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  • Alam, Athar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Golovliov, Igor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Javed, Eram
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Kumar, Rajender
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Ådén, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Dissociation between the critical role of ClpB of Francisella tularensis for the heat shock response and the DnaK interaction and its important role for efficient type VI secretion and bacterial virulence2020In: PLoS Pathogens, ISSN 1553-7366, E-ISSN 1553-7374, Vol. 16, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Author summary Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are essential virulence determinants of many Gram-negative pathogens, including Francisella tularensis. This highly virulent bacterium encodes an atypical T6SS lacking ClpV, the ATPase crucial for prototypic T6SS sheath disassembly. It, however, possesses ClpB, a protein critical for heat shock survival via its interaction with DnaK. Since ClpB possesses ATPase activity, it has been hypothesized to provide a compensatory function for the absence of ClpV, a hypothesis supported by the recent findings from us and others. Here, we investigated how F. tularensis ClpB controls T6S. In silico modelling of the ClpB-DnaK complex identified key interactions that were experimentally verified. For example, mutating one of the DnaK-interacting residues rendered the bacterium exquisitely susceptible to heat shock, but had no effect on T6S and virulence. In contrast, removing the N-terminal of ClpB only had a slight effect on the heat shock response, but strongly compromised both T6S and virulence. Intriguingly, the Escherichia coli ClpB could fully complement the function of F. tularensis ClpB. The data demonstrate that the two critical roles of ClpB, mediating heat shock survival and effective T6S, are dissociated and that the N-terminal is crucial for T6S and virulence.

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  • Junkka, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The emergence of social gaps in mental health: A longitudinal population study in Sweden, 1900-19592020In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 4, article id e0232462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the recent decades, social inequalities in mental health have increased and are now one of the most persistent features of contemporary society. There is limited knowledge about when this pattern emerged or whether it has been a historically fixed feature. The objective of this study was to assess whether socioeconomic and gender gaps in mental health changed during the period 1900–1959 in Sweden. We used historical micro data which report all necessary information on individuals' demographic characteristics, occupational attainment and mental disorders (N = 2,450) in a Swedish population of 193,893. Changes over time was tested using multilevel Cox proportional hazard models. We tested how gender-specific risks of mental disorder changed and how gender-specific socioeconomic status was related to risks of mental disorder later in life. We found a reversal in gender gaps in mental health during the study period. Women had a lower risk than men in 1900 and higher risks in 1959. For men, we found a negative gradient in SES risks in 1900 and a positive gradient in 1959. For women, we found no clear SES gradient in the risk of mental disorder. These findings suggest that the contemporary patterns in socioeconomic and gender gaps in mental disorder emerged during the 1940s and 1950s and have since then persisted.

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  • Granqvist, Raoul J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University.
    Från zulu till meänkieli: Sara Lidman avlyssnar, samtalar, nedtecknar2020In: Nya Argus, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 131-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a postcolonial writer Lidman is unique for her time in transliterating and contextualizing (not translating) Gikuyu and Kiswahili words, proverbs, and stories. Here she moves through languages that touch the milieus of South Africa, Kenya, India, and northern Sweden (meänkieli). 

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  • Schmidt, Tobias T
    et al.
    Sharma, Sushma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Reyes, Gloria X
    Kolodziejczak, Anna
    Wagner, Tina
    Luke, Brian
    Hofer, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Chabes, Andrei
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Hombauer, Hans
    Inactivation of folylpolyglutamate synthetase Met7 results in genome instability driven by an increased dUTP/dTTP ratio2020In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 264-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accumulation of mutations is frequently associated with alterations in gene function leading to the onset of diseases, including cancer. Aiming to find novel genes that contribute to the stability of the genome, we screened the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion collection for increased mutator phenotypes. Among the identified genes, we discovered MET7, which encodes folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), an enzyme that facilitates several folate-dependent reactions including the synthesis of purines, thymidylate (dTMP) and DNA methylation. Here, we found that Met7-deficient strains show elevated mutation rates, but also increased levels of endogenous DNA damage resulting in gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs). Quantification of deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) pools in cell extracts from met7Δ mutant revealed reductions in dTTP and dGTP that cause a constitutively active DNA damage checkpoint. In addition, we found that the absence of Met7 leads to dUTP accumulation, at levels that allowed its detection in yeast extracts for the first time. Consequently, a high dUTP/dTTP ratio promotes uracil incorporation into DNA, followed by futile repair cycles that compromise both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA integrity. In summary, this work highlights the importance of folate polyglutamylation in the maintenance of nucleotide homeostasis and genome stability.

