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  • Sjödin Wågberg, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Prices on electricity and the prices on stocks: -A Vector autoregressive approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study will investigate if a relationship exists between the price of electricity and the Swedish stock market. This study will also try to investigate what consequences an increase in the price of electricity will have on the return of the Swedish stock market. Economic theory and earlier literature will then be used to try to explain the results obtained in this study.

    The results from the tests performed in this study imply that a one-way Granger-causality exists between the prices on electricity and the price on the OMX 30. The impulse response functions performed shows that a positive shock in the price on electricity will predict an increase in the return of the OMX 30 in the short run. This effect may come from the existence of a countercyclical risk premium. Although further research needs to be performed to conclude that this is the true reason for the observed result.

  • Neely, Gregory
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. School of Psychology, Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    The impact of spoken action words on performance in a cross-modal oddball task2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a cross-modal oddball task was employed to study the effect that words spoken either non-urgently or urgently would have on a digit categorization task and if women would exhibit greater behavioral inhibitory control. The words were unrelated to the task itself, but related to the action required to complete the task. Forty participants (21 women) conducted a computerized categorization task while exposed to a sinewave tone as a standard stimulus (75% of the trials) or a to-be ignored word (press, stop) spoken either non-urgently or urgently as unexpected auditory deviant stimulus (6.25% trials for each category). Urgent words had sharp intonation and an average fundamental frequency (F0) ranging from 191.9 (stop) to 204.6 (press) Hz. Non-urgent words had low intonation with average F0 ranging from 103.9.9 (stop) to 120.3 (press) Hz. As expected, deviant distraction and longer response times were found by exposure to the word stop, but deviant distraction was not found to be significant with the word press or due to intonation. While the results showed that women had in general longer reaction times, there were no gender differences found related to the deviant distraction caused by word or intonation. The present results do not support the hypothesis that women have greater behavioral inhibitory control, but there was evidence that the meaning of the word could influence response times.

  • Hajdarevic, Senada
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Rasmussen, Birgit H
    Overgaard Hasle, Trine L
    Ziebland, Sue
    Qualitative cross-country comparison of whether, when and how people diagnosed with lung cancer talk about cigarette smoking in narrative interviews2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 11, article id e023934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To compare and examine whether, when and how patients with lung cancer in three countries, with different survival rates, talk about cigarette smoking and its relationship with help-seeking.

    DESIGN: A qualitative cross-country comparison with analysis of narrative interviews.

    SETTING: Participants in Sweden, Denmark and England were interviewed during 2015-2016. Interviews, using a narrative approach, were conducted in participants' home by trained and experienced qualitative researchers.

    PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-two men and women diagnosed with lung cancer were interviewed within 6 months of their diagnosis.

    RESULTS: The English participants, regardless of their own smoking status, typically raised the topic of smoking early in their interviews. Smoking was mentioned in relation to symptom appraisal and interactions with others, including health professionals. Participants in all three countries interpreted their symptoms in relation to their smoking status, but in Sweden (unlike England) there was no suggestion that this deterred them from seeking care. English participants, but not Swedish or Danish, recounted reluctance to consult healthcare professionals with their symptoms while they were still smoking, some gave up shortly before consulting. Some English patients described defensive strategies to challenge stigma or pre-empt other people's assumptions about their culpability for the disease. A quarter of the Danish and 40% of the Swedish participants did not raise the topic of smoking at any point in their interview.

    CONCLUSION: The causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is well known in all three countries, yet this comparative analysis suggests that the links between a sense of responsibility, stigma and reluctance to consult are not inevitable. These findings help illuminate why English patients with lung cancer tend to be diagnosed at a later stage than their Swedish counterparts.

  • Sjöberg, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Integrering av konceptet cirkulär ekonomi i ett globalt konsultföretag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current linear “take, make and dispose” economic model is not sustainable, therefore we need to move towards a circular economy. The society faces a major challenge and as experts and advisors to the society, the consultancy companies play a key role in the transition. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a consultancy company work with the circular economy concept today and how the concept further can be integrated into the company to meet future challenges. Qualitative interviews with eleven representatives from the consultancy company Ramboll were made. All the interviews were recorded and the collected data was analyzed in a qualitative analysis. The results showed a high awareness of the circular economy concept and that Ramboll can offer customers help in their progress towards a circular economy. The demand of circular services is currently low but it will probably increase in the future, both with respect to existing services but also new types of assignments.To meet the future demand the company needs to ensure knowledge within the company, raise awareness and concretize the concept throughout the company. The Nordic countries have an opportunity to be the forerunner in the transition to a circular economy but to do so, one must focus on the issue. If Sweden seriously starts to strive for a circular economy, much help and support will be needed and the consulting companies can be very helpful if they are prepared and have the competence.

  • Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Claesson, Kenji
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Edström, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Holmner, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Home-based system for recording pulmonary function and disease-related symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD: a pilot study2016In: SM Journal of Pulmonary Medicine, ISSN 2574-240X, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Many patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) suffer from acute exacerbations characterized by an increase in symptoms beyond normal day-to-day variation. The prognosis of patients with frequent exacerbations is poor and effort to curb these worsening episodes has great potential to improve the patient’s quality of life and to reduce associated costs. Telemonitoring has been proposed as a promising strategy in this respect. However, information on what physical signs or symptoms that should be recorded and how recorded data should be interpreted is largely missing in the literature.

