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  • Nyström, Eva
    The Development of Cause-of-Death Classification in Eighteenth Century Sweden. A Survey of Problems, Sources and Possibilities1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 109-129 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Kvarnbäck, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Mentality of a Throw-Away Society: A study on sustainable consumption and the millennial perception of post-retail initiatives2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The implication and rise of the fashion industry is not only affecting its consumers, but the whole world. As the fashion industry is proclaimed to be one of the largest contributors to climate change, and makes up for 4.8% of Swedish consumption (Centrum för konsumptionsvetenskap, 2016, p. 12), it is timely that more sustainable approaches must be taken. Disposing of one’s textiles is a vital part to reaching a more sustainable consumption, since many textiles can be recycled for redesign or to extract fibres. Post-retail initiatives are set out by many fashion firms, where they extend services to their customers in order to aid in sustainable clothing care or helping them dispose of their textiles in a more sustainable manner. The purpose of this study is to understand the perception of male consumers, a demographic that is often overlooked in fashion studies, and how they perceive post-retail initiatives, as well as looking into how male consumers take responsibility for their clothes after use. The following research questions: How are post-retail initiatives perceived by millennial men? How are sustainable clothing collections from a fast fashion company perceived by men? How do men take responsibility for their clothing when they are finished using them? Where does the responsibility lie of recycling clothes?

     

    By using a qualitative method, in terms of semi-structured interviews, 8 participants were interviewed and questions with different themes such as: CSR, post-retail initiatives, sustainable consumption, behaviour and attitude towards sustainable consumption, fast fashion, and hedonism vs utilitarianism were used to code the data for analysis. The inductive nature of the study allowed for a model to be derived after data collection. By adapting a technological acceptance model (TAM) and a model for decision making of sustainable consumption the sustainable acceptance model (SAM) was made to interpret how external variables contribute to perceptions of sustainability and post-retail initiatives and how that can instigate a changed attitude or behaviour. 

     

    The SAM model helped to answer the research questions and showed that for perceptions to be formed, social and individual factors played a large role. One’s social context as well as situational and individual factors play a role in the perception of post-retail initiatives. The bearers of responsibility for textile recycling was believe to be in the hands of the municipalities, not the fashion industry, as they have a bigger influence of creating situational opportunities to instigate awareness for recycling textiles.

     

    The findings show that perceptions of post-retail initiatives are derived from influences from external variables. Convenience plays a large role in perception as something that is perceived well must also be easily accessible. Clothing collections are not perceived well as availability over other convenient choices are not present. Responsibility for clothing varies from sale to donation, but an understanding was made that the lack of knowledge on where to dispose sustainably was limited. Responsibility for recycling clothing was said to be from a municipal level not the [clothing] industry level.

  • Sjöström, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Mobile App for Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis2017In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 19, no 5, e154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mobile apps can increase access to care, facilitate self-management, and improve adherence to treatment. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) affects 10-35% of women and, currently, an app with instructions for pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is available as first-line treatment. A previous randomized controlled study demonstrated that the app benefitted symptom severity and quality of life (QoL); in this study we investigate the cost-effectiveness of the app. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the health economy of the app for treating SUI. Methods: This deterministic cost-utility analysis, with a 1-year societal perspective, compared the app treatment with no treatment. Health economic data were collected alongside a randomized controlled trial performed in Sweden from March 2013 to October 2014. This study included 123 community-dwelling women participants of 18 years and above, with stress urinary incontinence >= 1 time per week. Participants were self-assessed with validated questionnaires and 2-day leakage diaries, and then randomized to 3 months of treatment (app group, n=62) or no treatment (controls, n=61). The app focused on pelvic floor muscle training, prescribed 3 times daily. We continuously registered treatment delivery costs. Data were collected on each participant's training time, incontinence aids, and laundry at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up. We measured quality of life with the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Quality of Life, and calculated the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Data from the 3-month follow-up were extrapolated to 1 year for the calculations. Our main outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios compared between app and control groups. One-way and multiway sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: The mean age of participants was 44.7 years (SD 9.4). Annual costs were (sic)547.0 for the app group and (sic)482.4 for the control group. Annual gains in quality-adjusted life years for app and control groups were 0.0101 and 0.0016, respectively. Compared with controls, the extra cost per quality-adjusted life year for the app group ranged from -(sic) 2425.7 to (sic) 14,870.6, which indicated greater gains in quality-adjusted life years at similar or slightly higher cost. Conclusions: The app for treating stress urinary incontinence is a new, cost-effective, first-line treatment with potential for increasing access to care in a sustainable way for this patient group.

  • Turpeinen, Oiva
    Infant Mortality in Finland 1865-18691988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 61-76 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Sundqvist, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utveckla produktionskalkyl applicerbar för framtida till- och påbyggnader i limträ2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a labor market exposed to competition, it is important for a building contractor to have control over costs and working hours for his construction projects. At present, AR Bygg AB does construction work exclusively for Umehem Fastigheter AB since they are I the same business group. As Long as AR Bygg only builds for its own real estate company they don’t have to submit a tender to get the contract. In order to secure the future of the company, AR Bygg wants to start use of industry-adapted calculation tools in order to provide a basis for submitting tenders to external parties. This way, AR Bygg can continue to operate to the same extent even when the real estate company Umehem Fastigheter AB does not have enough projects.

    The thesis is based on the production of the Audumbla 8 construction that AR Bygg commenced in the autumn of 2015. By making volume calculations on construction documents and documenting working hours for each activity, a production calculation has been created in the calculation program Bidcon. The result has been exported to Plancon, a planning program which presents a schedule that reflects the real construction time of Audumbla 8. The aim of the thesis work is that the calculation base can then be adapted for future projects and, with a small work effort, present a tender for an external client reflecting AR Byggs costs and worktime. A comparison will be done between the production calculation and the preliminary calculation that Mikael Gunnarsson made in spring 2015 when Audumbla 8 was still in the design state.

    The production cost estimate shows a total construction cost of 22 358 884 kr and a working time of 17 284 hours. With an even distribution of resources throughout the project, it results in 5,64 building workers for 20 months. In order to set building costs against other players, the key figure BTA (gross area) is 11 729 kr/m2 a good comparison.

  • Rosenberg, Margit
    Birth Weight, Breast-Feeding, Postpartum Amenorrhea and Infant Mortality in Three Norwegian Cities during Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 49-59 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Knodel, John
    Two Centuries of Infant, Child and Maternal Mortality in German Village Populations1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 23-48 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Lee, Robert
    Infant, Child and Maternal Mortality in Western Europe: A Critique1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 9-21 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Eriksson, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    3D-laserskanning och ytors egenskaper: En studie om semi-transparanta ytor, glans och de vanligaste felen vid skanning2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    3D laser scanning is a useful tool in manufacturing and is being used more and more. It can be hard to use the tool without any experience in scanning.

    This projekt investigates some of the common mistakes that are made by a beginners in scanning. It also examines some materials and their properties in scanning.

     

    The work has been done cooperation with Sliperiet at Umeå University through tests and studies on a handheld laserscanner, the HandyScan300 from Creaform.

     

    The project has resultet in a manual to help beginners in 3D-scanning. A comparison between four different semi-transparent plastic materials and their tendencies to be scanned under the surface. An analysis of glossy surfaces during scanning has also been made.

