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  • Krüger, Merle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ålder eller behov?: En kvalitativ studie om HVB-hem personalens upplevelser av åldersbedömning och åldersosäkerheten bland ensamkommande flyktingbarn2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka HVB-hem personalens uppfattningar om åldersbedömning av ensamkommande flyktingbarn. Dessutom syftar studien på att undersöka hur personalen upplever och hanterar den eventuella åldersosäkerheten hos ensamkommande som är placerade på HVB-hem för barn. Studien är baserad på åtta kvalitativa intervjuer med personal från olika kommuner i Sverige. Intervjuerna har analyserats med hjälp av olika verktyg från grounded theory metoden och resultatet har analyserats med teoretiska utgångspunkter i Maslows behovteori och Goffmans rollteori. Det visade sig att personalen har huvudsakligen negativa uppfattningar och upplevelser om åldersbedömning på ensamkommande. Dessutom ansågs barns behov som viktigare än deras ålder. Att arbeta med att tillgodose barns behov är utgångspunkten i deras roll som HVB-hem personal. En bra och förtroendefull relation upplevdes kunna skadas av att lyfta misstankarna om ålder till Migrationsverket eller till ungdomen. Det kunde dock ses risker med åldersskillnader och att barn och ungdomar i olämplig ålder, för ung eller för gammal, placeras på HVB-hemmet. Utnyttjande, kränkning, mobbning och sexuellt ofredande nämndes av flera. Det ansågs finnas fördelar med det också. Äldre ungdomar som stödpersoner, storasyskon och förebilder eller deras möjlighet att få stöd från personal dygnet runt och gå i skolan, vilket i sin tur kunde anses bidra till en bättre integration.

  • Persson, Zenita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hur vi och svensk rättspraxis ser på sexuella trakasserier2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual harassment is a global problem and it is not a new one, although it took until the 1970’s before it became an accepted concept. Sexual assault was one of the reported crimes, that had increased the most during 2016. The number of convicted sexual offences during 2015 had also increased, especially an increase in, among other things, sexual assault. There is a need of increased knowledge about what sexual harassment is about. In addition, more research about the motive behind sexual harassment, how sexual harassment is received and its effects, are needed.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how sexual harassment is looked upon by a group of people via social media in comparison to how sexual harassment is defined according to Swedish case-law. Nine semi-structured interviews were performed, and analyzed with a narrative method and then problematized thru Swedish case-law in the discussion. The participants in this study regarded sexual harassment as an act against someone’s will. This could entail that someone made sexual acts (acted in a sexual way), took advantage of the others body, did not respect the others boundaries or made sexual approaches. Typically, a person did not respect the others boundaries when making a sexual approach, there was a lack of a mutual understanding. Often with the purpose to mentally break someone and by touching the intimate parts of another without their consent.

    According to the participants in this study the reasons for people to sexually harass depends on different things and how the victims react varies. It was considered, however, that sexual harassment could happen anywhere and by anyone. When looking at Swedish case-law it seems obvious that the judiciary does not have an all too easy task. One may spectacle whether this might be due to that the boundaries of sexual harassment is unclear as it as borders to sexual interest/attention and is a rather common phenomenon in society.

  • Nilsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Björklund, Jennie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    När insatserna inte räcker för att hantera dubbel utsatthet: En studie om socionomers bild av ansvarsfördelning kring samverkan mellan välfärdssamhällets aktörer i det sociala trygghetssystemet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen riktar fokus på socionomers bild av ansvarsfördelning kring samverkan mellan välfärdssamhällets aktörer, inom det sociala trygghetssystemet. För att minska risken att klienter faller mellan stolarna. Studiens material grundas i ett fiktivt fall där individen blir slussad mellan olika aktörer och riskerar att falla mellan stolarna. Materialet samlades in med hjälp av vinjettmetodik inom ramen för ett enkätutskick. Resultatet av studien kopplades till teorier om samverkan och copingstrategier som beskriver socionomernas bemästringsförmåga. Slutsatsen av studien var att socionomerna ansåg att klienter som hänvisas mellan välfärdssamhällets aktörer var vanligt förekommande. På grund av hög arbetsbörda och stress hade socionomerna problem med att stötta individerna. Det resulterade i att individerna som befann sig i gränslandet mellan olika aktörer inte fick det stöd som de behövde. Detta kunde på sikt leda till att en redan utsatt individ som befann sig i gränslandet mellan olika aktörer drabbades av en dubbel utsatthet, då den riskerade att falla mellan stolarna i det svenska trygghetssystemet.

  • Wikström, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    House price developments in Sweden: The role of fundamentals2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    House prices in Sweden have been increasing at an unprecedented pace since the mid-1990s. In this study, I examine the main causes behind this increase. Specifically, if the increase in house prices can be explained by movements in so-called fundamental factors. To study these relationships, I deploy a Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) approach. In addition to newer evidence, I also examine the effect of the reduced property tax in 2008 onhouse prices. The model suggests that the development in the fundamental factors explain the increases in house prices very well. The model indicates negative effects of the property tax pre-2008; however, no indication of capitalization effects of the change in the tax into prices was found.

  • Brydsten, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Yesterday once more? Unemployment and health inequalities across the life course in northern Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background. It is relatively well established in previous research that unemployment has direct health consequences in terms of mental and physical ill health. Recently, knowledge has emerged indicating that unemployment can lead to economic consequences that remain long after re-establishment in the labour market. However, few empirical studies have been able to apply a life course perspective asking whether there are also long-term health consequences of unemployment, and, when and in which context unemployment may affect the individual health status across the life course. The aim of this thesis was to analyse the relationship between unemployment and illness across the life course, and how it relates to individual and structural factors in the geographical setting of northern Sweden. In particular, three main areas have been explored: youth unemployment and illness in adulthood (Paper I and Paper II), contextual unemployment of national unemployment rate and neighbourhood unemployment (Paper II and Paper III) and lastly, social determinants of health inequality between employment statuses (Paper IV).