    Methods: A new home-based system, based on a tablet computer, which can guide COPD patients to perform spirometry (inspiratory capacity, IC and forced expiratory volume in one and six seconds, FEV1 and FEV6) and record symptoms (COPD assessment test, CAT) was developed. The system was evaluated for 8-12 weeks in four patients with moderate to severe COPD with the aims to; i) assess the feasibility of the system to be used unsupervised by COPD patients and, ii) to evaluate the quality and ability of recorded parameters to reveal early signs of an exacerbation. Pearson bivariate correlation was performed between all outcome measures and descriptive information about inherent subject properties were presented.

    Results: The system was well accepted by all study subjects and the study generated a total of 253 measurements of which 94.5% were considered acceptable for analysis. One of the subjects developed an acute exacerbation towards the end of the study, whereas the other three subjects remained stable. Descriptive analysis of the data suggest that trends in the CAT score may indicate changes in health status and that IC tends to be more responsive to these changes compared to FEV1.

    Conclusion: The system developed in this study is well suited to be used unsupervised by COPD patients. Recorded data, in particular CAT, may be sensitive enough to detect early signs of an acute COPD exacerbation, although more data is needed to fully resolve the nature of such an association.

  • Lundin, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Stommen och grundens klimatpåverkan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has become a more and more pressing issue in our time, the earth is heating up and the recourses are decreasing. There is now pressure on a lot of establishments to reduce their emissions and waste of recourses. The construction industry lets out a lot of environmentally harmful emissions, something they know, and new regulations and legislations that will force them to improve are about to be introduced. The construction process has in the past not been subject to much scrutiny when it comes to climate impact, but the process is now beginning to be more closely examined. Today the process of constructing a building stands for a big part of the building’s total climate impact and the materials is in its turn a big source of the construction processes emissions.

    Miljöbyggnad which is the most used environmental assessment system for buildings in Sweden has during the last year come out with a new version; Miljöbyggnad 3.0. In this version a new indicator has been added where the climate impact of the buildings framework and foundation is to be presented. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the environmental impact created by a buildings framework and foundation using the new indicator from Miljöbyggnad. Information for the study has also been collected in form of a literature study.

     Calculations has been performed on an example house, a one-storied house at 123 m2 with a wooden framework and a slab-on-grade foundation. To be able to carry out the calculations the amounts for the relevant materials had to be extracted and then converted so that every material could be accounted for in kilograms. For some of the materials this required the use of density, which led to approximations of the density for two of the materials: the insulation and the concrete. Three calculations where then carried out with three different approximations for density, thereafter a fourth calculation was made with the use of data from product specific  EPD: s. 

    The results show that the concrete stands for the largest percentage of the calculations climate impact and that the concrete therefor is the most important material to be able to produce data for. It can also be showed that the density for the concrete have a large impact on the result since the concrete has the largest volume and mass. Of the approximated values that where used the average values came closest to the product specific values.

    The study shows that it is well worth to illuminate the climate impact that framework and foundation materials creates. If this impact could be reduced it would be a big step forward. There are currently several projects that works towards reducing the carbon emissions from these materials and a new climate declaration law concerning buildings is on its way.

    The study fails to show that any material is superior compared to the others, the conclusion is rather that there is much to gain from forcing presentation of data for material since this can impel manufacturers to improve their products climate impact.

  • Potka-Soininen, Tuulia
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, School of Business and Economics.
    Pellinen, Jukka
    University of Jyväskylä, School of Business and Economics.
    Kettunen, Jaana
    University of Jyväskylä, School of Business and Economics.
    Enhanced Customer Cooperation: Experiences with cooperative compliance in Finland2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines the experiences with a collaborative compliance project – Enhanced Customer Cooperation (ECC) – introduced by the Finnish Tax Administration. The ECC was introduced by the Large Taxpayers’ Unit of the Finnish Tax Administration at the beginning of 2013, and it ran as a pilot until the end of 2015. Since the start of 2016, the ECC has been a part of the permanent operations of the Large Taxpayers’ Unit. Based on the interviews with tax officers, corporations participating in the ECC and tax lawyers and tax consultants, the ECC is bringing about a cultural change in the administrative practices and ways of communicating between tax authorities and taxpayers. In general, the ECC’s objective of increasing cooperation between tax administration and taxpayers has been welcomed. There were, however, some concerns about the impartiality towards taxpayers, efficiency in the use of human resources and the possible retrospective involvement of the Tax Recipients’ Legal Services Unit. In addition, because predictability was described as one of the key aspects of taxation for companies, many questions have been raised regarding whether the ECC can deliver more predictability in taxation practices.

  • Björklund, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Drewes, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Ericson, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Starke, Florian
    Faculty of Computer Science, TU Dresden.
    Uniform Parsing for Hyperedge Replacement Grammars2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that hyperedge-replacement grammars can generate NP-complete graph languages even under seemingly harsh restrictions. This means that the parsing problem is difficult even in the non-uniform setting, in which the grammar is considered to be fixed rather than being part of the input. Little is known about restrictions under which truly uniform polynomial parsing is possible. In this paper we propose a low-degree polynomial-time algorithm that solves the uniform parsing problem for a restricted type of hyperedge-replacement grammars which we expect to be of interest for practical applications.

