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  • Vorobyev, Sergey N.
    et al.
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    Serikova, Svetlana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Manasypov, Rinat M.
    Krickov, Ivan V.
    Shirokova, Liudmila S.
    Lim, Artem
    Kolesnichenko, Larisa G.
    Kirpotin, Sergey N.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Permafrost Boundary Shift in Western Siberia May Not Modify Dissolved Nutrient Concentrations in Rivers2017In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the landscape and climate factors that control nutrient export by rivers in high latitude regions is one of the main challenges for understanding the Arctic Ocean response to ongoing climate change. This is especially true for Western Siberian rivers, which are responsible for a significant part of freshwater and solutes delivery to the Arctic Ocean and are draining vast permafrost-affected areas most vulnerable to thaw. Forty-nine small- and medium-sized rivers (10-100,000 km(2)) were sampled along a 1700 km long N-S transect including both permafrost-affected and permafrost-free zones of the Western Siberian Lowland (WSL) in June and August 2015. The N, P, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively), particular organic carbon (POC), Si, Ca, K, Fe, and Mn were analyzed to assess the role of environmental parameters, such as temperature, runoff, latitude, permafrost, bogs, lake, and forest coverage on nutrient concentration. The size of the watershed had no influence on nutrient concentrations in the rivers. Bogs and lakes retained nutrients whereas forests supplied P, Si, K, Ca, DIC, and Mn to rivers. The river water temperature was negatively correlated with Si and positively correlated with Fe in permafrost-free rivers. In permafrost-bearing rivers, the decrease in T northward was coupled with significant increases in PO4, P-tot, NH4, pH, DIC, Si, Ca, and Mn. North of the permafrost boundary (61 degrees N), there was no difference in nutrient concentrations among permafrost zones (isolated, sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous). The climate warming in Western Siberia may lead to a permafrost boundary shift northward. Using a substituting space for time scenario, this may decrease or maintain the current levels of N, P, Si, K, Ca, DIC, and DOC concentrations in rivers of continuous permafrost zones compared to the present state. As a result, the export flux of nutrients by the small- and medium-sized rivers of the Western Siberian subarctic to the Arctic Ocean coastal zone may remain constant, or even decrease.

  • Edler, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Bohlin, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Rosvall, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Mapping Higher-Order Network Flows in Memory and Multilayer Networks with Infomap2017In: Algorithms, ISSN 1999-4893, E-ISSN 1999-4893, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehending complex systems by simplifying and highlighting important dynamical patterns requires modeling and mapping higher-order network flows. However, complex systems come in many forms and demand a range of representations, including memory and multilayer networks, which in turn call for versatile community-detection algorithms to reveal important modular regularities in the flows. Here we show that various forms of higher-order network flows can be represented in a unified way with networks that distinguish physical nodes for representing a complex system's objects from state nodes for describing flows between the objects. Moreover, these so-called sparse memory networks allow the information-theoretic community detection method known as the map equation to identify overlapping and nested flow modules in data from a range of different higher-order interactions such as multistep, multi-source, and temporal data. We derive the map equation applied to sparse memory networks and describe its search algorithm Infomap, which can exploit the flexibility of sparse memory networks. Together they provide a general solution to reveal overlapping modular patterns in higher-order flows through complex systems.

  • Trager, Sabrina
    et al.
    Milbau, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Research Institute for Nature and Forest INBO, Brussels, Belgium.
    Wilson, Scott D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Biology, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada.
    Potential contributions of root decomposition to the nitrogen cycle in arctic forest and tundra2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 24, p. 11021-11032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant contributions to the nitrogen (N) cycle from decomposition are likely to be altered by vegetation shifts associated with climate change. Roots account for the majority of soil organic matter input from vegetation, but little is known about differences between vegetation types in their root contributions to nutrient cycling. Here, we examine the potential contribution of fine roots to the N cycle in forest and tundra to gain insight into belowground consequences of the widely observed increase in woody vegetation that accompanies climate change in the Arctic. We combined measurements of root production from minirhizotron images with tissue analysis of roots from differing root diameter and color classes to obtain potential N input following decomposition. In addition, we tested for changes in N concentration of roots during early stages of decomposition, and investigated whether vegetation type (forest or tundra) affected changes in tissue N concentration during decomposition. For completeness, we also present respective measurements of leaves. The potential N input from roots was twofold greater in forest than in tundra, mainly due to greater root production in forest. Potential N input varied with root diameter and color, but this variation tended to be similar in forest and tundra. As for roots, the potential N input from leaves was significantly greater in forest than in tundra. Vegetation type had no effect on changes in root or leaf N concentration after 1year of decomposition. Our results suggest that shifts in vegetation that accompany climate change in the Arctic will likely increase plant-associated potential N input both belowground and aboveground. In contrast, shifts in vegetation might not alter changes in tissue N concentration during early stages of decomposition. Overall, differences between forest and tundra in potential contribution of decomposing roots to the N cycle reinforce differences between habitats that occur for leaves.

  • Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Students' voices about information and communication technology in upper secondary schools2018In: The international journal of information and learning technology, ISSN 2056-4880, E-ISSN 2056-4899, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 82-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore upper secondary school students’ voices on how information and communication technology (ICT) could structure and support their everyday activities and time at school.

    Design/methodology/approach: In all, 11 group interviews were conducted with a total of 46 students from three upper secondary schools. NVivo PRO 11 was used for a qualitative content analysis.

    Findings: The results show that ICT plays a central role in the students’ schooling, not in terms of “state-of-the-art” technology, but rather as “state-of-the-actual”, by for example supporting the writing process and for peer support, digital documentation and storage.

