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  • Henning-Mäki, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Lundgren, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Att som jurist undervisa studenter på polisutbildningen: erfarenheter, utmaningar, svårigheter och glädjeämnen2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, 207-220 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Landström, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Brottsutredning och effektivitet: en analys av effektivitetsbegreppets användning vid lagstiftning2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, 193-206 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Johnsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Hets mot folkgrupp: en reflektion om uppsåt och social adekvans2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, 183-192 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Ingmanson, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Härledd uppehållsrätt för tredjelandsmedborgare2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, 169-182 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Blum, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Wiberg, Karin
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Persistence, mobility and bioavailability of emerging organic contaminants discharged from sewage treatment plants2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 612, 1532-1542 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the impact of emissions of micropollutants from small and large-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs) on drinking water source areas. We investigated a populated catchment that drains into Lake Malaren, which is the drinking water source for around 2 million people including the inhabitants of Stockholm, Sweden. To assess the persistence, mobility, bioavailability and bioaccumulation of 32 structurally diverse emerging organic contaminants, sediment, integrated passive and grab water samples were collected along the catchment of the River Fyris, Sweden. The samples were complemented with STP effluent and fish samples from one sampling event. Contaminants identified as persistent, mobile, and bioavailable were 4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydrocyclopenta[g] isochromene (galaxolide), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate. Galaxolide and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol were additionally found to be bioaccumulative, whereas n-butylbenzenesulfonamide was found to be only persistent and mobile. The total median mass flux of the persistent and mobile target analytes from Lake Ekoln into the drinking water source area of Lake Malaren was estimated to be 27 kg per year. Additionally, 10 contaminants were tentatively identified by non-target screening using NIST library searches and manual review. Two of those were confirmed by reference standards and further two contaminants, propylene glycol and rose acetate, were discharged from STPs and travelled far from the source. Attenuation of mass fluxes was highest in the summer and autumn seasons, suggesting the importance of biological degradation and photodegradation for the persistence of the studied compounds.

  • Hadrévi, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Søgaard, Karen
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense, Denmark & Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Kløvervænget 3, Indgang, 5000 Odense, Denmark.
    Reffstrup Christensen, Jeanette
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense, Denmark & Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, JB Winsløwsvej 9A, 5000 Odense, Denmark.
    Dietary Fiber Intake among Normal-Weight and Overweight Female Health Care Workers: An Exploratory Nested Case-Control Study within FINALE-Health2017In: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 2090-0724, E-ISSN 2090-0732, 1096015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socioeconomic factors affect choice of diet, that is, dietary fiber intake. Underreporting of food consumption in diet surveys has been reported higher in low-income, low-education groups compared to high-income, high-education groups. This paper examines in a socioeconomic homogenous low-income low-education group of females the relation between dietary fiber intake and overweight and scrutinizes if the level of underreporting is equally large in normal-weight and overweight groups. Thirty-four female health care workers classified as either normal-weight () or obese () based on BMI, fat percentage, and waist circumference participated. A detailed food-diary was used to record their dietary intake in 9 days. Average dietary fiber intake in the normal-weight group was 2.73 +/− 0.65 g/MJ, while it was 2.15 +/− 0.64 g/MJ for the women in the obese group. In both groups, the overall food intake was underreported. In spite of a significantly lower dietary fiber intake in the obese group, the present population of women working within health care all showed an overall low dietary fiber intake and a general underreporting of food intake. These results indicate a clear need for dietary advice especially on fiber intake to increase general health and decrease weight.

  • Hultgren, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Leidö, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Reasoning outside the box: analogies and general principles within the Swedish law of obligations2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, 143-167 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Den flerspråkiga elevens nationella provdeltagande i matematik: diskursiva förutsättningar2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 2, 95-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilingual students’ participation in national tests in mathematics – discursive prerequisites. This article explores discursive prerequisites in test-taking for second language learners with other mother tongues than Swedish. Four students were interviewed in 2016 during their final year of compulsory school. The results imply that multilingual students are positioned as disadvantaged within testing. This phenomenon is mainly situated in a competitive discourse with several subordinated discourses that further position the students: A discourse of justice positioned the students as being sorted or left behind, a discourse of handling the assessment positioned the students as caretakers and a discourse of future challenges positioned the students as struggling while learning, being capable to learn or facing positive challenges. The results imply that national testing is a personal and relational experience and gives rise to issues of legitimacy and equality. These issues should be considered in policy-making, the construction and the carrying out of tests as well as in the conclusions which are based on the results on individual, group and organisational levels.