  • Liljeqvist, Nina
    et al.
    Blomgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Riksdagspartierna och EU: en svag demokratisk länk2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna analys granskas de svenska riksdagspartiernas förmåga att skapa en folklig förankring för den förda EU-politiken. För detta syfte kartläggs först EG-/EU-rättens betydelse i svensk lagstiftning. Utvecklingen över tid såväl som över politikområden jämförs. Förekomsten av EG-/EU-regler i svensk lagstiftning ökar tydligt från och med början på 1990-talet, och skillnaderna mellan olika politikområden är dessutom stora och växande. Vissa områden, såsom jordbruk, miljö och handelsfrågor, har blivit starkt påverkade av EG-/EU-rätten, medan exempelvis kultur och skola inte har det. Detta bör påverka hur partierna arbetar med olika områden i och utanför riksdagen. Därefter undersöks i vad mån riksdagspartierna i sina nationella valmanifest lyfter fram frågor som relaterar till EU. EU-dimensionen börjar nämnas i allt högre utsträckning i samband med folkomröstningen om svenskt EU-medlemskap 1994, men därefter tillägnas EU allt mindre utrymme. Avslutningsvis studeras EU:s påverkan på den interna partipolitiska arenan. Även på denna punkt förblir partier tämligen passiva inför den politiska verklighet som EU-medlemskapet bjuder. Den sammantagna analysen pekar således på att partierna i flera avseenden brister i sin grundläggande funktion att utgöra en länk mellan medborgaren och de politiska beslutsfattarna. Slutligen framhålls några åtgärder som skulle kunna förbättra denna situation

  • Kawde, Anurag
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble, France.
    Annamalai, Alagappan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Amidani, Lucia
    European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble, France.
    Boniolo, Manuel
    Molecular Biomimetics, Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kwong, Wai Ling
    Molecular Biomimetics, Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Glatzel, Pieter
    European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble, France.
    Wågberg, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Messinger, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Molecular Biomimetics, Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Photo-electrochemical hydrogen production from neutral phosphate buffer and seawater using micro-structured p-Si photo-electrodes functionalized by solution-based methods2018In: Sustainable Energy and Fuels, ISSN 2398-4902, Vol. 2, no 10, p. 2215-2223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar fuels such as H2 generated from sunlight and seawater using earth-abundant materials are expected to be a crucial component of a next generation renewable energy mix. We herein report a systematic analysis of the photo-electrochemical performance of TiO2 coated, microstructured p-Si photoelectrodes (p-Si/TiO2) that were functionalized with CoOx and NiOx for H2 generation. These photocathodes were synthesized from commercial p-Si wafers employing wet chemical methods. In neutral phosphate buffer and standard 1 sun illumination, the p-Si/TiO2/NiOx photoelectrode showed a photocurrent density of 1.48 mA cm2 at zero bias (0 VRHE), which was three times and 15 times better than the photocurrent densities of p-Si/TiO2/CoOx and p-Si/TiO2, respectively. No decline in activity was observed over a five hour test period, yielding a Faradaic efficiency of 96% for H2 production. Based on the electrochemical characterizations and the high energy resolution fluorescence detected X-ray absorption near edge structure (HERFD-XANES) and emission spectroscopy measurements performed at the Ti Ka1 fluorescence line, the superior performance of the p-Si/TiO2/ NiOx photoelectrode was attributed to improved charge transfer properties induced by the NiOx coating on the protective TiO2 layer, in combination with a higher catalytic activity of NiOx for H2-evolution. Moreover, we report here an excellent photo-electrochemical performance of p-Si/TiO2/NiOx photoelectrode in corrosive artificial seawater (pH 8.4) with an unprecedented photocurrent density of 10 mA cm2 at an applied potential of 0.7 VRHE, and of 20 mA cm2 at 0.9 VRHE. The applied bias photon-to-current conversion efficiency (ABPE) at 0.7 VRHE and 10 mA cm2 was found to be 5.1%

  • Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Depressive symptoms and time perspective in older adults:: associations beyond personality and negative life events2018In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the extent to which time perspective, an individual’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future time frames, accounts for variations in self-reported depressive symptoms among older adults.

    Method: Four hundred two participants (60–90 years) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and the Swedish Zimbardo Time perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI). The influence of personality as reflected by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and self-reported negative life events (NLEs) were controlled for in hierarchic regression analyses.

    Results: The six S-ZTPI dimensions accounted for 24.5% of the variance in CES-D scores beyond age and gender. Half of the variance remained when the TCI factors and NLEs were controlled for. Past Negative, Future Negative, and Past Positive (inverse association) were the significant unique predictors. Significant age interactions were observed for two S-ZTPI dimensions, with a diminished association to depressive symptoms for Future Negative and a magnified association for Present Fatalistic with higher age.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrate a substantial relation between facets of time perspective and depressive symptoms in old age. They also indicate an age-related shift in the relative importance from concerns about of the future (Future Negative) to the present (Present Fatalistic) with increased age. In young old-age, when the future is more ‘open’, future worries (Future Negative) may be a more frequent source of distress. In late senescence, perceived threats to autonomy (e.g. physical health problems and cognitive deficits), as reflected by higher scores on Present Fatalistic, may instead have more bearing on mood state.