  • Hagg, S.
    et al.
    Zhan, Y.
    Karlsson, R.
    Gerritsen, L.
    Ploner, A.
    van der Lee, S. J.
    Broer, L.
    Deelen, J.
    Marioni, R. E.
    Wong, A.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Zhu, G.
    Hansell, N. K.
    Sillanpaa, E.
    Fedko, I. O.
    Amin, N. A.
    Beekman, M.
    de Craen, A. J. M.
    Degerman, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Harris, S. E.
    Kan, K-J
    Martin-Ruiz, C. M.
    Montgomery, G. W.
    Adolfsson, Annelie N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Reynolds, C. A.
    Samani, N. J.
    Suchiman, H. E. D.
    Viljanen, A.
    von Zglinicki, T.
    Wright, M. J.
    Hottenga, J-J
    Boomsma, D. I.
    Rantanen, T.
    Kaprio, J. A.
    Nyholt, D. R.
    Martin, N. G.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Kuh, D.
    Starr, J. M.
    Deary, I. J.
    Slagboom, P. E.
    van Duijn, C. M.
    Codd, V.
    Pedersen, N. L.
    Short telomere length is associated with impaired cognitive performance in European ancestry cohorts2017In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 7, e1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between telomere length (TL) dynamics on cognitive performance over the life-course is not well understood. This study meta-analyses observational and causal associations between TL and six cognitive traits, with stratifications on APOE genotype, in a Mendelian Randomization (MR) framework. Twelve European cohorts (N = 17 052; mean age = 59.2 +/- 8.8 years) provided results for associations between qPCR-measuredTL (T/S-ratio scale) and general cognitive function, mini-mental state exam (MMSE), processing speed by digit symbol substitution test (DSST), visuospatial functioning, memory and executive functioning (STROOP). In addition, a genetic risk score (GRS) for TL including seven known genetic variants for TL was calculated, and used in associations with cognitive traits as outcomes in all cohorts. Observational analyses showed that longer telomeres were associated with better scores on DSST (beta = 0.051 per s. d.-increase of TL; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.024, 0.077; P = 0.0002), and MMSE (beta = 0.025; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.047; P = 0.03), and faster STROOP (beta = -0.053; 95% CI: -0.087, -0.018; P = 0.003). Effects for DSST were stronger in APOE epsilon 4 non-carriers (beta = 0.081; 95% CI: 0.045, 0.117; P = 1.0 x 10(-5)), whereas carriers performed better in STROOP (beta = -0.074; 95% CI: -0.140, -0.009; P = 0.03). Causal associations were found for STROOP only (beta = -0.598 per s. d.-increase of TL; 95% CI: -1.125, -0.072; P = 0.026), with a larger effect in epsilon 4-carriers (beta = -0.699; 95% CI: -1.330, -0.069; P = 0.03). Two-sample replication analyses using CHARGE summary statistics showed causal effects between TL and general cognitive function and DSST, but not with STROOP. In conclusion, we suggest causal effects from longer TL on better cognitive performance, where APOE epsilon 4-carriers might be at differential risk.

  • Karah, Nabil
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Jolley, Keith A.
    Hall, Ruth M.
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Database for the ampC alleles in Acinetobacter baumannii2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, e0176695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a troublesome opportunistic pathogen with a high capacity for clonal dissemination. We announce the establishment of a database for the ampC locus in A. baumannii, in which novel ampC alleles are differentiated based on the occurrence of >= 1 nucleotide change, regardless of whether it is silent or missense. The database is openly accessible at the pubmlst platform for A. baumannii (http://pubmlst.org/abaumannii/). Forty-eight distinctive alleles of the ampC locus have so far been identified and deposited in the database. Isolates from clonal complex 1 (CC1), according to the Pasteur multilocus sequence typing scheme, had a variety of the ampC locus alleles, including alleles 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 17, and 18. On the other hand, isolates from CC2 had the ampC alleles 2, 3, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, and 46. Allele 3 was characteristic for sequence types ST3 or ST32. The ampC alleles 10, 16, and 25 were characteristic for CC10, ST16, and CC25, respectively. Our study points out that novel gene databases, in which alleles are numbered based on differences in their nucleotide identities, should replace traditional records that use amino acid substitutions to define new alleles.

  • Tedebrand, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Introduction1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändstöm and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 7-8 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Affognon, Hippolyte
    et al.
    Mburu, Peter
    Hassan, Osama Ahmed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Kingori, Sarah
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Sang, Rosemary
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Ethnic groups' knowledge, attitude and practices and Rift Valley fever exposure in Isiolo County of Kenya2017In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 11, no 3, e0005405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, affecting humans and livestock. For spread of infectious diseases, including RVF, knowledge, attitude and practices play an important role, and the understanding of the influence of behavior is crucial to improve prevention and control efforts. The objective of the study was to assess RVF exposure, in a multiethnic region in Kenya known to experience RVF outbreaks, from the behavior perspective. We investigated how communities in Isiolo County, Kenya were affected, in relation to their knowledge, attitude and practices, by the RVF outbreak of 2006/2007. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 698 households selected randomly from three different ethnic communities. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes and practices that could affect the spread of RVF. In addition, information was collected from the communities regarding the number of humans and livestock affected during the RVF outbreak. This study found that better knowledge about a specific disease does not always translate to better practices to avoid exposure to the disease. However, the high knowledge, attitude and practice score measured as a single index of the Maasai community may explain why they were less affected, compared to other investigated communities (Borana and Turkana), by RVF during the 2006/2007 outbreak. We conclude that RVF exposure in Isiolo County, Kenya during the outbreak was likely determined by the behavioral differences of different resident community groups. We then recommend that strategies to combat RVF should take into consideration behavioral differences among communities.

  • Gydemo Östbom, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sedimentation in a small lake, more complex than previously assumed.: Bathymetrical and geochemical sediment analyses in Kassjön (63°55´ N, 20°01´ E).2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For studies using lake sediments as a medium, understanding factors governing sediment distribution and properties is crucial for making accurate interpretations and conclusions. General lake sedimentation theory is however mainly based on larger lakes and systems, potentially leading to biased sampling and data interpretation when applied on a smaller system. In a paper published in 2008, Rippey et al. evaluated the fit of some general sedimentation theories on element distribution in the sediments of Kassjön (63°55´ N, 20°01´ E), northern Sweden. This small boreal lake reoccurs in the scientific literature, largely from paleolimnological studies on varved sediments in the lake, making the understanding of its sediment properties highly relevant. As part of a wider geochemical study on the lake, this paper scrutinizes the findings of Rippey et al. (2008) by using updated bathymetry and geochemical analyses, to provide further insight on sedimentation in Kassjön. Element composition, analysed with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and dry weight was obtained from sediment samples at 40 sites. Depth at sampling sites, together with catchment morphometry and previous bathymetry, was used to improve the bathymetric understanding. Kassjön was found to have a less steep bathymetry than previously assumed, with distribution of sediment geochemistry and dry weight showing heterogeneity differing from that expected of general sedimentation theories only. These results indicate that previous findings on sedimentation in Kassjön might be too simplistic, and that small-lake sedimentation is influenced by factors not included in general sedimentation models. Caution is therefore advised when e.g. interpreting the environmental record in lake sediments.

  • Björinder, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Rosenberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Oral diadochokinesi som enkel skattning av artikulatorisk förmåga vid Parkinsons sjukdom2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Nedbrytningen av neuroner vid Parkinsons sjukdom har visat sig gå långt innan tydliga motoriska symtom uppkommit. Subtila talförändringar kan förekomma långt innan dessa symtom debuterar och drabbade personer kan länge ha kompenserat för detta omedvetet. I dagsläget finns ingen enkel objektiv kvantifiering som kan ligga till grund för identifiering av artikulatorisk nedsättning hos patienter med Parkinsons sjukdom. Oral diadochokinesi (oral-DDK) har använts av kliniker för att bedöma dysartri då det pressar det artikulatoriska systemet. Ingen tidigare forskning har närmare undersökt vad som händer inuti stavelserna i oral-DDK utan fokuserat på andra faktorer.

