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  • Sköld, Bore
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Estimating Carbon Footprint: A quantitative analysis of greenhouse gas emission related to human behavior and diet in Västerbotten.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective: Researchers have been looking for a way to predict future emission rates, and come up with explanations on how to tackle the issue of global warming through changes in individual behavior for decades. The focus of these studies have, on the other hand, focused more on nutritional bases rather than cultural. This study’s objective is to provide a method, as a useful tool in further analysis on GHG-emission based on cultural behavioral factors such as socio-economic status as well as age, sex, etc. with diet as emission prediction factor. This could be a stepping stone toward future research on Co2e related to e.g. physiological factors such as BMI, blood pressure and diseases.

    Method: With the use of data obtained from the FFQ questionnaire within the VIP-program, combined with estimates of greenhouse gas-emission (Co2e) attributed to specific diets obtained from Röös, estimations of individual Co2e emission-levels were calculated using the software “R”. The dataset contained 159 687 observations and 152 different variables. The data was obtained from the Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine at Umeå University. Portions sizes were mainly collected from the Swedish Food Composition Database. Box-plots and regression analysis were made to illustrate the main findings.

    Result: The result was a new dataset that could be applied to any population to estimate Co2e-emission on individual level based on an FFQ, given that the FFQ have the same structure as the one in the VIP. The variables that contributed to the highest amount of Co2e were animal products i.e. butter, milk and meat. Chicken, pork and fish were not nearly as Co2e heavy as the meat products containing beef such as “steak”, “minced meat” and “hamburgers”. The regression analysis showed that higher age had a positive effect on reducing emission, as well as being a woman. Education showed an increase in Co2e for higher education. There were some small differences among municipalities. Marital status gave a slight decrease in the regression, meaning married couples emits more than singles. Exercise showed an increase in Co2e for active individuals in the regression analysis. However, the most noticeable result were sex, yielding a relatively big decrease in Co2e-emission for women compared to men.

    Conclusion: People at younger ages, within the observed age groups 40-60, seemed to reduce their carbon footprint more in relation to the higher age groups over the last 20 years. Overall, the general diet-based carbon footprint in Västerbotten seems to have increased slightly during the last 17 years. A remarkable dip were noticed in 2003, however this might not have been due to any behavioral changes, since the trend broke in 2006 and instantly receded back to the normal levels. This study confirms the fact that meat and dairy products are responsible for a significant amount of the diet-based emission. This topic needs to be studied more, and with this method of applying GHG-emission measures to individual diet-based data, a gate has been opened for a new field of research.

  • Kristiansson, Nikki
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Kost och cancer: En enkätstudie om informationskällor, livsmedel och påverkade matvanor hos individer med en relation till cancer2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Cancer is a common disease in Sweden and for those undergoing treatment, meeting the energy and protein requirements is important. Different statements about what’s good or bad to eat related to cancer are a frequent phenomenon on the Internet. It can increase the risk of a reduced diet and make it more difficult to achieve the requirements. For health care professionals, knowledge about how different kind of food is perceived is important.

    Objective To examine the information on diet and cancer that individuals with a relationship to cancer have received and what kind of information sources that has been used.

    Method(s) A paper questionnaire and a web-based questionnaire were used and the participants, individuals with a relation to cancer, were recruited by two oncology clinics and through groups, with a connection to cancer, on Facebook. A total of 154 replies were gathered and of these 133 were used in the statistical analysis. Collected data were analyzed by using Chi-2 test, One Samle-ANOVA and Spearman Correlation.

    Results The most common source of information among the participants was the Internet (n=114, 86%). Only half as many had received information through the healthcare system (n=55, 41%). The participants made no divergence between what was good or bad preventively and during cancer. More than half of the participants felt that the information they received affected their eating habits. A higher proportion of the participant who had used books (p=0,001), private Facebook-grups (p=0,001), blogs (p=0,011) or the website ”Läkare för framtiden” (p=0,028) said their eating habits had been affected.

    Conclusion Since the Internet was a major source of information about diet and cancer, health care professionals need to refer patients to reliable websites. A reduced diet can make it difficult in achieving energy and proteins needs, which may lead to lower quality of life and interruptions of treatment.

  • Nilsson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Kliniska läkemedelsprövningar med barn: Ett etiskt dilemma2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Massing, Andre
    et al.
    Center for Biomedical Computing at Simula Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 134, 1325 Lysaker; Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Logg, Anders
    Chalmers University.
    Larson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Towards an Implementation of Nitsche's Method on Overlapping Meshes in 3D2010In: AIP Conference Proceedings / [ed] Theodore E. Simos, George Psihoyios, Ch. Tsitouras, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2010, Vol. 1281, 783-786 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitsche's method may be used to derive a systematic finite element formulation for problems with overlapping meshes that is stable and has optimal order. In this note, we formulate the method for a linear elastic model problem with discontinuous material properties. We discuss the implementation aspects, including computation of intersections of elements and integrals on the resulting polyhedra, and illustrate the method on a three dimensional test problem.

  • Vila Cano, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Towards a Model-Based Motion Control Design for a 7-axis Robotic Arm LWA4D by Schunk2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents an overview and realization of several steps towards system integration and the control design for the robot arm LWA4D by Schunk using MATLAB/Simulink blocks through the adopted hardware and software from dSpace company.

    The dynamical equations for the manipulator using three and seven degrees-of-freedom will be derived and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink blocks. Moreover, the implementation of model-based controllers based on the system dynamics is implemented and tested both in ideal conditions and under the delays related to CAN communication protocol.

    In addition, in order to visualize the motion of the manipulator under the model-based controllers, SimMechanics is used alongside plots showing the end-effector position and the generated torques. Information regarding the first steps on how the hardware and software should be set up in order to establish communication between the manipulator and the Simulink blocks is provided as well.

    Finally, the problems that appeared during the implementation steps and the results obtained are discussed in the last section.

  • Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Widman, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eriksson, Max
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Svenska skogsägares syn på skogens sociala värden2017Report (Other academic)
  • Lundström, Manda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Miljöteknisk markundersökning på misstänkt förorenad grustäkt i Ytterhogdal2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hertzman, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Atrazine in European groundwater: The distribution of Atrazine and its relation to the geological setting2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Atrazine has been banned for use in the European Union since 2004 but it is still one of the most frequently found pesticides in European groundwater. This literature review provides an insight of how and where Atrazine is contaminating groundwater across Europe. Many important factors have been stated to control the occurrence and fate of Atrazine in the receiving environment. The geological setting and the condition of the receiving environment in terms of pH, organic matter and/or clay content as well as the chemical and physical properties of the compound itself are controlling the transport through the subsurface towards the groundwater. The concentration levels range from 1,53 μg L-1  to 0,008 μg L-1. The highest concentration was found while Atrazine was still in use, while the lowest concentration was found in Sweden where Atrazine has been banned since 1989. Eleven of the included investigations found concentrations above the threshold values given in the European Groundwater Directive. No general patterns could be seen when regards the vulnerability of the included types of aquifers it is rather a complex combination of contributing factors that influences the fate of Atrazine in the environment.

  • Wikner, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Logistik och just-in-time - En utvärdering av OF Bygg i Umeå.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie behandlar logistik och materialhantering med fokus på just-in-time-leveranser (JIT). Via intervjuer har data samlats in för att besvara forskningsfrågan; hur arbetar OF med JIT idag och finns det möjligheter till förbättring? Idag använder de inte JIT i någon större utsträckning, men ser en potential i metoden. Det framkom flera eventuella hinder för en renodlad implementering av JIT, främst relaterade till resurser och planering. Resultatet av studien blev att det finns möjligheter att utveckla arbetet med JIT, utan att en renodlad strategi för JIT införs. Det finns alternativ där material levereras i så nära anslutning det går, utan att de nödvändigtvis behöver monteras direkt. Detta innebär lagerbildning under kortare perioder på upplag för separata material som bör vara markerade. Att mellanlagra materialet är en väl fungerande metod som fyller syftet för JIT-leveranser, men tar inte vara på dess fulla potential. Kostnaden är fortfarande densamma i försörjningskedjan, samtidigt som kedjan inte förkortas. Om en JIT-implementering är önskvärd bör denna strategi fortgå medan relationer med leverantörer bildas, avtal sluts och utbildning av berörd personal sker.