    Methods. This thesis is positioned in Sweden between the early 1980s and the mid-2010s, following two comparable cohorts sampled from northern Sweden (26 and 19 years follow-up time respectively from youth to midlife) and a cross-sectional sample from 2014 of the four northernmost counties in Sweden. The two longitudinal cohorts comprised the Northern Swedish Cohort and the Younger Northern Swedish Cohort, consisting of all pupils in the 9th grade of compulsory school in Luleå municipality in 1981 and 1989. The participants responded to an extensive questionnaire on socioeconomic factors, work and health, in 5 and 2 waves respectively of data collections. Neighbourhood register data from Statistics Sweden was also collected for all participants in the Northern Sweden Cohort. At the latest data collection, 94.3% (n=1010) participated in the Northern Sweden Cohort and 85.6% (n=686) in the Younger Northern Sweden Cohort. The cross-sectional study Health on Equal Terms is a national study, administered by the Public Health Agency together with Statistics Sweden and county councils with the aim of mapping public health and living conditions in the country over time. In this thesis, material from 2014 has been used for northern Sweden with a response rate of around 50% (effective sample n=12769). The statistical analyses used were linear regression, multilevel analysis and difference-in-difference analysis to estimate the concurrent and long-term health consequences of unemployment, and a decomposition analysis to disentangle the inequality in health between different labour market positions. The health outcomes in focus were functional somatic symptoms (the occurrence of relatively common physical illnesses such as head, muscle and stomach ache, insomnia and palpitation) and psychological distress.

    Results. Among men only, as little as one month of youth unemployment was related to increased levels of functional somatic symptoms in midlife, regardless of previous ill health or unemployment later in life, although only during relatively low national unemployment (pre-recession) when comparing with youth unemployment during high national unemployment (recession). This was explained by the health promoting effect of more time spent in higher education during the recession period. Furthermore, the health impact of neighbourhood unemployment highlights the importance of the contextual setting for individuals’ health both across the life course and at specific periods of life. Lastly, employment-related mental health inequalities exist for both men and women in all life phases (youth, adulthood and midlife). Economic and social deprivation related to unemployment and illness varied across different phases in life and across genders.

    Conclusion. The key findings of this thesis paint a rather pessimistic vision of the future: one’s own and others’ unemployment may cause not only ill health today but also ill health later in life. Importantly, the responsibility of unemployment and the associated ill health should not be placed on the already marginalised individuals and communities. Instead, the responsibility should be directed towards the structural aspects of society and the political choices that shape these. In other words, health inequality manifested by the position in the labour market is socially produced, unfair and changeable through political decisions. The results of this study therefore cannot contribute to any simple or concrete solutions to the concurrent or long-term health consequences of individual or contextual unemployment, as the solution is beyond the areas of responsibility and abilities of research. However, if there are long-term health consequences of one’s own and other people’s unemployment, labour market and public health policies should be initiated from a young age and continue throughout the life course to reduce individual suffering and future costs of social insurance, sick-leave and unemployment benefits.

  • Boldinova, Elizaveta O.
    et al.
    Wanrooij, Paulina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Shilkin, Evgeniy S.
    Wanrooij, Sjoerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Makarova, Alena V.
    DNA Damage Tolerance by Eukaryotic DNA Polymerase and Primase PrimPol2017In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 18, no 7, 1584Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PrimPol is a human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase that also possesses primase activity and is involved in DNA damage tolerance, the prevention of genome instability and mitochondrial DNA maintenance. In this review, we focus on recent advances in biochemical and crystallographic studies of PrimPol, as well as in identification of new protein-protein interaction partners. Furthermore, we discuss the possible functions of PrimPol in both the nucleus and the mitochondria.

  • Thorén, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Sörberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Anomaly Detection in Signaling Data Streams: A Time-Series Approach2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work has aimed to develop a method which can be used in order to detect anomalies in signaling data streams at a telecommunication company. It has been done by modeling and evaluating three prediction models and two detection methods. The prediction models which have been implemented are Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Holt-Winters and a Benchmark model, furthermore have two detection methods been tested; Method 1 (M1), which is based on a robust evaluation of previous prediction errors and Method 2 (M2), which is based on the standard deviation in previous data. From the evaluation of the work, we could conclude that the best performing combination of prediction- and detection methods was achieved with a modified Benchmark model and M1- detection.

  • Eskilsson, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre.
    Aerobic training for improved memory in patients with stress-related exhaustion: a randomized controlled trial2017In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 17, no 1, 322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Patients with stress-related exhaustion suffer from cognitive impairments, which often remain after psychological treatment or work place interventions. It is important to find effective treatments that can address this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects on cognitive performance and psychological variables of a 12-week aerobic training program performed at a moderate-vigorous intensity for patients with exhaustion disorder who participated in a multimodal rehabilitation program.

    METHODS: In this open-label, parallel, randomized and controlled trial, 88 patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder participated in a 24-week multimodal rehabilitation program. After 12 weeks in the program the patients were randomized to either a 12-week aerobic training intervention or to a control group with no additional training. Primary outcome measure was cognitive function, and secondary outcome measures were psychological health variables and aerobic capacity.

    RESULTS: In total, 51% patients in the aerobic training group and 78% patients in the control group completed the intervention period. The aerobic training group significantly improved in maximal oxygen uptake and episodic memory performance. No additional improvement in burnout, depression or anxiety was observed in the aerobic group compared with controls.

    CONCLUSION: Aerobic training at a moderate-vigorous intensity within a multimodal rehabilitation program for patients with exhaustion disorder facilitated episodic memory. A future challenge would be the clinical implementation of aerobic training and methods to increase feasibility in this patient group.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03073772 . Retrospectively registered 21 February 2017.

  • Vanoli, Davide
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Vascular ultrasound for the assessment of carotid atherosclerosis2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common cause for mortality globally, and is expected to remain the single leading cause of death as the global population ages and as life expectancy increases.

