respectively. Classifying rot into three classes resulted in 79.4%, 72.4%, and 74.1% accuracy for stumps with rot = 0%, 0% < rot > 50% and rot ≥ 50%, respectively. With some modifications, the developed algorithm could be used either during the harvesting operation to detect RBR regions on the tree stumps or as an RBR detector for post-harvest assessment of tree stumps and logs.

  • Huang, Qin
    et al.
    Sun, Dan
    Hussain, Muhammad Zubair
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Department of Zoology, Government Emerson College, Multan, Pakistan.
    Liu, Yonggang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Laboratory of Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Zhang, Ce
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. State Key Laboratory of Cultivation Base for Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials, Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an, China.
    HEWL interacts with dissipated oleic acid micelles, and decreases oleic acid cytotoxicity2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 2, article id e0212648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Senile plaques are well-known hallmarks of Alzheimer's Diseases (AD). However, drugs targeting tangles of the protein tau and plaques of beta-amyloid have no significant effect on disease progression, and the studies on the underlying mechanism of AD remain in high demand. Growing evidence supports the protective role of senile plaques in local inflammation driven by S100A9. We herein demonstrate that oleic acid (OA) micelles interact with hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and promote its amyloid formation. Consequently, SH-SY5Y cell line and mouse neural stem cells are rescued from OA toxicity by co-aggregation of OA and HEWL. Using atomic force microscopy in combination with fluorescence microscopy, we revealed that HEWL forms round-shaped aggregates in the presence of OA micelles instead of protofibrils of HEWL alone. These HEWL amyloids act as a sink for toxic OA micelles and their co-aggregate form large clumps, suggesting a protective function in amyloid and OA cytotoxicity.

  • Huang, Deshun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Baseline characteristics with a focus on comorbidity: A sub-study within the MedBridge trial2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Svantesson, Elise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Analys av inrapporterade läkemedelavvikelser: Fel i vårdens övergångar gällande patienter 65 år och äldre2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sun, Jinhua
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ma, Junpeng
    Fan, Jingbiao
    Pyun, Jeffrey
    Geng, Jianxin
    Rational design of sulfur-containing composites for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries2019In: APL MATERIALS, ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 020904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfur has received considerable attention as a cathode material for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries due to its high theoretical energy density (2567 W h kg(-1)), high earth abundance, and environmental benignity. However, the insulating nature of sulfur and the shuttle effect of soluble lithium polysulfides result in serious technical issues, such as low utilization rate of sulfur, reduced columbic efficiency, and poor cycling stability, which compromise the high theoretical performance of Li-S batteries. In the past years, various attempts have been made to achieve high specific capacity and reliable cycling stability of Li-S batteries. Incorporation of sulfur into functional host materials has been demonstrated to be effective to improve the electrochemical performance of sulfur-based cathodes via enhancing the electron and Li ion conductivities, immobilizing sulfur/lithium polysulfides in cathodes, and accommodating the volume changes in sulfur-based cathodes. Therefore, the rational design of sulfur-containing composites needs to be emphasized as key strategies to develop high-performance cathodes for Li-S batteries. In this perspective, after reviewing the achievements obtained in the design of sulfur-containing composites as cathodes for Li-S batteries, we propose the new issues that should be overcome to facilitate the practical application of Li-S batteries. 

  • Murphy, Shannon G.
    et al.
    Alvarez, Laura
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Adams, Myfanwy C.
    Liu, Shuning
    Chappie, Joshua S.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Dorr, Tobias
    Endopeptidase Regulation as a Novel Function of the Zur-Dependent Zinc Starvation Response2019In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 10, no 1, article id e02620-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cell wall is a strong, yet flexible, meshwork of peptidoglycan (PG) that gives a bacterium structural integrity. To accommodate a growing cell, the wall is remodeled by both PG synthesis and degradation. Vibrio cholerae encodes a group of three nearly identical zinc-dependent endopeptidases (EPs) that are predicted to hydrolyze PG to facilitate cell growth. Two of these (ShyA and ShyC) are conditionally essential housekeeping EPs, while the third (ShyB) is not expressed under standard laboratory conditions. To investigate the role of ShyB, we conducted a transposon screen to identify mutations that activate shyB transcription. We found that shyB is induced as part of the Zur-mediated zinc starvation response, a mode of regulation not previously reported for cell wall lytic enzymes. In vivo, ShyB alone was sufficient to sustain cell growth in low-zinc environments. In vitro, ShyB retained its D, D-endopeptidase activity against purified sacculi in the presence of the metal chelator EDTA at concentrations that inhibit ShyA and ShyC. This insensitivity to metal chelation is likely what enables ShyB to substitute for other EPs during zinc starvation. Our survey of transcriptomic data from diverse bacteria identified other candidate Zur-regulated EPs, suggesting that this adaptation to zinc starvation is employed by other Gram-negative bacteria. IMPORTANCE Bacteria encode a variety of adaptations that enable them to survive during zinc starvation, a condition which is encountered both in natural environments and inside the human host. In Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, we have identified a novel member of this zinc starvation response, a cell wall hydrolase that retains function and is conditionally essential for cell growth in low-zinc environments. Other Gram-negative bacteria contain homologs that appear to be under similar regulatory control. These findings are significant because they represent, to our knowledge, the first evidence that zinc homeostasis influences cell wall turnover. Anti-infective therapies commonly target the bacterial cell wall; therefore, an improved understanding of how the cell wall adapts to host-induced zinc starvation could lead to new antibiotic development. Such therapeutic interventions are required to combat the rising threat of drug-resistant infections.

  • Elander, Astrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Adherence to inhalation technique and drugsin general in asthma- and COPD-patients.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lindström, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Multivariate Hawkes Process Modeled News Flow: Forecasting Financial Markets2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the quantitative financial community there are a lot of different approaches in forming profitable trading strategies. This is frequently performed by analyzing historical prices from different perspectives. Some have analyzed other factors than price that might provide insight in which way the market is heading, which in some cases have been successful. This thesis investigates if a news flow model based on a multivariate Hawkes process could give a peek into the future news flow, and if it can be used to successfully predict financial market movements in terms of logarithmic returns by utilizing regression and classification models such as support vector machines. The results show that the trained models perform poorly in general in terms of common regression and classification metrics. Applying the trained models in simple trading strategies show that in some cases they perform better than a buy-and-hold strategy. The ambiguous results indicate that the models might be profitable in trading strategies, but that the predictions might not be very reliable. The trained models cannot seem to find important structures in the predicted news flow relating to market returns, but before dismissing the news flow model entirely it might altered in some sense by, e.g., expanding the dataset with more observations and by looking at other granularities of time.

  • Pinto, Susana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine. Faculdade de Medicina, Instituto de Fisiologia e Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital de Santa Maria-Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Lisbon, Portugal.
    de Carvalho, Mamede
    SVC Is a Marker of Respiratory Decline Function, Similar to FVC , in Patients With ALS2019In: Frontiers in Neurology, ISSN 1664-2295, E-ISSN 1664-2295, Vol. 10, article id 109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Respiratory function is a critical predictor of survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aimed to determine if slow vital capacity (SVC) is a predictor of functional loss in ALS as compared to forced vital capacity (FVC). Methods: Consecutive ALS patients in whom respiratory tests were performed at baseline and 6 months later were included. All patients were evaluated with revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) and the respiratory tests, SVC, and FVC. Significant independent variables of functional decay were assessed by univariate Kaplan-Meier log-rank test and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. A monthly decay not exceeding 0.92 in ALSFRS was considered as the time event. Results: We included 232 patients (134 men; mean onset-age 59.1 +/- 11.23 years; mean disease duration from first symptoms to first visit: 14.5 +/- 12.9 months; 166 spinal and 66 bulbar onset). All variables studied declined significantly between the two evaluations (p < 0.001). FVC and SVC were strongly correlated at study entry (r2 = 0.98, p < 0.001) and FVC and SVC decays between first evaluation and 6 months after were the only significant prognostic variables of functional decay (p < 0.001). Conclusion: FVC and SVC decay are inter-changeable in predicting functional decay in ALS. Pharmacological interventions reducing the decline rate of FVC and SVC can have a positive impact on the global functional impairment, with relevant implications for clinical trials' design and interpretation.