  • Helmersson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sociala grupprocesser och mobbning i mellanstadiet: Forskning och föräldraperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen om föräldrars förståelse av mobbning, genom att utifrån tidigare forskning som inkluderar kontext och sociala grupprocesser beskriva tolka och förstå hur föräldrar uppfattar fenomenet. Urvalet bestod av sex föräldrar som alla hade barn i mellanstadiet. Metoden som användes för datainsamling var halvstrukturerade intervjuer och analysen och kodningen av materialet var inspirerad av ett hermeneutiska cirkeln. Resultatet visade att mobbning, enligt föräldrarna, var alla handlingar som uppfattades som mobbning av motparten. Mobbning skedde främst i övergången i tonåren när barnet gick från barn till vuxen vilket bidrog med en identitetskris som resulterade i en osäkerhet och dålig självkänsla hos barnet. Identitetskrisen som barnet upplevde var en produkt utav antingen en omogenhet, samhällets och vuxnas krav eller en kombination av båda. Osäkerheten och rädslan var även den främsta anledningen till att någon mobbade, blev mobbad eller stod med som åskådare. Vilket i sin tur grundade sig i antingen en medfödd personlighet hos barnet eller i ett beteende som ett resultat av barnets fostran och uppväxt. För att bli kvitt denna osäkerhet och rädsla använde sig barnen av gruppen för att skapa makt, tillhörighet och identitet. Tillhörigheten påverkades utav de normer som rådde, först och främst i gruppen men också i samhället. Att någon avvek från normen kunde starta mobbning men behövde inte alltid vara en orsak. Föräldrarna vägde in alla typer av mobbning och tog även med flera aspekter till varför mobbning sker så som sociala och kulturella dimensioner. Föräldrarna kunskap om mobbning som en social process i en grupp var till viss del begränsad, där mobbning främst ansågs vara en isolerad händelse grundade i personlighet, uppväxt eller samhällsfaktorer snarare än som ett resultat av ett relationsarbete.

  • Lidén, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vad är det som mäts?: Är det vad organisationen vill uppnå?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna fallstudie var att granska ett multinationellt företags arbete med Mångfald och Inkludering, utifrån de mätetal som organisationen tillämpade. Studien ställde frågor kring vad som mäts och om det i så fall är vad organisationen vill uppnå? Svaret på dessa frågor söktes genom textanalys av organisationens styrande dokument för mångfaldsarbetet och genom granskning av empiriska data som samlats in genom företagets interna enkätundersökning. Det styrande dokumentet behandlades enligt hermeneutisk tolkningstradition för att kunna förstå företagets ambitioner med mångfaldsarbetet. Enkätundersökningen och dess data studerades och tolkades i relation till relevant litteratur och aktuell forskning. Ambition och aktuell måluppfyllnad kunde sedan jämföras för att besvara studiens forskningsfrågor. Centralt i uppsatsen var också att skapa förståelse hos läsaren för den flerdimensionella påverkan- och förändringsprocess som mångfaldsarbetet är. Medarbetare i organisationen påverkar varandra då de ständigt bemöter varandra med ord och handling som kan främja eller motverka inkludering. På motsvarande sätt påverkas medarbetarna även av chefer och ledning och även genom de mätningar som satts upp för arbetet i syfte att öka graden av mångfald och inkludering. Att som medlem i en organisation bli varse om sitt eget ansvar då det kommer till skapa en inkluderande kultur handlar om att möta sina egna fördomar. Att förändra människors värderingar kräver målmedvetenhet i både strukturer som processer och är en tidskrävande process. Sammanfattningsvis kunde studien konstatera att företagets mätningar till stor del var relevanta för de mål man satt upp. Det fanns dock utrymme för ytterligare förbättringar av mätningarna vilket också konstaterats av företaget.

  • Blochel, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Population demography’s potential effect on stoichiometry: Assessing the growth rate hypothesis with demography2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The elemental composition within structured insect populations was tested by creating a new method to analyze how variables (survival, growth and fecundity) within a population matrix could potentially affect the stoichiometric regime of a structured population at steady state. This was done by focusing on if the growth rate hypothesis, which states that there is a linear relationship between an individual growth rate and the percent of phosphorus within the individual, works at a population level. This was analyzed by creating and combining two matrices: the matrix-population containing the variables and a matrix containing the element phosphorus and dry weight. Data from a beetle species, Chrysomela tremulae F., was used as a guideline to create eight stoichiometric generic populations, where survival, growth and fecundity were tested in each of the eight generic populations. The results showed deviations from the growth rate hypothesis, suggesting that the hypothesis does not always work within structured populations. However, more research is needed to predict exactly how this hypothesis works in populations. Overall, this new method for analyzing stoichiometry within structured populations is a useful analytical tool, but there is a need for analyzing the results from these models in a more efficient way.

  • Andersson, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    När näthatet blir ett hot mot demokratin: En kvalitativ studie om ledarskribenters upplevelser av näthat2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Titel: When online hate becomes a threat to democracy - a qualitative study about editorial writers experiences of online hate The aim of this study has been to, through an intersectional gender perspective, identify how interviewed editorial writers at Swedish newspapers experiences, and are affected by, online hate and how the effects of online hate could have consequences for the democratic function of journalism. This has been done through qualitative interviews with eight editorial writers from different Swedish newspapers, four female and four male, two of which has another ethnic background than Swedish. The theoretical framework for the study has been intersectional gender theory, the theory of participatory culture and Sara Ahmed’s theory of the link between emotion and rhetoric. The results of the study are categorised into four different themes: ”Racist online hate”, ”Sexist online hate”, ”Emotional online hate” and ”Consequences of online hate”. The results show that female editorial writers with another ethnic background than Swedish are getting an disproportionate amount of racist and sexist online hate because of their gender and ethnicity. Further, the study shows that female editorial writers are exposed to sexism which is something that is absent in the online hate directed towards the male writers The male editorial writers tends to reduce their experiences of online hate, even though some of them are or have been exposed to aggravated libel, on the grounds that female colleagues are worse affected. The study shows that subjects that trigger online hate are integration, feminism, national security and Romany beggars. The consequences of online hate that the editorial writers identifies are very individual. The ones that are worst exposed tell stories about personal consequences such as fear of safety in public, need of protected identities and self-censorship. The ones that don’t consider themselves very affected by online hate talk more about societal consequences such as the threat of online haters tone becoming the norm on the internet, the need of  common guidelines for social media, and a threat against the freedom of speech. The conclusion of the study is that the experiences of online hate is very individual for the editorial writers, but there are clear structures that shows that women and persons with another ethnic background that Swedish are exposed to sexist and racist online hate. Some subject are triggering for online hate and there are consequences, such as self-censorship, that can be seen as threats to democracy and freedom of speech.

    Keywords: social media, online hate, hate speech, editorial writer, journalism, media, democracy, freedom of speech, gender, race, ethnicity, participatory culture, sexism, racism, emotional rhetoric

  • Lindström, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Livsmedelsbutikers ökande utbud av ekologiska livsmedel: En studie om hur livsmedelsbutiker bemöter den ökande efterfrågan på ekovaror från svenska konsumenter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how grocery stores perceive the increasing demand for organic food among Swedish consumers. Furthermore, I have studied how Swedish consumers perceive the supply of organic foods in grocery stores. This comparative study aimed to shed light on the problems and opportunities this development brings, and how the control of organic food is conducted. The primary source for the results consisted of information gathered from two surveys: a consumer survey and a store survey. The majority of grocery stores in this study answered that there has been an increase in sales of organic food and this trend is noticeable. More consumers are demanding organic food in the stores and shortages in the organic supply is becoming increasingly prevalent. This development encouraged consumer’s environmental awareness in the grocery store and promotes increased interest in how the goods are produced and transported. Large areas of agricultural land should be converted to organic agriculture to meet this increasing demand for organic food. Some studies have proven large scale- shift to organic farming without food shortages. Sweden has both preconditions for sustainable agriculture produced with local renewable resources and has the most stringent regulations and higher standards in food production than other countries. Therefore, local production needs to be prioritized. A sustainable agriculture is a necessity in the future; that can both reduce its carbon footprint and at the same time respond to the world's increasing food supply.  

  • Gaim, Medhanie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Paradox As the New Normal: essays on framing, managing and sustaining organizational tensions2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Metaphorically, the idiom “you cannot have your cake and eat it too” describes fundamental tensions at the heart of today’s organizations. Engaging tensions may seem implausible or even impossible. However, there exists evidence, given the increasingly complex environment, that both are vital to organizational success. To succeed, therefore, requires that organizations be able to manage, embrace, and transcend tensions. Consequently, the overall purpose of this thesis is to advance our understanding of tensions in general, and in creativity-based contexts in particular.

