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  • Karlsson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Mattsson, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Påverkar smärta i ljumskarna styrkeförhållandeti höftadduktorerna-abduktorerna?: - En korrelationsstudie på subelit-fotbollsspelare i Umeå2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Groin muscle strain is the second most common muscle strain among soccerplayers and represent up to 28% of all soccer related injuries annually. There are multiple risk factors contributing to this type of injury, the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors being one of them. Furthermore, pain has shown to decrease muscle strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors and perceived pain.

    Method

    One male subelite soccer team (n= 14) from Umeå participated inthis study.Thetwo tests that were conducted was the hand-held dynamometer and the Five-Second Squeeze Test (5SST). The hand-held dynamometer is a valid and reliable device used to examine the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors and the 5SST is a valid measurement of hip and groin function insoccer players.

    Results

    No significant correlation was found between the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors and perceived pain in the 5SST (p<0.05) in the present study.

    Conclusion

    The findings in the present study showed no significant correlation between the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors and perceived pain in the 5SST. Based on the result, 5SST cannot be used to identify the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors in soccer players. The present study emphasis the importance of larger studies with higher number of participants in the future to analyze the correlation of strength ratio and perceived pain.

  • Brännström Gullehag, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Stiglund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Fysisk aktivitet och sociala medier: - En deskriptiv enkätundersökning på vuxna kvinnor 18-60 år2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One of the primary functions of the human body is to be physically active and this is essential throughout life. Adults over 18 years of age are recommended to achieve at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week with moderate intensity spread throughout the week. Physical activity reduces the risk of premature death and cardiovascular diseases. Health-inspiring apps can improve lifestyle habits such as diet and physical activity and thus prevent diseases. Social media is a collective name for communication platforms. A connection between the use of social media and a deteriorated self-image and body image has been found.  

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to give an insight into how physical activity in adult women in the age group 18-60 years is influenced by the use of social media and health-inspired apps, and how social media affects self-image and body image in younger and older women.

    Participants: The participants were 165 women in the ages 18 to 60 years. The younger age group (18-30 years) included 114 participants. There were 19 participants in the age group 31-40 years and 32 participants in the age group 41-60 years.

    Method: A digitized questionnaire was designed to answer questions about background information, use of social media, physical activity, body image and self-image.

    Result: The study's results show that 95% of the women were physically active and 33% of these were active 4-6 hours per week. The study has shown little awareness regarding how social media can be applied to physical activity in women 18-60 years. Younger women use social media to a greater extent and experienced poorer body image and self-image compared to older women

    Conclusion: The study has answered the purpose that the use of social media and apps promote physical activity in women and that there is a difference in the use of social media, comparison and self-image between the age group 18-30 and 31-60.

  • Bakke-King, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Johansson, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Akuta skador och överbelastningsskador inom idrotten: -  En tvärsnittsstudie om följsamhet till rehabilitering, upplevelse av skada samt upplevd smärta2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Acute injuries are generally classified as more severe than overuse injuries due to the fact that they often lead to longer time away from sport. This type of classification of severity in research is not deemed appropriate since it often excludes people suffering from overuse injuries. People with overuse injuries usually stay in their sport but participates with pain, reduced function and performance.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine significant differences between adherence to rehabilitation, cognitive appraisal and perceived pain depending on if a sport injury has occurred acute or due to overuse.  

    Participants: 51 participants answered the questionnaire and 39 (14 women and 25 men) of these were included in the study. The participants were between 16 and 35 years old, suffered from a sport injury and had a rehabilitation program to treat their injury. Based on the diagnosis and description of the injury the participants were separated into two groups, either acute injury or overuse injury.

    Method: A questionnaire including two validated questionnaires, the Rehabilitation Adherence Questionnaire and Cognitive Appraisal Health Scale and an estimation of highest experienced pain were distributed among different sport teams and social media. To investigate if there were any significant differences between the two groups on the examined variables several t-tests and one ANOVA was completed.