  • Viklund, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Skattning av njurfunktion hos hjärtsviktspatienter: En tvärsnittsstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Suhr, Ole Bernt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Wixner, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Anan, Intissar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lundgren, Hans-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Wijayatunga, Priyantha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Westermark, Per
    Ihse, Elisabet
    Amyloid fibril composition within hereditary Val30Met (p. Val50Met) transthyretin amyloidosis families2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 2, article id e0211983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The amyloid fibril in hereditary transthyretin (TTR) Val30Met (pVal50Met) amyloid (ATTR Val30Met) amyloidosis is composed of either a mixture of full-length and TTR fragments (Type A) or of only full-length TTR (Type B). The type of amyloid fibril exerts an impact on the phenotype of the disease, and on the outcome of diagnostic procedures and therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the type of amyloid fibril remains the same within ATTR Val30Met amyloidosis families. Methods: Fifteen families were identified in whom at least two first-degree relatives had their amyloid fibril composition determined. The type of ATTR was determined by Western blot in all but two patients. For these two patients a positive 99mTc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid scintigraphy indicated ATTR Type A. Results: In 14 of the 15 families, the same amyloid fibril composition was noted irrespective of differences in age at onset. In the one family, different ATTR fibril types was found in two brothers with similar ages at onset. Conclusions: Family predisposition appears to have an impact on amyloid fibril composition in members of the family irrespective of their age at onset of disease, but if genetically determined, the gene/genes are likely to be situated at another location than the TTR gene in the genome.

  • Abramsson, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    PREVALENCE OF DRUG RELATED PROBLEMS STOPP/START in elderly people with dementia2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Souza, Pedro P. C.
    et al.
    Lundberg, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lundgren, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Magalhäes, Fernando A. C.
    Costa-Neto, Claudio M.
    Lerner, Ulf H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research at Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute for Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 induces B1 and B2 kinin receptors in human gingival fibroblasts and in mouse gingiva2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 2973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulation of the kallikrein-kinin system is an important mechanism controlling vasodilation and promoting inflammation. We aimed to investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in regulating kinin B1 and B2 receptor expression in human gingival fibroblasts and in mouse gingiva. Both P. gingivalis LPS and the synthetic TLR2 agonist Pam2CSK4 increased kinin receptor transcripts. Silencing of TLR2, but not of TLR4, inhibited the induction of kinin receptor transcripts by both P. gingivalis LPS and Pam2CSK4. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) exposed to Pam2CSK4 increased binding sites for bradykinin (BK, B2receptor agonist) and des-Arg10-Lys-bradykinin (DALBK, B1 receptor agonist). Pre-treatment of HGF for 24 h with Pam2CSK4 resulted in increased PGE2 release in response to BK and DALBK. The increase of B1 and B2 receptor transcripts by P. gingivalis LPS was not blocked by IL-1β neutralizing antibody; TNF-α blocking antibody did not affect Breceptor up-regulation, but partially blocked increase of B2 receptor mRNA. Injection of P. gingivalis LPS in mouse gingiva induced an increase of B1 and B2 receptor mRNA. These data show that activation of TLR2 in human gingival fibroblasts as well as in mouse gingival tissue leads to increase of B1 and B2 receptor mRNA and protein.

  • Fink, Marian
    et al.
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO).
    Janová, Jitka
    Mendel University in Brno.
    Nerudová, Danuše
    Mendel University in Brno.
    Pavel, Jan
    University of Economics, Prague.
    Schratzenstaller, Margit
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO).
    Sindermann, Friedrich
    Budgetdienst des Österreichischen Parlaments.
    Spielauer, Martin
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO).
    Policy Recommendations on the Gender Effects of Changes in Tax Bases, Rates, and Units: Results of Microsimulation Analyses for Six Selected EU Member States2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of tax systems has a considerable impact on the personal distribution of income and wealth at the household and the individual level, and due to the gender-differentiated socio-economic conditions also in a gender perspective. One of the most important areas of taxation is the taxation of personal incomes through the personal income tax. It directly influences the after-tax distribution of incomes from the various income sources. Besides the level of income tax rates and the design of the income tax schedule (progressive versus flat tax schedule), the system of household taxation (joint versus individual taxation), the determination of taxable income and the design of tax exemptions (tax allowances versus credits), particularly child-related ones, are crucial determinants in this respect. In addition to the gender-differentiated distributional impact, income tax systems may also have a gender-differentiated effect on work incentives and the distribution of paid and unpaid work between men and women. It is important to note that these gender-differentiated effects imply an implicit tax bias of income tax systems which results from different socio-economic conditions and behavioural patterns of women and men, while modern income tax systems do not include any tax provisions linked to gender and thus do not contain any explicit tax bias.

    Against this background, the paper presents an overview of the microsimulation results for selected provisions of the personal income tax system done with EUROMOD for six selected Member States of the European Union (EU): Germany, Austria, Spain, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, and Sweden. These Member States were selected because they belong to different “families of taxation” with different traditions, institutional, historical and cultural factors and developments, and different religious and partisan influences shaping the evolution of (personal income) tax systems.

    Overall, our simulations show that the design of income tax schedules, systems of household taxation and (tax-related) child benefits has non-negligible effects on income distribution as well as work incentives in general and particularly from a gender perspective for the six EU Member States considered. Although the effects differ across countries, particularly on the level of household types, depending on the concrete design of the tax benefit system and the interactions between tax and benefit provisions, some general tendencies and effects can be identified.

    Firstly, the introduction of a flat tax hardly impacts the simulated poverty risk, but increases income inequality. Gender-differentiated effects are less clear-cut, and their extent differs across countries. However, generally a flat tax benefits couple households with a male active income contributor, while households with female active income contributors lose. Rather pronounced gender differences can also be found between active lone mothers and fathers. While in almost all countries active lone mothers lose from the introduction of a flat tax, active lone fathers are winners.

    Secondly, replacing individual taxation by a joint taxation system with income splitting has small effects on the poverty risk only, but decreases income inequality in all countries analysed. The introduction of joint taxation with income splitting benefits couple households with one active income contributor in almost all countries included, regardless of the existence of children and of the gender of the active income contributor. Gender-differentiated effects are almost non-existent in childless couple households with one active income contributor. They are a little more pronounced if there are children in the household, due to income differences between spouses.

    Thirdly, our simulations show that the various child benefits have the expected overall distributional effects. Replacing an existing child benefit granted as cash transfer by tax-related child benefits raises the poverty risk and income inequality. Moreover, the inequality- and poverty-increasing effect of a child tax allowance is estimated to be higher compared to that of a child tax credit. Gender-differentiated effects are not clear-cut and require deeper analyses.

    Overall, one central result of our analyses is that the extent of gender differences in the effects of the various simulation scenarios differs markedly across the countries included. It remains to be explored, in a next step, to what extent these cross-country differences in the gender-differentiated impact of policy measures are associated with the prevailing welfare state / family of taxation types.

  • Porcheret, Kate
    et al.
    van Heugten-van der Kloet, Dalena
    Goodwin, Guy M.
    Foster, Russell G.
    Wulff, Katharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Investigation of the impact of total sleep deprivation at home on the number of intrusive memories to an analogue trauma2019In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 9, article id 104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep enhances the consolidation of memory; however, this property of sleep may be detrimental in situations where memories of an event can lead to psychopathology, such as following a traumatic event. Intrusive memories of trauma are emotional memories that spring to mind involuntarily and are a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder. Total sleep deprivation in a hospital setting on the first night after an analogue trauma (a trauma film) led to fewer intrusive memories compared to sleep as usual in one study. The current study aimed to test an extension of these findings: sleep deprivation under more naturalistic conditions-at home. Polysomnographic recordings show inconsistent sleep deprivation was achieved at home. Fewer intrusive memories were reported on day 1 after the trauma film in the sleep-deprived condition. On day 2 the opposite was found: more intrusive memories in the sleep-deprived condition. However, no significant differences were found with the removal of two participants with extreme values and no difference was found in the total number of intrusive memories reported in the week following the trauma film. Voluntary memory of the trauma film was found to be slightly impaired in the sleep deprivation condition. In conclusion, compared to our eariler findings using total sleep deprivation in a hospital setting, in the current study the use of inconsistent sleep deprivation at home does not replicate the pattern of results on reducing the number of intrusive memories. Considering the conditions under which sleep deprivation (naturalistic versus hospital) was achieved requires further examination.