    Mål: Att med enkla akustiska mått på vokalduration undersöka om den skiljer sig mellan personer med Parkinsons sjukdom och normaltalare.

    Metod: Studiens deltagare bestod av 40 personer med Parkinsons sjukdom och 40 normaltalare. Testdeltagarna fick utföra oral-DDK där stavelserna /pa, ta, ka/ upprepades i normalt respektive snabbt tempo. Vokaldurationen mättes ut av tre uppmärkare. Statistiska analyser utfördes för att se om det fanns skillnader i vokalduration mellan talargrupperna.

    Resultat: Denna studie visade att det fanns en statistiskt signifikant skillnad i vokalduration mellan personer med Parkinsons sjukdom och normaltalare i samtliga stavelser med undantag för /pa/ i normalt tempo.

    Slutsatser: Oral-DDK skulle kunna medverka som en komponent i ett tidigt diagnostiseringsverktyg för dysartri. Testet är objektivt och kräver ingen fullständig logopedisk träning och kan således användas av flera yrkesgrupper. Vidare forskning behövs för att närmare undersöka om enskilda ljudsegment är påverkade även vid andra neurologiska sjukdomar.

    Nyckelord: Parkinsons sjukdom, subtil talpåverkan, oral-DDK, vokalduration, dysartri, neurologiska sjukdomar

  • Gustafsson, Lovisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Uppregling av väggar som stöd för mängdning2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of the construction industry is in constant motion forward thanks to BIM. In theory, it seems like many of the solutions that come with the implementation of BIM are simple to understand and work with, but in practice, the technical solutions are far from being completely implemented in the industry. In the work with quantifying within a project the development has become stagnant and the majority compile quantities manually.  This is a time-consuming method that is advantageously replaced with a technical solution from for example a Revit-environment.

     

    This report aims to recommend a method for managing quantifying in an easier way. By performing two technical methods of quantifying on a reference object, the approaches have been analyzed in terms of possibilities and problems. The long process of Revit is discussed and compared with the complicated settings of the application MWF. In summary, MWF is recommended because of the overall documents with rewarding data and drawings. The suggested usage for the data strengthens the conclusion.

  • Söderpalm, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Möjlighet att leva ett liv som jag trivs med: En studie om unga vuxnas attityder till karriär: Opportunity to live a life which I enjoy. A study about young adults´ attitudes towards career2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det föreliggande arbetet hade som syfte att studera unga vuxnas attityder till karriär, vilket preciserades till följande två frågeställningar: ”Vilken innebörd har karriär för unga vuxna?” och ”Vilken betydelse har olika påverkansfaktorer i unga vuxnas karriärval?” Undersökningen anknöt till tidigare forskning inom det valda området som har påvisat hur karriärbegreppet har förändrats, samt att det lyfte fram olika faktorer som har inverkat på unga vuxnas karriärval. Som teoretiska utgångspunkter användes Bourdieus fält, habitus och kapital tillsammans med teorin om careership utvecklad av Hodkinson och Sparkes. Det empiriska underlaget utgjordes av enkätsvar från sammanlagt 252 unga vuxna mellan 20 och 30 år. Resultaten från studien tydde på att karriärens innebörd till stor del har individualiserats, där flera av de främsta associationerna till karriär utgick från individen själv. Samtidigt gjordes det även vissa kopplingar till den traditionella organisatoriska karriären, som att avancera till högre positioner och sträva efter hög lön. De kvinnliga respondenterna lade större vikt vid inre omständigheter i sina val av karriär medan männen betonade yttre värden, även om de könsmässiga skillnaderna i regel var mycket små. Föräldrar var de personer som hade störst inflytande i karriärvalen, bland annat i sina roller som förebilder.

  • Ritola, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Undersökning av eventuell inverkan av järnsand på omgivande mark: Utvärdering av enstegslakning med 0,5 M HCl2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A disagreement has arisen between the localauthorities (Skellefteå kommun) and Boliden Mineral AB regarding the use of amaterial called

  • Waleij, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Bostadsförsörjning en marknadsarena?: Studie över marknadsorienterade policyförändringar inom bostadspolitiken och hur dessa påverkat lokala förutsättningar på bostadsmarknaden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The methods regarding housing policy have significantly changed over time. The market has gone from a welfare orientated approach, characterized by state subsidies and dominance in public housing companies to a more market orientated advance signified by increased competition and business driven housing policies. The aim of this study is to examine how this policy shift and the increased confidence in the markets capacity to solve issues in the housing sector have effected municipal conditions and methods for supplying housing. The analysis is delimited towards the two municipalities Umeå and Storuman in Sweden too examine how the change in housing policies have affected regions with different local conditions.

    The study has primarily made use of qualitative data gathering through semi structural interviews with officials and politicians but also includes housing statistics for each municipality. The results show that the influence of capital and the private sector have become increasingly more prominent since the policy shift and as a result local conditions and shortcomings on the market have a bigger impact on the effectiveness of different housing methods. Storumans housing market is characterized by weak market values and investment difficulties while Umeås primary problem consist of resource shortage in the planning sector as well as outdrawn political processes and conflicts of interest.

  • Röhlinger, Lucas J.F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Health Care Accessibility in Upper Norrland: Accessibility Profile by means of a Network Analysis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the temporary context of rural out-outmigration, growing agglomerations, demographic ageing andmedical advancement, the task of providing all inhabitants with sufficient health care accessibility hasbecome a challenge. Especially in rural regions like Sweden’s Upper Norrland, where the populationdensity is in most parts at a European minimum.Main aim of this thesis is elaborate and present an accessibility profile of the region Upper Norrland, incontext of medical care services. The identification of accurate individual driving times to medicalfacilities were a main goal. How Patients’ accessibility varies between different types of doctors andfacilities as well as across patients’ age groups was examined. Additionally, patients that have a drivingtime of less than 30 minutes to medical service where classified as accessible while those with longerdriving times where classified as inaccessible. The way these groups vary in socio-economic and –demographic factors was examined. The research design is a quantitative exploratory one. As method anetwork analysis was conducted on the basis of individual geo-referenced data of 2012’s inhabitants ofUpper Norrland. The main finding state, that over 80% of the population have ten minutes or less drivingtime to the next medical doctor. Half of the population can access a hospital within ten minutes or less.The share of inaccessible individuals (>30min) is small and distributed foremost dispersedly in the inland.2.8% of the population are inaccessible to Medical Doctors, 23% to hospital care. People aged 60 andabove have significantly longer driving times. Some risk factors, like age, were identified to be higher forthe inaccessible population.In conclusion, the analysed results state short driving times for the overwhelming majority in UpperNorrland. With conventional fixed facilities, the disadvantaged cannot be supplied with reasonableaccess. Same areas are moreover endangered of losing the remaining medical capabilities due tomigration and a lack of rejuvenescence. In the long run the competent planners and authorities mustinstead envisage other alternatives, like virtual, smart or mobile health care. In the rural areas, facilitiesmust be kept functioning as long as possible, especially services like maternity care, that are oftenperceived vital for the viability of rural spaces.