  • Grayson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Projekt LRC Long Range CAN2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Project Long Range CAN is a thesis project for the company Electrum Automation AB. Electrum Automation AB is a company which developes electronics mostly for machine equipment and vehicles. Most of their products involve CAN-bus. They have products for wireless radiotransfer of CAN-messages. They however lack a product which can handle ranges over 1 km. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype for long range CAN-message transfer. How suitable CAN-bus is longer distances will then be evaluated. The project have developed a product which can communicate over a distance of more than 1 km. The quality of one-way data traffic is over 99 %, at a data rate faster than 0.5 of the maximum theoretical data rate (about 10 messages per second). Two-way traffic delivers 93 % of the CAN-messages at a speed of 2 x 1 messages per second. European regulations on ”air time”, limits the use of the radio channel to less than 2 CAN-messages per second. The conclusion to be drawn is that long distance CAN-bus can be suitable, if the application doesn’t require more than one CAN-message per second.

  • Svensson, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    METODER FÖR SANERING AV METALLFÖRORENAT LÄNSVATTEN: Försök med Fentonsreagens på metallförorenat porvatten från myr vid Slagnäs bangård2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate different types of metal decontamination from waste water. Specifically, to evaluate water from the mire located at Slagnäs railway depot. Through a literature review from Swedish authorities and entrepreneurs regarding water remediation methods have been compiled and compared. Methods for waste water remediation are chemical methods, sedimentation and filtration. Standardized methods for decontamination are constantly updated with new materials and improved methods. Neither one of these methods are relevant on their own. The idea behind the experiment was to use Fenton reaction on the mire water which would contribute to precipitation of metals. Within the study an experiment with hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide was performed. The idea behind the experiment was to use Fenton reaction on the mire water which would contribute to precipitation of metals. No conclusions can be drawn about hydrogen peroxide also known as Fentons reaction due to lack of analysis results. Trials with sodium hydroxide shown that the best results occur when pH is moderately adjusted at pH 6 and 7. Due to incomplete analytical results no conclusion about Fenton reaction as a waste water treatment method can be drawn based on this experiment. The lack of results is probably due to the continuous reaction between Fentons and organic matter.

  • Due, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Tellgren, Britt
    örebro universitet.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    Örebro univ, NT-akademin.
    Inte som i skolan - pedagoger positionerar naturvetenskap i förskolan: Preschool teachers talk about science – Positioning themselves and positioning science2018In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 411-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses how preschool teachers, who include a scientific content in their practice, describe their practice and their view of science in preschool. The study is based on 20 interviews in 9 Swedish preschools. The theoretical and analytical framework combine "communities of practice"(Lave & Wenger) and "positioning theory" (Harré & Langehove). The stories reveal a strong position for the pre-school curriculum and traditions. A prominent storyline is that Science in preschool is something different from science in school. This includes an anti-authoritarian view with a focus on "the competent child". The preschool teachers affirm fantasy, creativity and intuition as a part of science and they position science as easy to access. They also position themselves as pedagogues competent to manage science in preschool. One of the dilemmas is about letting children’s interests and initiatives drive the activities while educators curriculum- based goals have certain intentions to fulfill.

  • Albán Reyes, Diana Carolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Stridh, Kjell
    AkzoNobel, Stenungsund, Sverige.
    de Wit, Paul P.
    AkzoNobel, Arnhem, The Netherlands.
    Sundman, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Is there a diffusion of alkali in the activation of dissolving cellulose pulp at low NAOH stoichiometric excess?2018In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a quantitative study, following the degree of activation (i.e. the transformation to alkali cellulose, denoted as DoA) over time for dissolving cellulose pulp treated with different [NaOH] at low NaOH/anhydroglucose unit stoichiometric ratio (denoted as (r) ≤ 2.6). Our quantitative approach was based on Raman spectroscopy data, evaluated by partial least squares regression modelling. The results show strong influence of the (r) on DoA (increasing from DoA= 45% at (r) = 0.8, to DoA = 85% at (r) = 2.6), and its complex dependence on [NaOH]. At (r) = 0.8 the highest DoA (DoA ≳ 60%) was found at 30% [NaOH], while at (r) =1.3 it was found at 20% [NaOH] (DoA ≳ 80%). Although activation of cellulose happens in minutes at the studied temperature (30 °C), it was found that the reaction may be slow when a low (r) is used. A gradual increase of the DoA from ≈ 30% to ≈ 70% in time was seen when samples were activated with 30% [NaOH] at (r) = 0.8. At the same (r), a similar increase of DoA from ≈ 30 % to ≈ 60 % was also observed when 40% [NaOH] was used. Slow diffusion of NaOH through poorly swollen cellulose fibres is proposed as an explanation for this phenomenon. Lastly, solid-state CP/MAS NMR measurements suggest that at a fixed temperature, the Na-Cell allomorph mostly depends on [NaOH]. However, in the transition area between Na-Cell I and Na-Cell II, its influence might be affected by (r). 

  • Sondell, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    The Applicability of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program among Older People with Dementia living in Nursing Homes2018In: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, ISSN 1539-8412, E-ISSN 2152-0895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose: Exercise programs for people with dementia need to be optimized. We therefore evaluated the applicability of a high-intensity functional exercise program among people with dementia in nursing homes with regard to attendance, achieved exercise intensity, adverse events, a focus on dementia type, and whether symptoms of dementia or other medical conditions common in this population were associated with program applicability.