  • Kasari, Villu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Margus, Tonu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Atkinson, Gemma C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Johansson, Marcus J. O.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). 3 University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Ribosome profiling analysis of eEF3-depleted Saccharomyces cerevisiae2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 3037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to the standard set of translation factors common in eukaryotic organisms, protein synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires an ABCF ATPase factor eEF3, eukaryotic Elongation Factor 3. eEF3 is an E-site binder that was originally identified as an essential factor involved in the elongation stage of protein synthesis. Recent biochemical experiments suggest an additional function of eEF3 in ribosome recycling. We have characterised the global effects of eEF3 depletion on translation using ribosome profiling. Depletion of eEF3 results in decreased ribosome density at the stop codon, indicating that ribosome recycling does not become rate limiting when eEF3 levels are low. Consistent with a defect in translation elongation, eEF3 depletion causes a moderate redistribution of ribosomes towards the 5' part of the open reading frames. We observed no E-site codon-or amino acid-specific ribosome stalling upon eEF3 depletion, supporting its role as a general elongation factor. Surprisingly, depletion of eEF3 leads to a relative decrease in P-site proline stalling, which we hypothesise is a secondary effect of generally decreased translation and/or decreased competition for the E-site with eIF5A.

  • Sundh, Josefin
    et al.
    Bornefalk-Hermansson, Anna
    Ahmadi, Zainab
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Janson, Christer
    Currow, David C.
    McDonald, Christine F.
    McCaffrey, Nikki
    Ekström, Magnus
    REgistry-based randomized controlled trial of treatment and Duration and mortality in long-term OXygen therapy (REDOX) study protocol2019In: BMC Pulmonary Medicine, ISSN 1471-2466, E-ISSN 1471-2466, Vol. 19, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) during 15h/day or more prolongs survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and severe hypoxemia. No randomized controlled trial has evaluated the net effects (benefits or harms) from LTOT 24h/day compared with 15h/day or the effect in conditions other than COPD. We describe a multicenter, national, phase IV, non-superiority, registry-based, randomized controlled trial (R-RCT) of LTOT prescribed 24h/day compared with 15h/day. The primary endpoint is all-cause-mortality at 1year. Secondary endpoints include cause-specific mortality, hospitalizations, health-related quality of life, symptoms, and outcomes in interstitial lung disease. Methods/design: Patients qualifying for LTOT are randomized to LTOT 24h/day versus 15h/day during 12months using the Swedish Register for Respiratory Failure (Swedevox). Planned sample size in this pragmatic study is 2126 randomized patients. Clinical follow-up and concurrent treatments are according to routine clinical practice. Mortality, hospitalizations, and incident diseases are assessed using national Swedish registries with expected complete follow-up. Patient-reported outcomes are assessed using postal questionnaire at 3 and 12months. Discussion: The R-RCT approach combines the advantages of a prospective randomized trial and large clinical national registries for enrollment, allocation, and data collection, with the aim of improving the evidence-based use of LTOT. Trial registration: Clinical Trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov, Title: REgistry-based Treatment Duration and Mortality in Long-term OXygen Therapy (REDOX); ID: NCT03441204.

  • Szatkiewicz, Jin
    et al.
    Crowley, James J.
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Åberg, Karolina A.
    Alaerts, Maaike
    Genovese, Giulio
    McCarroll, Steven
    Del-Favero, Jurgen
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Sullivan, Patrick F.
    The genomics of major psychiatric disorders in a large pedigree from Northern Sweden2019In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 9, article id 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We searched for genetic causes of major psychiatric disorders (bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia) in a large, densely affected pedigree from Northern Sweden that originated with three pairs of founders born around 1650. We applied a systematic genomic approach to the pedigree via karyotyping (N = 9), genome-wide SNP arrays (N = 418), whole-exome sequencing (N = 26), and whole-genome sequencing (N = 10). Comprehensive analysis did not identify plausible variants of strong effect. Rather, pedigree cases had significantly higher genetic risk scores compared to pedigree and community controls.

  • Grell, Pär
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi..
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Myndigheten för arbetsmiljökunskap.
    Conditions for helping relations in specialized personal social services: – a client perspective on the influence of organizational structure2019In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, ISSN 2156-8588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights organizational structure as a factor influencing condi- tions for helping relations. It is based on a survey study and an interview study, both directed at parents in families that have parallel contacts in different parts of Swedish personal social services (PSS). The aim is to describe and analyse conditions for helping relations when clients with complex needs encounter specialized PSS.

    Low system trust, people processing dimensions of work, and an organi- zational and a professional emphasis on formal organizational structures and boundaries were found to constitute unfavourable conditions. Conversely, an occurrence of individual trust, people sustaining and people changing dimensions of work, as well as informal organization and individual social workers’ boundary spanning efforts, constituted favourable conditions. The article concludes that greater understanding of how clients are affected by contextual service conditions can give some pointers towards how to gen- erally improve services for vulnerable and disadvantaged populations.

  • Burman, Erik
    et al.
    Hansbo, Peter
    Larson, Mats G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    A simple finite element method for elliptic bulk problems with embedded surfaces2019In: Computational Geosciences, ISSN 1420-0597, E-ISSN 1573-1499, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we develop a simple finite element method for simulation of embedded layers of high permeability in a matrix of lower permeability using a basic model of Darcy flow in embedded cracks. The cracks are allowed to cut through the mesh in arbitrary fashion and we take the flow in the crack into account by superposition. The fact that we use continuous elements leads to suboptimal convergence due to the loss of regularity across the crack. We therefore refine the mesh in the vicinity of the crack in order to recover optimal order convergence in terms of the global mesh parameter. The proper degree of refinement is determined based on an a priori error estimate and can thus be performed before the actual finite element computation is started. Numerical examples showing this effect and confirming the theoretical results are provided. The approach is easy to implement and beneficial for rapid assessment of the effect of crack orientation and may for example be used in an optimization loop.

  • Dubouis, Ghislain
    et al.
    Sovacool, Benjamin
    Aall, Carlo
    Nilsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Barbier, Carine
    Herrmann, Alina
    Bruyère, Sébastien
    Andersson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Sköld, Bore
    Nadaud, Franck
    Dorner, Florian
    Moberg, Karen Richardsen
    Ceron, Jean Paul
    Fischer, Helen
    Amelung, Dorothee
    Baltruszewicz, Marta
    Fischer, Jeremy
    Benevise, Françoise
    Valerie, Valérie R
    Sauerborn, Rainer
    It starts at home? Climate policies targeting household consumption and behavioral decisions are key to low-carbon futures2019In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 52, p. 144-158Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through their consumption behavior, households are responsible for 72% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, they are key actors in reaching the 1.5°C goal under the Paris Agreement. However, the possible contribution and position of households in climate policies is neither well understood, nor do households receive sufficiently high priority in current climate policy strategies. This paper investigates how behavioral change can achieve a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in European high-income countries. It uses theoretical thinking and some core results from the HOPE research project, which investigated household preferences for reducing emissions in four European cities in France, Germany, Norway and Sweden. The paper makes five major points: First, car and plane mobility, meat and dairy consumption, as well as heating are the most dominant components of household footprints. Second, household living situations (demographics, size of home) greatly influence the household potential to reduce their footprint, even more than country or city location. Third, household decisions can be sequential and temporally dynamic, shifting through different phases such as childhood, adulthood, and illness. Fourth, short term voluntary efforts will not be sufficient by themselves to achieve the drastic reductions needed to achieve the 1.5°C goal; instead, households need a regulatory framework supporting their behavioral changes. Fifth, there is a mismatch between the roles and responsibilities conveyed by current climate policies and household perceptions of responsibility. We then conclude with further recommendations for research and policy.

  • Sulistyawati, Sulistyawati
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta 55164, Indonesia.
    Dwi Astuti, Fardhiasih
    Rahmah Umniyati, Sitti
    Tunggul Satoto, Tri Baskoro
    Lazuardi, Lutfan
    Nilsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Holmner, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Dengue Vector Control through Community Empowerment: Lessons Learned from a Community-Based Study in Yogyakarta, Indonesia2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 6, article id E1013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effort to control dengue transmission requires community participation to ensure its sustainability. We carried out a knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) survey of dengue prevention to inform the design of a vector control intervention. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in June⁻August 2014 among 521 households in two villages of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Demographic characteristics and KAP questions were asked using a self-managed questionnaire. Knowledge, attitudes and practice scores were summarized for the population according to sex, age, occupation and education. The average knowledge score was rather poor-3.7 out of 8-although both attitude and practice scores were good: 25.5 out of 32 and 9.2 out of 11 respectively. The best knowledge within the different groups were found among women, the age group 30⁻44 years, people with a university degree and government employees. Best practice scores were found among retired people and housewives. There were several significant gaps in knowledge with respect to basic dengue symptoms, preventive practices and biting and breeding habits of the Aedes mosquito. In contrast, people's practices were considered good, although many respondents failed to recognize outdoor containers as mosquito breeding sites. Accordingly, we developed a vector control card to support people's container cleaning practices. The card was assessed for eight consecutive weeks in 2015, with pre-post larvae positive houses and containers as primary outcome measures. The use of control cards reached a low engagement of the community. Despite ongoing campaigns aiming to engage the community in dengue prevention, knowledge levels were meagre and adherence to taught routines poor in many societal groups. To increase motivation levels, bottom-up strategies are needed to involve all community members in dengue control, not only those that already comply with best practices.