    Cardiovascular screening models have been developed, and continue to be developed, to identify individuals at high-risk of CVD.  This is necessary to establish prevention strategies to decrease the occurrence of an acute event or debilitating syndrome. These strategies largely take the form of lifestyle modification and pharmacological intervention. The Framingham risk score, NCEP/ATP II guidelines and SCORE risk assessment protocol are widely used screening models. Ultrasound based methods are non-invasive, affordable and have been suggested to improve assessment and definition of individual patients potential risk of CVD. Increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a known and established sign of early atherosclerosis. The presence of plaque and the overall burden of atherosclerosis seems to have even greater value in predicting cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. Ultrasound based texture characteristics of plaques such as entropy, grey scale median, discrete white area, coarseness and juxtaluminal hypoechoic black area have been proposed as useful possible predictors of plaque vulnerability. Moreover, ultrasound contrast agents have been developed to improve visualization and subsequent quantification of an atherosclerotic plaque. Considering the current available data and research, the importance of developing tools and techniques for detection and characterization of atherosclerotic changes, to indicate risk for CVD and the subsequent early intervention and prevention, appears clearly as an effort to improve public health. In this present collection of studies (4 papers) we aim to contribute to the development of clinically useful ultrasound methods and tools for the accurate assessment, understanding and management of atherosclerosis.

    Methods: To validate ultrasound-based methods for assessment of early signs of atherosclerosis, measured as cIMT, a total of 144 subjects underwent bilateral carotid ultrasound. In study I, the performance of an ultrasonography software capable of fully automated on-screen cIMT measurements was tested and compared with the traditional manual measurement approach. The coefficient of variation and the intraclass correlation coefficient for both methods were compared to verify the reliability and reproducibility of results generated by the new ultrasound software. To test the accessibility and possible clinical applications of this new technology tested in study I, the new software was used by novice’s scanners in study II, and the intraobserver variability of the cIMT measurements were assessed and compared with that of an expert operator. In study III, ultrasound texture characteristics of 327 plaques including entropy, grey scale median, discrete white area, coarseness and juxtaluminal hypoechoic black area were assessed as possible predictors of future cerebrovascular events in a cohort of 133 patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis waiting for carotid surgery. The reproducibility of measuring plaque area (expressed as intraclass correlation coefficient) using conventional ultrasound and contrast enhanced ultrasound was tested in study IV in an attempt to find a simple and reproducible parameter for monitoring changes in atherosclerotic burden.

    Results: The technology tested in study I was found to have good inter- and intra-system reproducibility compared with conventional methods. Moreover, it was found to produce reproducible results when used by expert and novice operators after a short period of training (study II), confirming the possibility for the employment of this technology in a large screening public health programs. Although such technology may have immediate practical application, other and more sophisticated ultrasound based plaque characteristics (such as grey scale median, entropy, coarseness, juxtaluminal hypoechoic black area) were not shown to be beneficial in predicting plaque vulnerability (study III). Contrast enhanced ultrasound technic tested in study IV did not improve quantification of atherosclerotic plaque burden. 

    Conclusion: Medical ultrasound technology by using a automatically measure of carotid intima media thickness can be used with high reproducibility and also possible to be transferred to primary care by a well designed training program.  Plaque characteristic using carotid ultrasound was not found to be useful in risk stratifying symptomatic patients with severe carotid stenosis. Furthermore, contrast enhanced ultrasound technique was found to have high reproducibility in plaque area assessment but not better than conventional b-mode based method in quantifying the atherosclerotic burden. Therefore, more sophisticated ultrasound based methods for assessment plaque characteristics was not found to be beneficial in predicting plaque vulnerability.

  • Hedlund, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Growth and decline in rural Sweden: geographical distribution of employment and population 1960–20102017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the combination of changes in the population and employment into sectors in rural Sweden for the period 1960-2010. The aim is to describe and analyze the demographic changes together with the labour market changes, and to account for the spatial outcome of these changes by considering the heterogeneity of rural areas. The analysis departs from the framework of rural restructuring, where changes in employment and population in rural Sweden are interpreted as local products of the global processes of technological development, social modernization and globalization. Empirically, the analysis is based on a combination of longitudinal censuses and register data on the Swedish population covering the period 1960-2010.

    The first part of the aim is achieved by applying a life-course perspective and exploiting the longitudinal nature of the data. The life-course perspective distinguishes between historical time and the age of individuals, making it possible to situate changes in employment and migration on the individual level. The second part of the aim is achieved through developing a typology of rural Sweden by doing a cluster analysis on SAMS-areas.

    The results show that rural change after 1980 was characterized by de-industrialization and the rise of the urban service sector. The period was also characterized by regional urbanization rather than local urbanization. Peripheral urban and rural areas based on industrial employment found themselves with a declining economic motor, which meant that people had to find their source of income elsewhere. The migration stream in this period was thus increasingly directed towards metropolitan or large city centers, and their rural surroundings within commuting distance. However, the more fine-tuned spatial typology reveals that also a few areas in the rural periphery have experienced growth, these areas are mainly attractive places based on various kinds of tourism. It can thus be concluded that different rural areas have experienced, and will continue to experience, the shift from manufacturing to services differently, where some areas have grown in both demographic and employment terms while others have declined. In this sense the heterogeneity of rural areas are a product of both growth and decline – of old development paths that is reaching their end and of new development paths that will continue into the future.

  • Kindstedt, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Novel Insights into Inflammatory Disturbed Bone Remodelling2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone is a dynamic tissue that is continuously remodelled, a process that requires equal amounts of osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. Inflammation may disturb the equilibrium and result in local and/or systemic bone loss. Negative bone mass balance occurs in several chronic inflammatory diseases, e.g. periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aetiology of periodontitis is infectious, while RA is an autoimmune disease. Despite aetiological differences, an association between the two diseases has been established but it is not known if they are causally related. Periodontitis may develop when the inflammatory process, initially restricted to the gingiva (gingivitis), further invades the periodontium and causes bone resorption. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from gingivitis to periodontitis are not fully elucidated. Osteoclast formation is dependent on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), but how osteoclast precursors are recruited to the jawbone is poorly understood. A family of cytokines named chemokines has been reported to possess such properties and increasing evidence points towards their involvement in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to gain extended knowledge about the role of chemokines and a newly discovered family of leukocytes named innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in periodontitis and concomitant inflammatory disturbed bone remodelling. Furthermore, the aim was also to study the association between periodontitis and RA.