    The purpose is achieved through five self-contained yet complementary papers. The conceptual parts, which resulted in three papers, include a literature review on tensions, from which inspirations and ideas from different disciplines have been drawn in order to add value to the literature specifically addressing tensions. In parallel with this conceptual work, I explore tensions (a paradox, to be specific) in a specific context (architecture), an effort that results in two papers. Consequently, in the conceptual work, I focus on what “could be,” while in the empirical work I focus on “what is.”

    The findings highlight that first, theorizing about tensions calls for conceptual clarity. This was accomplished by identifying and then assembling core features that scholars use to conceptualize tensions. In doing so, the thesis contributes to the ways in which tensions are “represented” by reducing confusion and by making the assumptions behind tensions clear. Second, the thesis establishes that dealing with tensions productively requires a shift from thinking (and doing) based on a contingency approach towards contemporary approaches. Given the nature of the empirical context and the challenges therein, a true shift of this order necessitates framing tensions as paradoxes. In the same vein, the thesis indicates the need to rethink the central question; currently, that question is predominantly “how can we accommodate both A and B?” Given the nature of the empirical context, the question can be shifted to “why not C?” Doing so breaks away from focusing on the existing competing options and turns the focus towards something new. Moreover, dealing with tensions through this lens prevents neutralizing them and settling for a bland halfway point between one extreme and the other. Third, the thesis challenges the taken-for-granted assumption in the literature that dealing with tensions as paradoxes necessitates temporal compromise, separation, or resolution. In the thesis, I argue that dealing with paradoxes is possible without separating. This is so because simultaneously engaging paradoxes allows organizations to tap their energy and opens up new possibilities. In this case, the thesis contributes to the literature by empirically studying architectural firms. This empirical study shows that dealing with paradoxes requires an intricate interplay between what I call paradoxical mindsets and practices—which comprise organization members’ emotions, cognition, and behaviors—and organizational conditions that embed such mindsets and practices into the organization’s system. Fourth, the thesis makes a point that not all tensions require an action move. Accordingly, the thesis establishes that dealing with paradoxes may not necessarily entail action moves but rather a space to engage in dialogue so as to connect opposites, move outside of them, and situate them in a new relationship. In doing so, the presence of tension is appreciated and complementarity is sought. That is, the challenge is to be able to embrace paradoxes and not to resolve them.

    The thesis concludes that although it is challenging to tap the power of paradoxes, it is not impossible. This thesis shows that this goal can be accomplished by accepting that paradoxes are normal, and then seeking to transcend them. In so doing, organizations can unleash the “slices of genius” in their members. 

  • W. Andersson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Vägledaren insatser till elever för att förebygga gymnasieavhopp: En kvalitativ studie ur två studie- och yrkesvägledares perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska politiker hävdar att studie- och yrkesvägledare är en yrkesgrupp värd att prioritera för att förebygga gymnasieavhopp. De nämner dock inte några specifika insatser som studie- och yrkesvägledare ska göra för att förebygga avhopp. Studien kommer därför syfta till att förstå vilka insatser två studie- och yrkesvägledare i umeå kommuns kommunala gymnasieskolor ger till sina elever för att förebygga avhopp. Studien är en kvalitativ studie som kommer genomföras med intervjuer. Frågorna kommer att handla om hur studie- och yrkesvägledare identifierar vilka elever som är i riskzon till att hoppa av samt på vilket sätt studie- och yrkesvägledarna använder sig av forskning i sina insatser för att förebygga gymnasieavhopp. WATCH-programmet är ett vetenskapligt grundat gruppvägledningsprogram som studie- och yrkesvägledare kan använda för att förebygga avhopp. Detta program kommer att analyseras med de insatser som studie- och yrkesvägledarna som medverkar i studien utför. Studie- och yrkesvägledarnas insatser kommer att analyseras från bakomliggande orsaker som valts ut från aktuell forskning i ämnet som är anpassade efter studie- och yrkesvägledarnas ansvarsområde, nämligen hög frånvaro, låga studieresultat samt trivsel. Studie- och yrkesvägledarna tycker att elevernas avhopp ska vara välunderbyggt och arbetar därefter. Studie- och yrkesvägledarnas erfarenhet av avhopp samt tid är det som avgör vilka insatser som utförs. 

  • Salomonsson, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    APL-handledares syn på handelselevers yrkespraktik: En studie över arbetsplatsförlagt lärande ur ett handledarperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att bidra med kunskap om APL-handledares syn på handelselevers yrkespraktik (Arbetsplatsförlagt Lärande). För att uppnå syftet formulerade jag frågeställningar som jag sedan besvarade genom en kvalitativ undersökning med semistrukturerade intervjuer. Jag intervjuade sex handledare för elever på handel och administrationsprogrammet i två olika kommuner. Undersökningens resultat visade att APL-handledarna beskrev sitt uppdrag med stolthet och visade prov på stor kunskap i hur de kunde anpassa den arbetsplatsförlagda utbildningen utifrån den enskilda individens behov och nivå. Studien visade att samverkan mellan APL-handledare och elev i mångt och mycket handlade om att få eleven väl insatt i yrkets natur och väl förberedd för kommande arbetsliv. Samverkan mellan APL- handledare och skola handlade om information och kommunikation de två emellan samt fördelar och nackdelar med hur praktikperiodernas utformande påverkar elevens lärande mot yrkeskunskap. Betydelsefulla nyckelfaktorer för samverkan runt elevers yrkespraktik handlar om vikten av elevens introduktion på arbetsplatsen samt vikten av deltagandet i handledarutbildningar för att öka förståelsen för vilka krav och förväntningar som finns från skolans sida. Handledarna förmedlade yrkeskulturen genom att visa upp en yrkesstolthet och genom samtal och feedback till eleven utveckla denne mot självständighet i det dagliga arbetet. 

  • Rundkvist, Emanuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Elevers självrapporterade studieteknik vid kunskapsredovisningstillfällen2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien beskriver ett tillvägagångssätt för att mäta elevers studieteknik genom att använda ett datoriserat system för insamling av data under provtillfällen. Den använder enkäter som metod och baseras på idéer om självreglerat lärande och kognitiva lärstrategier. Studien genomfördes vid två insamlingstillfällen med en urvalsgrupp om 14 deltagare. Resultatet beskriver genom deskriptiv statistik analys deltagarnas användning av olika kunskapskällor, uppfattning om nyttoeffekter och förmåga att uppskatta sitt resultat.

  • Haage, Susanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Ramström, Anna Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    ─ Nu kan fan inte Tobias klaga!: En studie av gymnasieelevers upplevelser av kamratrespons på medieproduktioner2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to find out more about upper secondary school students ́ experience of peer response to media productions, eg movies and digital stories. We also explored how they learn peer response, how they use it and how peer response affects students’ choice of content for the media productions that they produce. The methods that we have used is an unstructured lesson observation, combined with discussions in two focus groups with 1st and 2nd grade students enroled at the Arts program at a secondary school in a metropolitan area in Sweden. The results of the study show that students experience peer response as positive but emphasises the importance of the teachers’ attitude and expertise as essential both to the students learning process as well as to their experience of giving and receiving feedback from a fellow student. The students find it difficult to be completely honest when they give response to a friend. The teachers’ response always outweighs the response from a fellow student and the students in this study do not use the peer response to revise and improve their media productions. The study shows that the students do not adapt the content of their media productions due to the fact that classmates will assess the result. They perceive media productions as something per definition accessible to the public, that is, the products will be showcased in public, for example, published on the internet. The students relate to this fact as they select content to their media productions. 

  • Wallace, Eva-Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Ämnesintegrera för en hållbar utveckling: En kvantitativ studie om hem-och konsumentkunskapslärares erfarenheter av ämnesintegrerad undervisning och syn på hållbar utveckling2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background The teaching at School is, among other things, dependent on frame factors. This study is specifically looking at the allocated teaching hours, the subject content and the indicators for grading that the curriculum dictates as well as the overall aim of the Swedish school system to generate future generations of sustainability minded citizens. The Home and Consumer Studies (HCS) teachers’ situation is difficult with an overambitious curriculum compared to its allocated hours. One possible solution to that problem could be an integrated curriculum.

    Objective The aim for this study was to study the Swedish HCS teachers’ experience of and attitudes towards integrated curriculum and sustainable development.

    Method The study had a quantitative approach and a digital questionnaire was sent out to all active HCS teacher in Sweden, at the beginning of the autumn term of 2016.