    Methods: The Umeå Dementia and Exercise study, a cluster-randomized controlled trial set in 16 nursing homes in Umeå, Sweden. Ninety-three people with dementia (mean [SD] Mini-Mental State Examination score of 15.4 [3.4]) were randomized to the exercise intervention. Thirty-four participants had Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 59 non-Alzheimer's dementia (non-AD). High-Intensity Functional Exercise (HIFE) program was conducted in groups of 3 to 8 participants. Two physiotherapists led 5 sessions (45 minutes each) per fortnight for 4 months (total 40 sessions).

    Results: Median attendance rate was 82.5%. Lower limb strength exercises were performed at high or medium intensity at a median interquartile range of 94.7% (77.8%-100%) of attended sessions. Participants with non-AD performed more sessions with high intensity in strength exercises than participants with AD (median interquartile range, 53.8% [25.7%-80%] vs 34.9% [2.02%-62.9%]; P = .035). Balance exercises were performed at high intensity at a median interquartile range of 75% (33.3%-88.6%). Adverse events (all minor and temporary, mostly musculoskeletal) occurred during the exercise sessions in 16% of attended sessions. Low motivation was the most common barrier for attendance. Buildup period, low motivation, and pain were common barriers for achieving high intensity in balance and strength exercises, and fear was a barrier in balance exercises. Of medical conditions, only behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, including apathy, were negatively associated with applicability.

    Conclusion: A group-based, supervised, and individualized high-intensity functional exercise program seems to be applicable with regard to attendance, achieved intensity, and adverse events during the exercise sessions, in people with mild to moderate dementia in nursing homes. Effective strategies to enhance motivation to participate in exercise, as well as prevention and treatment of pain and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, are important when promoting exercise participation in this population.

  • Sondell, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Motivation to participate in high-intensity functional exercise compared with a social activity in older people with dementia in nursing homes2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0206899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Motivation to participate in exercise among people with dementia has not been well studied. The symptoms of dementia, including apathy, may lead to low motivation to participate in exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the motivation of older people with dementia to participate in a high-intensity exercise program compared with motivation of those participating in a social group activity.

    Methods: The Umeå Dementia and Exercise Study (UMDEX) was a cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial including 186 people (mean age; 85, 75% female) with dementia in nursing homes. Participants were randomized to participate in the High-Intensity Functional Exercise (HIFE) Program (n = 93) or a seated social group activity (n = 93). The activities were conducted in groups of 3–8 participants for 45 minutes, five times per two-week period, for 4 months (40 sessions in total). Participants’ motivation to go to and during activity sessions were assessed by the activity leaders and nursing homes staff using a five-point Likert scale. Data were analyzed using cumulative link mixed models.

    Results: Motivation was high or very high during 61.0% of attended sessions in the exercise group and 62.6% in the social activity group. No overall significant difference between groups was observed, but motivation increased over time in the exercise group and decreased in the social activity group (p < 0.05). Motivation during the sessions was significantly higher than motivation to go to the sessions, especially in the exercise group [OR 2.39 (95% CI 2.38–2.40) and 1.50 (95% CI 1.32–1.70), respectively].

    Conclusions: Among older people with dementia in nursing homes, motivation to participate in a high-intensity functional exercise program seems to be high, comparable to motivation to participate in a social activity, and increase over time. Since motivation during activity sessions was higher than motivation to go to sessions the promotion of strategies to encourage people with dementia to join exercise groups is of great importance.

  • Olofsson, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bortom Bygden: En studie av jämtländska svärd i fjällen under yngre järnålder och en diskussion kring dess tolkning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Beyond the vicinity

    A study of swords in the mountain region of Jämtland County during the LateIron Age and a discussion of their interpretation.

    This bachelor thesis discusses the function of swords found in the mountain region of Jämtland County during the Late Iron Age. It focuses on the discussion whether the swords found in the mountain region can reflect on resource utilization in the mountain region during the Late Iron Age from a socioeconomical perspective. The thesis also brings up difficulties in the intrepretations whether or not the swords in the mountain region should be defined as a grave, because of the lack of human remains in some of the sites in the mountain region containing swords. The data used in the thesis is mainly processed in GISand Microsoft Excel and is discussed on a critical basis. The results are presented as maps showing spatial relations between the collected data. The presence of swords in the mountain region can be seen as evidence of more widespread resource utilization of the mountain region in Jämtland County.