    We identified increased serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and CCL11 in individuals with periodontitis. Moreover, a robust correlation between the two chemokines and periodontitis was detected in a weighted analysis of inflammatory markers, subject characteristics and periodontitis parameters. We detected higher MCP-1 levels in periodontitis tissue compared to non-inflamed. Furthermore we demonstrated that human gingival fibroblasts express MCP-1 and CCL11 in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines through NF-κB signalling. Using an inflammatory bone lesion model and primary cell cultures, we discovered that osteoblasts express CCL11 in vivo and in vitro and that the expression increased under inflammatory conditions. Osteoclasts did not express CCL11, but its high affinity receptor CCR3 was upregulated during osteoclast differentiation and found to co-localise with CCL11 on the surface of osteoclasts. Exogenous CCL11 was internalised in osteoclasts, stimulated the migration of osteoclast precursors and increased bone resorption in vitro.

    To analyse if periodontitis precedes RA we analysed marginal jawbone loss in dental radiographs taken in pre-symptomatic RA cases and matched controls. The prevalence of jawbone loss was higher among cases, and the amount of jawbone loss correlated with plasma levels of RANKL.

    In the search of the newly discovered ILCs, we performed flow cytometry analyses on gingivitis and periodontitis tissue samples. We detected twice as many ILCs in periodontitis as in gingivitis. In addition we found RANKL expression on ILC1s (an ILC subset).

    In conclusion, we demonstrated that CCL11 is systemically and locally increased in periodontitis and that the CCL11/CCR3 axis may be activated in inflammatory disturbed bone remodelling. We also found that marginal jawbone loss correlated with plasma levels of RANKL and preceded clinical onset of symptoms of RA. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ILCs are present in periodontitis and represent a previously unknown source of RANKL. 

  • Leo, Paul J
    et al.
    Madeleine, Margaret M
    Wang, Sophia
    Schwartz, Stephen M
    Newell, Felicity
    Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Hemminki, Kari
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Tiews, Sven
    Steinberg, Winfried
    Rader, Janet S
    Castro, Felipe
    Safaeian, Mahboobeh
    Franco, Eduardo L
    Coutlée, François
    Ohlsson, Claes
    Cortes, Adrian
    Marshall, Mhairi
    Mukhopadhyay, Pamela
    Cremin, Katie
    Johnson, Lisa G
    Garland, Suzanne
    Tabrizi, Sepehr N
    Wentzensen, Nicolas
    Sitas, Freddy
    Little, Julian
    Cruickshank, Maggie
    Frazer, Ian H
    Hildesheim, Allan
    Brown, Matthew A
    Defining the genetic susceptibility to cervical neoplasia: A genome-wide association study2017In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 13, no 8, e1006866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A small percentage of women with cervical HPV infection progress to cervical neoplasia, and the risk factors determining progression are incompletely understood. We sought to define the genetic loci involved in cervical neoplasia and to assess its heritability using unbiased unrelated case/control statistical approaches. We demonstrated strong association of cervical neoplasia with risk and protective HLA haplotypes that are determined by the amino-acids carried at positions 13 and 71 in pocket 4 of HLA-DRB1 and position 156 in HLA-B. Furthermore, 36% (standard error 2.4%) of liability of HPV-associated cervical pre-cancer and cancer is determined by common genetic variants. Women in the highest 10% of genetic risk scores have approximately >7.1% risk, and those in the highest 5% have approximately >21.6% risk, of developing cervical neoplasia. Future studies should examine genetic risk prediction in assessing the risk of cervical neoplasia further, in combination with other screening methods.

  • Gnekow, Astrid K.
    et al.
    Walker, David A.
    Kandels, Daniela
    Picton, Susan
    Perilongo, Giorgio
    Grill, Jacques
    Stokland, Tore
    Sandström, Per Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Warmuth-Metz, Monika
    Pietsch, Torsten
    Giangaspero, Felice
    Schmidt, Rene
    Faldum, Andreas
    Kilmartin, Denise
    De Paoli, Angela
    De Salvo, Gian Luca
    A European randomised controlled trial of the addition of etoposide to standard vincristine and carboplatin induction as part of an 18-month treatment programme for childhood (<= 16 years) low grade glioma - A final report2017In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 81, 206-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The use of chemotherapy to manage newly diagnosed low grade glioma (LGG) was first introduced in the 1980s. One randomised trial has studied two-versus four-drug regimens with a duration of 12 months of treatment after resection. Methods: Within the European comprehensive treatment strategy for childhood LGG, the International Society of Paediatric OncologyeLow Grade Glioma (SIOP LGG) Committee launched a randomised trial involving 118 institutions and 11 countries to investigate the addition of etoposide (100 mg/m(2), days 1, 2 & 3) to a four-course induction of vincristine (1.5 mg/m(2) x 10 wkly) and carboplatin (550 mg/m(2) q 3 weekly) as part of 18-month continuing treatment programme. Patients were recruited after imaging diagnosis, resection or biopsy with progressive disease/symptoms. Some 497 newly diagnosed patients (M/F 231/266; median age 4.26 years (interquartile range (IQR) 2.02-7.06)) were randomised to receive vincristine carboplatin (VC) (n = 249) or VC plus etoposide (VCE) during induction (n = 248), stratified by age and tumour site. Findings: No differences between the two arms were found in term of survival and radiological response. Response and non-progression rates at 24 weeks for VC and VCE, were 46% versus 41%, and 93% versus 91% respectively; 5-year Progression-Free Survival (PFS) and Overall Survival (OS) were 46% (StDev 3.5) versus 45% (StDev 3.5) and 89% (StDev 2.1) versus 89% (StDev 2.1) respectively. Age and diencephalic syndrome are adverse clinical risk factors for PFS and OS. 5-year OS for patients in early progression at week 24 were 46% (StDev 13.8) and 49% (StDev 16.5) in the two arms, respectively. Interpretation: The addition of etoposide to VC did not improve PFS or OS. High non-progression rates at 24 weeks justify retaining VC as standard first-line therapy. Infants with diencephalic syndrome and early progression need new treatments to be tested. Future trials should use neurological/visual and toxicity outcomes and be designed to discriminate between the impact on disease outcomes of 'duration of therapy' and 'age at stopping therapy'.