    Results The questionnaire was answered by 5 % of the Swedish HCS teachers and showed that a large majority (91 %) of the teachers had experienced integrated curriculum and that teamwork including all other school subjects had been done. The advantages of integrated curriculum outweighed the disadvantages. Lack of time, mainly lack of allocated planning time, was the greatest hindrance to integrated curriculum. The study showed that the HCS teachers saw that integrated curriculum has the potential to contribute to improved time efficiency with increased goal completion and job satisfaction as a result. The study also showed that the teachers need to improve their knowledge of sustainability.

    Conclusion The head of schools could contribute to increased integrated curriculum activities by influencing the local frame factors, for most by enforcing satisfactory timetable solutions that ensures the possibilities of cooperation and ensuring adequate in-service programs for educators. This could contribute to better work situation for the teachers, increased professionalism and improved status of the subject.

  • Wirthig, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Att bedöma i hem- och konsumentkunskap: En studie om hem- och kunskapslärares bedömningspraxis och tankar om kunskapskraven.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige har vi ett mål- och kunskapsrelaterat betygssystem som innebär att den enskilda läraren ska bedöma och betygsätta elevernas kunskaper utifrån skolans styrdokument på ett sätt som är både rättssäkert och likvärdigt. Arbetet med bedömning och betygsättning kan vara särskilt komplicerat för hem- och konsumentkunskapslärare eftersom ämnet innehåller en stor blandning av teoretiska och praktiska förmågor som ska bedömas på endast 118 undervisningstimmar.

    Syfte: Undersökningens syfte var att undersöka hem- och konsumentkunskapslärares arbete med och tankar om bedömning.

    Metod: Två metoder användes; en elektronisk enkät som besvarades av 94 verksamma hem- och konsumentkunskapslärare och sex semistrukturerade intervjuer. Intervjuerna analyserades med innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: En majoritet (74 %) av hem- och konsumentkunskapslärarna som besvarade enkäten ansåg att ämnets kunskapskrav var för omfattande i förhållande till undervisningstiden. Några av lärarna i intervjuerna förklarade att den snäva tidsramen försämrade möjligheterna till rättvisa bedömningar. I både enkäten och intervjuerna framkom det att vanliga bedömningsmetoder i HK var löpande bedömning, praktiska prov och skriftliga prov. Alla intervjurespondenterna arbetade med formativ bedömning och det fanns även indikationer på att en stor del av enkätrespondenterna arbetade med formativ bedömning. Några lärare förklarade att de såg formativ bedömning som en naturlig metod i hem- och konsumentkunskapsämnet.

    Slutsats: Många av hem- och konsumentkunskapslärarna använde flera olika bedömningsmetoder för att bedöma sina elever trots den snäva tidsramen. Hem- och konsumentkunskapslärares förutsättningar att genomföra rättvisa bedömningar med hög kvalité kan dock förbättras om det finns med ett bedömningsperspektiv när det på organisatorisk nivå beslutas om vilka ramar som ska gälla för hem- och konsumentkunskapsundervisningen, till exempel gruppstorlek och tidfördelningen mellan årskurser. 

  • Arnqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Allowing Left Truncated and Censored Fertility Data in the Normal Waiting Model1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Models describing marital fertility are under consideration. In Arnqvist (Research Report 2, Mathematical Statistics, Umeå University), a normal approximation of the waiting model was introduced. In this report a modification of the normal approximation is suggested. This specification allows the data to be left truncated and censored, which gives the possibility to apply the normally approximated waiting model in datasets as from the United Nations World Fertility Services. The model is appropriate except for extremely high fertility intensities, when it gives rise to bias in the parameter estimations. In this case, therefore, a bootstrap method is suggested to estimate and correct the bias. This means that the normal approximated waiting model is a good competitor to the well known Poisson or Coale-Trussell model. It also uses an understandable fertility specification.

  • Arnqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Approximation of the waiting model1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to estimate the level of family planning in a population, Coale-Trussell suggested an intensity model based on five year summarized data as given in the reports of the United Nations. Their model is denoted Coale-Trussell model. To make inference in the model, it was assumed that the pregnancy data in the model followed a Poisson process. In Arnqvist (research report 1, 1995, Mathematical Statistics, Umeå University), a modification of the Poisson assumption in the intensity model was suggested, introducing waiting time after the pregnancies. The resulting model was named the waiting model. The aim of this paper is to compare the Coale-Trussell model with the waiting model when data of the form given in UN World Fertility Surveys are used (Table 1). By using a normal approximation of the first two moments of the number of pregnancies, the asymptotic variance of the estimators of the interesting parameters is given. Simulation studies show that the Coale-Trussell model and the normal approximation model both approximate the lower intensities in the waiting model well. However, the Coale-Trussell model gives essentially biased estimates of the intensities for high birth intensities.

  • Hedenström, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Att vara eller inte vara med: En studie om förskollärares erfarenheter av inkludering och exkludering i förskolebarns fria lek2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har jag behandlat förskolebarns inkluderingar och exkluderingar av varandra i den fria leken från förskollärares perspektiv. Vilka upplevelser har förskollärarna och hur gör de när ett barn blivit exkluderat under fria leken? Utifrån fem intervjuer med utbildade förskollärare från tre olika förskolor kom det fram både likheter och olikheter i deras sätt att se på hur barn gör för att inkludera och exkludera varandra och hur de stödjer barn som blivit exkluderade. I bakgrunden och litteraturgenomgången har jag visat vad tidigare forskning säger om lekens förutsättningar, hur barn brukar inkludera och exkludera varandra men även hur förskollärare kan stödja och hjälpa barn i deras lekar. Alla förskollärarna jag intervjuade tyckte att barn väljer vem de ska leka med utifrån intressen. Men att det även finns barn som väljer kompisar på andra sätt. Förskollärare upplever att barnen ofta kan använda sig av roller i lekar för att stänga ute andra barn. Eller så nekar barnen varandra tillträde till leken direkt. En förskollärare upplever inte att barnen brukar exkludera varandra. I analysen så har jag jämfört förskollärarnas upplevelser med litteraturen och tolkat förskollärarnas upplevelser för att senare diskutera detta.

  • Stoor, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Pika Pika? Pikachu!: En kvalitativ spelanalys av de socialt uppmuntrande designelementen i Pokemon Go.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about how the location based game Pokemon Go motivates players to play the game outdoors and defining the games design principles and how they encourage social interaction between players. The paper has made use of three different qualitative data gathering methods, a brief ethnographical field study, semi structured interviews and an analysis based on theoretical frameworks used for conducting research about video games. Players were found to play outside for three reasons, the freedom of using a smartphone to play location based games, Pokemon Go’s location based game technology that creates rewards that are given to a player if they complete tasks done outside and the games feedback to reality via the avatars movement correlating with the physical movement of the player. Pokemon Go was also found to only encourage social interaction with other players through indirect means. The game does this by putting players outside and making it very easy to recognize other players, and through the use of lures, Pokestops and Pokegyms, the incentive to approach these other players and engage in some form of social interaction increases. The game functions primarily as a catalyst as well as a safety net for social interactions, where players will recognize each other and initiate an interaction using the game as a basis for conversation.

  • Kassel, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of climate change on freezing damage in three subarctic bryophyte species2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to have a strong impact on subarctic ecosystems. Increased temperatures as well as altered precipitation and snow cover patterns are predicted to change species distribution and affect biogeochemical processes in the subarctic tundra. Bryophytes are an essential vegetational component in northern ecosystems, due to their high abundance and importance in many ecological processes. In this study the effects of elevation and altered snow cover on the temporal dynamics of freezing damage in three subarctic bryophyte species (Hylocomium splendens, Ptilidium ciliare, and Sphagnum fuscum) were studied in a snow manipulation field experiment in Abisko, during early spring. Soil temperature and field moisture of moss shoots were collected. A freeze-thaw incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the freeze-thaw cycle resistance of H. splendens and P. ciliare originating from habitats with two differing snow-cover thicknesses. Freezing damage differed significantly between the bryophytes species with P. ciliare experiencing the least and S. fuscum the highest damage. Damage was higher at the low elevation, possibly attributable to acclimation effects. Snow removal led to higher damage in moss shoots, but no interactions of the different snow cover treatments with elevation, species or time were found. Freezing damage increased over time and no recovery occurred, likely due to temporal patterns in soil freeze-thaw cycles during early spring. Soil freeze-thaw cycles were the main factor influencing damage in bryophytes after snow melt. Measured environmental parameters could not explain the entire variation in damage. Damage might additionally be attributable to increased UV radiation or disturbances by herbivores.