  • Persson, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Samband mellan benstyrka och skridskoprestation hos svenska juniorishockeyspelare2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Skating is a key factor for a successful ice hockey player and strength in the lower extremity is therefore a crucial factor for determination of a players speed on the ice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between power, tested off-ice, and skating speed on ice. Seven male ice hockey players aged 19.5 ± 0.5 years were recruited from a local highschool. They completed a test battery consisting of the Swedish Ice hockey associations strength tests and power measurements in squat. In order to determine which strength variable is the most relevant to skating speed the strength variables were correlated to the results in a skating test called Acceleration and Speed. The results showed significant correlations between 1RM in clean and time on total distance (ρ=0.77, p<0.05) and velocity (ρ=0.77, p=<0.05) in the skating test. A significant correlation was also found between relative strength in clean and velocity (ρ=0.71, p<0.05). The conclusion of this study was that parts of the testing battery is relevant for use when collecting information on a players maximum skating speed. 

  • Ecker, Kreske
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    DOES IT MATTER HOW WE GO WRONG?: The role of model misspecification and study design in assessing the performance of doubly robust estimators2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns doubly robust (DR) estimation in missing data contexts. Previous research is not unanimous as to which estimators perform best and in which situations DR is to be preferred over other estimators. We observe that the conditions surrounding comparisons of DR- and other estimators vary between dierent previous studies. We therefore focus on the effects of three distinct aspects of study design on the performance of one DR-estimator in comparison to outcome regression (OR). These aspects are sample size, the way in which models are misspecified, and the degree of association between the covariates and propensities. We find that while there are no drastic eects of the type of model misspecication, all three aspects do affect how DR compares to OR. The results can be used to better understand the divergent conclusions of previous research.

  • Wigström, Josefine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    "I think it's more women on buses but I haven't thought about why": A qualitative study of public transport and its relation to gender equality in Västerbotten County2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

     

    As the population across the world steadily increases, we become more globalized and travel more extensively. This burdens the environment and causes a decrease in safety, and increases congestion and pollution in both rural and urban areas. It is therefore vital to reduce these impacts and thus encourage more sustainable transport solutions. Studies show that men in general travel less sustainably than women, as they use cars for transportation more often. Women, however, use public transport to a greater extent. To be able to encourage a modal shift towards sustainable alternatives – thus creating an attractive public transport system for both women and men – it is essential to understand the underlying causes for these differences in attitudes and travel behaviour between men and women.

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine gender equality in relation to public transport. More specifically, the thesis will investigate how focusing on gender issues is significant in order to create and develop a sustainable public transport system. The method for this thesis is based on interviews, in which both frequent and less frequent bus travellers have shared their current notions and perceptions on public transport. Part of the aim has been to identify any differences between men and women’s answers and the way they discuss these issues. Furthermore, thematic coding analysis was used to analyse the results that led to five different themes being identified as most frequently mentioned during the interviews. The results were subsequently put into context with related academic research concerning gender equality, mobility, transportation and sustainability. Conclusively, the results show that there are tendencies for gender inequality within public transport in Västerbotten, which is expressed in several different ways by the respondents. 

  • Grennborg, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    State Sector Relocations in Sweden: A Municipality-Level Panel Data Analysis on the Effects of Relocation on Regional Development2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the effects that state sector relocations have on regional development in Sweden are investigated. In January 2017, a government report was released, suggesting the relocation of 10 000 state sector jobs from the capital of Stockholm to other parts of Sweden in order to enhance the preconditions for regional development in the destination localities. This thesis aims to investigate which effects that state sector relocations and state sector jobs have on regional development. Three determinants were used to find these effects: the share of state sector employees, the state sector employee growth rate and a dummy variable which denoted four separate occasions of larger relocations. Three of those relocations were executed as a compensation for military base closures. With a fixed effect panel data analysis, it was possible to investigate the effects of these three determinants and a number of control variables on two regional development variables: average income growth and net migration rate. The data used consists of panel data for the years 2006-2015 on a municipality level, with 264 included municipalities, in Sweden and derived from Statistics Sweden.

    The results showed that the state sector employee growth rate-variable had a positive effect on average income growth. However, the state sector relocation dummy had a negative effect on average income growth. These contradictory results, might be due to the military base closures which occurred a couple of years before the relocations, blurring the positive effects from the relocations. The state sector job-variables had no significant effect on net migration rate, and no obvious long-term effects were found as the share of state sector employees did not show any significant effects on average income growth.

  • Lipasti, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Artificial Environments and Spatial Travel Implications: The case of Madrid Snow Zone2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Place has been a fundamental topic for geographers (Agnew, 1987). It stands both for a study object and a manner of perceiving the world. This thesis departs from the theoretical debate regarding places and how places are considered as being spatially fixed in the sense that places cannot be reproduced or imitated elsewhere. However, technological innovations have extraordinary significance in all the realms of leisure and lifestyle (Godbey, 1997) whereas, leisure activities increasingly are being simulated and reproduced exemplifying the new postmodern culture and the ‘post-tourist’ (Urry, 1990). Thus, challenges the spatial fix of places (Shaw & Williams, 2004). There has been little empirical research regarding artificial environments and therefore, the research problem contributes to understand how artificial environments are altering habitual travel patterns regarding the ‘genuine’ or as previous authors have stated, regarding the ‘real thing’. The research questions proposed for the study, directed the researcher to a quantitative approach using the questionnaire as a main source of data collection. The simulated environment that was investigated in the study was the indoor ski slope located in Madrid (Spain). The results showed that the simulated environment is enhancing and intervening the ski activity. For most of the skiers the indoor ski slope is complementing their ski activity in front of the outdoor ski resorts. Furthermore, the facility is recruiting every year a great number of new skiers that after skiing indoors desire to experience the ‘real thing’. Due to the proximity of the facility to the major urban areas, the indoor ski slope is acting as an intervening opportunity and boosting the visitors towards outdoor skiing. 

  • Marcianò, Pietro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Localising suitable areas for wind power development in Kiruna Municipality.: A spatial multi-criteria decision analysis.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the last decade, wind power has faced a strong expansion in Sweden, supported by national policies. However, when wind power projects are to be developed, a series of legal difficulties, opposing land-use interests and resistance often arise, hindering their implementation on a local level. To bypass such difficulties, the Swedish government has invited municipalities to localise suitable areas for wind power development in their comprehensive plans. By adopting this proactive approach, different interests and views can be implemented in an early stage of the planning process, possibly reducing the risk of land-use issues and local resistance.The Municipality of Kiruna is currently updating its comprehensive plan and wind power is among the planning issues to be further investigated. Therefore, this thesis aims to combine GIS and multi-criteria decision making to support wind power spatial planning in Kiruna Municipality by exploring environmental, economic and social constraints and criteria under different planning scenariosTherefore, a spatial multi-criteria decision analysis is implemented to promote wind power localisation and at the same time, to prevent possible detrimental consequences. Swedish legislation, guidelines issued by national agencies and wind power planning practices are implemented to delimit areas feasible or unfeasible for wind power development. Then, the localisation process within feasible areas is guided by a set of social, economic and environmental criteria reflecting land-use interests typical of Kiruna Municipality. Weights, steering the relevance of the different criteria in the process, are then developed on the basis of three planning scenarios of future development for the Nordic Arctic.The results of the analysis show that approximately 90% of the territory of Kiruna Municipality is not feasible for wind power development. In particular, low wind speeds and areas of interest for defence are constraints excluding large portions of the municipal territory. Among the feasible areas, it is particularly complex to identify locations which are not located within areas of interest for reindeer herding or national interest for undisturbed mountainous environment and that have an adequate distance from existing electric grids. Nevertheless, the planning scenarios pinpoint suitable locations for wind power development in northeastern Kiruna, in proximity of Karesuando.