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  • Cerritelli, Susana M
    et al.
    Iranzo, Jaime
    Sharma, Sushma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Chabes, Andrei
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Crouch, Robert J
    Tollervey, David
    El Hage, Aziz
    High density of unrepaired genomic ribonucleotides leads to Topoisomerase 1-mediated severe growth defects in absence of ribonucleotide reductase2020In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 4274-4297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular levels of ribonucleoside triphosphates (rNTPs) are much higher than those of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), thereby influencing the frequency of incorporation of ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) by DNA polymerases (Pol) into DNA. RNase H2-initiated ribonucleotide excision repair (RER) efficiently removes single rNMPs in genomic DNA. However, processing of rNMPs by Topoisomerase 1 (Top1) in absence of RER induces mutations and genome instability. Here, we greatly increased the abundance of genomic rNMPs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by depleting Rnr1, the major subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, which converts ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. We found that in strains that are depleted of Rnr1, RER-deficient, and harbor an rNTP-permissive replicative Pol mutant, excessive accumulation of single genomic rNMPs severely compromised growth, but this was reversed in absence of Top1. Thus, under Rnr1 depletion, limited dNTP pools slow DNA synthesis by replicative Pols and provoke the incorporation of high levels of rNMPs in genomic DNA. If a threshold of single genomic rNMPs is exceeded in absence of RER and presence of limited dNTP pools, Top1-mediated genome instability leads to severe growth defects. Finally, we provide evidence showing that accumulation of RNA/DNA hybrids in absence of RNase H1 and RNase H2 leads to cell lethality under Rnr1 depletion.

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  • Norlin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Comenius, moral and pious education, and the why, when and how of school discipline2020In: History of Education, ISSN 0046-760X, E-ISSN 1464-5130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study provides an analysis of John Amos Comenius’s thoughts on moral and pious education, educational governance and school discipline as expressed in Didactica Magna. This is examined from the background of his view of education as a societal phenomenon, the purposes of different categories of knowledge for individual formation and the role of pedagogy in the upbringing of children. Theoretically, this paper expands on Michel Foucault’s ideas about governmentality and discipline, as well as on Henri Lefebvre’s spatial theories. The article argues that Comenius can be viewed as a significant contributor to the early modern shift towards new administrative techniques for school governance, transmitting the mode of disciplinary power into pedogogised and didactic forms. The article contributes to achieving more systematic knowledge for understanding the focused areas of schooling, the concept of discipline and the pedagogic premises of disciplinary practice in an early modern European educational context.

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  • Flyrén Barrsäter, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Abakus, ett verktyg för sum-elever?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka om och hur abakusen kan vara ett alternativt verktyg för elever med svårigheter i matematik. Sex intervjuer med matematiklärare har genomförts. En av dessa lärare arbetade på gymnasiet, tre på högstadiet och två på lågstadiet. Tre använder eller har använt abakusen och övriga tre har ingen erfarenhet av den. Studiens resultat visar att samtliga deltagare är positiva till att använda abakusen som ett alternativt verktyg för elever med svårigheter. De ansåg dock att matematiklärare behöver en bred kunskap om abakusen, för att arbeta med eleverna, och att det finns en kunskapströskel som eleverna behöver komma över för att lära sig hur abakusen fungerar. Studiens resultat visar också att de deltagande matematiklärarna anser att speciallärare har en betydelsefull roll att fylla i detta sammanhang, som rådgivare till lärare angående abakusens användning samt funktion. Detta, i kombination med att lärarna ger elever grunderna i matematik, leder till att elever med svårigheter i matematik lättare tar till sig kunskap i matematikämnet. Avslutningsvis diskuteras betydelsen av alternativa verktyg för elever som påvisar brister i matematiken samt speciallärares uppdrag att främja, förebygga och stödja elever i svårigheter. 