  • Reimer, Jana
    et al.
    Knoess, Sabine
    Labuhn, Maurice
    Charpentier, Emmanuelle M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany.
    Goehring, Gudrun
    Schlegelberger, Brigitte
    Klusmann, Jan-Henning
    Heckl, Dirk
    CRISPR-Cas9-induced t(11;19)/MLL-ENL translocations initiate leukemia in human hematopoietic progenitor cells in vivo2017In: Haematologica, ISSN 0390-6078, E-ISSN 1592-8721, Vol. 102, no 9, 1558-1566 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromosomal translocations that generate oncogenic fusion proteins are causative for most pediatric leukemias and frequently affect the MLL/ KMT2A gene. In vivo modeling of bona fide chromosomal translocations in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is challenging but essential to determine their actual leukemogenic potential. We therefore developed an advanced lentiviral CRISPR-Cas9 vector that efficiently transduced human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and induced the t(11; 19)/MLL-ENL translocation. Leveraging this system, we could demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells harboring the translocation showed only a transient clonal growth advantage in vitro. In contrast, t(11; 19)/MLL-ENL-harboring CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells not only showed longterm engraftment in primary immunodeficient recipients, but t(11; 19)/ MLL-ENL also served as a first hit to initiate a monocytic leukemia-like disease. Interestingly, secondary recipients developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia with incomplete penetrance. These findings indicate that environmental cues not only contribute to the disease phenotype, but also to t(11; 19)/ MLL-ENL-mediated oncogenic transformation itself. Thus, by investigating the true chromosomal t(11; 19) rearrangement in its natural genomic context, our study emphasizes the importance of environmental cues for the pathogenesis of pediatric leukemias, opening an avenue for novel treatment options.

  • Ren, Mengying
    et al.
    Fang, Xin
    Li, Mei
    Sun, Sun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Health Outcomes and Economic Evaluation Research Group, Department of Learning, Information, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pei, Lu
    Xu, Qun
    Ye, Xiaofei
    Cao, Yang
    Concentration-response relationship between PM2.5 and daily respiratory deaths in China: a systematic review and metaregression analysis of time-series studies2017In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, 5806185Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between the particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter <= m (PM2.5) and daily respiratory deaths, particularly the concentration-response pattern, has not been fully examined and established in China. We conducted a systematic review of time-series studies to compile information on the associations between PM2.5 concentration and respiratory deaths and used metaregression to assess the concentration-response relationship. Out of 1,957 studies screened, eleven articles in English and two articles in Chinese met the eligibility criteria. For single-day lags, per 10 mu g/m(3) increase in PM2.5 concentration was associated with 0.30 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10, 0.50] percent increase in daily respiratory deaths; for multiday lags, the corresponding increase in respiratory deaths was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.83) percent. Difference in the effects was observed between the northern cities and the south cities in China. No statistically significant concentration-response relationship between PM2.5 concentrations and their effects was found. With increasingly wider location coverage for PM2.5 data, it is crucial to further investigate the concentration-response pattern of PM2.5 effects on respiratory and other cause-specific mortality for the refinement and adaptation of global and national air quality guidelines and targets.