    Research limitations/implications: A relatively small number of students in three schools and three specific programmes make generalisations difficult.

    Practical implications: Students’ perspectives on the “state-of-the-actual” could influence teachers’ use of ICT in education, their professional development activities and the development of an in-school ICT infrastructure.

    Social implications: The study could lead to a better understanding of students’ expectations and use of ICT at school and in everyday life.

    Originality/value: The originality of this paper is the focus on students’ voices about how the basic use and functionality of ICT could structure and support their everyday activities at school.

  • Odhiambo Sewe, Maquins
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Graduate School in Population Dynamics and Public Policy, Umeå University.
    Bunker, Aditi
    Ingole, Vijendra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Graduate School in Population Dynamics and Public Policy, Umeå University; Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune, India.
    Egondi, Thaddaeus
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Department of Clinical Science, Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö.
    Hondula, David M.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Estimated Effect of Temperature on Years of Life Lost: A Retrospective Time-Series Study of Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Regions2018In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 126, no 1, article id 017004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported a strong association between temperature and mortality. Additional insights can be gained from investigating the effects of temperature on years of life lost (YLL), considering the life expectancy at the time of death.

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this work was to assess the association between temperature and YLL at seven low-, middle-, and high-income sites.

    METHODS: We obtained meteorological and population data for at least nine years from four Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites in Kenya (western Kenya, Nairobi), Burkina Faso (Nouna), and India (Vadu), as well as data from cities in the United States (Philadelphia, Phoenix) and Sweden (Stockholm). A distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the association of daily maximum temperature and daily YLL, lagged 0-14 d. The reference value was set for each site at the temperature with the lowest YLL.

    RESULTS: Generally, YLL increased with higher temperature, starting day 0. In Nouna, the hottest location, with a minimum YLL temperature at the first percentile, YLL increased consistently with higher temperatures. In Vadu, YLL increased in association with heat, whereas in Nairobi, YLL increased in association with both low and high temperatures. Associations with cold and heat were evident for Phoenix (stronger for heat), Stockholm, and Philadelphia (both stronger for cold). Patterns of associations with mortality were generally similar to those with YLL.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both high and low temperatures are associated with YLL in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Policy guidance and health adaptation measures might be improved with more comprehensive indicators of the health burden of high and low temperatures such as YLL.

  • Norberg, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Utredning av Umeå universitets gemensamma föreläsningssalars ljudmiljöer och rumsakustik: Med fokus på taluppfattbarhet, efterklangstid samt installationsbuller2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report was to investigate the sound environments in lecture halls at Umeå University and to assess to whether the sound environments in these lecture halls are satisfactory and whether have good speech intelligibility or not. Based on a web survey, a number of lecture halls were selected for this investigation, namely Hörsal A, Hörsal C, N280, KB.F3.01, Ma121, KB.E3.01, N340 and N335. Assessing room acoustics includes many relevant parameters, therefore a delimitation has been made. Only installation noise, reverberation time and speech intelligibility have been investigated. The methods followed established Swedish standards i.e SS-EN ISO 16032:2004 for installation noise,” integrated impulse response method” SS-EN ISO 3382:2:2008/AC:2009 for reverberation time and direct FULL STI (speech transmission index) IEC 60268-16:2011 for speech intelligibility. An ocular inspection was carried out of all the selected lecture halls. The result from the STI test showed that all the lecture halls except for Hörsal A have a good speech intelligibility, if the audience has normal hearing and they are listening to a lecture in their native language. In Hörsal A there are three measuring positions that fails to achieve the threshold for good speech intelligibility. The conclusion for all of the measurements that has been made are that Ma121 and KB.E3.01 has a satisfactory sound environment and that Hörsal A, Hörsal C, N280, KB.F3.01, N340 and N335 need actions to improve their sound environment so they can fulfil the benchmarks in Swedish public health authority regulations in FoHMFS 2014:13 and/or SS 25268:2007.

  • Dahlkvist, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Det sekulära folkhemmets liturgier?: Ritualer hos Förbundet för religionsfrihet år 1952–1972.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ahonen, Jani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Can morphologic restoration of hydropower outlet channels create hydraulically suitable spawning and larvae habitats for grayling?: Modelling the effects of environmental measures with HEC-RAS.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to model if hydraulically suitable habitats for juvenile and spawning grayling could be created by morphological restoration alone in the Bjurfors Övre hydropower outlet channel in the Ume River Basin. The study was done by 2D modelling with HEC-RAS using hourly water flow and level data collected during the period 20160521-20161029. Suitable water depth and velocity values for larvae and spawning grayling were collected from literature. Environmental measures for the Bjurfors Övre outlet channel were designed based on the morphology in outlet channels with documented reproducing grayling populations and large habitat diversities. The outlet channel at present morphology and after morphological modifications were modelled at different flow scenarios (0-369m3/s) and areas of suitable water velocities and depths before and after proposed measures were compared. Results show that suitable velocity areas would increase with a factor of between 1,03-1,81 and the suitable depth areas with a factor of 2,34-19,09 and that suitable depths may be the major limiting factor in current conditions. Results also show that zero-flow events at Bjurfors Övre hydropower plant create unsuitable velocities for larvae and spawning grayling and that the frequency and duration of such events could be more limiting than the mere occurrence of such events. The study indicates that the morphological restoration in hydropeaking outlet channels could improve the availability of habitats with suitability water depth and velocity not only for larvae and spawning grayling, but for other lotic organisms. The study also showed that HEC-RAS modelling is a potential resource effective way to assess to what extent certain proposed environmental measures may create suitable water depths and velocities in hydropeaking outlet channels.

  • Fredriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Monte Carlo Simulations of Portfolios Allocated with Structured Products: A method to see the effect on risk and return for long time horizons2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Structured products are complex non-linear financial instruments that make it difficult to calculate their future risk and return. Two categories of structured products are Capital Protected and Participation notes, which are built by bonds and options. Since the structured products are non-linear, it is difficult to asses their long-term risk today. This study, conducted at Nordea Markets, focuses on the risk of structured products and how the risk and return in a portfolio changes when we include structured products into it. Nordea can only calculate the one-year risk with their current risk advisory tool, which makes long time predictions difficult. To solve this problem, we have simulated portfolios and structured products over a five-year time horizon with the Monte Carlo method. To investigate how the structured product allocations behave in different conditions, we have developed three test methods and a ranking program. The first test method measures how different underlying assets changes the risk and return in the portfolio allocations. The second test method varies the drift, volatility, and correlation for both the underlying asset and the portfolio to see how these parameters changes the risk and return. The third test method simulates a crisis market with high correlations and low drift. All these tests go through the ranking program, the most important part, where the different allocations are compared against the original portfolio to decide when the allocations perform better. The ranking is based on multiple risk measures, but the focus in this study is at using Expected Shortfall for risk while the expected return is used for ranking the return.

    We used five different reference portfolios and six different structured products with specific parameters in an example run where the ranking program and all three test methods are used. We found that the properties of the reference portfolio and the structured product’s underlying are significant and affect the performance the most. In the example run it was possible to find preferable cases for all structured products but some performed better than others. The test methods revealed many aspects of portfolio allocation with structured products, such as the decrease in portfolio risk for Capital Protected notes and increase in portfolio return for Participation notes. Our ranking program proved to be useful in the sense that it simplifies the result interpretations.

  • Edwardsson, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Narrativ historia: Machalniks under Israels självständighetskrig 1948-492017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Häggström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Levda rum och beskrivna platser: former för landskapsidentitet2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a cultural discourse perspective is used to discuss how regional identities are constructed during the 1900s.The investigation examines how local history and culture are used in symbolic forms to articulate the province as an imagined community in varying periods, media, and social contexts. The study deals with two problem areas.The first is how ”space” is charged with symbolic and cultural meanings. The other how collective notions of fellowship and territorial belonging is created and changed.

    The study has a comparative set-up.Two provinces, Blekinge and Jämtland, form the empirical basis for the investigation. In Jämtland a strong regional mobilisation has taken place and the area’s history is used to construct an image of the province as a distinct national sub-culture. No such homogeneous regional identity has been articulated in Blekinge. Here a cultural polarisation within the province is emphasised instead.

    In the study those images of the provinces that are created by scientific discourses and in popular cultural depictions are examined. The exhibitions of the regional museums are discussed also, as are interviews, various festivals, and public rituals. Emphasis is placed on representation and narrativity.Two representation strategies have been especially in focus, ”stories of place” and ”stories of territory ”.These narratives are used partly to accentuate similarity and identity inwards toward ones own group, and partly to outwardly indicate symbolic borders to other groups or areas.

  • Ruuth, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Murine B lymphocyte growth regulation: a study of host defence factors and their mimicry by Mycoplasma arginini1988Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Immune responses are the result of extended clonal growth and maturation of specific precursors preexisting in low frequencies. Clonal expansion is partly controlled by soluble factors, thus, their identification is essential for the understanding of the immune response regulation. I describe a T-T hybridoma (TUH-3) produced B cell growth factor (BCGF or B cell stimulating factor, BSF), distinct from T cell growth factor, supporting the growth of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-preactivated B cell blasts. BCGF was unspecific with respect to Ag, MHC or Ig haplotypes and was poor in supporting the development of Ig-secreting plaque-forming cells (PFC) in B cell blast cultures. The producer hybrid was unstable. Later produced BCGF/BSF-secreting hybrids were shown to be contaminated with Mycoplasma arginini and the BCGF/BSF cosedimented with the microorganism. The M. arginini BSF-like activity fulfilled all of the above mentioned criteria of a lymphokine. Thus, a host-parasite relationship with M. arginini mimicking the effects of a BSF on B cells was recognized. In the thesis I adress questions concerning the identity of the hybridoma factor, the existence of growth factors for LPS-preactivated B cells and design experiments to define molecules on mycoplasma with lymphokine-like activity.

    Comparison of in vivo effects showed that M. arginini or TUH-3 conditioned medium (CM) differed in parameters as cell growth in bone marrow and spleen and antibody isotype expression. The TUH-3 factor is thus concluded to be distinct from the effect of the mycoplasma contamination.

    In studies of CM from concanavalin A stimulated murine spleen cells a factor supporting the growth of LPS-preactivated murine spleen B cells was found as a highly acidic B cell growth stimulatory activity. It was distinct from other known factors and interleukins (IL) based on its biochemical properties. Furthermore, it was shown that none of the recombinant DLs, alone or in combination, were able to support the growth of LPS-preactivated B cells. Thus, we conclude that we have identified a growth factor specific for LPS-preactivated B cells.

    Mycoplasmas are a heterogeneous group of prokaryots causing a wide variety of diseases, amongst others, reumatical and autoimmune disorders. Since M. arginini induced a lymphokine-like effect it was hypothesized that this was due to molecular mimicry of a lymphokine. We have been able to isolate four membrane bound acyl proteins, which support the growth of LPS-preactivated B cells. These proteins were shown to be distinct by peptide mapping and to have lipids attached. Since there are several other acyl proteins, which do not support the growth of LPS-preactivated B cells, it is concluded that these proteins show a previously undescribed specificity.

  • Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Danser de for traditionens skyld?: invandrere, kultur og samfund1987Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral dissertation is a contribution to the current Scandinavian debate on "the integration of immigrants". It is based on a case study of a group of labour migrants from Yugoslavia, the romanian speaking Wallachians who in the late 1960's and early 1970's settled on each side of the Öresund, the narrow strait dividing Denmark and Sweden. Here they have developed two different social patterns and form of integration in Danish and Swedish local communities.

    Departing from a concrete social situation - the celebration of the Yugoslav national day in a Danish provincial town - the study uses anthropological fieldwork, personal biographies of migrants and a sociological survey to analyze different strategies of integration among "Danish" and "Swedish" Wallachians. The analysis elucidates develop­ments within two fields of social life: work and public community life. Conflicts and developments in these two fields are analyzed in conjunction with conflicts in the Wallachian family.

    It is argued that an autonomous cultural development and organization among immigrants is crucial for their positive integration into society. In the concluding part of the book this is discussed in conjunction with the development of the welfare state and in relation to different political ideologies in Scandinavia and Western Europe.

  • Leffler, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Cadmium induced kidney dysfunction in rodents and its relevance to biomonitoring: experimental and environmental findings1996Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with how workers actively introduced a new technique to their own labour process. More specifically, it is concerned with how Swedish forest workers during the 1950s gradually replaced the manual one-man crosscut saw with the motor-driven saw.

    The workers’ own views and actions are of central importance to the analysis of this process of technical change. Therefore fifty elderly forest workers, who had worked in forests in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden, were inter­viewed. The point of departure of the study is the fact that it was the forest workers themselves who financed and bought the chain saw.

    The study indicates that there were two main reasons for acquiring a chain saw. The forest workers hoped to lessen the physical work load and to improve their wages. The first workers to use the chain saw I called ”the pioneers”. They had made some, but rather little, acquaintance with the chain saw before they started to use it. They were often disappointed with the new tool. In the middle of the 1950s, the construction of the chain saws was improved and, as a result, the chain saw made its breakthrough in the second half of the 1950s. Those who bought the chain saw during this period were clearly more pleased with it than the pioneers had been.

    A few years into the 1960s, when almost all forest workers had bought a chain saw, unemployment slowly started to increase. Simultaneously, the piecework wage system began to change. The chain saws were by this time becoming very efficient, and the benefit could and would not go solely to the forest workers. Employers and forest owners were also to have a share and they manifested this will in the wage negotiations. The forest workers responded by increasing their work tempo, to make the salaries remain at a high level, at least for the most efficient workers. For others, the older and those who were less productive, things became harder.

    The increase in work intensity brought with it an increase in accidents and injuries. The workers’ satisfaction in their job deteriorated.

    The lesson the forest workers learned, and this guided their actions when new machines were introduced later, was that it was important to act as a collective. Equally important, however, was the insight that good working conditions and a positive wage development do not only depend on technology, but on the social order in which the technology is embedded.

  • Hjelm, Jonny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Skogsarbetarna och motorsågen: en studie av arbetsliv och teknisk förändring1991Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with how workers actively introduced a new technique to their own labour process. More specifically, it is concerned with how Swedish forest workers during the 1950s gradually replaced the manual one-man crosscut saw with the motor-driven saw.

    The workers’ own views and actions are of central importance to the analysis of this process of technical change. Therefore fifty elderly forest workers, who had worked in forests in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden, were inter­viewed. The point of departure of the study is the fact that it was the forest workers themselves who financed and bought the chain saw.

    The study indicates that there were two main reasons for acquiring a chain saw. The forest workers hoped to lessen the physical work load and to improve their wages. The first workers to use the chain saw I called ”the pioneers”. They had made some, but rather little, acquaintance with the chain saw before they started to use it. They were often disappointed with the new tool. In the middle of the 1950s, the construction of the chain saws was improved and, as a result, the chain saw made its breakthrough in the second half of the 1950s. Those who bought the chain saw during this period were clearly more pleased with it than the pioneers had been.

    A few years into the 1960s, when almost all forest workers had bought a chain saw, unemployment slowly started to increase. Simultaneously, the piecework wage system began to change. The chain saws were by this time becoming very efficient, and the benefit could and would not go solely to the forest workers. Employers and forest owners were also to have a share and they manifested this will in the wage negotiations. The forest workers responded by increasing their work tempo, to make the salaries remain at a high level, at least for the most efficient workers. For others, the older and those who were less productive, things became harder.

    The increase in work intensity brought with it an increase in accidents and injuries. The workers’ satisfaction in their job deteriorated.

    The lesson the forest workers learned, and this guided their actions when new machines were introduced later, was that it was important to act as a collective. Equally important, however, was the insight that good working conditions and a positive wage development do not only depend on technology, but on the social order in which the technology is embedded.