  • Borgvall, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Tengvall, Wictor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Botten upp: En komparativ fallstudie gällande varumärkesbyggande hos små och medelstora bryggerier och destillerier i Sverige2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varumärkesbyggande är ett vida studerat ämne, i alla fall när det gäller stora och multinationella företag. När fokus istället flyttas till små och medelstora företag är litteraturen knapphändig. En bransch i Sverige som innefattar ett ständigt växande antal små och medelstora företag samt verkar på en mycket konkurrensutsatt marknad är hantverksbryggeri och destilleribranschen. Dessa allt mer krävande marknadsförhållanden fordrar att företagen förses med uppslag och riktlinjer på hur varumärken bygger sig starka i en branschspecifik kontext.För att försöka bidra med klarhet och uppslag angående detta, ämnar studien besvara följande frågeställning; “Hur arbetar små och medelstora företag inom destilleri och bryggeribranschen i Sverige med varumärkesbyggande?”

    Ett praktiskt syfte med studien är att ta fram rekommendationer för företag eller personer i liknande branscher i Sverige som kan förse uppslag och riktlinjer i deras utvecklande av varumärkesbyggande. Studiens vetenskapliga uppslag baseras i grunden på Centeno et al studie från 2013, ‘’The five phases of SME brand-building.’’ Detta med motivation av att de deltagande respondenterna agerar under olika ekonomiska och organisatoriska förhållanden och har existerat olika länge, vilket fordrar ett bredare perspektiv för att vinna förståelse för den verklighet dessa delgivit oss. Till detta är pris som varumärkesbyggande strategi adderat.

    I denna komparativa fallstudie har en kvalitativ insamlingsmetod använts för att förse ett företagsperspektiv på frågeställningen. Datainsamlingen har skett genom 8 semistrukturerade djupintervjuer av personer med relevanta befattningar på små företag inom bryggeri, destilleri samt i ett fall musteribranschen. Slutsatser som dragits av studien är att det finns många olika tillvägagångssätt och metoder att bygga varumärken på samt olika strategier som kan användas utan att behöva ha stora mängder kapital att tillgå. Tidigare yrkeserfarenheter, kompetenser och intressen är ofta både närvarande, färgande och användbara i varumärkesbyggandet. Starka associationer till varumärket kan byggas genom att relatera det till dess ursprungsplats och ofta återfinns en acceptans mot att lära genom misslyckanden och experimentera med produkter likväl kommunikativa strategier.

    Studien teoretiska bidrag är vidare uppslag på ramverk för varumärkesbyggande frågeställningar i framtida studier. I detta fall var pris en adderad variabel till varumärkesidentitet. Studiens empiriska bidrag är konkreta och praktiskt tillämpbara vägar för varumärkesbyggande baserat på samlad erfarenhet från respondenternas verkligheter och rådande marknadsmiljö.

  • Guo, Qianqian
    et al.
    Turnbull, Matthew Hamish
    Song, Jiancheng
    Roche, Jessica
    Novak, Ondrej
    Späth, Jana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jameson, Paula Elizabeth
    Love, Jonathan
    Depletion of carbohydrate reserves limits nitrate uptake during early regrowth in Lolium perenne L.2017In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 68, no 7, 1569-1583 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms linking C/N balance to N uptake and assimilation are central to plant responses to changing soil nutrient levels. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of grasses both impact C partitioning, thereby creating a significant point of interaction with soil N availability. Using defoliation as an experimental treatment, we investigated the dynamic relationships between plant carbohydrate status and NO3--responsive uptake systems, transporter gene expression, and nitrate assimilation in Lolium perenne L. High- and low-affinity NO3- uptake was reduced in an N-dependent manner in response to a rapid and large shift in carbohydrate remobilization triggered by defoliation. This reduction in NO3- uptake was rescued by an exogenous glucose supplement, confirming the carbohydrate dependence of NO3- uptake. The regulation of NO3- uptake in response to the perturbation of the plant C/N ratio was associated with changes in expression of putative high- and low-affinity NO3- transporters. Furthermore, NO3- assimilation appears to be regulated by the C-N status of the plant, implying a mechanism that signals the availability of C metabolites for NO3- uptake and assimilation at the whole-plant level. We also show that cytokinins may be involved in the regulation of N acquisition and assimilation in response to the changing plant C/N ratio.

  • Norante, Rosa Pia
    et al.
    Massimino, Maria Lina
    Lorenzon, Paolo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Univ Padua, Dept Biomed Sci, Padua, Italy.
    De Mario, Agnese
    Peggion, Caterina
    Vicario, Mattia
    Albiero, Mattia
    Sorgato, Maria Catia
    Lopreiato, Raffaele
    Bertoli, Alessandro
    Generation and validation of novel adeno-associated viral vectors for the analysis of Ca2+ homeostasis in motor neurons2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 6521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A finely tuned Ca2+ homeostasis in restricted cell domains is of fundamental importance for neurons, where transient Ca2+ oscillations direct the proper coordination of electro-chemical signals and overall neuronal metabolism. Once such a precise regulation is unbalanced, however, neuronal functions and viability are severely compromised. Accordingly, disturbed Ca2+ metabolism has often been claimed as a major contributor to different neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that is characterised by selective motor neuron (MN) damage. This notion highlights the need for probes for the specific and precise analysis of local Ca2+ dynamics in MNs. Here, we generated and functionally validated adeno-associated viral vectors for the expression of gene-encoded fluorescent Ca2+ indicators targeted to different cell domains, under the transcriptional control of a MN-specific promoter. We demonstrated that the probes are specifically expressed, and allow reliable local Ca2+ measurements, in MNs from murine primary spinal cord cultures, and can also be expressed in spinal cord MNs in vivo, upon systemic administration to newborn mice. Preliminary analyses using these novel vectors have shown larger cytosolic Ca2+ responses following stimulation of AMPA receptors in the cytosol of primary cultured MNs from a murine genetic model of ALS compared to the healthy counterpart.

  • Wallert, John
    et al.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Held, Claes
    Department of Medical Sciences: Cardiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala Clinical Research Centre, Uppsala University, Sweden4Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Erik
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Temporal changes in myocardial infarction incidence rates are associated with periods of perceived psychosocial stress: A SWEDEHEART national registry study2017In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 191, 12-20 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Psychosocial stress might trigger myocardial infarction (MI). Increased MI incidence coincides with recurrent time periods during the year perceived as particularly stressful in the population.