  • Ekman, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Variable selection for the Cox proportional hazards model: A simulation study comparing the stepwise, lasso and bootstrap approach2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a regression setting with a number of measured covariates not all may be relevant to the response. By reducing the numbers of covariates included in the final model we could improve its prediction accurarcy as well as making it easier to interpret. In survival analysis, the study of time-to-event data, the most common form of regression is the semi-parametric Cox proportional hazard (PH) model. In this thesis we have compared three different ways to perform variable selection in the Cox PH model, stepwise regression, lasso and bootstrap. By simulating survival data we could control which covariates that were significant for the response. Fitting the Cox PH model to these data using the three different variable selection methods we could evaluate how well each method performs in finding the correct model. We found that while bootstrap in some cases could improve the stepwise approach its performance is strongly effected by the choice of inclusion frequency. Lasso performed equivalent or slightly better than the stepwise method for data with weak effects. However, when the data instead consists of strong effects, the performance of stepwise is considerably better than the performance of lasso.

  • Huselius Gylling, Kira
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Quadratic sample entropy as a measure of burstiness: A study in how well Rényi entropy rate and quadratic sampleentropy can capture the presence of spikes in time-series data2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Requests to internet servers do not in general behave in a manner which can be easily modelled and forecast with typical time-series methods, but often have a significant presence of spikes in the data, a property we call “burstiness”. In this thesis we study various entropy measures and their properties for different distributions, both theoretically and via simulation, in order to better find out how these measures could be used to characterise the predictability and burstiness of time series. We find that a low entropy can indicate a heavy-tailed distribution, which for time series corresponds to a high burstiness. Using a previous result that connects the quadratic sample entropy for a time series with the Rényi entropy rate of order 2, we suggest a way of detecting burstiness by comparing the quadratic sample entropy of the time series with the Rényi entropy rate of order 2 for a symmetric and a heavy-tailed distribution.

  • Daneberga, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Working at an organic tea estate in Darjeeling, India: Qualitative study on the organic awareness, satisfaction and health among the workers of Makaibari Tea Estate2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Makaibari Tea Estate is one of the plantations in Darjeeling, West Bengal, which has converted to organic practices. Organic agriculture is an acknowledged farming practice, with both environmental and health-related benefits. However, workers’ direct experience of working at an organic tea estate differs. This study was investigating the organic awareness, level of work satisfaction and health among the workers of Makaibari Tea Estate. The aim was to examine what advantages the workers perceive, as well as what limitations there still are to achieve a good work environment. The method used was qualitative and data was collected by interviewing 31 people from six villages belonging to the tea estate. Thematic analysis was used when coding the data. The results show that there is a lack of knowledge and awareness about the meaning of organic, both in a broader perspective, as well as within the tea estate. Even if there is a knowledge deficiency about the organic practices of Makaibari Tea Estate, the workers were very positive about Makaibari being organic. Moreover, the workers of the tea estate had very few health issues with even less of them related to their work situation. The work satisfaction was high but the majority of workers worked unwillingly. To increase the knowledge and awareness of organic, accessible information from the company should be provided on regular basis. Secondly, the wage and the education level should be raised, in order to empower the people on the tea plantation.

  • Andersson, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Behandlingstrovärdighet och utfallsförväntan: Dess påverkan på behandlingsutfallet i en internetadministrerad depressionsbehandling2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Depression isone of our times most common diseases. The need for more accessible and effective treatments are high. To maximize the effect of a treatment one must take common factors, like treatment credibilityand outcome expectations in account. The purpose of this studie was to investigate how treatment credibility and outcome expectations manifested it self in a internetadminstrated treatment for depression with two treatment forms, and also investigate if treatment credibility and outcome expectations showed a siginificant relation to treatment outcome. The two treatment forms where physical activation and behavioural activation. The 197 participantswere diagnosed with mild to moderate depression. They were in the age of 18-80, 75 % were women and 25 % men. The participantestimated the treatment credibility andoutcome expectationson the Treatment Credibility Scale (TCS)for the two treatment forms before they got randomized to one of the twotreatments. The result showed that psysical activation were perceivedas significantly more credible and with higher outcome expectations then behavioral activation. The results further showed a significant relation between treatment credibility and outcome expectations and treatment outcome for behavioral activation. The explenation for the resultat might be found in the treatment forms different designs, TCS construction and analys method that were choosen.

  • Degerstedt, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Enberg, Birgit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Physiotherapeutic interventions and physical activity for children in Northern Sweden with cerebral palsy: a register study from equity and gender perspectives2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, 1272236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Young people with disabilities, especially physical disabilities, report worse health than others. This may be because of the disability, lower levels of physical activity, and discrimination. For children with cerebral palsy, access to physiotherapy and physical activity is a crucial prerequisite for good health and function. To date, there is limited knowledge regarding potential gender bias and inequity in habilitation services.

    Objectives: To map how physiotherapeutic interventions (PTI), physical leisure activity, and physical education are allocated for children with cerebral palsy regarding sex, age, level of gross motor function, and county council affiliation. This was done from a gender and equity perspective.

    Methods: A register study using data from the Cerebral Palsy follow-Up Program (CPUP). Data included 313 children ≤18 years with cerebral palsy from the five northern counties in Sweden during 2013. Motor impairment of the children was classified according to the expanded and revised Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS).

    Results: In three county councils, boys received more physiotherapy interventions and received them more frequently than girls did. Differences between county councils were seen for frequency and reasons for physiotherapy interventions (p < 0.001). The physiotherapist was involved more often with children who had lower motor function and with children who had low physical leisure activity. Children with lower motor function level participated in physical leisure activity less often than children with less motor impairment (p < 0.001). Boys participated more frequently in physical education than did girls (p = 0.028).

    Conclusion: Gender and county council affiliation affect the distribution of physiotherapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy, and there are associations between gender and physical activity. Thus, the intervention is not always determined by the needs of the child or the degree of impairment. A gender-bias is indicated. Further studies are needed to ensure fair interventions.

  • Sandström, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    En kamp, en resa eller ett straff?: Konceptuella cancermetaforer i svenska tidningsartiklar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Cancermetaforer är vanliga sätt att prata om och därmed tänka kring cancer. Trots detta saknas svensk forskning om ämnet. Syftet med denna uppsats har varit att undersöka vilka olika slags konceptuella metaforer som används om cancer i svenska språket såsom det speglas i tidningstext, och om de kan sägas vara skadliga för cancersjuka och deras anhöriga.

    Materialet utgörs av 240 språkliga cancermetaforer från 101 svenska tidningsartiklar. Tidningsartiklarna har samlats in med hjälp av korpusen Mediearkivet och kommer från svensk storstadspress publicerad i januari 2016. De språkliga cancermetaforerna har identifierats med hjälp av metoden Metaphor Identification Procedure (MIP). De 240 språkliga cancermetaforerna i materialet realiserar sammantaget 15 konceptuella cancermetaforer. De sex vanligaste av dessa är (i fallande ordning) cancer är kamp, cancer är människa, cancer är resa, cancer är krig, cancer är rättegång och cancer är jakt. Resultaten tyder på att svenskan innehåller flera och varierade metaforer för cancer, även om kampmetaforen verkar vara vanligast. Trots vissa skillnader verkar det dessutom finnas en övervägande mängd likheter mellan metaforanvändningen i svenskan jämfört med engelskan.

    Skadligheten hos de sex ovan nämnda konceptuella metaforerna har undersökts utifrån två infallsvinklar: vilket perspektiv metaforerna anlägger på cancererfarenheten samt vilken grad av agens de tillskriver de cancersjuka. Analysen av de sex konceptuella metaforernas skadlighet har visat att samtliga metaforer har såväl styrkor som svagheter, men för cancer är kamp, cancer är krig och cancer är rättegång överväger svagheterna styrkorna. I tidningsartiklarna är det betydligt vanligare att metaforerna sätter cancersjuka i en försvagad position där de saknar kontroll än i en stärkt position där de har möjlighet att påverka det som händer dem. Med tanke på de olika konceptuella metaforernas potentiella skadliga natur och potentiella skadliga användning verkar det finnas fog för den kritik som riktats mot kampmetaforen och rättegångsmetaforen.