  • Kovach, Kristin
    et al.
    Davis-Fields, Megan
    Irie, Yasuhiko
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Biology and Biochemistry, The University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, UK.
    Jain, Kanishk
    Doorwar, Shashvat
    Vuong, Katherine
    Dhamani, Numa
    Mohanty, Kishore
    Touhami, Ahmed
    Gordon, Vernita D.
    Evolutionary adaptations of biofilms infecting cystic fibrosis lungs promote mechanical toughness by adjusting polysaccharide production2017In: NPJ BIOFILMS AND MICROBIOMES, ISSN 2055-5008, Vol. 3, UNSP 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, largely polysaccharides. Multiple types of extracellular polymeric substances can be produced by a single bacterial strain. The distinct polymer components of biofilms are known to provide chemical protection, but little is known about how distinct extracellular polysaccharides may also protect biofilms against mechanical stresses such as shear or phagocytic engulfment. Decades-long infections of Pseudomonas. aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients are natural models for studies of biofilm fitness under pressure from antibiotics and the immune system. In cystic fibrosis infections, production of the extracellular polysaccharide alginate has long been known to increase with time and to chemically protect biofilms. More recently, it is being recognized that chronic cystic fibrosis infections also evolve to increase production of another extracellular polysaccharide, Psl; much less is known about Psl's protective benefits to biofilms. We use oscillatory bulk rheology, on biofilms grown from longitudinal clinical isolates and from genetically-manipulated lab strains, to show that increased Psl stiffens biofilms and increases biofilm toughness, which is the energy cost to cause the biofilm to yield mechanically. Further, atomic force microscopy measurements reveal greater intercellular cohesion for higher Psl expression. Of the three types of extracellular polysaccharides produced by P. aeruginosa, only Psl increases the stiffness. Stiffening by Psl requires CdrA, a protein that binds to mannose groups on Psl and is a likely cross-linker for the Psl components of the biofilm matrix. We compare the elastic moduli of biofilms to the estimated stresses exerted by neutrophils during phagocytosis, and infer that increased Psl could confer a mechanical protection against phagocytic clearance.

  • Holm, Fanny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Lärdomar av disputationer2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, 133-142 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Jaafar, Gona
    et al.
    Hammarqvist, Folke
    Enochsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Sandblom, Gabriel
    Patient-Related Risk Factors for Postoperative Infection After Cholecystectomy2017In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 41, no 9, 2240-2244 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The impact of patient-related risk factors on the incidence of postoperative infection after cholecystectomy is relatively unknown.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore potential patient-related risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) and septicaemia following cholecystectomy.

    Materials and methods: All cholecystectomies registered in the Swedish national population-based register for Gallstone Surgery and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (GallRiks) 2006–2014 were identified. The study cohort was cross-matched with the Swedish National Patient Register in order to obtain data on patient history and postoperative infections. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed in order to assess the impact of various comorbidities on the risk for SSI and septicaemia.

    Results: A total of 94,557 procedures were registered. A SSI was seen following 5300 procedures (5.6%), and septicaemia following 661 procedures (0.7%). There was a significantly increased risk for SSI in patients with connective tissue disease (odds ratio [OR] 1.404, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.208–1.633), complicated diabetes (OR 1.435, CI 1.205–1.708), uncomplicated diabetes (OR 1.391, CI 1.264–1.530), chronic kidney disease (OR 1.788, CI 1.458–2.192), cirrhosis (OR 1.764, CI 1.268–2.454) and obesity (OR 1.630, CI 1.475–1.802). There was a significantly higher risk for septicaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (OR 3.065, CI 2.120–4.430) or cirrhosis (OR 5.016, CI 3.019–8.336).

    Conclusion and discussion: Certain comorbidities have an impact on the risk for postoperative infection after cholecystectomy, especially SSI. This should be taken into account when planning the procedure and when deciding on prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  • Hamza, Maissa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Exploring barriers and pathways to data protection by design within IT companies: An integrated approach based on experts’ perspectives2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will soon come into force, it is a regulation which spells out increased compliance demands for data protection by design. Failure to comply can lead to huge financial penalties, something IT companies controlling and processing personal data should not ignore. As the one-year countdown begins, studies have revealed under-preparedness of organizations affected by the GDPR. None of the studies so far has offered an integrated overview of the barriers faced by IT companies to embrace data protection by design. This study aims to help fill this gap and to investigate. A study based on expert’s knowledge has been carried out, using an integrated approach. Five experts from advocacy, legal and IT industry were interviewed, aiming to answer the following research question: “What are the barriers for IT companies to embrace data protection by design and how should these barriers be overcome?” An integrated overview of the barriers will then be presented, which includes the managerial, engineering and legal obstacles. The study goes on to present pathways to embrace data protection by design. A key contribution to this study is that managerial, legal and engineering barriers have shown to be directly interconnected and influence on each other. As such a much broader view must be undertaken to fully understand the different barriers that face IT companies in embracing data protection by design.