  • Castellani, Federico
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Geregová, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The Products Characteristics and Their Influence on the Omnichannel Strategy: An analysis of the apparel and grocery retailers in Europe2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this Master’s thesis is to present to the reader a comprehensive

    overview on how the characteristics of grocery products and apparel products

    influence the customer behavior and the choice of an offline or an online sales

    channel within an omnichannel marketing strategy. This thesis takes a company’s

    point of view in order to investigate the reactions and the resulting marketing and

    channel strategies the different retailers apply while taking into account the varying

    customer behavior. In order to fulfill this purpose, we formulated and presented two

    research questions and three propositions that helped to investigate the chosen subject

    matter of this thesis.

    The research philosophy of this Master’s thesis is based on an interpretivist

    epistemological perspective and a subjectivist ontological view. The research

    conducted within this thesis has an exploratory nature. In addition, the deductive

    approach is used to study the research questions, while adopting a qualitative research

    method. The practical method employed in this thesis in order to fulfill the purpose is

    based on conducting multiple semi-structured, non-standardized interviews. The

    respondents and the companies they represent are divided according to the industry

    they belong to, namely the apparel retail or the grocery retail, and the geographically

    located in Europe. The final results are then gained by the combination of the primary

    data, yield from the interviews, and secondary data, collected during a literature

    search and an undertaken literature review.

    The contribution of this Master’s thesis is represented by an analysis that combines

    the theoretical perspectives and empirical findings. They provide an overview on how

    do the characteristics of products influence the customer behavior and the choice of

    an offline or an online sales channel within an omnichannel marketing strategy while

    focusing on apparel and grocery retailers in Europe. In addition, the findings also

    provide an overview on how the apparel and grocery retailers react on the varying

    behavior of their customers and based on this, what marketing and sales strategies

    they employ.

  • Nor, Zakaria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Densification beyond city centres: A socioeconomic investigation of the densification process in Lundby, Gothenburg2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary urban planning for the past decades has concentrated on sustainable development, for instance through the promotion of dense development (Echenique et al., 2012). Important components for sustainable urban development concerns increasing residential and building density, as means of counteracting the consequences of urban sprawl (Jenks and Jones, 2008). Because it is argued that high-residential density is more economically, environmentally and socially sustainable than low-density since a higher concentration of people contributes to for instance shorter transportation distances as well as makes services and amenities more economically viable  (Frey, 1999; Haughton and Hunter, 2004). However, whether the densification of cities has desirable or undesirable social, economic and ecological impacts is highly contested.

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the socioeconomic outcomes of the urban densification process in the Lundby District, Gothenburg, over time. Through a mixed method approach, statistical information for Lundby District, for the years 2008 to 2015 have been processed and two semi-structured interviews with employees in the City Planning Authority and Lundby District Administration were conducted.

    The densification in Lundby presents certain strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. As more than 6300 new housing units has been constructed during this time-period, and more is to come in the near future, Lundby experienced a repopulation as the housing construction has facilitate a population increase of more than 11 000 new inhabitants. However, as the favored tenure developed during this time-period been condominiums certain weaknesses exist. Nonetheless, densification and the rapid increase in population has contributed to the number of vehicle per 100 inhabitants decreasing, which presents opportunities for being more environmentally friendly. On the other hand the claim that through densification could diversity and social mixing be achieved is flawed, as seen in Lundby the densification process has brought changes in population structure and socioeconomic characteristics, which suggest some form of gentrification is occurring.

  • Granberg, Jennelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Röbäck: förort eller integrerad stadsdel?: En studie om Umeå kommuns arbete med blandat boende och förtätning för att uppnå en social hållbar stadsutveckling och dess påverkan på stadsdelen Röbäck.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Westman, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Karlsson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Värdering på olika språk?: En komparativ studie om immateriella tillgångar i IFRS och US GAAP2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Redovisningen styrs av olika regelverk som sätter upp riktlinjer och regler som företag behöver anpassa sig efter. I större delen av världen används det internationella regelverket IFRS, men i USA används regelverket US GAAP. Tillsammans har IASB och FASB utvecklat de olika regelverken och kommit fram till en del gemensamma riktlinjer och utformat redovisningens kvalitativa egenskaper; relevans, trovärdig representation, jämförbarhet, aktualitet, verifierbarhet, och begriplighet (Smith et al., 2015, s. 72). Trots att IASB och FASB kommit fram till dessa kvalitativa egenskaper ihop finns det en del skillnader mellan de två olika regelverken. Studiens syfte är att identifiera de skillnader som finns i redovisningen av immateriella tillgångar beroende på om företagen använder sig av regelverket IFRS eller US GAAP.

    En bransch som innehåller mycket immateriella tillgångar och där värderingen har en väsentlig betydelse är läkemedelsbranschen. I vår studie jämförs därför 30 företag inom just läkemedelsbranschen, varav hälften använder IFRS och hälften US GAAP. Vi har samlat in kvantitativ data och genomfört statistiska test för att se om det finns någon skillnad i praktiken mellan regelverken. På grund av det låga antalet företag som studerats har vi kompletterat vår analys med en kvalitativ jämförelse av företagens noter från deras årsredovisningar. Det teoretiska och praktiska bidrag denna studie tillför är en kartläggning av hur skillnaderna i redovisningen tar sig i uttryck. Vidare ämnar vi att hjälpa investerare och analytiker att förstå hur skillnaderna som de olika regelverken ger upphov till, kan påverka vid exempelvis en jämförelse mellan två läkemedelsbolag som redovisar enligt de olika regelverken.

  • Lockridge, Kenneth A
    et al.
    Department of History University of Michigan.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The Fertility Transition in Sweden: A preliminary look at smaller geographic units, 1855-18901983In: Coale and Trussel´s "m" visits Sweden / [ed] Egil Johansson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1983, 92-104 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Sundelin, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Vem? Vad? När? Varför?: En studie av källkritik och kritisk granskning i olika läromedel för kursen Svenska 1 på gymnasiet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of seven Swedish textbooks for the course Swedish 1. The main point of this study was to determine how source criticism is managed in different textbooks. The study focused on where in the textbook source criticism was placed, how source criticism was defined in the textbooks, what knowledge the textbooks conveyed about source criticism, how students was encouraged to work with source criticism and what differences and similarities it was in the management of source criticism in the textbook. The result show that the management of source criticism differs between the textbooks. Source criticism is often placed in the beginning or the middle of the book and in correlation to text writing, information search and media. All the textbooks encourage the students to be critic to their sources but five of the seven textbooks doesn’t define what source criticism is or how to use it. Most of the textbooks also encourage the students to ask questions that is the same or similar to what the Swedish institution Skolverket wants the students to ask to their source material. The exercises that the textbooks proposes is foremost about analysing an article in a newspaper and assess a internet site or compare a site against another.    