  • Andersson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Degerman, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Dahlin, Anna M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Wibom, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Bondy, Melissa L.
    Melin, Beatrice S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    The association between longer relative leukocyte telomere length and risk of glioma is independent of the potentially confounding factors allergy, BMI, and smoking2019In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 177-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Previous studies have suggested an association between relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL) and glioma risk. This association may be influenced by several factors, including allergies, BMI, and smoking. Previous studies have shown that individuals with asthma and allergy have shortened relative telomere length, and decreased risk of glioma. Though, the details and the interplay between rLTL, asthma and allergies, and glioma molecular phenotype is largely unknown. Methods: rLTL was measured by qPCR in a Swedish population-based glioma case–control cohort (421 cases and 671 controls). rLTL was related to glioma risk and health parameters associated with asthma and allergy, as well as molecular events in glioma including IDH1 mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion, and EGFR amplification. Results: Longer rLTL was associated with increased risk of glioma (OR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.02–1.31). Similar to previous reports, there was an inverse association between allergy and glioma risk. Specific, allergy symptoms including watery eyes was most strongly associated with glioma risk. High body mass index (BMI) a year prior diagnosis was significantly protective against glioma in our population. Adjusting for allergy, asthma, BMI, and smoking did not markedly change the association between longer rLTL and glioma risk. rLTL among cases was not associated with IDH1 mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion, or EGFR amplification, after adjusting for age at diagnosis and sex. Conclusions: In this Swedish glioma case–control cohort, we identified that long rLTL increases the risk of glioma, an association not confounded by allergy, BMI, or smoking. This highlights the complex interplay of the immune system, rLTL and cancer risk.

  • Björck, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Kadhim, Hayder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Själander, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Predictors for INR-control in a well-managed warfarin treatment setting2019In: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, ISSN 0929-5305, E-ISSN 1573-742X, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 227-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Warfarin is well studied in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). It has low complication rates for patients achieving individual Time in Therapeutic Range (iTTR)>70%. The risk scores SAMe-TT2R2 and PROSPER are designed to predict future TTR, but are derived from a heterogeneous population with generally low iTTR. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors for high and low iTTR in an AF population in Sweden, where there is a generally good anticoagulation control. A retrospective register study based on Swedish warfarin dosing system AuriculA, including 28,011 AF patients starting treatment during 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2011. Complications and risk factors were analysed and related to iTTR. Mean age was 73.7 (SD +/- 9.5) years, with 42.0% women. Mean CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score (SD) was 3.6 (+/- 1.7). For patients with iTTR<60% there were over three times higher prevalence of excessive alcohol consumption than for patients with iTTR>70% (3.7% vs. 1.1%). Previous stroke were more prevalent for patients with high than low iTTR (17.1% vs. 20.3%). Concomitant comorbidities were associated with increased risk of poor iTTR. In Swedish AF patients, excessive alcohol use is clearly associated with iTTR below 60%. Patients with previous stroke are more likely to get iTTR above 70%, unlike those with concomitant disorders who more often have poor anticoagulation control. The SAMe-TT2R2-score cannot be applied in Sweden.

  • Burström, Åsa
    et al.
    Mora, Mariela Acuna
    Öjmyr-Joelsson, Maria
    Sparud-Lundin, Carina
    Rydberg, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hanseus, Katarina
    Frenckner, Björn
    Nisell, Margret
    Moons, Philip
    Bratt, Ewa-Lena
    Parental uncertainty about transferring their adolescent with congenital heart disease to adult care2019In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 380-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To study parent's levels of uncertainty related to the transfer from pediatric to adult care in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) and to identify potentially correlating factors. Background: Parents acknowledge that during transition they struggle with finding ways of feeling secure in handing over the responsibility and letting go of control. Well-prepared and informed parents who feel secure are most likely better skilled to support their adolescent and to hand over the responsibility. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: Overall, 351 parents were included (35% response rate). Parental uncertainty was assessed using a Linear Analogue Scale (0-100). Data were collected between January - August 2016. Potential correlates were assessed using the readiness for transition questionnaire and sociodemographic data. Results: The mean parental uncertainty score was 42.5. Twenty-four percent of the parents had a very low level of uncertainty (score 0-10) and 7% had a very high level (score 91-100). Overall, 26% of the mothers and 36% of the fathers indicated that they had not started thinking of the transfer yet. The level of uncertainty was negatively associated with the level of perceived overall readiness. Adolescents' age, sex, CHD complexity, and parental age were not related to uncertainty. Conclusion: A wide range in the levels of uncertainty was found. Parents who were less involved in the care, or perceived their adolescent as readier for the transition, felt less uncertain. Still, thirty percent of the parents had not started to think about the transfer to adult care.

  • Öhman, Annika
    et al.
    El-Segaier, Milad
    Bergman, Gunnar
    Hanséus, Katarina
    Malm, Torsten
    Nilsson, Boris
    Pivodic, Aldina
    Rydberg, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Sonesson, Sven-Erik
    Mellander, Mats
    Changing Epidemiology of Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: Results of a National Swedish Cohort Study2019In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 8, no 2, article id e010893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Norwood surgery provides a palliative surgical option for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and has been available in Sweden since 1993. The practice of prenatal ultrasound screening was gradually implemented in the same era, resulting in an increased prenatal detection rate. Our primary aims were to study changes in the incidence of live births, prenatal detection rate, and the termination of pregnancies over time. The secondary aims were to study the proportion of live-borns undergoing surgery and to identify factors that influenced whether surgery was or was not performed. Methods and Results Neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with aortic atresia born 1990-2010 were identified through national databases, surgical files, and medical records. The fetal incidence was estimated from the period when prenatal screening was rudimentary. The study period was divided into the presurgical, early surgical, and late surgical periods. The incidence was calculated as the overall yearly incidence for each time period and sex separately. Factors influencing whether surgery was performed were analyzed using Cox-logistic regression. The incidence at live birth decreased from 15.4 to 8.4 per 100 000. The prenatal detection rate increased from 27% to 63%, and terminations increased from 19% to 56%. The odds of having surgery was higher in the late period and higher in the group with prenatal diagnosis. Conclusions We observed a decrease in incidence of live-borns with hypoplastic left heart syndrome aortic atresia. There was in increase in prenatal detection rate and an increase in termination of pregnancy. The proportion of live-borns who underwent surgery increased between time periods.

  • Sjöström, Rita
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Unit of Research, Education and Development, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Söderström, Lars
    Klockmo, Carolina
    Patrician, Alexander
    Sandström, Thomas
    Björklund, Glenn
    Hanstock, Helen
    Stenfors, Nikolai
    Qualitative identification and characterisation of self-reported symptoms arising in humans during experimental exposure to cold air2019In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 78, no 1, article id 1583528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to cold air is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population. It is difficult to study the effects of whole-body exposure to cold air under controlled conditions in real life. Objectives: The aim of this study was to (1) explore and describe the experience of symptoms in humans during experimental and controlled exposures to cold air, by using controlled environmental chamber exposures and qualitative methodology, and to (2) categorise the symptoms. Method: The study used a randomised, double blind design, in which 34 subjects undertook rest and moderate-intensity exercise in an environmental chamber set to two or three different temperatures (0, -10, and -17 degrees C) on separate occasions. During the chamber exposures, subjects were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was selected as the method of analysis. Findings: Subjects reported 50 distinct symptoms during the exposures. The symptoms were grouped into ten sub-categories and two major categories; airway versus whole-body symptoms. Conclusion: We have identified a broad range of symptoms in humans undertaking rest and moderate-intensity exercise at sub-zero temperatures. The symptoms and their categories may well be used to more extensively and quantitatively map cold-induced morbidity.