    Methods

    A stress-triggering hypothesis on the risk of MI onset was investigated with Swedish population data on MI hospital admission date and symptom onset date (N = 156,690; 148,176) as registered from 2006 through 2013 in the national quality registry database Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART). Poisson regression was applied to analyze daily MI rates during days belonging to the Christmas and New Year holidays, turns of the month, Mondays, weekends, and summer vacation in July compared with remaining control days.

    Results

    Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for MI rates were higher during Christmas and New Year holidays (IRR = 1.07 [1.04-1.09], P < .001) and on Mondays (IRR = 1.11 [1.09-1.13], P < .001) and lower in July (IRR = 0.92 [0.90-0.94], P < .001) and over weekends (IRR = 0.88 [0.87-0.89], P < .001), yet not during the turns of the month (IRR = 1.01 [1.00–1.02], P = .891). These findings were also predominantly robust with symptom onset as alternative outcome, when adjusting for both established and some suggested-but-untested confounders, and in 8 subgroups.

    Conclusions

    Fluctuations in daily MI incidence rates are systematically related to time periods of presumed psychosocial stress. Further research might clarify mechanisms that are amenable to clinical alteration.

  • Sandlund, Marlene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Skelton, Dawn A.
    Pohl, Petra
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Melander-Wikman, Anita
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Gender perspectives on views and preferences of older people on exercise to prevent falls: a systematic mixed studies review2017In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To offer fall prevention exercise programs that attract older people of both sexes there is a need to understand both women's and men's views and preferences regarding these programs. This paper aims to systematically review the literature to explore any underlying gender perspectives or gender interpretations on older people's views or preferences regarding uptake and adherence to exercise to prevent falls. Methods: A review of the literature was carried out using a convergent qualitative design based on systematic searches of seven electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Amed, PsycINFO, Scopus, PEDro, and OTseeker). Two investigators identified eligible studies. Each included article was read by at least two authors independently to extract data into tables. Views and preferences reported were coded and summarized in themes of facilitators and barriers using a thematic analysis approach. Results: Nine hundred and nine unique studies were identified. Twenty five studies met the criteria for inclusion. Only five of these contained a gender analysis of men's and women's views on fall prevention exercises. The results suggests that both women and men see women as more receptive to and in more need of fall prevention messages. The synthesis from all 25 studies identified six themes illustrating facilitators and six themes describing barriers for older people either starting or adhering to fall prevention exercise. The facilitators were: support from professionals or family; social interaction; perceived benefits; a supportive exercise context; feelings of commitment; and having fun. Barriers were: practical issues; concerns about exercise; unawareness; reduced health status; lack of support; and lack of interest. Considerably more women than men were included in the studies. Conclusion: Although there is plenty of information on the facilitators and barriers to falls prevention exercise in older people, there is a distinct lack of studies investigating differences or similarities in older women's and men's views regarding fall prevention exercise. In order to ensure that fall prevention exercise is appealing to both sexes and that the inclusion of both men and women are encouraged, more research is needed to find out whether gender differences exists and whether practitioners need to offer a range of opportunities and support strategies to attract both women and men to falls prevention exercise.

  • Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Voluntary work during times of military crisis: What motivates people to be involved and what are the effects on well-being?2017In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 8, 1601-1619 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The positive health effects of volunteering are quite well described in the lite- rature; however, potential negative effects of volunteering are less explored. Volunteering got attention in Ukraine because of the recent political crisis that brought military conflict to the Eastern part of the country in 2014. In- formal volunteering has transformed into a formal one. In order to be able to organize volunteering that promotes well-being, it is important to have more in-depth knowledge about motives behind volunteering as well as the positive and potential negative effects of it. We explore the case voluntary work in of one of the cities in Ukraine. Military conflict context has its own specifics and different motives make people act voluntarily. There are goal-oriented, val- ue-oriented, affectual and traditional motives present in our data. The data shows that involvement in volunteering brings positive returns on well-being of the providers such as enlarging the circles of friendship and expanding the networks volunteers involved in; brings positive emotions into life; compen- sates the efforts and gives meaning to life. However, the negative effects of volunteering are also present. They are physical tiredness and a lot of time spent on volunteering activities; becoming disconnected from the ordinary (non-volunteering) world; unsafety; neglect of own needs and experiences of negative emotions out of the involvement in volunteering activities. 

  • Kindstedt, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Koskinen Holm, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Sulniute, Rima
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Martinez-Carrasco, Irene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lundmark, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lundberg, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    CCL11, a novel mediator of inflammatory bone resorption2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, 5334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Normal bone homeostasis, which is regulated by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts is perturbed by inflammation. Inchronic inflammatory disease with disturbed bone remodelling, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, patients show increased serum levels of the chemokine eotaxin-1 (CCL11). Herein, we demonstrate an inflammatory driven expression of CCL11 in bone tissue and a novel role of CCL11 in osteoclast migration and resorption. Using an inflammatory bone lesion model and primary cell cultures, we discovered that osteoblasts express CCL11 in vivo and in vitro and that expression increased during inflammatory conditions. Osteoclasts did not express CCL11, but the high affinity receptor CCR3 was significantly upregulated during osteoclast differentiation and found to colocalise with CCL11. Exogenous CCL11 was internalised in osteoclast and stimulated the migration of pre-osteoclast and concomitant increase in bone resorption. Our data pinpoints that the CCL11/CCR3 pathway could be a new target for treatment of inflammatory bone resorption.

  • Calla, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Hedenström, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Konflikten mellan svinn och slut-i-hyllan: En kvalitativ studie om hanteringen av färskvaror i dagligvaruhandelns försörjningskedja2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I följande studie behandlas dagligvaruhandelns försörjningskedja och dess färskvarusortiment. Det har teoretiskt visats att dagligvaruhandeln är en bransch som präglas av osäker efterfrågan som medfört höga lagernivåer och svinn i kedjan. Utifrån en identifierad problematik kring hantering av färskvaror i en bransch kantad av osäker efterfrågan, riktar sig studien till att besvara problemformuleringarna; “Hur hanteras osäker efterfrågan inom färskvarusortimentet i dagligvaruhandelns försörjningskedja?” samt “Hur kan höga lagernivåer och svinn minskas inom dagligvaruhandelns försörjningskedja utan att det resulterar i slut-i-hyllan-problematik i färskvarusortimentet?”. Utifrån dessa problematiseringar beskrivs studiens syfte som; att undersöka hur konsekvenserna av osäker efterfrågan såsom höga lagernivåer och svinn kan reduceras. Detta trots färskvarors karaktär och aktörers önskan att tillgodose efterföljande leds efterfrågan och undvika slut-i-hyllan. För att undersöka denna konflikt är ett delsyfte i studien att skapa förståelse för hur osäker efterfrågan hanteras av olika aktörer i dagligvaruhandelns försörjningskedja.