  • Catibusic, Sanda-Wictoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Subjective Well-Being and Biomarkers of Health: The Relationship between Subjective Well-Being, The immune system and Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenal Axis Activation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An association between inflammation and mood deterioration has been proposed as a potential explanatory mechanism underlying many pathologies. Previous research attributes this consistently reoccurring connection between inflammation and psychopathology that is often reported within the literature, to a relationship between the HPA axis, the body’s stress response system and the immune system. There is evidence of a bidirectional feedback loop between end-products of the immune system and the HPA-axis such as cytokines and cortisol. This is supported by research reporting that components of subjective well-being such as positive affect, optimism and life satisfaction can produce beneficial health outcomes by potentially targeting this feedback loop. The present longitudinal study tested if higher positive affect independently corresponds to lower levels of inflammatory markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and HPA axis marker cortisol. The study further tested if higher subjective well-being decreases levels of IL-6 and CRP as well as cortisol. The study employed a subsample of participants from the Midlife in Japan (MIDJA) Biomarker project (n=174) that underwent testing at two separate time points across a period of 4 years. The data included subjective well-being, positive affect, IL-6, CRP, cortisol, perceived stress, neuroticism and demographic variables. Positive affect was not associated with any inflammatory marker or cortisol. Subjective well-being had no effect on CRP but reduced IL-6 and cortisol even when controlling for all control and demographic variables. It is concluded that subjective well-being may be linked to lower inflammation and HPA axis activity.

  • Jernberg, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Wikström, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Clinical relevance of androgen receptor alterations in prostate cancer2017In: Endocrine Connections, ISSN 2049-3614, E-ISSN 2049-3614, Vol. 6, no 8, p. R146-R161Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer (PC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men worldwide, despite continuously improved treatment strategies. Patients with metastatic disease are treated by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) that with time results in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) usually established as metastases within bone tissue. The androgen receptor (AR) transcription factor is the main driver of CRPC development and of acquired resistance to drugs given for treatment of CRPC, while a minority of patients have CRPC that is non-AR driven. Molecular mechanisms behind epithelial AR reactivation in CRPC include AR gene amplification and overexpression, AR mutations, expression of constitutively active AR variants, intra-tumoural and adrenal androgen synthesis and promiscuous AR activation by other factors. This review will summarize AR alterations of clinical relevance for patients with CRPC, with focus on constitutively active AR variants, their possible association with AR amplification and structural rearrangements as well as their ability to predict patient resistance to AR targeting drugs. The review will also discuss AR signalling in the tumour microenvironment and its possible relevance for metastatic growth and therapy.

  • Bo Hanh, Thi Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Development of G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds identified through a High-Throughput Screen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Brodin, MArcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Leach tests on MSWI bottomash from CHP Dåva to reduceCu, Pb and Zn2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Schiffthaler, Bastian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Bernhardsson, Carolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ingvarsson, Par K.
    Street, Nathaniel R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    BatchMap: A parallel implementation of the OneMap R package for fast computation of F-1 linkage maps in outcrossing species2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e0189256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid advancement of high throughput sequencing, large numbers of genetic markers can be readily and cheaply acquired, but most current software packages for genetic map construction cannot handle such dense input. Modern computer architectures and server farms represent untapped resources that can be used to enable higher marker densities to be processed in tractable time. Here we present a pipeline using a modified version of OneMap that parallelizes over bottleneck functions and achieves substantial speedups for producing a high density linkage map (N = 20,000). Using simulated data we show that the outcome is as accurate as the traditional pipeline. We further demonstrate that there is a direct relationship between the number of markers used and the level of deviation between true and estimated order, which in turn impacts the final size of a genetic map.

  • Castanheira, Sonia
    et al.
    Cestero, Juan J.
    Rico-Perez, Gadea
    Garcia, Pablo
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Ayala, Juan A.
    Graciela Pucciarelli, M.
    Garcia-del Portillo, Francisco
    A Specialized Peptidoglycan Synthase Promotes Salmonella Cell Division inside Host Cells2017In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 8, no 6, article id e01685-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial cell division has been studied extensively under laboratory conditions. Despite being a key event in the bacterial cell cycle, cell division has not been explored in vivo in bacterial pathogens interacting with their hosts. We discovered in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium a gene absent in nonpathogenic bacteria and encoding a peptidoglycan synthase with 63% identity to penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3). PBP3 is an essential cell division-specific peptidoglycan synthase that builds the septum required to separate daughter cells. Since S. Typhimurium carries genes that encode a PBP3 paralog-which we named PBP3(SAL)-and PBP3, we hypothesized that there are different cell division events in host and nonhost environments. To test this, we generated S. Typhimurium isogenic mutants lacking PBP3(SAL) or the hitherto considered essential PBP3. While PBP3 alone promotes cell division under all conditions tested, the mutant producing only PBP3(SAL) proliferates under acidic conditions (pH <= 5.8) but does not divide at neutral pH. PBP3(SAL) production is tightly regulated with increased levels as bacteria grow in media acidified up to pH 4.0 and in intracellular bacteria infecting eukaryotic cells. PBP3(SAL) activity is also strictly dependent on acidic pH, as shown by beta-lactam antibiotic binding assays. Live-cell imaging microscopy revealed that PBP3(SAL) alone is sufficient for S. Typhimurium to divide within phagosomes of the eukaryotic cell. Additionally, we detected much larger amounts of PBP3(SAL) than those of PBP3 in vivo in bacteria colonizing mouse target organs. Therefore, PBP3(SAL) evolved in S. Typhimurium as a specialized peptidoglycan synthase promoting cell division in the acidic intraphagosomal environment. IMPORTANCE During bacterial cell division, daughter cells separate by a transversal structure known as the division septum. The septum is a continuum of the cell wall and therefore is composed of membrane(s) and a peptidoglycan layer. To date, actively growing bacteria were reported to have only a "cell division-specific" peptidoglycan synthase required for the last steps of septum formation and consequently, essential for bacterial life. Here, we discovered that Salmonella enterica has two peptidoglycan synthases capable of synthesizing the division septum. One of these enzymes, PBP3(SAL), is present only in bacterial pathogens and evolved in Salmonella to function exclusively in acidic environments. PBP3(SAL) is used preferentially by Salmonella to promote cell division in vivo in mouse target organs and inside acidified phagosomes. Our data challenge the concept of only one essential cell division-specific peptidoglycan synthase and demonstrate that pathogens can divide in defined host locations using alternative mechanisms.