  • Hansson, Johan
    Umeå University.
    Ett enande band bland Nordens alla samer: Slöjd på Samernas folkhögskola/Sámij álmmukallaskåvllå2019In: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From its establishment in 1942, the Sami folk high school included crafts as an important part of its education program. The Swedish Mission Society, who founded the school, not only wanted to educate Sami youth to better their chances on the labour market but also to give them the opportunity to get acquainted with their Sami culture. Thus Sami crafts had a crucial role in educational activities at the folk high school. With the help of Gert Biesta’s concepts, the article shows that crafts had a socializing function. The teaching strengthened the students’ collective identity and provided them with traditional skills and knowledge. However, Lennart Wallmark, the school principal (1942-1972), stressed the importance of learning crafts for other purposes. Influenced by religious thinkers, he stated that the students would also be strengthened as individuals: a process of subjectification. Moreover, the crafts lessons had a third function: qualification. Though the studies were not vocational as such, they could simplify the process of procuring the quality label bestowed by the Sami organization Same Ätnam to crafts of especially high quality. Wallmark and the teachers in crafts were important for the development of craft education at the folk high school. However, Same Ätnam’s ideas of Sami handicraft and government regulations were also influential. These inner and outer forces contributed to the teaching so that it, on one hand, did not change much but, on the other hand, was congruous with the rest of the society.

  • Olaru, Gabriel
    et al.
    Wilhelm, Oliver
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Witthöft, Michael
    Kösteles, Ferenc
    Modern health worries: Deriving two measurement invariant short scales for cross-cultural research with Ant Colony Optimization2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 1-16, article id e0211819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worries about possible harmful effects of new technologies (modern health worries) have intensely been investigated in the last decade. However, the comparability of translated self-report measures across countries is often problematic. This study aimed to overcome this problem by developing psychometrically sound brief versions of the widely used 25-item Modern Health Worries Scale (MHWS) suitable for multi-country use. Based on data of overall 5,176 individuals from four European countries (England, Germany, Hungary, Sweden), Ant Colony Optimization was used to identify the indicators that optimize model fit and measurement invariance across countries. Two scales were developed. A short (12-item) version of the MHWS that represents the four-factor structure of the original version and an ultra-short (4-item) scale that only measures the general construct. Both scales show that overall levels of health worries were highest in England and Hungary, but that the main reason for concern (e.g. electromagnetic radiation or food related fears) differs considerably between these countries. This study also shows that even if measurement invariance of translated self-report instruments across countries is problematic, it can be optimized by using adequate item selection procedures. Differences of modern health worries across countries and recommendations for cross-cultural research are discussed.

  • Lilliehorn, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete, Department of social work.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    What does an oncology social worker deal with in patient consultations?: An empirical study2019In: Social work in health care, ISSN 0098-1389, E-ISSN 1541-034X, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 494-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oncology social worker is a core profession in the psycho- social care of cancer patients, and has been scrutinised accord- ing to its role, function, and delivery of care, primarily from an Anglo-Saxon perspective. There is, however, a lack of studies outside this context, and empirical studies based on individual data. This study is a contribution by exploring the variability in clinical practice from a Swedish perspective. It is based on documentation from one oncology social worker’s (OSW’s) patient contacts over the course of one year. The essence of the majority of contacts was counseling and the patients dis- played a wide variety of motives for seeing an OSW. The function of the OSW is thus multifaceted, and the findings suggest that the OSW, in addition to guiding patients in social legislation issues, also should be prepared to act as an anchor in an acute crisis, contain despair in different phases of the trajectory, and facilitate the ‘carrying on as before’ or finding a ‘new normal’. The paper discusses the importance of the OSW being acquainted with different counseling/psychother- apy perspectives in the illness context, but primarily the impor- tance of having the ability to establish a ‘working alliance’ with their patients.

  • Lange Bålman, Miriam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Umeå universitet.
    GRAVIDA KVINNORS INTAG AV KOSTTILLSKOTT: En kvantitativ studie med fokus på järn och probiotika2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract 

    Background Vitamin and mineral deficiencies in pregnant women can lead to miscarriage and serious disturbances in children’s development. The intestinal flora of the mother is most likely transmitted to the child during childbirth and may lay the foundation for the child's health. One possible solution to ensure an adequate intake may be the consumption of dietary supplements and probiotics. At present, there is insufficient data on supplement consumption among pregnant women. 

    Objective The purpose of the study was to examine how many pregnant women in Västerbotten County chose to consume dietary supplements, mainly iron and probiotics, and whether there was a difference between different factors and intake. 

    Method A quantitative cross-sectional study where pregnant women (n=1473) from the Northpop-study in Västerbotten County responded to a questionnaire regarding consumption of dietary supplements and factors such as age, education, diet etc. The material was analyzed in SPSS with Chi-2-test, independent T-Test and Mann-Whitney U-Test. Using significance level <0.05. 

    Results The majority of participants, 90 percent, responded that they consumed dietary supplements. The factors that increased the intake of dietary supplements in pregnant women were higher age (p=0.030), higher education (p=0.006) and vegetarian/vegan diet (p=0.021). Iron was reported to be consumed by 804 people, 55 percent. The factors that increased the intake of iron supplement in pregnant women were vegetarian/vegan diet (p=0.001). Probiotics were consumed by 25 people, 2 percent. Living in urban areas (p=0.024) and eating vegetarian/vegan diet (p=0.002) increased consumption of probiotics. 

    Conclusion The majority of participants chose to consume some type of dietary supplement, half of the participants consumed iron supplements and a small part consumed probiotics. It appears that pregnant women who are low educated, younger, eating an omnivorous diet and living outside urban areas are in the risk zone for not consuming dietary supplements. 

  • Walker, Donald A.
    et al.
    Epstein, Howard E.
    Šibík, Jozef
    Bhatt, Uma
    Romanovsky, Vladimir E.
    Breen, Amy L.
    Chasníková, Silvia
    Daanen, Ronald
    Druckenmiller, Lisa A.
    Ermokhina, Ksenia
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    Frost, Gerald V.
    Geml, Jozsef
    Kaarlejärvi, Elina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Khitun, Olga
    Khomutov, Artem
    Kumpula, Timo
    Kuss, Patrick
    Matyshak, Georgy
    Moskalenko, Natalya
    Orekhov, Pavel
    Peirce, Jana
    Raynolds, Martha K.
    Timling, Ina
    Vegetation on mesic loamy and sandy soils along a 1700-km maritime Eurasia Arctic Transect2019In: Applied Vegetation Science, ISSN 1402-2001, E-ISSN 1654-109X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 150-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions: How do plant communities on zonal loamy vs. sandy soils vary across the full maritime Arctic bioclimate gradient? How are plant communities of these areas related to existing vegetation units of the European Vegetation Classification? What are the main environmental factors controlling transitions of vegetation along the bioclimate gradient?

    Location: 1700-km Eurasia Arctic Transect (EAT), Yamal Peninsula and Franz Josef Land (FJL), Russia.

    Methods: The Braun-Blanquet approach was used to sample mesic loamy and sandy plots on 14 total study sites at six locations, one in each of the five Arctic bioclimate subzones and the forest-tundra transition. Trends in soil factors, cover of plant growth forms (PGFs) and species diversity were examined along the summer warmth index (SWI) gradient and on loamy and sandy soils. Classification and ordination were used to group the plots and to test relationships between vegetation and environmental factors.

    Results: Clear, mostly non-linear, trends occurred for soil factors, vegetation structure and species diversity along the climate gradient. Cluster analysis revealed seven groups with clear relationships to subzone and soil texture. Clusters at the ends of the bioclimate gradient (forest-tundra and polar desert) had many highly diagnostic taxa, whereas clusters from the Yamal Peninsula had only a few. Axis 1 of a DCA was strongly correlated with latitude and summer warmth; Axis 2 was strongly correlated with soil moisture, percentage sand and landscape age.

    Conclusions: Summer temperature and soil texture have clear effects on tundra canopy structure and species composition, with consequences for ecosystem properties. Each layer of the plant canopy has a distinct region of peak abundance along the bioclimate gradient. The major vegetation types are weakly aligned with described classes of the European Vegetation Checklist, indicating a continuous floristic gradient rather than distinct subzone regions. The study provides ground-based vegetation data for satellite-based interpretations of the western maritime Eurasian Arctic, and the first vegetation data from Hayes Island, Franz Josef Land, which is strongly separated geographically and floristically from the rest of the gradient and most susceptible to on-going climate change.

  • San Sebastian, Miguel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Mosquera, Paola A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Do cardiovascular disease prevention programs in northern Sweden impact on population health?: An interrupted time series analysis2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Sweden. This study aims to assess the impact of a CVD intervention implemented in 1993 in northern Sweden on the reduction of premature ischemic heart disease (IHD) morbidity and mortality in women and men during the period 1987-2013.