  • Lockridge, Kenneth A
    Department of HistoryUniversity of Michigan.
    The Fertility Transition in Sweden: A preliminary look at smaller geographic units, 1855-18901983In: The Fertility Transition in Sweden: A preliminary look at smaller geographic units, 1855-1890 / [ed] Egil Johansson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1983, 11-136 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Byskov, Jens
    et al.
    Maluka, Stephen Oswald
    Marchal, Bruno
    Shayo, Elizabeth H.
    Bukachi, Salome
    Zulu, Joseph M.
    Blas, Erik
    Michelo, Charles
    Ndawi, Benedict
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The Need for Global Application of the Accountability for Reasonableness Approach to Support Sustainable Outcomes Comment on "Expanded HTA Enhancing Fairness and Legitimacy"2017In: International Journal of Health Policy and Management, ISSN 2322-5939, E-ISSN 2322-5939, Vol. 6, no 2, 115-118 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accountability for reasonableness (AFR) concept has been developed and discussed for over two decades. Its interpretation has been studied in several ways partly guided by the specific settings and the researchers involved. This has again influenced the development of the concept, but not led to universal application. The potential use in health technology assessments (HTAs) has recently been identified by Daniels et al as yet another excellent justification for AFR-based process guidance that refers to both qualitative and a broader participatory input for HTA, but it has raised concerns from those who primarily support the consistency and objectivity of more quantitative and reproducible evidence. With reference to studies of AFR-based interventions and the through these repeatedly documented motivation for their consolidation, we argue that it can even be unethical not to take AFR conditions beyond their still mainly formative stage and test their application within routine health systems management for their expected support to more sustainable health improvements. The ever increasing evidence and technical expertise are necessary but at times contradictory and do not in isolation lead to optimally accountable, fair and sustainable solutions. Technical experts, politicians, managers, service providers, community members, and beneficiaries each have their own values, expertise and preferences, to be considered for necessary buy in and sustainability. Legitimacy, accountability and fairness do not come about without an inclusive and agreed process guidance that can reconcile differences of opinion and indeed differences in evidence to arrive at a by all understood, accepted, but not necessarily agreed compromise in a current context -until major premises for the decision change. AFR should be widely adopted in projects and services under close monitoring and frequent reviews.

  • Westergren, Ulrika H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The IoTguide: a business guide to the Internet of Things2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research compiles relevant experiences and knowledge about the Internet of Things (ioT) in a clear and concrete guide. It is primarily based on interviews conducted between 2015 and 2017 with firms operating in different industries. While all firms featured in this guide are based in Sweden, we believe that their actions and strategies carry relevevance far beyond the context of any one nation or market. Furthermore, most of the firms that are featured in this guide have a strong international presence, further strengthening their ability to illustrate strategies for creating value by using IoT.  

    By highlighting best practices and showing how firms can apply IoT in dfferent ways while devel- oping new products, services, and business models we show the multiple ways in which IoT can be incorporated into organizational life. Our aim is to inspire firms to draw upon the experience of others and learn from the different cases and insights, starting a discussion on key strategic choices, so that they are better prepared when launching their own IoT venture. 

  • Fomin, Gabrielsen, Sanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Utför fotbollsspelare skadeförebyggande träningsprogram och har de tillgång till medicinsk personal?: - En enkätundersökning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are described problems with implementation and compliance in previous studies when it comes to Injury Prevention Programs (IPP) for soccer players.

     

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine if female and male soccer teams in Stockholm are performing an IPP in relation to their access to medical staff. The aim was also to examine if there are any difference between male and female soccer players in their access to medical staff and performing of an IPP.

     

    Method: The survey was delivered to 133 male and female soccer players from the same soccer club. The survey involved 14 questions about medical staff, information about injury prevention training and performance of an IPP.

     

    Results: Totally 82 soccer players answered the survey. The majority of the participants indicated that they have access to medical staff. More male than female soccer players indicated access to medical staff (P=0,018). No correlation was found between access to medical staff and have gotten information about injury prevention training (P=0,45). 66% of the participants indicated that they were performing an IPP. The access to medical staff correlated to the performing of an IPP (P=0,04).

     

    Conclusion: Medical staff seems to have an impact when it comes to performing of an IPP. Further research is needed to motivate soccer teams to take advantage of medical staff with their injury prevention training.

  • Rantamäki, Suvi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Realtidsimplementation av metod för att förbättra kontrasten mellan blod- och kärlvävnad vid ultraljudsundersökning: Eulerian Video Magnification implementering på ultraljudssystemet Ultrasonix2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a normal ultrasound image, there is low contrast between tissues that have similar acoustic impendance. This causes problems when trying to detect plaques in the bloodvessels that have similar acoustic impedance as the blood. These plaques are often those that are dangerous because they can cause a stroke or infarction. This project's aim is to implement a video-processing method that will improve the contrast between blood and vascular tissue in real time. This will be implemented on the Ultrasonix ultrasoundsystem. The purpose is to help healthcare professionals to better see the difference between these different tissues in ultrasound images. In order to do this, a video processing method that enhances color differences in a video connected to a desired frequency was used. This method is called Eulerian Video Magnification and it uses spatial and temporal filtering. The work began by investigating the real-time solutions that already excisted. The goal of this was to find the solution that gave the best results in this particular project. The OpenCV software library was used for real-time image processing. By studying other people's work, a solution for spatial and temporal filtering could be implemented. A test code was run on a computer and then implemented on Ultrasonix ultrasoundsystem. As a result a boosted bloodflow in ultrasound images could be seen. An evaluation of the implementation was done using five voluntary test subjects. The result from the evaluation was that the method works if the disorders from the vein are minimized. In order to get better results, further development is required with the spatial and temporal filter to filter these disordes better.

  • Wohllebe, Malte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Svenska elevers språkkänsla för det engelska språket: Vikten av intuition i elevers språkliga problemlösning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine if and in which cases Swedish students rely on their intuition when being confronted with English and how efficiently their language intuition, or sprachgefühl, functions. To study these questions a task was developed in which Swedish students of upper secondary level were asked to identify and correct various kinds of mistakes that were hidden in an English text. They were also asked to give an explanation for the changes they made, based on grammatical rules or feeling for linguistical correctness, to determine if they used their analytical capacity or their intuition in the process. The results showed that the students mainly relied on their intuition when making linguistical choices. Furthermore, the students were able to successfully solve the problems they identified in 77,5% of the cases they relied on their language intuition. However, they were still more successful, to be specific in 92% of the cases, when using their analytical system. This could either point to a lack of knowledge in grammar and deficient focus on teaching grammar in Swedish schools, or to the fact that language intuition is a dominant system in human language learning and should therefore be put in focus of language research.

  • Eriksson, Matilda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Dijkstra, Beatrice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Utdelningsbeskattning -fåmansföretagarens vän eller fiende?: En utforskande studie om fåmansföretagarens åsikter om beskattning, samt hur egenskaper och attityder kan påverka utfallet av en ändring i 3:12-reglerna.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2014 inledde Statens Offentliga Utredningar en granskning för att se över de regler som rör fåmansföretagares beskattning. Syftet var att undersöka avyttring av kvalificerade andelar i samband med ägarskiften i fåmansföretag. Uppdraget kom sedan under 2015 att breddas och en djupare granskning av de så kallade 3:12-reglerna genomfördes. Tilläggsdirektivet syftade till att se över fåmansföretagares möjligheter till inkomstomvandling genom att nyttja vårt skattesystem där förvärvsinkomster beskattas progressivt och kapitalinkomster proportionellt. Incitamenten att inkomstomvandla sägs ha ökat och således avser förslaget att begränsa dessa möjligheter. Utifrån de simulerade utfall som Statens Offentliga Utredning förväntar sig om de föreslagna lagändringarna går igenom, har studien som syfte att jämföra dessa utfall med respondenternas svar. De scenarion som ägarna har besvarat är baserade på de lagförslag som utredningen föreslår.