  • Appelkvist, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Musik i förskolan: Förskollärares tankar om vad, hur och varför?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att synliggöra hur musiken används i förskolan och vilken uppfattning förskollärare på fyra förskolor har angående musik. Studien grundar sig i kvalitativa intervjuer. Denna studie är skriven och anpassad för att besvara hur förskollärare planerar musiken i förskolan, hur det kan kopplas till lärande och utveckling samt hur musikalisk bakgrund kan påverka musikanvändandet i förskolan. Resultatet visar att förskollärare ser musik som både en spontan och planerad aktivitet i förskolan där flera inslag såsom instrument, rörelse och sång utgör helheten. Musiken uttrycker först och främst glädje och ses även som ett sätt att främja annat lärande enligt förskollärarna. Förskollärarna är överens om att ett intresse för musik är mer betydelsefullt i arbetet än musikalisk kunskap. Slutsatserna som studien visar är att musik som ämne planeras med barnens intresse som huvudsyfte och att annat lärande blir sekundärt. Lärandet som kan gynnas av musik är beroende på vad förskolläraren vill förmedla med den.

  • Gomez-Olive, Francesc Xavier
    et al.
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Aboderin, Isabella
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Chatterji, Somnath
    Davies, Justine I.
    Debpuur, Cornelius
    Hirve, Siddhivinayak
    Hodgson, Abraham
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Kowal, Paul
    Nathan, Rose
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Razzaque, Abdur
    Sankoh, Osman
    Streatfield, Peter K.
    Tollman, Stephen M.
    Wilopo, Siswanto A.
    Witham, Miles D.
    Variations in disability and quality of life with age and sex between eight lower income and middle-income countries: data from the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE collaboration2017In: BMJ Global Health, E-ISSN 2059-7908, Vol. 2, no 4, article id e000508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Disability and quality of life are key outcomes for older people. Little is known about how these measures vary with age and gender across lower income and middle-income countries; such information is necessary to tailor health and social care policy to promote healthy ageing and minimise disability.

    Methods: We analysed data from participants aged 50 years and over from health and demographic surveillance system sites of the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health Network in Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa, Vietnam, India, Indonesia and Bangladesh, using an abbreviated version of the WHO Study on global AGEing survey instrument. We used the eight-item WHO Quality of Life (WHOQoL) tool to measure quality of life and theWHO Disability Assessment Schedule, version 2 (WHODAS-II) tool to measure disability. We collected selected health status measures via the survey instrument and collected demographic and socioeconomic data from linked surveillance site information. We performed regression analyses to quantify differences between countries in the relationship between age, gender and both quality of life and disability, and we used anchoring vignettes to account for differences in interpretation of disability severity.

    Results: We included 43 935 individuals in the analysis. Mean age was 63.7 years (SD 9.7) and 24 434 (55.6%) were women. In unadjusted analyses across all countries, WHOQoL scores worsened by 0.13 points (95% CI 0.12 to 0.14) per year increase in age and WHODAS scores worsened by 0.60 points (95% CI 0.57 to 0.64). WHODAS-II and WHOQoL scores varied markedly between countries, as did the gradient of scores with increasing age. In regression analyses, differences were not fully explained by age, socioeconomic status, marital status, education or health factors. Differences in disability scores between countries were not explained by differences in anchoring vignette responses.

    Conclusions: The relationship between age, sex and both disability and quality of life varies between countries. The findings may guide tailoring of interventions to individual country needs, although these associations require further study.

  • Malesci, Alberto
    et al.
    Bianchi, Paolo
    Celesti, Giuseppe
    Basso, Gianluca
    Marchesi, Federica
    Grizzi, Fabio
    Di Caro, Giuseppe
    Cavalleri, Tommaso
    Rimassa, Lorenza
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Lugli, Alessandro
    Koelzer, Viktor. H.
    Roncalli, Massimo
    Mantovani, Alberto
    Ogino, Shuji
    Laghi, Luigi
    Tumor-associated macrophages and response to 5-fluorouracil adjuvant therapy in stage III colorectal cancer2017In: Oncoimmunology, ISSN 2162-4011, E-ISSN 2162-402X, Vol. 6, no 12, article id e1342918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a role in tumor development and progression. We hypothesized that abundance of TAMs might modify efficacy of 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. We measured the density of CD68+ TAMs at the invasive front of primary tumor of colorectal carcinoma (PT-TAMs; n = 208), at available matched metastatic lymph node (LN-TAMs; n = 149), and in an independent set of primary colorectal cancers (PT-TAMs, n = 111). The hazard ratios for disease-free survival were computed by Cox proportional-hazards model. In exploratory analysis, the interaction between TAMs and 5-fluorouracil adjuvant therapy was significant (PT-TAMs, p=0.02; LN-TAMs, p D 0.005). High TAMs were independently associated with better disease-free survival only in 5-fluorouracil-treated patients (PT-TAMs, HR 0.23; 95% CI, 0.08-0.65; p=0.005; LN-TAMs, HR 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04-0.43; p D 0.001). The independent predictive value of PT-TAMs was replicated in the external set (HR, 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-1.00; p=0.05). In an in vitro experiment, 5-fluorouracil and macrophages showed a synergistic effect and increased colorectal cancer cell death. High densities of TAMs, particularly in metastatic lymph-nodes, identify stage III colorectal cancer patients benefitting from 5-fluorouracil adjuvant therapy.