    Results: No significant differences were found between the two groups on any of the examined variables. The category threat on the Cognitive Appraisal Health Scale were close to significance (p=0,071) and suggests that people who suffer from an acute injury found their injury to be more threatful.

    Conclusion: If a sport injury has occurred acute or because of overuse doesn't seem to be a singular determinant factor that affects adherence to rehabilitation, cognitive appraisal or perceived pain

  • Forsgren, Zebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nykonstruktion av krympbänk2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cranab is a company that specializes and manufactures cranes and grippers for forwarders, harvesters and trucks. During the manufacturing process, a shrink fit bench is used to assemble two parts together. The part that is being assembled is called a pillar. The pillar has two big components, a pipe and a splined part. These two parts is being assembled in the shrink fit bench. The current shrink fit bench is using a propane torch to heat the pipe so the splined part can be inserted. After the pipe has cooled down the part is assembled with a shrink fit. The purpose of this thesis is to draw and deliver a new concept of a new and improved shrink fit bench. The method used is to study the current shrink fit bench and draw a new one using Autodesk Inventor. The new and improved shrink fit bench is using an induction heater instead of a propane torch. The result of this work is a shrink fit bench with drawings and associated calculations and explanations of induction and comparisons on different types of induction coils.

  • Weijand, Sasha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    AUTOMATED GENDER CLASSIFICATION IN WIKIPEDIA BIOGRAPHIESa cross-lingual comparison2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The written word plays an important role in the reinforcement of gender stereotypes, especially in texts of a more formal character. Wikipedia biographies have a lot of information about famous people, but do they describe men and women with different kinds of words? This thesis aims to evaluate and explore a method for gender classification of text. In this study, two machine learning classifiers, Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), are applied to the gender classification of Wikipedia biographies in two languages, English and French. Their performance is evaluated and compared. The 500 most important words (features) are listed for each of the classifiers.A short review is given on the theoretic foundations of text classification, and a detailed description on how the datasets are built, what tools are used, and why. The datasets used are built from the first 5 paragraphs in each biography, with only nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs remaining. Feature ranking is also applied, where the top tenth of the features are kept.Performance is measured using the F0:5-score. The comparison shows that the RF and SVM classifiers' performance are close to each other, but that the classifiers perform worse on the French set than on the English. Initial performance scores range from 0.82 to 0.86, but they drop drastically when the most important features are removed from the set. A majority of the top most important features are nouns related to career and family roles, in both languages.The results show that there are indeed some semantic differences in language depending on the gender of the person described. Whether these depend on the writers' biased views, an unequal gender distribution of real world contexts, such as careers, or if these differences depend on how the datasets were built, is not clear.

  • Sundström, Jürgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    ASSESSMENT OF ROSLYN ANALYZERS FOR VISUAL STUDIO2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    So‰ware security is an ever growing subject that is gett‹ing more important as we implement more soft‰ware into our daily lives. We want to protect our personal information and keep our privacy intact. Since our so‰ftware systems are gett‹ing more complex as well, soft‰ware developers need support in the form of tools that can help them to keep the so‰ftware free from vulnerabilities. ‘There are many such tools available but the focus of this study is investigating the performance of the fairly new Roslyn analyzers for security that can be embedded into Visual Studio.Since Roslyn analyzers for security are, in the time of writing (June 2019), not subject in any released studies the goal is to lay a foundation for future work regarding these types of tools. ‘Therefore three Roslyn analyzers for security are being compared, on source code in the C# programming language provided by the SAMATE project, both with each other but also against classic static analysis tools.Four vulnerability categories from the SAMATE test suite for C# are used to investigate the analyzers, namely OS command injection (CWE-078), SQL Injection (CWE-089), XML Injection (CWE-091) and Cryptography algorithms (CWE-327).Th‘e performance of the analyzers is measured with the metrics recall, precision and F-measure which are commonly used in other similar studies and makes it possible to compare the results obtained within this study with the results ofother studies within the €field.Th‘e results of this study are inconclusive as the scope chosen turns out to be to narrow. Two of the analyzers are not generating warnings for two or more of the vulnerability categories which makes it impossible to compare them with each other in a reasonable fashion. Even comparing the analyzers with classic static analysis tools is obsolete since there is only one representative from the Roslyn analyzers which does not say much about the general performance of these analyzers.‘The study reveals the necessity of a more complete and controlled test suite to evaluate security tools on source code wri‹en in C#.i