    För att besvara dessa problemformuleringaroch uppfylla det angivna syftet, har en abduktiv ansats använts samt en kvalitativ metodik. Detta har resulterat i semistrukturerade intervjuer med aktörer i olika delar av dagligvaruhandelns försörjningskedja. Såväl producenter, grossister och butiker har medverkat i studien. Detta för att studiens skall kunna bidra med en helhetsbild över försörjningskedjan och hur den osäkra efterfrågan hanteras i denna.

    Utifrån studiens resultat visas det att den osäkra efterfrågan som påvisats teoretiskt, inte återfinns i samma omfattning i praktiken gällande aktörernas ordinarie sortiment av färskvaror. Vad som däremot framkom var att kampanjprodukter, innehar desto mer osäkerhet och efterfrågan för dessa är svårare att uppskatta. Resultatet visade att aktörerna hanterar dessa osäkerheter genom att prognostisera efterfrågan samt genom viss informationsdelning mellan parterna. Resultatet visade även att samtliga aktörer i regel föredrar att lagerhålla färskvaror som kan riskera att resultera i svinn snarare än att riskera slut-i-hyllan och brist till kund. Detta visade sig vara en uppfattning som sträckte sig över samtliga led av försörjningskedjan, med undantaget för dyrare produkter som aktörerna menar blir för dyra att lagerhålla och riskera att slänga. Den hållbara vinkel som studien även antagit, visar att det krävs ekonomiska incitament för att aktörerna ska genomföra hållbara aktiviteter.

  • Ekman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Ziani, Miriam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Opinionsledare inom Youtube: En multimetodlogisk studie som undersöker Youtubers agerande som opinionsledare inom skönhetsindustrin2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvalitativa studie undersöker svenska skönhetsprofiler inom Youtube och deras inverkan på konsumentbeteendet. Användandet av sociala medier har förändrat hur företag med konsumenter och konsumenter med andra konsumenter interagerar med varandra. I kombination med konsumenters avtrubbade inställning till de traditionella promotionverktyg har sociala medier blivit en av de viktigaste plattformarna för företag att vara aktiva på. En av dessa plattformar är Youtube, en videodelningstjänst där privatpersoner och företag kan skapa kanaler. Profiler inom Youtube eller som de i studien kommer benämnas, Youtubers har ökat sitt inflytande på konsumenten så pass att de numera överstiger den påverkan som traditionella celebriteter tidigare hade. Därav kan de anses som den moderna tidens opinionsledare vilket även innebär att de attraherar företagen till att vilja använda dem som förespråkare för sina varumärken. Företagens användande av Youtubers är framförallt påtaglig inom skönhetsindustrin. Samarbetets utformning sker ofta genom att företagen skickar gratis produkter till prominenta skönhetsprofiler i utbyte att de ska prata om varumärket på sin kanal.

    Trots att det finns flertal exempel på samarbeten av denna karaktär så finner vi ingen vetenskaplig forskning kring marknadsföring genom Youtubers. Studiens betydelse för forskningsområdet blir därför att undersöka gapet mellan diverse teoretiska angreppssätt och det empiriska data som framkommit. Det empiriska bidraget består huvudsakligen av intervjuer med respondenter med intresse för skönhet och kompletteras därefter med författarnas egna observationer. Studiens frågeställning blir därmed:

    Hur agerar Youtubers inom skönhetsindustrin som opinionsledare? 

    I studiens resultat framkom det olika användningsområden för de svenska skönhetskanalerna på Youtube. Ett för underhållande syfte och ett för informationssökande av produkter. För de olika syftena användes olika Youtubekanaler. Utifrån studien kan det utläsas att profilerna för dessa kanaler påverkar konsumentbeteendet genom två dimensioner. Dessa dimensioner är att inhysa förtroende och attrahera genom att stimulera konsumentens rationella eller emotionella omdöme. Studien bidrar med en matris där man utifrån dessa dimensioner kan kartlägga var på en skala en Youtubers huvudsakliga övertygelse ligger. Matrisen kan användas för kosmetikaföretag som vill nyttja denna typ av promotion med ändamål om att kunna avgöra vilken Youtuber som är lämpligast passande för dem.

  • Bergström, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Om geografiska informationssystem (GIS) och dess tillämpningar inom barncancerforskning: Ett fokus på GIS i forskningen om barnleukemi och dess etiologi2011Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to summarize the literature about geographic information systems (GIS) and its applications in childhood cancer research. The main focus was to examine how GIS has been contributing to the research of childhood leukemia and its etiology. Since this is one of the diseases that can be connected to a public health issue, a thorough exploration of different areas outside the childhood cancer area had to be considered. Areas such as epidemiology and environmental health were two of the most relevant sources of literature. The etiology behind childhood leukemia has been studied for several decades, but the risk factors that cause this disease still remain largely unknown, and the results have been inconsistent. Since the 1990's, one of the methods to identify potential spatial clusters of childhood leukemia has been the use of GIS. This software has the ability to layer multiple risk factors in relation to the diagnosed children and thereafter visualize potential clusters on a map. The evaluation of the literature resulted in five topics which included most of the studies that has utilized GIS in their research of childhood leukemia. These five topics with its connected risk factors were: electromagnetic fields, ionizing radiation, air pollution, agricultural pesticides and hazardous waste sites. Even though few of the studies showed statistic significant clusters when connecting a potential risk factor with childhood leukemia, a majority of them didn't present any evidence about a causal relationship, which indicates a need of further research.   