     

    Studien ämnar även undersöka hur fåmansföretagaren ställer sig till beskattning i allmänhet samt huruvida egenskaper och attityder kan påverka val av agerande i olika skaterelaterade situationer. En kvantitativ metod genomfördes och 1008 enkäter skickades ut till fåmansföretag i Norrbotten och Västerbotten. En svarsfrekvens på 107 enkäter erhölls från delägarna i regionerna. Respondenternas svar kopplades sedan åter till den teori, relevanta utredningar och vetenskapliga artiklar som utgjort undersökningens teori och för att sedan bemöta studiens problemformulering. Detta har mynnat ut i de tre problemformuleringarna; Vad har fåmansföretagaren för attityd till kapital- och utdelningsbeskattning? Hur kommer fåmansföretageren att agera på grund av en ändring av 3:12-reglerna? Vad har olika egenskaper och attityder hos fåmansföretagaren och hos företaget för effekt på ägarens agerande till följd av en ändring i 3:12-reglerna?

     

    Resultatet visar på att majoriteten av respondenterna inte har förtroende för det politiska styret samt att en övervägande del inte heller upplever dagens skattesystem som rättvist. I övrigt kunde inga generella slutsatser om delägarnas syn på beskattning dras. Studiens kan även visa på att ägaren, i scenarierna utformade efter de simuleringar som utredningen väntar sig, i många fall agerar annorlunda än väntat. Slutligen visar resultatet även på att om företaget aktivt skatteplanerar kan detta påverka valet av agerande i en viss situation. 

  • Johansson, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utredning av köldbärarsystem med avseende på effektivitet och kapacitet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Massa- och pappersindustrin utgör en stor andel av energianvändningen i den svenska industriella sektorn. Den energiintensiva industrin innebär en stor möjlighet till besparingar genom energieffektiviserande åtgärder. Denna rapport utreder ett köldbärarsystem som förser eltekniska driftrum med kyla samt avfuktar luften på pappersbruket Smurfit Kappa Piteå. På pappersbruket upplever man i dagsläget att deras köldbärarsystem fungerar ineffektivt och får som följd inte ut den projekterade kyleffekten. Syftet med denna utredning är att öka effektiviteten och kapaciteten på köldbärarsystemet. Målet var att ta fram åtgärdsförslag som bidrar till att uppfylla utredningens syfte. Genomförandet av utredningen har behandlats i tre del- system: Distribution av kyla, produktion av kyla samt användning av kyla. Det huvudsakliga tillvägagångssättet har varit analys av loggade data från styr- regler- och övervakningssystemet Larmia. Utöver detta har också driftprov utförts på kylmaskinerna.

    I undersökningen av distributionssystemet visade det sig att återströmning erhålls i köldbä- rarsystemet, vilket gör att redan kyld köldbärare leds in i kylmaskinen KC2. Detta leder till minskad effektivitet. Problemet med återströmning kan minimeras genom att komplettera det befintliga styrsystemet med en stoppsignal som stänger kylmaskiner vid ett lågt kylbehov.

    Undersökningen av kylmaskinerna visade att KC3 och KC4 fungerar suboptimalt. Vid drift av KC3 varierar utgående köldbärartemperatur kraftigt, vilket medför att den löser ut på frysskydd vid låga börvärden. På grund av detta är börvärdet i dagsläget ställt högre än vad som är önskvärt. För att kunna sänka börvärdet och därmed öka KC3’s kapacitet föreslås en flödesökning, så variationerna dämpas genom värmeväxling till en större värmekapacitet. Denna åtgärd kräver att KC3’s cirkulationspump byts. Driftprovet på KC4 visade att expan- sionsventilen i en av köldmediekretsarna hela tiden är fullt öppen. Detta är en indikation på att ett otillräckligt flöde erhålls i förångaren, då expansionsventilens uppgift är att reglera flödet för att hålla konstant överhettning. Det otillräckliga flödet är orsakat av ett för lågt kondensortryck. Detta leder till att förångaren inte nyttjas fullt. Orsaken till detta är en dålig vattensparventil, som reglerar kylmedelflödet till kondensorn. Lösningen på detta är att byta ut ventilen mot en reglerventil, som styrs mot önskat börvärde på kondensortrycket. Utöver detta bubblar det i synglaset i köldmediekrets 2 och rörtemperaturen ut från economisern och kondensorn är höga, vilket tyder på att något är fel. Detta kan bero på bland annat låg köldmediefyllnad, fel på economisern eller på kondensorn. Som åtgärd på detta föreslås att kylmaskinleverantören kontaktas för felsökning.

    Undersökningen av kylanvändarna visade att totalt 39 styrventiler var fullt öppna under he- la sommaren 2016, där 20 av dem styr avfuktningen i eltekniska driftrum. Orsaken till fullt öppna styrventiler till avfuktarna är att det inställda börvärdena på temperatur och relativ fuktighet är för låga. Detta gör att tillräcklig avfuktning är omöjlig vid rådande köldbärartem- peratur. Problemet kan lösas genom att höja börvärdena eller sänka köldbärartemperaturen. Resterande 19 styrventiler är till luftkylare. Anledningen till de fullt öppna styrventilerna kan bero på att köldbärarflödet är för lågt, luftflödet är för lågt eller att mer elektrisk utrustning installerats i driftrummen. Som en första åtgärd föreslås en justering av köldbärarflödet med injusteringsventilerna för att se till att rätt flöde erhålls i köldbärarsystemet.

  • Andersson, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Frakt-och paketritning för KL-trä i Tekla2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project has been to set up a freight drawing with accompanying packages drawing for CLT-wood in the program Tekla. This is based on the requirements for freight according to the Transport Agency and what applies to handling of the CLT boards regarding the working environment hazards. Based on the problems and requests from Martinsons, this project resulted in a freight drawing with accompanying package drawing. The package drawing is going to be a helpful tool for the project manager in the manufacture of the CLT boards. The freight drawing is going to provide comprehensive information about how to load the packages on the loading platform.

    The project is based on a reference model called Tallbocken, which is the model that Martinsons have used before. The model is basically a building, four floors tall, made almost entirely of CLT wood. An instruction has been made, based on this model, for the establishment of freight- and package drawing. A study has been made to ensure the demands from the Transport Agency regarding the shipping of compound elements. By visiting the production line in Bygdsiljum it was clear that the staff wanted a change in how to handle the CLT boards. Information about how to handle this was also an important message on meetings with the project manager and the production staff at the fabric in Bygdsiljum. To make sure that the drawings keep in line with the recommendations, there is an explanation for the review of building documents 90’s.

    This working project has resulted in an instruction for how to manage the establishing of freight- and package drawing. The instruction is attached as a supplement to this essay. This instruction explains the procedure step by step for how to create a freight drawing for CLT wood in Tekla structures by using a complete project template. 

  • Byman, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hotellsektorn och det digitala fotavtrycket: - En studie av TripAdvisor och dess påverkan på Ålands hotellmarknad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has grown to become one of the most influential tools affecting the tourism industry. This study seeks to explore a smaller piece of a widely recognized phenomenon, breaking off to study the impacts of online reviews on TripAdvisor and electronic word-of-mouth in the hotel sector. The study further attempts to identify problems and advantages with the increased use of consumer generated media-sites. One of the main motivations for this study is also the lack of profound studies examining hotel responses to online reviews and destination impacts. The scope of this study is limited to examine three hotels and their respective reviews, on the Aland Islands. Thus this study does not necessarily seek to generalize results in other instances.