    Methods: An ecological controlled interrupted time series design, with pre-intervention period defined as 1987-1993 and post-intervention period 1994-2013 was carried out. For each year, IHD events, stratified by sex, were retrieved from national registers.

    Results: Impressive reductions on IHD premature morbidity and mortality were observed to a similar degree in both the intervention county and the other comparison counties across the last 27years. Significant differences in the pre-post intervention trends indicating the intervention group had smaller reductions than expected from its pre-intervention trend and the trend of control counties were found among men for both IHD morbidity and mortality. A similar pattern was observed among women but without significant differences.

    Conclusions: Taken together, the data do not support that the intervention has contributed to an additional reduction on IHD morbidity and mortality, above and beyond that which is already seen in neighbouring counties without similar programs.

  • Pettersson, Beatrice
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Janols, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Skelton, Dawn A.
    Sandlund, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    "Managing pieces of a personal puzzle': Older people's experiences of self-management falls prevention exercise guided by a digital program or a booklet2019In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 19, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exercise is effective in order to prevent falls in community-dwelling older people. Self-management programs have the potential to increase access and reduce costs related to exercise-based fall prevention. However, information regarding older people's views of participating in such programs is needed to support implementation. The aim of this study was to explore older people's experiences of a self-management fall prevention exercise routine guided either by a digital program (web-based or mobile) or a paper booklet.

    Methods: This qualitative study was part of a feasibility study exploring two completely self-managed exercise interventions in which the participants tailored their own program, guided either by a digital program or a paper booklet. Individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 28 participants (18 women), mean age 76yrs. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data.

    Results: Self-managing and self-tailoring these exercise programs was experienced as Managing pieces of a personal puzzle'. To independently being able to create a program and manage exercise was described in the categories Finding my own level' and Programming it into my life'. The participants experienced the flexibility and independence provided by completely self-managed exercise as positive and constructive although it required discipline. Furthermore, different needs and preferences when managing their exercise were described, as well as varying sources of motivation for doing the exercise, as highlighted in the category Defining my source of motivation'. The category Evolving my acquired knowledge' captures the participants' views of building their competence and strategies for maintenance of the exercise. It describes a combined process of learning the program and developing reflection, which was more clearly articulated by participants using the digital program.

    Conclusions: This study provides new knowledge regarding experiences, preferences and motivations of older people to engage in home-based self-managed fall prevention exercise. They expressed both a capability and willingness to independently manage their exercise. A digital program seems to have strengthened the feeling of support while creating their own exercise program and tailoring it to their preferences and circumstances, which might therefore create better opportunities for adoption and adherence in the long term.

  • Baranwal, Neha
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Singh, Avinash
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Bensch, Suna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Extracting Primary Objects and Spatial Relations from Sentences2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In verbal human-robot interaction natural language utterances have to be grounded in visual scenes by the robot. Visual language grounding is a challenging task that includes identifying a primary object among several objects, together with the object properties and spatial relations among the objects. In this paper we focus on extracting this information from sentences only. We propose two language modelling techniques, one uses regular expressions and the other one utilizes Euclidian distance. We compare these two proposed techniques with two other techniques that utilize tree structures, namely an extended Hobb’s algorithm and an algorithm that utilizes a Stanford parse tree. A comparative analysis between all language modelling techniques shows that our proposed two approaches require less computational time than the tree-based approaches. All approaches perform good identifying the primary object and its property, but for spatial relation extraction the Stanford parse tree algorithm performs better than the other language modelling techniques. Time elapsed for the Stanford parse tree algorithm is higher than for the other techniques.

  • Valerius, Julian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Wolf, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Motivators and barriers of bulkfood store customers: An examination through the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pollution of the oceans through plastics has received global wide media coverageover the last years. Also, micro-plastics in ground water and even in fish had beendetected, which leads to increased awareness of waste-reduction. Since the beginning ofthis decade, more bulk food stores open in Germany’s cities and provide an alternative toconventional, packaged products.Plastics and so-called micro-plastics have been found in the bodies of seabirds and in fish.There is an imminent danger of plastics ending up in the human bodies while it travels upthe food chain.In order to reduce their impact on the environment, an increasing number of customersengages in the zero-waste movement. To reduce single-use plastics, customers can shoptheir groceries in bulk-food stores, which allow shopping loose goods from largecontainers in contrast to individually packed items in regular supermarkets. Customerscan bring their own reusable packaging to buy mostly dry foods such as vegetables, pasta,nuts, grains but also some liquids such as oil, honey etc. The stores often also include anon-food section where additional consumable products can be bought.The paper identified a research gap in regards the store concept of bulk-stores which isan emerging trend in Germany since 2014.This thesis analyzes the motivators of bulk-food store shoppers in Germany based on anadapted version of the Theory of Planned Behavior by Izek Ajzen. The frameworkthereby builds upon research conducted by Maloney et al. (2014) who tested motivatorsof organic clothing customers.The research identified a significant positive influence of the Personal Norm and asignificant negative correlation between Perceived Expensiveness on the PurchaseIntention of the customers.The main barriers for bulk food shoppers were identified as the distance to the next store,the product portfolio and perceived high prices. Other issues have been discovered butwere – in comparison –only of secondary relevance.The paper contributes to closing the gap in literature between bulk foods and othersustainability-related topics, such as organic products and their production. Furthermore,it provides a foundation for future research on the topic.

  • Broman, Elias
    et al.
    Li, Lingni
    Fridlund, Jimmy
    Svensson, Fredrik
    Legrand, Catherine
    Dopson, Mark
    Spring and Late Summer Phytoplankton Biomass Impact on the Coastal Sediment Microbial Community Structure2019In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 288-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two annual Baltic Sea phytoplankton blooms occur in spring and summer. The bloom intensity is determined by nutrient concentrations in the water, while the period depends on weather conditions. During the course of the bloom, dead cells sink to the sediment where their degradation consumes oxygen to create hypoxic zones (< 2 mg/L dissolved oxygen). These zones prevent the establishment of benthic communities and may result in fish mortality. The aim of the study was to determine how the spring and autumn sediment chemistry and microbial community composition changed due to degradation of diatom or cyanobacterial biomass, respectively. Results from incubation of sediment cores showed some typical anaerobic microbial processes after biomass addition such as a decrease in NO2 + NO3 in the sediment surface (0–1 cm) and iron in the underlying layer (1–2 cm). In addition, an increase in NO2 + NO3 was observed in the overlying benthic water in all amended and control incubations. The combination of NO2 + NO3 diffusion plus nitrification could not account for this increase. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the addition of cyanobacterial biomass during autumn caused a large increase in ferrous iron-oxidizing archaea while diatom biomass amendment during spring caused minor changes in the microbial community. Considering that OTUs sharing lineages with acidophilic microorganisms had a high relative abundance during autumn, it was suggested that specific niches developed in sediment microenvironments. These findings highlight the importance of nitrogen cycling and early microbial community changes in the sediment due to sinking phytoplankton before potential hypoxia occurs.

  • Robke, Lucas
    et al.
    Laraia, Luca
    Corrales, Marjorie A. Carnero
    Konstantinidis, Georgios
    Muroi, Makoto
    Richters, André
    Winzker, Michael
    Engbring, Tobias
    Tomassi, Stefano
    Watanabe, Nobumoto
    Osada, Hiroyuki
    Rauh, Daniel
    Waldmann, Herbert
    Wu, Yao-Wen
    Chemical Genomics Centreof the Max-Planck-Society Otto-Hahn-Strasse15, 44227 Dortmund.
    Engel, Julian
    Phenotypic Identification of a Novel Autophagy Inhibitor Chemotype Targeting Lipid Kinase VPS342017In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 56, no 28, p. 8153-8157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autophagy is a critical regulator of cellular homeostasis and metabolism. Interference with this process is considered a new approach for the treatment of disease, in particular cancer and neurological disorders. Therefore, novel small‐molecule autophagy modulators are in high demand. We describe the discovery of autophinib, a potent autophagy inhibitor with a novel chemotype. Autophinib was identified by means of a phenotypic assay monitoring the formation of autophagy‐induced puncta, indicating accumulation of the lipidated cytosolic protein LC3 on the autophagosomal membrane. Target identification and validation revealed that autophinib inhibits autophagy induced by starvation or rapamycin by targeting the lipid kinase VPS34.