  • Jaghoory, Mahnaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Challenges of collaborative activities within emergency health care.: A study of the limitations of IT in supporting current medical practices within emergency health care in Vaasa and Umeå.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency Health Care (EHC) is an extended and multi-professional protocol designed to make communication easier in the event of a health-care emergency. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) play a vital role within EHC by coordinating emergency responses across involved departments as well as to health-care providers in the pre-hospital and hospital settings. Despite advances in ICT, there are still a variety of challenges regarding ICT usage in emergencies. To identify these challenges, a semi-structured interview was conducted with pre-hospital and hospital staff at the Emergency Departments of Vaasa Central Hospital, Finland, and Umeå University Hospital, Sweden. The findings indicate that workflow practices and the applying of medical knowledge in a pre-hospital setting is more challenging in Vaasa due to limited accessibility to the patient electronic record system. In the hospital setting, the clinical workflow and application of medical knowledge is easier in Umeå than in Vaasa as a result of there being an integrated information system in the Umeå region compared to a disintegrated system in the Vaasa region. It was discovered that the lack of a national record system in Sweden is a challenge for practitioners in the hospital setting in Umeå. In addition, badly structured information in the Finnish national record system has made collaborative activities between departments and hospitals difficult within EHC. The results reveal that the capacity of IT tools to provide on-time accessibility to patient information is fundamental for safe decision making and collaborative activities across departments and hospitals within EHC.

  • Fjällström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Prediktion av vårdrelaterade sjukdomar i Västerbotten2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårdrelaterade infektioner, VRI, är ett av de största hoten mot patientsäkerheten i hälso- och sjukvården. Inte bara i Sverige utan också i resten av världen. I den här uppsatsen så har vi analyserat data från punktprevalensmätningar för VRI, PPMVRI, som utförts i Västerbotten mellan åren 2008-2015. Utifrån det givna datat har vi skapat modeller med både logistisk regression, LR, och linjär diskriminant analys, LDA. Vi jämför sedan de två metodernas förmåga att prediktera VRI med avseende på specificitet, enskilda modeller konstruerades både för hela Västerbotten men också för enskilda sjukhus och avdelningar. Vidare så undersöker vi om information kring patienters komorbiditet, alltså förekomsten av andra sjukdomar förutom den primära, kan öka metodernas prestanda. Av våra två metoder var det LR som presterade bäst med en specificitet på 32.79 % och LDA hade en specificitet på 31.20 %. För båda metoderna så visade det sig att modellen för Västerbotten presterade bättre än modellerna för enskilda avdelningar och sjukhus. Vi kom också fram till att information om patienters komorbiditet kan hjälpa till att öka specificiteten, men vi hade för få observationer (90 st med VRI och 90 st utan VRI) för att kunna ge ett definitivt svar. En överlevnadsanalys utfördes för att bekräfta tidigare resultat om att VRI-patienter har en signifikant högre 90-dagars dödlighet, vårt resultat stämde väl överens med tidigare studier. Sammanfattningsvis visade vi på att statistiska metoder kan användas för att prediktera och analysera vilka patienter som ligger i riskzonen för att drabbas av VRI, samt att det skulle behövas ytterligare studier för att undersöka huruvida information om patienters komorbiditet skulle kunna hjälpa oss att ytterligare förbättra den prediktiva förmågan hos dessa metoder.

  • Auland, Clara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Konstsnö och dess effekter på vegetationen: Skillnader mellan konstsnö och natursnö2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increased temperatures, changed snow conditions, increasing demand for skiing and other winter sports lead to increased demand and production of artificial snow. Besides the positive aspects of artificial snow, it is important to understand potentially negative effects of artificial snow on the environment and vegetation. This study investigated the differences between artificial snow and natural snow in two adjacent ski slopes. This was done by measuring and comparing the snow depth, duration of the snow cover, snow density, and ground vegetation between the slopes. Snow depth and density showed differences between artificial snow and natural snow. The artificial snow cover stayed about 11 days longer than the natural snow. A few variations in the vegetation were also found; earlier flowering and more species and colors in the natural snow slope compared to in the slope using artificial snow. Therefore, it is clear that there is a difference between artificial snow and natural snow, and that this results in effects on the environment, but it is difficult to assess to what extent and how large the negative impact is. For more general conclusions, I think it is important to study the vegetation under artificial snow during a longer period and in several areas.