  • Nackberg, Simona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "Jag blev som inlåst i min kropp som gjorde jätteont": Nyförlösta förstföderskors berättelser om svåra förlossningsupplevelser2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att cirka en fjärdedel av nyförlösta kvinnor uppvisar symptom på traumatisk stress. Det har bedrivits begränsad forskning kring förlossning som en potentiellt traumatisk händelse, likaså kring vilka aspekter i relationen mellan vårdpersonal och patient som påverkar kvinnors upplevelse av en förlossning som traumatisk. Studiens syfte var att beskriva och förstå nyförlösta förstföderskors berättelser om svåra förlossningsupplevelser, samt att undersöka vilket bemötande från vårdpersonalen kvinnorna hade önskat. Fyra nyförlösta förstföderskor intervjuades, där samtliga skattat sin förlossningsupplevelse lågt på en förlossningsenkät på BB. Tematisk analys av intervjumaterialet genererade huvudtemat ”Jag var inte beredd på att det skulle bli såhär”.  Kontrollförlust, svår fysisk smärta och bristande stöd från vårdpersonal beskrevs som betydande delar i den svåra förlossningsupplevelsen. Deltagarna hade önskat samtalsstöd från barnmorska innan de lämnat BB. Deltagarna önskar samtalsstöd inför framtida graviditeter. I studien diskuteras psykologiska följder av förlossningsupplevelsen och föreställningar kring att vara födande kvinna.

  • Pettersson, Gerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Inre kraft och yttre tryck: perspektiv på specialpedagogisk verksamhet i glesbygdsskolor2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this doctoral thesis is to increase knowledge and understanding of special needs education in rural schools. More specifically, the purpose of this thesis is to examine and analyse the enabling and constraining conditions in special needs education for the mission of class teachers’, principals’ and special educators’. To fulfil this purpose, the following research question is posed: What are the enabling and constraining conditions for special needs education and its organisation, and what meanings are given to special needs education in rural schools? In order to meet this aim four studies were conducted in a total of 58, mainly Swedish rural schools. The schools were spread out geographically and represented both public and independent rural schools. The empirical data consists of interviews, observations and questionnaires. The method of analysis was mainly qualitative content analysis. Descriptive statistics were also used.

    The first study (Article 1) examines class teachers’ conditions for supporting pupils with special educational needs in seven rural schools in Sweden, Norway and Finland. The main results of the interview study are summarized into four themes; relationship, collaboration, distance and concern. The second study (Article II) investigates how principals in rural Swedish schools organize special needs education. A web questionnaire was answered by 45 principals. The results show that the principals balance between an individual approach to special needs and a flexible way of organizing special needs education. The third study (Article III) examines how special educators’ expertise in educational consultation is utilized in order to support professional development of class teachers who work in rural schools with diverse pupil groups. Three authentic consultation sessions were observed and analysed. The results show that consultation as a support strategy enables the class teachers to support pupils with special educational needs and strengthens professional collaboration between special educators and class teachers.

    The fourth study (Article IV) investigates what meanings educators working as principals in independent rural schools attach to special needs education. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire with open-ended questions. According to the principals’ special needs education is an activity aimed at supporting all pupils’ learning and development. The results also show that the independent schools have strong ties to the surrounding community. The thematic analysis of the four studies displays two main concepts; inner force and outer pressure. These concepts illustrate the enabling as well as the constraining conditions for special needs education in rural schools. The inner force stems from relationships, familiar atmosphere, the possibilities to meet all pupils’ needs, collaboration and flexible ways of organizing the educational activities, while the outer pressure stems from threats of school closure, lack of resources and unappreciative municipal authorities. Despite the constraining conditions, which make the rural school vulnerable, the enabling conditions seem to dominate, making the rural school an inclusive learning environment able to meet all pupils’ diverse learning needs.

  • Frida, Jonsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Underlying genetic mechanisms of hereditary dystrophies in retina and cornea2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inherited retinal and corneal dystrophies represent a group of disorders with great genetic heterogeneity. Over 250 genes are associated with retinal diseases and 16 genes are causative of corneal dystrophies. This thesis is focused on finding the genetic causes of corneal dystrophy, Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), Stargardt disease and retinitis pigmentosa in families from northern Sweden.  By whole exome sequencing a novel mutation, c.2816C>T, p.Thr939Ile, in Collagen Type XVII, Alpha 1 chain, COL17A1, gene was identified in several families with epithelial recurrent erosion dystrophy (ERED). We showed that the COL17A1 protein is expressed in the basement membrane of the cornea, explaining the mutation involvement in the corneal symptoms. We could link all the families in this study to a couple born in the late 1700s confirming a founder mutation in northern Sweden. Our finding highlights role of COL17A1 in ERED and suggests screening of this gene in patients with similar phenotype worldwide. Furthermore the genetic causes in several retinal degenerations were identified. In one family with two recessive disorders, LCA and Stargardt disease, a novel stop mutation, c.2557C>T, p.Gln853Stop, was detected in all LCA patients. In the Stargardt patients two intronic variants, the novel c.4773+3A>G and c.5461-10T>C, were detected in the ABCA4 gene. One individual was homozygous for the known variant c.5461-10T>C and the other one was compound heterozygote with both variants present. Both variants, c.4773+3A>G and c.5461-10T>C caused exon skipping in HEK293T cells demonstrated by in vitro splice assay, proving their pathogenicity in Stargardt disease. Finally, in recessive retinitis pigmentosa, Bothnia Dystrophy (BD), we identified a second mutation in the RLBP1 gene, c.677T>A, p.Met226Lys. Thus, BD is caused not only by common c.700C>T variant but also by homozygosity of c.677T>A or compound heterozygosity. Notably, known variant, c.40C>T, p.R14W in the CAIV gene associated with a dominant retinal dystrophy RP17 was detected in one of the compound BD heterozygote and his unaffected mother. This variant appears to be a benign variant in the population of northern Sweden.

    In conclusion, novel genetic causes of retinal dystrophies in northern Sweden were found demonstrating the heterogeneity and complexity of retinal diseases. Identification of the genetic defect in COL17A1 in the corneal dystrophy contributes to understanding ERED pathogenesis and encourages refinement of IC3D classification. Our results provide valuable information for future molecular testing and genetic counselling of the families.

  • Karlsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Classifying sport videos with deep neural networks2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to apply deep neural networks to classify video clips in applications used to streamline advertisements on the web. The system focuses on sport clips but can be expanded into other advertisement fields with lower accuracy and longer training times as a consequence. The main task was to find the neural network model best suited for classifying videos. To achieve this the field was researched and three network models were introduced to see how they could handle the videos. It was proposed that applying a recurrent LSTM structure at the end of an image classification network could make it well adapted to work with videos. The most popular image classification architectures are mostly convolutional neural networks and these structures are also the foundation of all three models. The results from the evaluation of the models as well as the research suggests that using a convolutional LSTM can bean efficient and powerful way of classifying videos. Further this project shows that by reducing the size of the input data with 25%, the training and evaluation time can be cut with around 50%. This comes at the cost of lower accuracy. However it is demonstrated that the performance loss can be compensated by considering more frames from the same videos during evaluation.

  • Hinnerson, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Techniques for semi-automatic generation of data cubes from star-schemas2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate techniques to better automate the process of generating data cubes from star- or snowflake schemas. The company Trimma builds cubes manually today, but we will investigate doing this more efficiently. We will select two basic approaches and implement them in Prototype A and Prototype B. Prototype A is a direct method that communicates directly with a database server. Prototype B is an indirect method that creates configuration files that can, later on, get loaded onto a database server. We evaluate the two prototypes over a star schema and a snowflake schema case provided by Trimma. The evaluation criteria include completeness, usability, documentation and support, maintainability, license costs, and development speed. Our evaluation indicates that Prototype A is generally outperforming Prototype B and that prototype A is arguably performing better than the manual method current employed by Trimma.

  • Ranung, Eira
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wramsby, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The well-being of Swedish psychologists in their early work-life: The relationship between emotional demands, role stressors, social support, appraised well-being and job satisfaction2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, psychologists are one of the professions with the most serious maladaptive stress reactions, however the subject is rather unexplored amongst newly graduated psychologists. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of emotional demands and role stressors on appraised well-being and job satisfaction among newly graduated working psychologists in Sweden, with social support as a potential moderator. Data was collected among alumni from six Swedish universities providing a psychology program, of which 561 respondents out of 622 met our inclusion criteria. A hierarchical moderated regression, showed that emotional demands affected appraised well-being negatively. Both appraised well-being and job satisfaction was negatively influenced by role stressors, and positively influenced by met expectations and social support. A moderating effect of social support from colleagues on appraised well-being was found, in psychologists experiencing role ambiguity. This study contributes to further understanding on how demands and resources available to newly graduated psychologists interact and affect their appraised well-being and job satisfaction.