  • Laraia, Luca
    et al.
    Ohsawaa, Kosuke
    Konstantinidis, Georgios
    Robke, Lucas
    Wu, Yao-Wen
    Chemical Genomics Center of the Max Planck Society Otto-Hahn-Str.15, 44227 Dortmund.
    Kumar, Kamal
    Waldmann, Herbert
    Discovery of Novel Cinchona‐Alkaloid‐Inspired Oxazatwistane Autophagy Inhibitors2017In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 56, no 8, p. 2145-2150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cinchona alkaloids are a privileged class of natural products and are endowed with diverse bioactivities. However, for compounds with the closely‐related oxazatricyclo[4.4.0.0]decane (“oxazatwistane”) scaffold, which are accessible from cinchonidine and quinidine by means of ring distortion and modification, biological activity has not been identified. We report the synthesis of an oxazatwistane compound collection through employing state‐of‐the‐art C−H functionalization, and metal‐catalyzed cross‐coupling reactions as key late diversity‐generating steps. Exploration of oxazatwistane bioactivity in phenotypic assays monitoring different cellular processes revealed a novel class of autophagy inhibitors termed oxautins, which, in contrast to the guiding natural products, selectively inhibit autophagy by inhibiting both autophagosome biogenesis and autophagosome maturation.

  • Sjödin, Isak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Cool Roof Coatings on Industrial Buildings: An Energy Study of Reflective Coatings2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the effect of cool roof coatings containing Expancel® thermoplastic microspheres on industrial buildings, a warehouse was built-up in the computer simulation software IDA-ICE. The warehouse was modelled in line with ASHRAE 90.1. 2004 ”Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings”. Four different cases were set up where the coating of the roof was the only variable. Two coatings containing Expancel® microspheres - one white and one red coating were compared to the same white coating without Expancel® microspheres and the ”base case” where there is no coating at all. The same circumstances were also implemented in a practical laboratory test using a model warehouse with a detachable roof. Four interchangeable roofs with different roof coatings constitute the various cases in the laboratory tests. A ”sun” consisting of statically mounted IR light bulbs were constructed, as well as a cooling system to measure the difference in cooling effect (maintaining a constant indoor temperature) between the different cases as a result of the change in insolation.

    The results of the computational simulations show that for a warehouse placed in Houston, Texas about 50 MWh in combined heating and cooling energy can be saved yearly between the best and the worst case, a reduction of 6.2%. Changing the geographic placement of the warehouse to Tepic, Mexico the corresponding savings were determined to 83 MWh or 13.5%.

    A way of determining the yearly savings in heating and cooling amount for the warehouse with a generic roof coating, only knowing the SRI value of the coating, was developed. It was determined that for every unit-increment of the SRI value the yearly savings for the warehouse placed in Houston, Texas were 718 kWh and 0.1%. The corresponding savings for the warehouse placed in Tepic, Mexico were determined to be 1252 kWh and 0.22%.

    The laboratory tests showed that the indoor temperature of the model warehouse decreased by close to 16°C between the best and the worst case.

  • Bangsbo, Jens
    et al.
    Blackwell, Joanna
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    DRCMR, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Caserotti, Paolo
    Dela, Flemming
    Evans, Adam B.
    Jespersen, Astrid Pernille
    Gliemann, Lasse
    Kramer, Arthur F.
    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper
    Lykke Mortensen, Erik
    Juul Lassen, Aske
    Gow, Alan J.
    Harridge, Stephen D.R.
    Hellsten, Ylva
    Kjaer, Michael
    Kujala, Urho M.
    Rhodes, Ryan E.
    Pike, Elizabeth C.J.
    Skinner, Timothy
    Skovgaard, Thomas
    Troelsen, Jens
    Tulle, Emmanuelle
    Tully, Mark A.
    van Uffelen, Jannique G.Z.
    Viña, Jose
    Copenhagen Consensus statement 2019: physical activity and ageing2019In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 19th to 22nd November 2018, 26 researchers representing nine countries and a variety of academic disciplines met in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity and older adults. It was recognised that the term ‘older adults’ represents a highly heterogeneous population. It encompasses those that remain highly active and healthy throughout the life-course with a high intrinsic capacity to the very old and frail with low intrinsic capacity. The consensus is drawn from a wide range of research methodologies within epidemiology, medicine, physiology, neuroscience, psychology and sociology, recognising the strength and limitations of each of the methods. Much of the evidence presented in the statements is based on longitudinal associations from observational and randomised controlled intervention studies, as well as quantitative and qualitative social studies in relatively healthy community-dwelling older adults. Nevertheless, we also considered research with frail older adults and those with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, and in a few cases molecular and cellular outcome measures from animal studies. The consensus statements distinguish between physical activity and exercise. Physical activity is used as an umbrella term that includes both structured and unstructured forms of leisure, transport, domestic and work-related activities. Physical activity entails body movement that increases energy expenditure relative to rest, and is often characterised in terms of intensity from light, to moderate to vigorous. Exercise is defined as a subset of structured physical activities that are more specifically designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, cognitive function, flexibility balance, strength and/or power. This statement presents the consensus on the effects of physical activity on older adults’ fitness, health, cognitive functioning, functional capacity, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion. It also covers the consensus on physical activity implementation strategies. While it is recognised that adverse events can occur during exercise, the risk can be minimised by carefully choosing the type of activity undertaken and by consultation with the individual’s physician when warranted, for example, when the individual is frail, has a number of co-morbidities, or has exercise-related symptoms, such as chest pain, heart arrhythmia or dizziness. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with the presentation of the state-of-the-science in each domain, followed by group and plenary discussions. Ultimately, the participants reached agreement on the 30-item consensus statements.

  • Olstrup, Henrik
    et al.
    Atmospheric Science Unit, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 11418 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Christer
    Atmospheric Science Unit, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 11418 Stockholm, Sweden. Environment and Health Administration, SLB, Box 8136, 104 20 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Association between Mortality and Short-Term Exposure to Particles, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 6, article id E1028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the effects on daily mortality in Stockholm associated with short-term exposure to ultrafine particles (measured as number of particles with a diameter larger than 4 nm, PNC₄), black carbon (BC) and coarse particles (PM2.5⁻10) have been compared with the effects from more common traffic-pollution indicators (PM10, PM2.5 and NO₂) and O₃ during the period 2000⁻2016. Air pollution exposure was estimated from measurements at a 20 m high building in central Stockholm. The associations between daily mortality lagged up to two days (lag 02) and the different air pollutants were modelled by using Poisson regression. The pollutants with the strongest indications of an independent effect on daily mortality were O₃, PM2.5⁻10 and PM10. In the single-pollutant model, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in O₃ was associated with an increase in daily mortality of 2.0% (95% CI: 1.1⁻3.0) for lag 01 and 1.9% (95% CI: 1.0⁻2.9) for lag 02. An IQR increase in PM2.5⁻10 was associated with an increase in daily mortality of 0.8% (95% CI: 0.1⁻1.5) for lag 01 and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.4⁻1.8) for lag 02. PM10 was associated with a significant increase only at lag 02, with 0.8% (95% CI: 0.08⁻1.4) increase in daily mortality associated with an IQR increase in the concentration. NO₂ exhibits negative associations with mortality. The significant excess risk associated with O₃ remained significant in two-pollutant models after adjustments for PM2.5⁻10, BC and NO₂. The significant excess risk associated with PM2.5⁻10 remained significant in a two-pollutant model after adjustment for NO₂. The significantly negative associations for NO₂ remained significant in two-pollutant models after adjustments for PM2.5⁻10, O₃ and BC. A potential reason for these findings, where statistically significant excess risks were found for O₃, PM2.5⁻10 and PM10, but not for NO₂, PM2.5, PNC₄ and BC, is behavioral factors that lead to misclassification in the exposure. The concentrations of O₃ and PM2.5⁻10 are in general highest during sunny and dry days during the spring, when exposure to outdoor air tend to increase, while the opposite applies to NO₂, PNC₄ and BC, with the highest concentrations during the short winter days with cold weather, when people are less exposed to outdoor air.

  • Olsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Honkala, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Blomqvist, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kok, Eloise
    Weidung, Bodil
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Urea dilution of serum for reproducible anti-HSV1 IgG avidity index2019In: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 19, article id 164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), establishes life-long latency and can cause symptoms during both first-time infection and later reactivation. The aim of the present study was to describe a protocol to generate a reliable and discriminative avidity index (AI) for anti-HSV1 IgG content in human sera. Human serum from two distinct cohorts; one a biobank collection (Betula) (n = 28), and one from a clinical diagnostics laboratory at Northern Sweden University Hospital (NUS) (n = 18), were assessed for presence of IgG antibodies against HSV1 by a commercially available ELISA-kit. Addition of urea at the incubation step reduces effective binding, and the ratio between urea treated sample and non-treated sample was used to express an avidity index (AI) for individual samples. AI score ranged between 43.2 and 73.4% among anti-HSV1 positive biobank sera. Clinical samples ranged between 36.3 and 74.9%. Reproducibility expressed as an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was estimated at 0.948 (95% CI: 0.900-0.979) and 0.989 (95% CI 0.969-0.996) in the biobank and clinical samples, respectively. The method allows for AI scoring of anti-HSV1 IgG from individual human sera with a single measurement. The least significant change between two measurements at the p < 0.05 level was estimated at 5.4 and 3.2 points, respectively, for the two assessed cohorts.

  • Flexeder, Claudia
    et al.
    Zock, Jan-Paul
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Verlato, Giuseppe
    Olivieri, Mario
    Benke, Geza
    Abramson, Michael J.
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Toren, Kjell
    Nowak, Dennis
    Jogi, Rain
    Martinez-Moratalla, Jesus
    Demoly, Pascal
    Janson, Christer
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Bono, Roberto
    Holm, Mathias
    Franklin, Karl A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith
    Siroux, Valerie
    Leynaert, Benedicte
    Dorado Arenas, Sandra
    Corsico, Angelo Guido
    Pereira-Vega, Antonio
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Urrutia Landa, Isabel
    Schulz, Holger
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Second-hand smoke exposure in adulthood and lower respiratory health during 20 year follow up in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey2019In: Respiratory Research, ISSN 1465-9921, E-ISSN 1465-993X, Vol. 20, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early life exposure to tobacco smoke has been extensively studied but the role of second-hand smoke (SHS) for new-onset respiratory symptoms and lung function decline in adulthood has not been widely investigated in longitudinal studies. Our aim is to investigate the associations of exposure to SHS in adults with respiratory symptoms, respiratory conditions and lung function over 20 years. We used information from 3011 adults from 26 centres in 12 countries who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Surveys I-III and were never or former smokers at all three surveys. Associations of SHS exposure with respiratory health (asthma symptom score, asthma, chronic bronchitis, COPD) were analysed using generalised linear mixed-effects models adjusted for confounding factors (including sex, age, smoking status, socioeconomic status and allergic sensitisation). Linear mixed-effects models with additional adjustment for height were used to assess the relationships between SHS exposure and lung function levels and decline. Reported exposure to SHS decreased in all 26 study centres over time. The prevalence of SHS exposure was 38.7% at baseline (1990-1994) and 7.1% after the 20-year follow-up (2008-2011). On average 2.4% of the study participants were not exposed at the first, but were exposed at the third examination. An increase in SHS exposure over time was associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma (odds ratio (OR): 2.7; 95% confidence interval (95%-CI): 1.2-5.9), chronic bronchitis (OR: 4.8; 95%-CI: 1.6-15.0), asthma symptom score (count ratio (CR): 1.9; 95%-CI: 1.2-2.9) and dyspnoea (OR: 2.7; 95%-CI: 1.1-6.7) compared to never exposed to SHS. Associations between increase in SHS exposure and incidence of COPD (OR: 2.0; 95%-CI: 0.6-6.0) or lung function (beta: - 49 ml; 95%-CI: -132, 35 for FEV1 and beta: - 62 ml; 95%-CI: -165, 40 for FVC) were not apparent. Exposure to second-hand smoke may lead to respiratory symptoms, but this is not accompanied by lung function changes.

  • Shah, Farhan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Holmlund, Thorbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Jaghagen, Eva Levring
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Berggren, Diana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Franklin, Karl A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Stål, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Neurotrophic factor BDNF is upregulated in soft palate muscles of snorers and sleep apnea patients2019In: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology, ISSN 2378-8038, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 174-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Neuromuscular injuries are suggested to contribute to upper airway collapse and swallowing dysfunction in patients with sleep apnea. Neurotrophins, a family of proteins involved in survival, development, and function of neurons, are reported to be upregulated in limb muscle fibers in response to overload and nerve damage. We aimed to investigate the expression of two important neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), in muscle fibers of uvula from snorers and sleep apnea patients and to compare these findings with pharyngeal function.

    Methods: Uvula muscle biopsies from 22 patients and 10 controls were analyzed for BDNF, NGF, and cytoskeletal protein desmin using immunohistochemistry. Pharyngeal swallowing function was assessed using videoradiography.

    Results: BDNF, but not NGF, was significantly upregulated in a subpopulation of muscle fibers in snoring and sleep apnea patients. Two major immunoreaction patterns for BDNF were observed; a fine grainy point like BDNF staining was displayed in muscle fibers of both patients and controls (41 +/- 23 vs. 25 +/- 17%, respectively, P = .06), while an abnormal upregulated intense-dotted or disorganized reaction was mainly observed in patients (8 +/- 8 vs. 2 +/- 2%, P = .02). The latter fibers, which often displayed an abnormal immunoreaction for desmin, were more frequent in patients with than without swallowing dysfunction (10 +/- 8 vs. 3 +/- 3%, P = .05).

    Conclusion: BDNF is upregulated in the upper airway muscles of snorers and sleep apnea patients, and especially in patients with swallowing dysfunction. Upregulation of BDNF is suggested to be a response to denervation, reinnervation, and repair of injured muscle fibers. Our findings propose that damaged upper airway muscles might heal following treatment for snoring and sleep apnea.

  • Guillemot, Vincent
    et al.
    Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Hub, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Beaton, Derek
    The Rotman Research Institute, Institution at Baycrest, Toronto, Canada.
    Gloaguen, Arnaud
    L2S, UMR CNRS 8506, CNRS–Centrale Supélec–Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Löfstedt, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Levine, Brian
    The Rotman Research Institute, Institution at Baycrest, Toronto, Canada.
    Raymond, Nicolas
    IRMAR, UMR 6625, Université de Rennes, Rennes, France.
    Tenenhaus, Arthur
    L2S, UMR CNRS 8506, CNRS–Centrale Supélec–Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Abdi, Hervé
    School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, United States of America.
    A constrained singular value decomposition method that integrates sparsity and orthogonality2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 3, article id e0211463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a new sparsification method for the singular value decomposition—called the constrained singular value decomposition (CSVD)—that can incorporate multiple constraints such as sparsification and orthogonality for the left and right singular vectors. The CSVD can combine different constraints because it implements each constraint as a projection onto a convex set, and because it integrates these constraints as projections onto the intersection of multiple convex sets. We show that, with appropriate sparsification constants, the algorithm is guaranteed to converge to a stable point. We also propose and analyze the convergence of an efficient algorithm for the specific case of the projection onto the balls defined by the norms L1 and L2. We illustrate the CSVD and compare it to the standard singular value decomposition and to a non-orthogonal related sparsification method with: 1) a simulated example, 2) a small set of face images (corresponding to a configuration with a number of variables much larger than the number of observations), and 3) a psychometric application with a large number of observations and a small number of variables. The companion R-package, csvd, that implements the algorithms described in this paper, along with reproducible examples, are available for download from https://github.com/vguillemot/csvd.

  • Vaattovaara, Aleksia
    et al.
    Leppälä, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Salojarvi, Jarkko
    Wrzaczek, Michael
    High-throughput sequencing data and the impact of plant gene annotation quality2019In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 1069-1076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of draft genomes of different species and re-sequencing of accessions and populations are now common tools for plant biology research. The de novo assembled draft genomes make it possible to identify pivotal divergence points in the plant lineage and provide an opportunity to investigate the genomic basis and timing of biological innovations by inferring orthologs between species. Furthermore, re-sequencing facilitates the mapping and subsequent molecular characterization of causative loci for traits, such as those for plant stress tolerance and development. In both cases high-quality gene annotation-the identification of protein-coding regions, gene promoters, and 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions-is critical for investigation of gene function. Annotations are constantly improving but automated gene annotations still require manual curation and experimental validation. This is particularly important for genes with large introns, genes located in regions rich with transposable elements or repeats, large gene families, and segmentally duplicated genes. In this opinion paper, we highlight the impact of annotation quality on evolutionary analyses, genome-wide association studies, and the identification of orthologous genes in plants. Furthermore, we predict that incorporating accurate information from manual curation into databases will dramatically improve the performance of automated gene predictors.