  • Sundkvist, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    AN EVALUATION OF REAL-TIME GLOBAL ILLUMINATION TECHNIQUES2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time global illumination techniques are becoming more and more realistic as the years pass and new technologies are developed. ‘This report therefore set out to evaluate di‚fferent implementations of real-time global illumination.‘ The three implementations that are looked at are Unity, Unreal and a Voxel Cone Tracer. For Unity and Unreal we also look at their three main sett‹ings for global illumination, in order to look at the diff‚erences between methods using pre-computation and those that are run-time focused.Th‘e evaluation focuses on visual quality and render times. In order to compare render times we look at how the framerate is e‚ffected by both scaling up the number of lights and then adding motion to the light sources. When comparing the results from a visual quality perspective we made use of the perceptual quality metrices SSIM and HDR-VDP-2 with reference images rendered in Blender. For these tests we use three di‚fferent scenes with di‚fferent lighting conditions.We conclude that while the Voxel Cone Tracer faced large framerate problems when lighting was scaled up, the higher end implementations in the form of Unity and Unreal, neither had any problem keeping a high frame rate when the same tests were applied to them. Th‘e visual quality tests faced some problems as the tests using HDR-VDP-2 had problems ge‹ing any good results. Th‘e results from SSIM were more useful, showing that there still is progress to be made for all the implementations and that the ones using more pre-computations generally perform be‹tter.

  • Eriksson, Love
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    I jordbrukets periferi: En studie om utvecklingen av agrar bebyggelse i marginella miljöer från stenåldern till järnåldern i Norra Sverige2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development and establishment of agriculture in Northern Sweden has since long been believed to appear during the Late Iron Age, close to the Viking period, but recent finds from the Bronze Age in Umeå has opened up new discussion of when agriculture first emerged. Although too early to discuss where and when it developed, the material currently available on the topic allows for discussion for how it developed. By looking at sediment and soil conditions surrounding the settlements in combination with palaeoenvironments and past climate one aim was to try and search for settlement patterns in relation to agricultural potential, this was however unsuccessful. Cultivation practices were analysed using weed and wetland flora as well as agricultural indicators in pollen diagrams. Most settlements appear to focus firstly on animal husbandry and secondarily on cultivating crops, and they might have because of their coastal positioning also relied on fishing. The results confirmed previous hypothesis about the development of agriculture and cultivation practices in Northern Sweden during the Bronze and Iron Age, however, some issues remain concerning the lacking osteological material.

  • Hultin, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Jonsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Härgestam, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Reliability of instruments that measure situation awareness, team performance and task performance in a simulation setting with medical students2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e029412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The assessment of situation awareness (SA), team performance and task performance in a simulation training session requires reliable and feasible measurement techniques. The objectives of this study were to test the Airways-Breathing-Circulation-Disability-Exposure (ABCDE) checklist and the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) for inter-rater reliability, as well as the application of Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) for feasibility and internal consistency.

    DESIGN: Methodological approach.

    SETTING: Data collection during team training using full-scale simulation at a university clinical training centre. The video-recorded scenarios were rated independently by four raters.

    PARTICIPANTS: 55 medical students aged 22-40 years in their fourth year of medical studies, during the clerkship in anaesthesiology and critical care medicine, formed 23 different teams. All students answered the SAGAT questionnaires, and of these students, 24 answered the follow-up postsimulation questionnaire (PSQ). TEAM and ABCDE were scored by four professionals.