  • Jonsson, Oskar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Papic, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Studies of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tongue(TSCC), with Focus on Histological Factors2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) is a diverse group of tumours includingtumours of the mouth, of which most are manifested in the tongue. Previous studies have shown that assessment of histological risk factors including worstpattern of invasion (WPOI) and lymphocytic response (LR) is of clinical relevance in treating SCCHN. It hasalsobeen suggested that evaluation of the inflammatory infiltrate could be of prognostic importance.The purpose of this study was to further investigate, analyze and map histological factors associated with TSCC.A total of 58biopsies fromtwo different ethnic groups,Swedish and Italian,were evaluated regarding factors like WPOI andLR. Results were thencorrelated to clinical data.Approximately halfof the patients, 53%, displayed patches ofdense lymphocytic infiltrate at the tumour interface. There was,however,no statistically relevant correlation seen between LR, recurrence of disease, survival rate or ethnicity. Considering WPOI, 83% of patients showed a tumour growth pattern withsmall invasive islands <15 cells (WPOI 4). No correlationbetween WPOI, recurrence of disease, survival rate, ethnicity or lymphocyticresponse was found.Our findings confirm that SSC of the tongue hasa very split patternof invasion. No conclusive result was found concerning inflammatory response and prognostic factors. Data collected showed that ethnic differences could potentiallybe of interest for further study of the prevalence of tongue SCC.

  • Larsson, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elf, Karl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Konjunktionsfelet vid sannolikhetsbedömningar i en klinisk psykologisk kontext2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Konjunktionsfelet är ett tankefel som uppstår vid sannolikhetsbedömningar. Detta tankefel inträffar då en sammanslagning av två alternativ bedöms som mer sannolikt än ett av alternativen fristående, vilket är felaktigt enligt sannolikhetsteori. Syftet med föreliggande enkätstudie var att undersöka om konjunktionsfelet förekom vid sannolikhetsbedömningar i en klinisk psykologisk kontext. Urvalsgruppen bestod av psykologstudenter under senare delen av utbildningen (termin 9 och 10, N = 30), en grupp med gedigen psykologisk kunskap, grundläggande kunskap inom statistik samt eventuell förkunskap om konjunktionsfelet. Ett möjligt sätt att minska förekomsten av konjunktionsfelet är att förtydliga relationen mellan kategorier och subkategorier vid en sannolikhetsbedömning. Studien undersökte även ifall ett informationsmoment, som förtydligade denna relation, kunde minska deltagarnas benägenhet att begå konjunktionsfel. Ett frågeformulär utformades för att undersöka dessa frågeställningar. Formuläret innehöll 12 uppgifter i en klinisk psykologisk kontext samt informationsmomentet. Resultatet visade att konjunktionsfelet uppvisades i genomsnitt 51% av de sex inledande frågorna. Efter att ha tagit del av informationsmomentet minskade andelen konjunktionsfel till 30% i resterande sex frågor. Slutligen undersöktes om förkunskap påverkade andelen begångna konjunktionsfel. Det framkom att deltagare med en högre förkunskap begick färre konjunktionsfel än de med lägre. Slutsatsen av studien var att psykologstudenterna, trots sina kunskaper, begick konjunktionsfelet vid sannolikhetsbedömningar i en klinisk psykologisk kontext. Vidare minskade andelen konjunktionsfel efter informationsmomentet. Dessa resultat kan beaktas i psykologiska bedömningssituationer för att minska risken för konjunktionsfel. Att undersöka om liknande resultat även kan uppnås bland yrkesverksamma psykologer kan vara av intresse för framtida forskning. 

  • Locmelis, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Structural biology studies of thylakoid lumen proteins required for photosystem II assembly and function2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the structures and functions of thylakoid lumen proteins. However, some of these proteins have an essential role in photosynthesis. Photosystem II (PSII) complexes are embedded in the thylakoid membrane of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms and one of the central subunits, the D1 protein, is damaged by light during the light driven water – splitting reaction and must be replaced frequently. One of the thylakoid lumen proteins that is essential for assembly and renewal of PSII complexes is the High Chlorophyll Fluorescence 136 (HCF136) protein. Another important protein for the PSII complex assembly is the Low PSII Accumulation Protein 19 (LPA19). Both proteins, HCF136 and LPA19, were shown to bind to the core subunits of the PSII complex from the lumenal side and LPA19 has been shown to explicitly interact with the soluble C-terminus of the D1 protein, one of the core PSII complex proteins. Prior to the replacement of the damaged D1 protein, the PSII complex needs to be disassembled, which is done with the help of the Maintenance of Photosystem II under High light 2 (MPH2) protein. MPH2, also called TL16, is required during the repair cycle of the PSII complex particularly under increased and fluctuating light conditions.

    In this work I have determined the three-dimensional X-ray structures of the HCF136 protein at 1.6 Å resolution and the LPA19 protein at 1.2 Å resolution and have also biochemically analyzed possible interactions of HCF136 with the C-termini of D1 protein. In addition, we have determined the NMR structure of the MPH2 protein.

    The protein structures of HCF136, LPA19, and MPH2 determined from A. thaliana provide us with a starting point for further studies to improve our understanding of their functional roles in the assembly, maintenance, disassembly and renewal of the PSII complex. The structures are revealing the molecular details that are particularly important during the design of mutations to study protein-protein interactions and the binding of co-factors.