  • Hansson, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Assessing total legitimacy in in Swedish large carnivore policy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of nature and biodiversity became widely acknowledged during the second half of the past century. The environmental movement contributed greatly to the initiation (and later adoption) of various international agreements on protection and sustainable use of natural resources around the globe. One highly contested natural resource is large carnivores. The role they play in eco-systems have been recognized through the adoption of aforementioned agreements for strict protection and viability. Yet it has been found that an increase of large carnivores can have negative effects on human activities. This is true for many countries around the world holding carnivore populations and Sweden is one of them. Sweden has undergone a policy shift in its environmental policy, from an anthropocentric view to a more ecocentric view, and there are several questions unanswered regarding the legitimacy of the policy. The lack of studies exploring the policy itself, specifically how the policy is formulated, what it contains, and how it relates to legitimacy, creates an opportunity to explore various legitimacy aspects of the policy content. The aim of this thesis is to assess total legitimacy in the current Swedish large carnivore policy using qualitative idea analysis. This study assesses how legitimate the current policy is, utilizing the theoretical concepts of policy ideas and total legitimacy to analyze the Swedish large carnivore policy and furthermore, to test the usefulness of the theory as an analytical tool. The results show that the policy lacks several key aspects of legitimacy, such as political and socio-cultural legitimacy, which hold the implication that the policy needs to be revised if total legitimacy is to be achieved. This paper contributes to fill a knowledge gap on how legitimacy can be studied and what further implication the legitimacy status have for management practices. 

  • Sundstedt, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Swallowing function in patients with Parkinson’s disease and Deep Brain Stimulation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases in Europe. Besides motor dysfunction, PD is characterized by several non-motor and secondary motor features, such as weight change, sialorrhea, constipation and swallowing problems. Of these, swallowing is one of the most critical, as it is associated with aspiration pneumonia and consequently is the comorbidity with the highest mortality rate. Swallowing problems affect four of every five patients with PD, and even mild swallowing problems have notable psychosocial effects for patients and their caregivers. Consequently, it is essential to find treatment strategies for PD that may alleviate symptoms for patients with swallowing problems and their potential consequences.

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment option for PD, which improves overall motor function and quality of life, but its effect on swallowing function is not clear.

    The purpose of this thesis was to contribute to the understanding of the effect of deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) and the caudal zona incerta (cZI DBS) on pharyngeal swallowing function and on swallow-specific quality of life in patients with PD.

    The specific aims were to assess longitudinally the effect of STN DBS and cZI DBS on swallowing at 6 and 12 months postoperatively, in order to identify possible effects of the DBS on swallowing function. In addition, the effects of cZI DBS on ratings of swallowing-related non-motor and secondary motor features such as body weight changes, sialorrhea and speech problems were to be assessed.

    Methods

    Eleven PD patients with STN DBS (Paper I) and seventeen patients with cZI DBS (Paper II-IV) were included in this thesis. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The effect of STN DBS and cZI DBS on swallowing was assessed with Fibreoptic-Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES) according to a predefined protocol including Penetration-Aspiration scale, Secretion Severity scale, preswallow spillage, pharyngeal residue, and pharyngeal clearance. Self-assessments were addressed using a visual analogue scale. The cZI DBS patients also completed the Swallowing Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL) questionnaire. Weight changes measured by Body Mass Index, and specific items from the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale were also examined. Nine controls without PD were included in Paper IV, by answering the SWAL-QOL questionnaire.

    Results

    No clear effect of DBS on swallowing function or swallow-specific quality of life could be observed. There was no effect of DBS on the occurrence of aspiration, secretion, pharyngeal residue or clearance in the study groups with STN DBS or cZI DBS. Patients with STN DBS reported a subjective improvement in swallowing function with DBS stimulation turned on at 6 and 12 months after surgery.

    In patients with cZI DBS, the median body mass index was postoperatively increased with 1.1kg/m2 and the median increase in weight were +3.0 kg after 12 months with cZI DBS.

    The scores from the SWAL-QOL questionnaire were high overall in the group with cZI DBS, and the scores were unaffected by the cZI DBS surgery and stimulation. The SWAL-QOL total score was not significantly different between the PD patients and the controls, but the scores from the ‘burden’ and the ‘symptom’ subscales were worse in PD patients.

    Conclusions

    STN DBS or cZI DBS did not have a negative effect on swallowing function or ratings of swallow-specific ‘quality of life’ aspects in this cohort. Patients with STN DBS reported a self-perceived improvement in swallowing function when DBS was turned on. With regard to swallowing, patients with cZI DBS had an overall good quality of life throughout the conduct of the study and their swallow-specific quality of life was not negatively affected by cZI DBS. There seems to be no increased risk for aspiration or penetration due to surgery or stimulation for either the STN DBS or the cZI DBS groups. cZI DBS caused weight gain postoperatively. Since the sample sizes in these cohorts are small, the findings need to be confirmed in larger studies.

  • Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nutrition transition and the double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia: a mixed method approach exploring social and contextual determinants of malnutrition2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Nutrition transition concerns the broad changes in the human diet that have occurred over time and space. In low- to middle-income countries such as Indonesia, nutrient transition describes shifts from traditional diets high in cereal and fibre towards Western pattern diets high in sugars, fat, and animal-source foods. This causes a swift increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity while undernutrition remains a great public health concern. Thus a double burden of malnutrition occurs in the population. The main aim of this investigation was to explore social and contextual determinants of malnutrition in Indonesia. The specific objectives were: (i) to examine body mass index (BMI) changes at the population level, and between and within socioeconomic groups; (ii) to estimate which context (i.e., household or district) has a greater effect on the variation of BMI; (iii) to assess the prevalence of double burden households (defined as the coexistence of underweight and overweight individuals residing in the same household) and its variation among communities as well as its determining factors; and (iv) to explore and understand what contributes to a double burden of malnutrition within a household by focusing on gender relations.

    Methods

    A mixed method approach was adopted in this study. For the quantitative analyses, nationally representative repeated cross-sectional survey data from four Indonesian Family Life Surveys (IFLS; 1993, 1997, 2000, 2007) were used. The IFLS contains information about individual-level, household-level and area-level characteristics. The analyses covered single and multilevel regressions. Data for the qualitative component were collected from sixteen focus group discussions conducted in Central Java and in the capital city Jakarta among 123 rural and urban men and women. Connell’s relational theory of gender and Charmaz’s constructive grounded theory were used to analyse the qualitative data.

    Results

    Greater increases in BMI were observed at higher percentiles compared to the segment of the population at lower percentiles. While inequalities in mean BMI decreased between socioeconomic groups, within group dispersion increased over time. Households were identified as an important social context in which the variation of BMI increased over time. Ignoring the household level did not change the relative variance contribution of districts on BMI in the contextual analysis. Approximately one-fifth of all households exhibited a double burden of malnutrition. Living in households with a higher socioeconomic status resulted in higher odds of double burden of malnutrition with the exception of women-headed households and communities with high social capital. The qualitative analysis resulted in the construction of three categories: capturing the significance of gendered power relations, the emerging obesogenic environment, and generational relations for child malnutrition.

    Conclusion

    At the population level, greater increases in within-group inequalities imply that growing inequalities in BMI were not merely driven by socioeconomic factors. This suggests that other under-recognised social and contextual factors may have a greater effect on the variation in BMI. At the contextual level, recognition of increased variation among households is important for creating strategies that respond to the differential needs of individuals within the same household. At the household level, women’s empowerment and community social capital should be promoted to reduce inequalities in the double burden of malnutrition across different socioeconomic groups. Ultimately community health and nutrition programmes will need to address gender empowerment and engage men in the fight against the emerging obesogenic environment and increased malnutrition that is evident within households, especially overweight and obesity among children.

  • Sehlin MacNeil, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Extractive Violence on Indigenous Country: sami and Aboriginal Views on Conflicts and Power Relations with Extractive Industries2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Asymmetrical conflicts and power relations between extractive industries and Indigenous groups often have devastating consequences for Indigenous peoples. Many Indigenous groups are struggling to maintain their lands as Indigenous perspectives on connection to Country are frequently undervalued or dismissed in favour of extractivist ideologies. While this conflicted interface has been researched in various parts of the world, studies exploring conflicts and power relations with extractive industries from Indigenous perspectives are few.