    MEASURES: The ABCDE and TEAM were tested for inter-rater reliability. The feasibility of SAGAT was tested using PSQ. SAGAT was tested for internal consistency both at an individual level (SAGAT) and a team level (Team Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (TSAGAT)).

    RESULTS: The intraclass correlation was 0.54/0.83 (single/average measurements) for TEAM and 0.55/0.83 for ABCDE. According to the PSQ, the items in SAGAT were rated as relevant to the scenario by 96% of the participants. Cronbach's alpha for SAGAT/TSAGAT for the two scenarios was 0.80/0.83 vs 0.62/0.76, and normed χ² was 1.72 vs 1.62.

    CONCLUSION: Task performance, team performance and SA could be purposefully measured, and the reliability of the measurements was good.

  • Thomas, Jacob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    A study of factors controlling pH in Arctic tundra soils2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Arctic tundra soils pH serves as an important parameter related to several biotic parameters such as, plant and microbial community composition, biodiversity, nutrient dynamics and productivity. Both abiotic and biotic factors, for instance, base saturation (BS) and plant nutrient uptake may exert a control on soil pH, while it is still unclear to what extent different factors can explain soil pH across different tundra vegetation types. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent different abiotic and biotic factors influence soil pH in the humus layer across different tundra vegetation types. To do so, eight different tundra vegetation types of which four were underlaid by permafrost (Arctic Alaska) and four with no permafrost (Arctic Sweden) were studied in detail with regard to different properties affecting soil pH. I found that BS was the main factor controlling soil pH across the different vegetation types regardless if the soil was underlain by permafrost or not. Factors, such as, ionic strength or soil water content could not explain any overall pH variation and did only significantly affect the heath soils. Further, the uptake of the most abundant base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+) from meadow and heath vegetation revealed a high difference between plant functional groups within the same vegetation types. The higher dominance of slow growing woody species in heath vegetation which had a lower uptake corresponded with a lower BC content (especially (Ca2+), pH and BS in the humus soil relative the meadow meanwhile the content of K+ was more than three times higher in heath. Overall, this study suggests that the degree of neutralization (base saturation) regulates pH either via the influence of bedrock and hydrogeochemistry and/or via plant traits that affects the uptake and turnover of base cations. 

  • Cederberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    The Anatomy of a Paywall: Insights and recommendations on charging for online news2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of digitalization and recent technological innovation, news consumers have increasingly moved to online spaces to access news. As changes in consumer behavior appear even within these new contexts, several legacy news publishers that are often linked with high journalistic quality and trust are struggling to monetize on their content. In such struggles, an increasingly common sight over the last couple of years is the implementation of paywalls; digital boundaries that require consumers to pay before accessing content. This work applies a design thinking approach, utilizing a mixed-method methodology by interviews, surveys, workshops, prototyping, and testing, to explore the users’ experiences of navigating this landscape, while at the same time taking the perspective of legacy news publishers into account. The first part of the report entails the identification of a set of design challenges in this regard. The second part focuses on one such challenge—the onboarding experience of paying readership online—and explores possible solutions where the experience of the users and the business of legacy news publishers can merge. It argues that, while still inducing some degree of irritation in the users, a registration-first model with multiple choices to pay is likely to create new opportunities for news publishers as they seek to charge for content online, while at the same time being appealing to a larger audience. However, the role of the relationship between the individual reader and the content itself was identified as absolutely central in increasing the value perception of news online.