    Furthermore, I have contributed to the characterization of AnPrx6, the 1-Cyx peroxiredoxin from Anabaena sp. 7120. Peroxiredoxins are important caretakers of reactive oxygen species and a homolog PrxQ in A.thaliana is found in the thylakoid lumen. The dimeric AnPrx6 protein revealed different active site residues conformations in each of the dimers, which is probably coupled to its enzymatic activity. Unexpectedly, the protein acted also as a chaperone and showed chaperone activity in its dimeric state, which is a novelty for Prx proteins.

  • McDonald, Rachel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Synchronised metronome training: The effects on soccer players’ lower-limb motor dynamics and performance in a soccer-related stepping task.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Good timing is important for all daily motion, even more so for athletes where the smallest movements can make the difference between a goal and miss. Despite this, there has been little research into just how timing ability is related to sport performance. Therefore the present study used a between-within groups experimental design with a sample of female elite- and semi-elite soccer players to describe the effects of a synchronised metronome training (SMT) intervention on lower-limb movement, and accuracy and speed, in a soccer-related stepping task. Participants were randomly assigned to receive SMT (n = 12) or to the control group (n = 12). The SMT group received 12 hours of Interactive Metronome (IM) training over four weeks. Pre- and post-test results showed a strong effect of SMT in improving timing and rhythmic ability. An effect of SMT on accuracy in the stepping task was seen, signifying an effect on motor planning ability. Correlational analyses showed some evident effects of IM on the kinematic parameters, as indicated by relationship between timing and rhythmicity ability with increased movement segmentation, though this did not reach significance. These results present new information and provides support for kinematic analysis to be used in future studies to address the effect of SMT.

  • Sara, Hansson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Naturvård på Nya Zeeland: Hur bedrivs naturvård på Nya Zeeland och vilken roll har volontärer i detta?2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New Zealand is a country that has been isolated from the large continents for over 80 million years. This has resulted in a biodiversity completely different from the rest of the world with flightless birds and a huge number of endemic species. The country has earlier failed in keeping the species and ecosystems in their natural state. The Maori people and the Europeans with their companion animals caused dramatic ecosystem loss and fragmentation and a serious decline in biodiversity. Today the need for conservation is vast but on the positive hand; many individuals and organizations care for the environment and are doing a great work to preserve what is left of New Zealand. This report looks into how conservation organizations deal with the environmental issues and how conservation work is done. Volunteers take a big part in the conservation work and this report also aims to evaluate positive and negative sides of using volunteers. As a base for the study a field trip to New Zealand was made with Conservation volunteers NZ. This was an opportunity for the project member to experience conservation work in New Zealand for real.

  • Doolin, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Helmersson, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Resources available to psychologists within two adult psychiatric clinics2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, several reports regarding the increasing number psychologists on sick leave in Sweden have been published. These suggest deficits in their working environment. The aim of this study was to examine resources in the working environment of psychologists within the adult psychiatric clinics in a county council in northern Sweden. The research questions involved identifying resources in the workplace of psychologists, based on the four levels of Job Demand-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). The sample consisted of six participants and data was collected through individual in-person interviews. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis.  The results are in parts consistent with previous research but also include several resources less well-known related to well-being amongst psychologists. These were Nature of the work, Training and education, Physical resources and Mentoring. The conclusions provide useful information to improve the working environment of psychologists, by protecting existing resources and providing important resources requested. 

  • Johansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    The Healthy Ageing Initiative: Prevention of falls and fractures2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is currently experiencing a dramatic increase in the number of older individuals, an amount that is expected to double between 2015 and 2050. This increase will likely affect the prevalence of age-related functional impairments, such as those caused by fractures. Fractures are often immobilizing events leading to increased individual suffering and vast healthcare costs. Prevention of these events and detection of underlying risk factors are hence of utmost importance. Fracture prevention strategies have traditionally focused on strengthening the skeleton by improving bone mineral density, partly through the mechanical load of increased physical activity. However, research has shown that nine out of ten hip fractures are attributed to falls. While several risk factors behind falls have been identified, there is less knowledge about how aspects such as gait patterns and postural stability predict future falls. The aim of this thesis was to expand upon the current knowledge by investigating objective measures of physical activity in relation to bone parameters, and measures of gait patterns and postural stability in relation to incident falls, in a large population-based sample of 70-year-olds.

    The samples investigated in the four included studies were drawn from the Healthy Ageing Initiative (HAI) cohort. Study I examined associations between physical activity, objectively measured using accelerometers, and bone parameters, measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry and Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography. Study II examined how gait variability, measured using the GAITRite electronic walkway system, predicted incident falls in men and women. Studies III and IV examined how center of pressure (COP) sway and limits of stability (LOS), measured using a force platform, predicted incident falls. Independent prediction of bone parameters and incident falls were investigated using multiple linear and logistic regression models.

    Study I revealed that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and vertical peak acceleration independently predicted parameters of bone in the weight-bearing skeleton. Study II showed that women’s increased risk of falling could be explained by increased gait variability during dual-task assignments. Study III revealed that the risk of falling was increased by 75-90% for individuals in the highest quintile of COP sway. Study IV integrated COP and LOS data, showing that fall risk was increased by 9-16% per 1-unit increase in COP-LOS ratio. In conclusion, this thesis highlighted several objective predictors of incident falls among older adults. Future studies and recommendations should emphasize strategies to improve balance, muscle strength and physical activity in order to prevent falls and fractures.