  • Bergman, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hellström, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Regeringsbildningen efter riksdagsvalet 20182018In: Snabbtänkt: reflektioner från valet 2018 av ledande forskare / [ed] Lars Nord, Marie Grusell, Niklas Bolin & Kajsa Falasca, Sundsvall: DEMICOM, Mittuniversitetet , 2018, p. 21-22Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Olstrup, Henrik
    et al.
    Atmospheric Science Unit, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 10691, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, 500 90, Estonia; Environment Department, City of Malmö, Malmö, 205 80, Sweden..
    Spanne, Mårten
    Environment Department, City of Malmö, 205 80 Malmö, Sweden.
    Nguyen, Hung
    Environmental Administration in Gothenburg, P.O. Box 7012, Gothenburg, 402 31, Sweden.
    Molnár, Peter
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 40530, Sweden..
    Johansson, Christer
    Atmospheric Science Unit, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 10691, Sweden; Environment and Health Administration, SLB, P.O. Box 8136, Stockholm, 104 20, Sweden..
    Trends in air pollutants and health impacts in three Swedish cities over the past three decades2018In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 18, no 21, p. 15705-15723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution concentrations have been decreasing in many cities in the developed countries. We have estimated time trends and health effects associated with exposure to NOx, NO2, O3, and PM10 (particulate matter) in the Swedish cities Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmö from the 1990s to 2015. Trend analyses of concentrations have been performed by using the Mann–Kendall test and the Theil–Sen method. Measured concentrations are from central monitoring stations representing urban background levels, and they are assumed to indicate changes in long-term exposure to the population. However, corrections for population exposure have been performed for NOx, O3, and PM10 in Stockholm, and for NOx in Gothenburg. For NOx and PM10, the concentrations at the central monitoring stations are shown to overestimate exposure when compared to dispersion model calculations of spatially resolved, population-weighted exposure concentrations, while the reverse applies to O3. The trends are very different for the pollutants that are studied; NOx and NO2 have been decreasing in all cities, O3 exhibits an increasing trend in all cities, and for PM10, there is a slowly decreasing trend in Stockholm, a slowly increasing trend in Gothenburg, and no significant trend in Malmö. Trends associated with NOxand NO2 are mainly attributed to local emission reductions from traffic. Long-range transport and local emissions from road traffic (non-exhaust PM emissions) and residential wood combustion are the main sources of PM10. For O3, the trends are affected by long-range transport, and there is a net removal of O3 in the cities. The increasing trends are attributed to decreased net removal, as NOx emissions have been reduced.

    Health effects in terms of changes in life expectancy are calculated based on the trends in exposure to NOx, NO2, O3, and PM10 and the relative risks associated with exposure to these pollutants. The decreased levels of NOx are estimated to increase the life expectancy by up to 11 months for Stockholm and 12 months for Gothenburg. This corresponds to up to one-fifth of the total increase in life expectancy (54–70 months) in the cities during the period of 1990–2015. Since the increased concentrations in O3 have a relatively small impact on the changes in life expectancy, the overall net effect is increased life expectancies in the cities that have been studied.

  • Lopes, Jose Pedro
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Stylianou, Marios
    Backman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Holmberg, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Jass, Jana
    Claesson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Urban, Constantin F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Evasion of Immune Surveillance in Low Oxygen Environments Enhances Candida albicans Virulence.2018In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 9, no 6, article id e02120-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial colonizers of humans have evolved to adapt to environmental cues and to sense nutrient availability. Oxygen is a constantly changing environmental parameter in different host tissues and in different types of infection. We describe how Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, can modulate the host response under hypoxia and anoxia. We found that high infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the site of infection contributes to a low oxygen milieu in a murine subdermal abscess. A persistent hypoxic environment did not affect viability or metabolism of PMNs. Under oxygen deprivation, however, infection with C. albicans disturbed specific PMN responses. PMNs were not able to efficiently phagocytose, produce ROS, or release extracellular DNA traps. Failure to launch an adequate response was caused by C. albicans cell wall masking of β-glucan upon exposure to low oxygen levels which hindered PAMP sensing by Dectin-1 on the surfaces of PMNs. This in turn contributed to immune evasion and enhanced fungal survival. The cell wall masking effect is prolonged by the accumulation of lactate produced by PMNs under low oxygen conditions. Finally, adaptation to oxygen deprivation increased virulence of C. albicans which we demonstrated using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model.IMPORTANCE Successful human colonizers have evolved mechanisms to bypass immune surveillance. Infiltration of PMNs to the site of infection led to the generation of a low oxygen niche. Exposure to low oxygen levels induced fungal cell wall masking, which in turn hindered pathogen sensing and antifungal responses by PMNs. The cell wall masking effect was prolonged by increasing lactate amounts produced by neutrophil metabolism under oxygen deprivation. In an invertebrate infection model, C. albicans was able to kill infected C. elegans nematodes within 2 days under low oxygen conditions, whereas the majority of uninfected controls and infected worms under normoxic conditions survived. These results suggest that C. albicans benefited from low oxygen niches to increase virulence. The interplay of C. albicans with innate immune cells under these conditions contributed to the overall outcome of infection. Adaption to low oxygen levels was in addition beneficial for C. albicans by reducing susceptibility to selected antifungal drugs. Hence, immunomodulation of host cells under low oxygen conditions could provide a valuable approach to improve current antifungal therapies.

  • Jonsson, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The presence of the past: a life course approach to the social determinants of health and health inequalities in northern Sweden2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Positioned at the intersection between the social and life course epidemiological sub-fields, this thesis builds on the idea that the health implications of life and living conditions can extend over years and decades before becoming expressed in the population patterns of ill-health. The overall purpose was to assess how multiple types of social determinants of health across the life course may contribute to ill-health and health inequalities in midlife. Several gaps in knowledge served as the basis for four research questions that focused on: 1) the intermediate role of socio-economic, material and psychosocial factors in young adulthood, in the long-term association between adolescent socio-economic position and midlife ill-health; 2) the implications of poor social capital in adolescence and accumulated over the life course for midlife ill-health; 3) the consequences of intra-generational social mobility for midlife ill-health and 4) the contribution of socio-economic, material and psychosocial circumstances in adolescence, young adulthood and middle-age to midlife neighbourhood deprivation inequalities in ill-health.