    This thesis is an international comparison aiming to illuminate situations of conflict and asymmetrical power relations caused by extractivism on Indigenous lands from new viewpoints. By drawing on two single case studies, the situations for Laevas reindeer herding Sami community in northern Sweden and Adnyamathanha Traditional Owners in South Australia are compared and contrasted. Yarning (a form of interviewing) is used as a method for data collection and in order to stay as true as possible to the research participants’ own words a number of direct quotes are used. The analysis employs peace researcher Johan Galtung’s concepts of cultural and structural violence as analytical tools to further explore the participants’ experiences of interactions with extractive industries and industrial proponents, including governments. In addition, the thesis introduces the concept of extractive violence as a complement to Galtung’s model. Extractive violence is defined as a form of direct violence against people and/or animals and nature caused by extractivism, which predominantly impacts peoples closely connected to land. The concepts of structural and cultural violence are understood as unjust societal structures and racist and discriminating attitudes respectively.

    A number of main themes could be identified in the research participants’ narratives. However, the most prominent on both continents was connections to Country and the threat that extractive violence posed to these connections.

    The results show that although the expressions of cultural, structural and extractive violence experienced by the two Indigenous communities varied, the impacts were strikingly similar. Both communities identified extractive violence, supported by structural and cultural violence, as threats to the continuation of their societies and entire cultures. Furthermore, the results suggest that in order to address violence against Indigenous peoples and achieve conflict transformation, Indigenous and decolonising perspectives should be heard and taken into account.

  • Vu, Mai Trang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Logics and politics of professionalism: the case of university English language teachers in Vietnam2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Set against a changing backdrop of reforms in higher education and English language teaching (ELT), the thesis explores the notion of professionalism for university English teachers in Vietnam: What is defined as professionalism in this particular period of time? How is professionalism constructed in this context?

    The research approaches professionalism as a critical concept: A list of aspired traits and features are always value-laden and concern the question of power. From this premise, the thesis discusses a “kaleidoscope” relationship between different actors in the making of professionalism. Using Freidson’s (2001) ideas on the contingencies of professionalism, the study views the notion as a process rather than a product. Professionalism has its own logic that needs to be respected, but this logic is also incidental to other logics for its establishment and development.

    The study uses embedded case study to address its research questions. Defining the case as professionalism for university ELT teachers in contemporary Vietnam higher education, the thesis studies the notion as articulated at national, institutional, and individual levels. The primary data sources include five national policies, institutional policies and management practices at a university and its foreign languages department, and interviews with six academic managers and eleven ELT lecturers. The data were analysed using thematic analysis approach within constructivist, interpretive traditions.

    The results show that professionalism for ELT lecturers in Vietnam can largely be characterised as a professionalism of entrepreneurship, measurability and functionality. ELT is largely considered as a tool for international integration. Each type of professionalism project involves several actors (the state, expert groups, the institution, and ELT academics) with their own logic, but they interrelate in responding to the imperatives of the knowledge-based economy and globalisation. How the meaning of professionalism is established and argued for by the different actors in this study reveals that it is not easy to conceptualise the notion in a binary system of “from above” professionalism versus “from within” professionalism; and “organisational” professionalism versus “occupational” professionalism. The complexities of the logics of professionalism – with an ”s”, affect whether a professionalisation project can be perceived as being positive or negative – Is it professionalisation or is it deprofessionalisation? The relativity of “from above” and “from within” reflects the contingencies of professionalism, and also suggests authority power is plural, shifting, and fluid, rather than single, normative, and static. Meanwhile, it means human’s individual power is not of an ultimate freedom but dependent on external conditions. With these considerations, the study proposes interpreting professionalism as a ”social contract”. This helps not only recognise a mutual relationship between the state, the institution, and academics, but also illuminate how each party enables, maintains, and contributes to this relationship.

  • Vestrin Söderberg, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Perspektiv på naturen: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie om ekologisk hållbarhet i religionskunskap i åk 7-92017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study Perspektiv på naturen i religionskunskap: en kvalitativ litteraturstudie om ekologisk hållbarhet i religionskunskap i åk 7-9 (Perspectives on nature: a qualitative literature study about ecological sustainability in the subject of religion for grades 7-9) is to contribute to the discourse on nature and environmental issues within the subject of religion in the grades 7-9, in the Swedish elementary schools. Through literary analyses of textbooks used by teachers in the municipality of Umeå. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the teachers are able to meet the goals set by the national curriculum with regard to environmental perspective and sustainability through the text books. Four textbooks have been analysed with the help of three perspectives in environmental ethics (antropocentrism, biocentrism, ekocentrism, teocentrism and deep ecology). The texts analysed were those that explicitly dealt with nature, ecological sustainability and environmental issues. The results show that, from three of the four books had very little material on the environmental issues and ecological sustainability. Only one book dealt directly with ecological sustainability, two books did not mention environmental issues and that all books had texts that referred to views on nature within all the centrisms. The texts that directly mediated a view were anthropocentric, although this was in only conveyed in one of the books. Many texts could not clearly be determined as belonging to one centrism as the length of the texts were too short.

  • Gullbrand, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Jag tänkte mer på hur det egentligen var: En kvalitativ studie av v-logg i ett religionspedagogiskt sammanhang2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ådell, Mimmi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Döden i läroböcker: Läromedelsanalys för åk 7-92017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Death in textbooks: teaching materials analysis for grades 7-9. [Döden i läroböcker: läromedelsanalys för åk 7-9] My purpose is to examine how death is described in the students' textbooks in religious studies. I want to pass on knowledge of what the textbooks concern about death and grief. I will conduct a qualitative text analysis, because it suits well when you want to examine textbooks. The ideas of a secular society might be a reason why questions of life are hidden. They also influence how people act towards each other, especially when someone is under grief and loss. What I expect is that the textbooks used in schools today are lacking information about death and grief. The actual results show that parts of my expectations were correct. Large differences also emerged when looking at the textbooks issued to the current curriculum in comparison to the old textbooks that is still in use at school's teaching today.

  • Westergren, Ulrika H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    IoTguiden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    IoTguiden kommer ur ett Vinnovaprojekt som har skapat kunskap kring övergången från produkt till tjänst med Sakernas Internet (eng. Internet of Things, IoT) genom att 1) studera befintliga framgångsrika IoT- satsningar hos ett antal svenska företag inom olika branscher och 2) göra en bredare omvärldsanalys och benchmarking. Därigenom har projektet synliggjort möjligheter med IoT och vilka strategier, värdeskapande och roller som återfinns hos företag inom IoT- ekosystemet.

    Genom att studera IoT-satsningar vid ett 20-tal svenska företag inom olika branscher har projektet genererat resultat som är generellt applicerbara på alla företag som står inför en transformation baserat på de specifika möjligheter IoT skapar. Resultaten har sammanställts i en skrift, IoTguiden, som innehåller konkreta råd och praktiker. IoTguiden distribueras fritt, både digitalt och som trycksak. Projektet har letts av Umeå universitet med stor vana av liknande utredningsarbete och genom de andra projektaktörerna, Fältcom och Telia Company har god tillgång till fallföretag tryggats. Det här har gjorts för att visa på mångfald och potential för processförbättring, effektivisering och nytt värdeskapande, men också för att lyfta fram vad som är gemensamma nämnare för samtliga som satsar på IoT, oavsett branschtillhörighet. 

  • Höglund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    MI-samtal som extra anpassning: Lärares erfarenheter och reflektioner2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna kvalitativa studie undersöktes lärares erfarenhet av, och inställning till, att använda motiverande samtal som extra anpassning inom distansundervisning för vuxna. Forskningsfrågorna handlade om ifall motivationsstödjande samtal genomfördes, lärares inställning till denna typ av extra anpassning, samt vilka konsekvenser lärare trodde av användandet av MI skulle få. Halvstrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med åtta distanslärare inom vuxenutbildning. Resultaten visade att samtliga lärare hade erfarenhet av någon typ av motivationsstödjande samtal, men att man inte upplevde att det skedde på ett systematiserat sätt. Samtliga informanter ansåg att interaktionen med läraren var av stor betydelse för elevers motivation och prestation. Tidsåtgången framhölls som ett hinder för att kunna använda motivationsstödjande samtal mer, trots att informanterna trodde att det skulle kunna leda till att fler elever klarade sina kurser och fick stärkt självkänsla och motivation. Informanter ansåg att exempelvis elever med studiesvårigheter skulle kunna gynnas av anpassningen.