    The identified problem in this thesis is that hotel operators experience difficulties in managing what is being written about them as the perception of time and space changes, owing to the Internet. In making progress to this problem, the study was conducted through semi-structured interviews and a thematic analysis, to understand the specifics of the context. Furthermore, this methodology was used to understand the perspectives of the informants. The results indicate that online reviews on TripAdvisor follow specific themes and are considered an important source of information for hotel operators. However, there seems to be some limitations in management, due to lack of opportunities and strategic plans of actions in the hotel sector. There is, however, a collective understanding and willingness amongst hotels to further immerse themselves in the work of managing reviews.

  • Jessen, Maria-Theresa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of climate warming on the performance of three boreal tree seedling species in interaction with moss cover and fire history2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Forest regeneration in the form of successful seedling establishment is a key factor for the persistence of a healthy forest ecosystem. Tree seedlings grow in a complex environment shaped by over- and understory and competition for light, nutrients and water. Not much research has been done on how climate change is impacting on seedling performance through direct and indirect warming effects including possible interactions with the growth environment i.e. understory vegetation. To elucidate these, seedlings of B. pubescens, P. sylvestris and P. abies were planted into a full-factorial experiment consisting of randomly assigned plant functional group (moss) removal in combination with passive warming (open-top chambers [OTCs]) along a post-fire chronosequence. Each seedling’s survival and growth had been surveyed over a period of three years (not as part of this thesis). At the end of the experiment, growth assessment in terms of biomass determination was done, by harvesting selected individuals. Growth has been found to be species-specific but without evidence of a direct or interactive warming effect. The survival analysis highlights that mosses promoted a positive warming effect on survival in the young and intermediate successional stages regardless of seedling species. In the old successional stage warming reduced survival regardless of moss presence explicitly for B. pubescens and P. sylvestris. If, as anticipated, climate change induces a shift toward younger forest stands by altering the fire frequency and climate warms, moss cover can therefore become a critical factor for seedling survival in the boreal forest.

  • Nyberg, CeciliaÄr melatonin lämpligt som långtidsbehandling vid sömnstörningar hos barn?
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Är melatonin lämpligt som långtidsbehandling vid sömnstörningar hos barn?: En litteraturstudie avseende aktuellt forskningsläge gällande säkerhet och effekt vid långtidsanvändning av melatonin2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Angermund, Anna-karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Påverkar ålder och kön mönster i vårmigration hos snösparv (Plectrophenax nivalis)?2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In many bird species protandry is a common pattern during their spring migration, allegedly this pattern is also present for the passerine species snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis). During their spring migration males tends to arrive 3-4 weeks before the arrival of females at the breeding grounds. In this study I have examined if this pattern is reflected in their spring migration as well if there is a differential timing between the age classes for males. I also examined if there is a connection between wingspan and arrival time at Umeå delta for each sex and between the sexes. To make this study possible I captured and banded snow buntings during spring at Umedeltat field station and combined my data with 2012’s data of banded snow buntings from the same station. There was a significant difference in mean capture dates between males and females, with males arriving 1.6 days earlier. There was also a significant difference in mean capture dates between older and younger males, older males arriving 2.7 days earlier. When I examined the wingspan for the sexes I looked at it for each year. During 2017 there was a trend for females that those with longer wingspan arrived earlier than females with shorter wingspan. During 2012 there was a significant correlation; females with longer wingspan arrived earlier than those females with shorter wingspan. There was no correlation between males each year. I also found that in 2017 the mean captures dates for males was later than in 2012. In contrast mean capture dates for females was earlier 2017 than in 2012. My data strongly indicate that protandry is present in snow buntings as well as wingspan may have greater importance for females during their migration than males.

  • Kamsten, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    "Du brinner för att vara en hjälpande hand": En analys av metaforer i platsannonser2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien undersöks metaforer i 15 platsannonser. Syftet är att undersöka hur metaforer används, om det finns någon koppling mellan källdomän och yrkesområde samt vilken bild metaforerna skapar av den arbetssökande och arbetsgivaren. För att avgöra vad som är metaforiskt i texterna används Metaphor Identification Procedure. För att hitta samband mellan källdomän och yrkesområde och för att kunna säga något om den syn som arbetsgivarna förmedlar tolkas metaforerna utifrån användningen i annonsen och med hjälp av litteratur om metaforer. Med hjälp av Metaphor Identification Procedure kunde 97 metaforer plockas ut ur platsannonserna. 12 varianter av dessa sorterades ut som beskrivningar av den arbetssökande och 3 varianter som beskrivningar av arbetsgivaren. Analysen av metaforerna visar att det inte verkar finnas någon särskild koppling mellan metaforernas källdomäner och yrkesområde, och att metaforerna bland annat förmedlar bilden av en arbetssökande som har en stark känsla för det hen gör och en vilja att utvecklas, samt bilden av en arbetsgivare som försöker undvika att uttrycka krav. 

  • Jacobsson, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Utformning av landsväg i tätort med hänsyn till oskyddade trafikanters säkerhet: En studie av Storgatan i Robertsfors tätort2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Road with transit traffic in urban areas entails meeting between relatively high-speed vehicle traffic and unprotected road users in a residential environment. In Sweden there are many, small and large urban areas that are crossed by roads in their central parts. These roads can cause traffic at relatively high speed to affect and create problems for the residential environment in the urban area. Roads in urban areas become problematic in relation to safety because traffic is to interact with unprotected road users. With the citizens' movement pattern as a starting point, this study illustrates how the design of the road can be adapted to the citizens to reduce the risk of accidents. The aim of this study was to investigate the unprotected road users' experience and movement patterns in the road environment at Storgatan in the urban area Robertsfors. The focus is on safety for the unprotected road users and to provide suggestions to improve safety.

    This study had a qualitative design and based on observation of movement's patterns among people using Storgatan as well as eight semi-structured interviews. The result showed that unprotected road users, expressed the need to reduce the speed of vehicles early in the urban area, to clearly visualize and protect unprotected road users and the importance of the road being part of the urban area and not a transit road. It also emerged that vehicle traffic has a prominent role in urban environment and should be questioned, as the urban area should be perceived as a safe and attractive environment for the residents. The interaction between vehicle traffic and unprotected road users is clearly unequal based on the results of this study.

  • Forsberg, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Kommunala satsningar på̊ kulturhus: - En fallstudie om kulturhuset Väven i Umeå kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 240 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Freidenfelt, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Topikala icke-steroida anti-inflammatoriska läkemedel: En jämförelse med orala NSAID med fokus på effekt och biverkningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sjögren, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    BIM 360 field - Effektivisering av kvalitetsprocessen i produktionsskedet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BIM-software programs are getting more frequently used in the construction business. Digitalization of the quality process might be necessary to firmly document the quality inspections for the customer’s satisfaction. Skanska has noticed that there is a low rate of totally completed projects, with the consequence that the completion of those issues is with a raising cost of the projects. BIM-360 field is an iPad-software from Autodesk that has its main purpose to solve the problem with poor documentation of quality controls and to handle the issues that occurs in the building process.

     

    In this study, BIM 360 field has been practiced at the project NUS 5B, Umeå to evaluate its functions in the quality process.

     

    The result of this study has been an evaluation of the functions “issues”, “checklists”, “tasks” and “equipment” in their use to handle the quality process with a higher rate of documentation. Beyond this evaluation, comments from two other responding projects that have been using BIM 360 field have been complied to a list in order to see their opinions.

     

    “Issues” is the best function in its use to speed up the completion of the projects. This function is best used in pre-inspections and final-inspections to complete issues in a more effective way. The respondents that have commented the software BIM 360 field agree partly with this conclusion.