    Methods: The setting of the thesis is Sweden spanning over nearly three decades, from the early 1980s and until the mid-2010s. With information drawn from the Northern Swedish Cohort the study population consists of 1,083 pupils (506 girls and 577 boys) who attended, or should have attended, the last year of compulsory school in 1981. The data used came from questionnaires answered by the participants in the follow-ups at the ages of 16 (in 1981), 21 (in 1986), 30 (in 1995) and 42 (in 2007). The attrition rate was low with 1,010 out of the 1,071 students who were alive over the 26-years participated in all waves (94.3%). Data was also included from the Swedish registers for the same ages as the surveys on the participants’ neighbourhoods and sociodemographic characteristics on all other residents in these areas. The health outcome was functional somatic symptoms, referring to the occurrence of common physical complaints such as musculoskeletal pain, headache, palpitations and fatigue. To capture various social determinants of health, socio-economic, material and psychosocial factors were operationalised as main exposures. The research questions were analysed using: 1) path analysis, 2) multiple linear regression, 3) diagonal reference models and 4) a decomposition analysis.

    Results: With regard to the four research questions, the results firstly indicated that the long-term association between adolescent socio-economic position and midlife ill-health was linked by socio-economic position in young adulthood and further via material and psychosocial factors in middle-age. Secondly, that poor social capital in adolescence also could play a role in the development of adult illhealth, but that this influence seem to be largely dependent on recent or current conditions in adulthood. Thirdly, that downward mobility in the socio-economic hierarchy during middle-age may have little to no health implications, while upward movements could have a small positive effect on health. Fourthly, that ill-health was concentrated in more socio-economically deprived neighbourhoods and that this inequality was to a small extent attributed to conditions in earlier life period and mainly to factors in adulthood.

    Conclusions: Based on patterns cutting across the original research questions, the findings from this thesis indicate broadly that socio-economic, material and psychosocial conditions may be meaningful for midlife ill-health and health disparities, jointly and independently from each other. The results also suggests that determinants in the present on the surface appear to be more important for midlife ill-health and health inequalities than those of the past, but at the same time that life circumstances in the earlier life course may not be irrelevant. Rather than representing permanent or resilient health implications, however, the long-term influence of adolescent conditions seem to reflect mainly social processes that are conditional on recent or concurrent adult factors. In sum, the results indicate that a continuum of various life and living conditions may be a key phenomenon underlying ill-health and health disparities in midlife. Specifically, this thesis illustrates how the past may become part of the present through the accumulation and chains of unfavourable circumstances over the life course and conversely, how the present health reflects and embodies a life-long past.

  • Zare, Aman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Regulation of gene expression in fruit flies: how does it start, and will it be remembered?2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most distinctive features of eukaryotic chromosomes is the bundling of DNA together with functionally associated RNA and proteins in chromatin. This allows huge amounts of DNA to be packed inside the very tiny space of the nucleus, and alterations in the structure of chromatin enable access to the DNA for transcription (“reading” genes by production of RNA copies). Much of the current knowledge of chromatin structure and regulation comes from studies of Drosophila melanogaster. When the chromatin structure is open the transcription of a gene can start after recruitment of the necessary factors. The main enzyme for gene transcription is Polymerase II (Pol II). For successful gene transcription, Pol II must not only be recruited to the gene’s promoter, but also escape from a pausing state which occurs soon after transcription initiation. CBP/P300 is one of the co-activators involved in transcriptional activation. In the studies this thesis is based upon, my colleagues and I (hereafter we) discovered a new function for CBP in transcription activation. Using high throughput sequencing techniques, we found that CBP directly stimulates recruitment of Pol II to promoters, and facilitates its release from the paused state, enabling progression to the elongation stage of transcription.

    For cells to remember their identity following division during development, the transcriptional state of genes must be transmitted. Intensively studied players involved in this memory are the Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, responsible for maintaining the repressed state of important developmental genes. The core members are Polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2), which are recruited in flies through poorly known mechanisms to target genes by so-called Polycomb response elements (PREs). Using Drosophila mutant cell lines, we showed that (in contrast to previous models) some PREs can recruit PRC1 even when PRC2 is absent. We also observed that at many PREs, PRC1 is needed for recruitment of PRC2 and concluded that targeting PRC complexes to PREs is a much more flexible and variable process than previously thought.

    Some phenotypic effects of environmental changes can be transferred to subsequent generations. Previous efforts to identify the mechanisms involved have focused on material (mainly, but not only, DNA) transferred through germ cells. However, organisms’ microbiomes are also transferred to the next generation. Thus, to investigate possible contributions of microbiomes to such transfer, we used fruit flies as the microbiomes they inherit can be easily controlled. We altered some parents’ environmental conditions by lowering the temperature, then grew offspring that received microbiomes from cold-treated and control parents in control conditions and compared their transcriptional patterns. Our results suggest that most of the crosstalk between the microbiome and the fly happens in the gut, and that further investigation of this previously unsuspected mode of inheritance is warranted.

  • Bay, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Being physically active as an adult with congenital heart disease2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to advances in medical and surgical care adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) is a growing and aging population, that now outnumbers the children with CHD. In general, adults with CHD have reduced aerobic exercise capacity and nearly half of the patients do not reach current recommendations on physical activity. It is known that a low level of physical activity is associated with an increased risk for acquired cardiovascular disease. Studies has shown that adults with CHD are at the same, or even higher risk as the general population, for developing acquired cardiovascular disease.