  • Österlund, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Contestability and Legitimacy: The Case for Contestability as Political Legitimization in the Presence of Problematic Contracts2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I discuss the merits of contestability in contrast with consent as a meansof legitimizing the state. Particularly I have been concerned with problematiccontracts: Contracts with undefined obligations and their implications on thelegitimacy of voluntarist consent. Through my argumentation, I have shown thatvoluntarist consent to political mandates has a hard time legitimizing politicalauthority in the presence of problematic contracts – and instead, that legitimationbased on the the ability to contest decisions may provide a better degree of politicallegitimacy. Contestability can seemingly also be combined with elements of voluntaristconsent to further cement the legitimacy of decisions.

  • Persiani, Michele
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Unsupervised Inference of Object Affordance from Text Corpora2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affordances denote actions that can be performed in the presence of different objects, or possibility of action in an environment. In robotic systems, affordances and actions may suffer from poor semantic generalization capabilities due to the high amount of required hand-crafted specifications. To alleviate this issue, we propose a method to mine for object-action pairs in free text corpora, successively training and evaluating different prediction models of affordance based on word embeddings.

  • López Balbontin, Natacha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Filosofin som livsform i kristen språkdräkt: Det platonska arvet hos kyrkofädernaAugustinus och Origenes2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Stattin, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Concurrent validity and reliability of a time of-flight camera on measuring muscle’s mechanical properties during sprint running2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancements in 3D data gathering have made it possible to measure the distance to an object at different time stamps through the use of time-of-flight cameras. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of a time-of-flight camera on different mechanical sprint properties of the muscle.

    Fifteen male football players performed four 30m maximal sprint bouts which was simultaneously recorded with a time-of-flight camera and 1080 sprint device. By using an exponential function on the collected positional- and velocity-time data from both the devices, following variables were derived and analyzed: Maximal velocity (nmax), time constant (t), theoretical maximal force (F0), theoretical maximal velocity (V0), peak power output (Pmax), F-V mechanical profile (Sfv) and decrease in ratio of force (Drf).

    The results showed strong correlation in vmax along with a fairly small standard error of estimate (SEE) (r = 0,817, SEE = 0,27 m/s), while t displayed moderate correlation and relatively high SEE (r = 0,620, SEE = 0,12 s). Furthermore, moderate mean bias (>5%) were revealed for most of the variables, except for vmax and V0. The within-sessions reliability using Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) ranged from excellent to poor with Pmax displaying excellent reliability (ICC = 0,91, SEM = 72W), while vmax demonstrated moderate reliability (ICC = 0,61, SEM = 0,26 m/s) and t poor(ICC = 0,44, SEM = 0,11 s).

    In conclusion, these findings showed that in its current state, the time-of-flight camera is not a reliable or valid device in estimating different mechanical properties of the muscle during sprint running using Samozino et al’s computations. Further development is needed.

  • Offerman, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Can internal and external load measures via Polar Vantage V predict training status in trained individuals?: - A prospective study during a normal and a heavy load training week.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To evaluate the information provided by Polar Vantage V, a new generation of heart rate monitor/watch (HRM-watch) to the user, regarding the acute:chronic load ratio (ACLR), based onthe external and internal load measures and examine the measures against psychological and physiological measures before and during a threshold test with VO2max testing.

    Method A five-week prospective study with results and data collected during and after four normal training weeks and during a fifth week with a very high training load. The results from HRM-watchwere then evaluated against the results from physiological and psychological tests. Eight endurance runners were recruited.

    Results Differences in ACLR against the differences in HRR show a R2 value of 0.77 (p<0.05). ACLR signicantly increased with an average of 0.33 from 0.93 to 1.26 (p=0.003, 95 % CI= 0.17 {0.49). Differences in ACLR against dierences in total mood disturbance (TMD) from POMS showin regression analyses a R2value of 0.67 (p=0.05). No significant difference was noted in neither resting HRV (p=0.3, 95% CI= -22.2 { 8.5) or standing HRV (p=0.15, 95% CI= - 4.15 { 20.8).

    Conclusion Based on the result of the present study it can be concluded that training status, well-being and present mood state can be predicted fairly good with the information from the internal and external load measurements from the Polar Vantage V. However, the power of present exploratory study was low due to a low number of included participants. Future research with greater number of participants and an improved study design is needed to verify these interesting findings.