  • Abramsson, Evelina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Grind, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Skattning av kausala effekter med matchat fall-kontroll data2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Andersson Haglund, Therése
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Fröken Babe och Herr Kontroll: En multimodal textanalys ur ett ideationellt perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Forsberg, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Kommunen och tillväxten: En systemisk-funktionell analys av Luleå kommuns roll i kommunens texter om tillväxt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examensarbete undersöker jag hur Luleå kommun framställs på kommunens webbsida. Under min praktik på Luleå kommun våren 2017 fick jag en chans att se kommunens arbete på nära håll och även diskutera kommunens viktigaste kommunikationsfrågor med anställda, och det är utifrån dessa erfarenheter jag har valt inriktningen för denna undersökning. Materialet består av 6 webbtexter som har publicerats på kommunens hemsida under fliken 10 000 nya Luleåbor. Materialet valdes efter en närläsning av kommunens varumärkesplattform med syfte att identifiera hur kommunen själva uttrycker att de vill uppfattas. För att analysera webbtexterna har jag använt en systemisk-funktionell metod där jag har tittat närmare på hur ideationella betydelser som rör kommunen uttrycks i texterna. Syftet är att undersöka om kommunen framställs som en aktiv eller passiv deltagare och som en kommun som, i enlighet med ett utvalt påstående ur varumärkesplattformen framställs som en kommun som “bidrar till en hållbar tillväxt”.

     

    Resultatet visar att kommunen visserligen framställs i en aktiv roll när kommunen förekommer i texter, men att vissa faktorer samtidigt påverkar bilden av kommunen som en kommun som aktivt bidrar till en hållbar tillväxt. Vissa av de lexikogrammatiska valen i texterna verkar istället göra arbetet med tillväxten och kommunens roll i det otydlig. Passiva processer används exempelvis i större utsträckning för att informera om byggandet av bostäder i kommunen än processer i aktiv form med en tydlig agent. Att förstå kommunens roll i tillväxtarbetet ställer därmed vissa krav på förkunskaper hos läsaren.

  • Georgiadis, Panagiotis
    et al.
    Liampa, Irene
    Hebels, Dennie G
    Krauskopf, Julian
    Chatziioannou, Aristotelis
    Valavanis, Ioannis
    de Kok, Theo M C M
    Kleinjans, Jos C S
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Melin, Beatrice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Spaeth, Florentin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Palli, Domenico
    Vermeulen, R C H
    Vlaanderen, J
    Chadeau-Hyam, Marc
    Vineis, Paolo
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A
    Evolving DNA methylation and gene expression markers of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia are present in pre-diagnostic blood samples more than 10 years prior to diagnosis2017In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 18, 728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common type of adult leukemia. It often follows an indolent course and is preceded by monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, an asymptomatic condition, however it is not known what causes subjects with this condition to progress to CLL. Hence the discovery of prediagnostic markers has the potential to improve the identification of subjects likely to develop CLL and may also provide insights into the pathogenesis of the disease of potential clinical relevance.

    RESULTS: We employed peripheral blood buffy coats of 347 apparently healthy subjects, of whom 28 were diagnosed with CLL 2.0-15.7 years after enrollment, to derive for the first time genome-wide DNA methylation, as well as gene and miRNA expression, profiles associated with the risk of future disease. After adjustment for white blood cell composition, we identified 722 differentially methylated CpG sites and 15 differentially expressed genes (Bonferroni-corrected p < 0.05) as well as 2 miRNAs (FDR < 0.05) which were associated with the risk of future CLL. The majority of these signals have also been observed in clinical CLL, suggesting the presence in prediagnostic blood of CLL-like cells. Future CLL cases who, at enrollment, had a relatively low B-cell fraction (<10%), and were therefore less likely to have been suffering from undiagnosed CLL or a precursor condition, showed profiles involving smaller numbers of the same differential signals with intensities, after adjusting for B-cell content, generally smaller than those observed in the full set of cases. A similar picture was obtained when the differential profiles of cases with time-to-diagnosis above the overall median period of 7.4 years were compared with those with shorted time-to-disease. Differentially methylated genes of major functional significance include numerous genes that encode for transcription factors, especially members of the homeobox family, while differentially expressed genes include, among others, multiple genes related to WNT signaling as well as the miRNAs miR-150-5p and miR-155-5p.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the presence in prediagnostic blood of future CLL patients, more than 10 years before diagnosis, of CLL-like cells which evolve as preclinical disease progresses, and point to early molecular alterations with a pathogenetic potential.

  • Wallert, John
    et al.
    Tomasoni, Mattia
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Held, Claes
    Predicting two-year survival versus non-survival after first myocardial infarction using machine learning and Swedish national register data2017In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 17, 99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Machine learning algorithms hold potential for improved prediction of all-cause mortality in cardiovascular patients, yet have not previously been developed with high-quality population data. This study compared four popular machine learning algorithms trained on unselected, nation-wide population data from Sweden to solve the binary classification problem of predicting survival versus non-survival 2 years after first myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: This prospective national registry study for prognostic accuracy validation of predictive models used data from 51,943 complete first MI cases as registered during 6 years (2006-2011) in the national quality register SWEDEHEART/RIKS-HIA (90% coverage of all MIs in Sweden) with follow-up in the Cause of Death register (> 99% coverage). Primary outcome was AUROC (C-statistic) performance of each model on the untouched test set (40% of cases) after model development on the training set (60% of cases) with the full (39) predictor set. Model AUROCs were bootstrapped and compared, correcting the P-values for multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni method. Secondary outcomes were derived when varying sample size (1-100% of total) and predictor sets (39, 10, and 5) for each model. Analyses were repeated on 79,869 completed cases after multivariable imputation of predictors. Results: A Support Vector Machine with a radial basis kernel developed on 39 predictors had the highest complete cases performance on the test set (AUROC = 0.845, PPV = 0.280, NPV = 0.966) outperforming Boosted C5.0 (0.845 vs. 0. 841, P = 0.028) but not significantly higher than Logistic Regression or Random Forest. Models converged to the point of algorithm indifference with increased sample size and predictors. Using the top five predictors also produced good classifiers. Imputed analyses had slightly higher performance. Conclusions: Improved mortality prediction at hospital discharge after first MI is important for identifying high-risk individuals eligible for intensified treatment and care. All models performed accurately and similarly and because of the superior national coverage, the best model can potentially be used to better differentiate new patients, allowing for improved targeting of limited resources. Future research should focus on further model development and investigate possibilities for implementation.