    Aim: The overall aim was to explore physical activity in adults with CHD with respect to associated factors, exercise self-efficacy and their own experiences.

    Methods: This thesis is based on four papers. Paper I included 471 adults with CHD from three tertiary care centres in Sweden. The participants completed questionnaires measuring patient reported outcomes (e.g. SF-12) including physical activity level. Paper II was based on data from 79 adults with CHD from two tertiary care centers in Sweden and 42 matched controls. All participants completed questionnaires on exercise self-efficacy and quality of life, wore an activity monitor during four consecutive days and performed muscle endurance tests. Paper I and II were of cross-sectional design and analyses were done using logistic regression. In paper III and IV data were collected through structured interviews for 14 participants. They were asked about their experiences of being physically active (paper III), what they considered as physical activities, and their experiences of enablers and barriers to physical activity (paper IV). Qualitative content analysis was used in papers III and IV.

    Results: Physical activity level (paper I) and exercise self-efficacy (paper II) were strongly associated with age where those over 40 years had a lower level of physical activity and lower exercise self-efficacy. Further, in paper I, it appeared that patient reported outcomes from SF-12 were strongly associated with physical activity level. In paper II, exercise self-efficacy was associated with performance in a muscle endurance tests. Paper III revealed an overall theme – It´s like balancing on a slackline that illustrates how adults with CHD described themselves in relation to physical activity. This overall theme consisted of four themes: (1) Being an adventurer – enjoying the challenges of physical activity; (2) Being a realist – adapting to physical ability; (3) Being a non-doer – lacking prerequisites for physical activity and (4) Being an outsider – feeling excluded depending on physical ability. In paper IV, the analysis revealed a description of what adults with CHD consider to be physical activity and considered as enablers and barriers for physical activity. Four categories appeared; physical aspects, psychological aspects, psychosocial aspects and environmental aspects. In the psychosocial aspect, social support and encouragement in childhood to be physically active and no restrictions from e.g. parents, teachers and health care increased physical activity in adulthood.

    Conclusions: Age, social support and accepting physical limitations seem to have an important impact regarding physical activity level and exercise self-efficacy. In contrast, the complexity of CHD and other medical factors appear to be of less importance for adults with CHD in relation to physical activity. In order to support adults with CHD to increase their physical activity and reach their full potential, it is important to explore and consider the various aspects that may affect physical activity in this population.

  • Johansson, Alexandra C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Optical Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) based on optical frequency combs is an excellent spectroscopic tool as it provides broadband molecular spectra with high spectral resolution and an absolutely calibrated frequency scale. Moreover, the equidistant comb mode structure enables efficient coupling of the comb to enhancement cavities, yielding high detection sensitivity. This thesis focuses on further advances in comb-based FTS to improve its performance and extend its capabilities for broadband precision spectroscopy, particularly in terms of i) spectral resolution, ii) accuracy and precision of molecular parameters as well as concentrations retrieved from fitting models to spectra, and iii) species selectivity.

    To improve the spectral resolution we developed a new methodology to acquire and analyze comb-based FTS signals that yields spectra with a resolution limited by the comb linewidth rather than the optical path difference of the FTS, referred to as the sub-nominal resolution method. This method enables measurements of narrow features, e.g. low-pressure absorption spectra and modes of enhancement cavities, with frequency scale accuracy and precision provided by the comb. Using the technique we measured low-pressure spectra of the entire 3ν13 carbon dioxide (CO2) band at 1575 nm with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio and precision to observe collision narrowing of the absorption lineshape, which was for the first time with a comb-based spectroscopic technique. This allowed retrieval of spectral line parameters for this CO2 band using the speed-dependent Voigt profile.

    Using the sub-nominal resolution method, we measured the transmission modes of a Fabry-Perot cavity over 15 THz of bandwidth with kHz resolution and characterized the cavity modes in terms of their center frequency, linewidth, and amplitude. From the mode center frequencies, we retrieved the group delay dispersion of cavity mirror coatings and intracavity gas with an unprecedented combination of spectral bandwidth and resolution. By measuring both the mode broadening and frequency shift simultaneously we performed broadband cavity-enhanced complex refractive index spectroscopy (CE-CRIS), which allows for simultaneous and calibration-free assessment of the absorption and dispersion spectra of intracavity gas. In this first demonstration we measured the absorption and dispersion spectra of three combination bands of CO2 in the 1525 to 1620 nm range.

    Another comb-based FTS technique is noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS), which combines phase modulation and cavity-enhancement to obtain broadband and highly sensitive absorption spectra. In this thesis we improved the NICE-OFCS technique in terms of stability, sensitivity and modeling of the NICE-OFCS signal. We implemented a model of the NICE-OFCS signal with multiline fitting for assessment of gas concentration. We also identified the optimum operating conditions of the NICE-OFCS systems for accurate gas concentration assessment.

    Finally, to improve the species selectivity we combined comb-based FTS with the Faraday rotation spectroscopy (FRS) technique. In this first demonstration of optical frequency comb Faraday rotation spectroscopy (OFC-FRS), we measured background and interference-free spectra of the entire Q- and R-branches of the fundamental vibrational band of nitric oxide at 5.3 μm showing good agreement with the theoretical model.