  • Tentoni, Lorrayne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Intimate Partner Violence on Immigrant Women in Sweden and Portugal: (An analysis of the application of the article 59, I of the Istanbul Convention in both Countries)2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Fernelius, Felicia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    DOMESTIC VIOLENCE THE SWEDISH MODEL- A CRITICAL ANALYSIS: - In order to change something, one must admit that a change is needed in the first place.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Palm, Mathilda Palm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    FÖRÄNDRING AV GRISARS KULLSTORLEK OCH FÖDELSEVIKT ÖVER TID: Med fokus på raskorsning Yorkshire x Hampshire2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Breeding for a larger litter size has affected the vitality of piglets negatively. The larger litter sizes lead to lower individual birthweight. Smaller pigs have bigger difficulties to keep up their body temperature right after birth because of their lower muscle mass. Other factors that affect the vitality of the piglets are season, how the pigs are cared for and how they are housed. The purpose of the study is to analyze changes in litter size and birthweight over the time period 2013 to 2017. The study also analyses how litter size and birthweight is affected by season. The study performs statistical analyses on data recorded at the pig facilities at Lövsta agriculture research facility, SLU in Uppsala, Sweden, between the years 2013 to 2017. This study includes piglets of the crossbreed Yorkshire x Hampshire. The questions of issue in this study concerns the change in litter size and birthweight over time years 2013 to 2017, the regression between litter size and birthweight and the effect of season on birthweight and litter size. The study showed that the birthweight decreased over the years. Regression showed that the increase of litter size lowers the birthweight. The effect of season was significant indicating lower birthweights in the second compared to the fourth quarter of the year. The effect of season can potentially be explained by weather conditions.

    Keywords: litter size, birth weight, newborn pigs/piglets, sow, animal welfare.

  • Boles, Usama
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Cardiology Department, Letterkenny University Hospital, Co Donegal, Ireland; Heart and Vascular centre, Cardiology Department, Mater Private Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Santhosh, David
    Ahmed, Khalid
    Henein, Michael Y.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Molecular & Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St George University London, UK.
    Coronary artery ectasia carries worse prognosis: a long-term follow-up study2019In: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0032-3772, E-ISSN 1897-9483Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Zheng, Weili
    et al.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Mortezaei, Narges
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Bullitt, Esther
    Egelman, Edward
    Cryo-EM structure of the CFA/I pilus rod2019In: IUCrJ, ISSN 0972-6918, E-ISSN 2052-2525, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 815-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are common agents of diarrhea for travelers and a major cause of mortality in children in developing countries. To attach to intestinal cells ETEC express colonization factors, among them CFA/I, which are the most prevalent factors and are the archetypical representative of class 5 pili. The helical quaternary structure of CFA/I can be unwound under tensile force and it has been shown that this mechanical property helps bacteria to withstand shear forces from fluid motion. We report in this work the CFA/I pilus structure at 4.3 Å resolution from electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) data, and report details of the donor strand complementation. The CfaB pilins modeled into the cryo-EM map allow us to identify the buried surface area between subunits, and these regions are correlated to quaternary structural stability in class 5 and chaperone–usher pili. In addition, from the model built using the EM structure we also predicted that residue 13 (proline) of the N-terminal β-strand could have a major impact on the filament's structural stability. Therefore, we used optical tweezers to measure and compare the stability of the quaternary structure of wild type CFA/I and a point-mutated CFA/I with a propensity for unwinding. We found that pili with this mutated CFA/I require a lower force to unwind, supporting our hypothesis that Pro13 is important for structural stability. The high-resolution CFA/I pilus structure presented in this work and the analysis of structural stability will be useful for the development of novel antimicrobial drugs that target adhesion pili needed for initial attachment and sustained adhesion of ETEC.