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  • Ekervhén, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Hedin, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Matematik på fordonsprogrammet - visst kan resultaten förbättras2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många elever på yrkesprogram har svårt att klara matematiken. Syftet med denna studie var att öka kunskaperna om hur ett antal elever på fordonsprogrammet uppfattade och tänkte kring ämnet matematik liksom deras tidigare erfarenheter av matematikundervisning och hur motivation, självreglerat lärande och stöd påverkat och påverkar deras matematikinlärning. För att komma fram till det intervjuades sex elever och deras matematiklärare i två olika skolor i helt olika delar av Sverige. Eleverna i studien hade alla likadan erfarenhet av matematikundervisning, där lektionerna började med en genomgång och efter det eget arbete med uppgifter, oftast från matematikboken. Alla intervjuade elever hade till allra största del yttre motivation till att klara godkänt betyg i matematik, där de yttre faktorer som påverkade dem var kopplade till en bra framtid. Ingen av de intervjuade eleverna hade klart för sig vilka kunskaper som förväntades av dem i matematiken, vilket gjorde att de inte hade de förutsättningar som behövdes för att använda sig av självreglerat lärande, SRL, och gjorde inte heller det. Förbättrade resultat i matematik går att få genom ökad motivation hos eleverna, och motivationen kan förbättras genom att eleverna ser nyttan med matematiken liksom att de har en känsla av att klara av den. En kombination av undervisning med laborativa och yrkesanknutna uppgifter, grupparbeten och övningsuppgifter inom den proximala utvecklingszonen liksom tydliga mål skulle höja elevernas motivation och därmed resultaten i matematik. 

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  • Blomqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Speciallärarens roll i folkhögskolan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Does special educators in mathematics have a function in Folk High Schools? Through a study using a qualitative interview method, the need and the expectation of a special educator in mathematics were investigated. From two different Folk High Schools six employees from three different categories; principals, teacher in mathematics and assistants were interviewed. In the interviews an expression of a need for special education among the pupils were addressed. This need was shown to be fulfilled through the Folk High Schools way of teaching. The Folk High School education system is built on good communication between pupils and teachers and an extended collaboration between professions. A special educator can contribute with new tools for education in mathematics and develop the local school environment at the Folk High School.

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  • Bjernevik Lindsjö, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Gerhardsson, Ann-Sofi
    Förståelsegapet mellan det konkreta och abstrakta - hur gör vi?En kvalitativ studie om hur speciallärare kan bidra till att utveckla matematikundervisning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I kölvattnet av de olika kunskapsmätningarna, TIMMS, PISA och de nationella proven, blossar heta diskussioner upp gällande matematikundervisningen och dess utformning, både i Sverige och utomlands. Internationella studier visar att låga prestationer i matematik är ett komplext fenomen, därför behöver matematiklärare och speciallärare samarbeta med utvecklingen så att matematikundervisningen kan möta den stora variationen av olikheter bland eleverna och samtidigt stödja elevernas abstrakta tänkande. Syftet med studien är att bidra med kunskap om hur speciallärare i matematik kan stödja lärares arbete med undervisning som överbryggar gapet mellan elevers konkreta och abstrakta matematiska förståelse. Svaren på de undersökta frågeställningarna har sökts utifrån en kvalitativ forskningsstrategi med semistrukturerade intervjuer och en efterföljande innehållsanalys. Resultaten visar att lärarna använder en mängd olika uppgifter för att överbrygga gapet mellan elevernas konkreta och abstrakta matematiska förståelse. Uppgifterna är olika i sin karaktär med tanke på både arbetsformer och representationer samt växlingar däremellan. Resultaten visar också att det stöd lärarna önskar få av speciallärare i matematik är matematikdidaktiskt stöd och någon att föra didaktiska samtal med, stöd i framplockning av uppgifter, stöd i undervisningssituationen samt större tillgång till konkret material. Studiens resultat och den tidigare forskningen, tyder på att balans mellan flera olika faktorer är centrala för högre prestationer i matematik när det gäller kopplingen mellan elevernas konkreta och abstrakta matematiska förståelse. 

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  • Linh Stenquist Foberg, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Slaviero, Bitte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Speciallärares tankar och undervisning kring metod- och problemlösningsförmågan i matematik - i deras arbete med elever i SUM2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur undervisar och tänker några speciallärare i matematik kring arbetet med elever i SUM då det handlar om metodförmågan och problemlösningsförmågan? Syftet med studien var att ta reda på detta. En del forskare menar att arbetet med problemuppgifter utvecklar elevernas matematiska förståelse, i högre grad, jämfört med om de tränar och lär sig olika metoder utantill. Genom att få en djupare inblick och förståelse för hur speciallärarna tänker om och undervisar i förmågorna kan studien bidra med ökad kunskap inom området. Studien hämtar inspiration från det kommunikativa relationsinriktade perspektivet och vårt val grundade sig på att mycket av lärandet sker genom interaktion. En kvalitativ metodansats användes och för att få en djupare förståelse om speciallärarnas undervisning och tankar kring studiens forskningsfrågor, genomförde vi observationer och intervjuer. Resultatet visar att speciallärarna medvetet arbetar för att elever i SUM ska utveckla förståelse för de två förmågorna. Att få eleverna nyfikna och delaktiga genom handledning och guidning med hjälp av god kommunikation är några viktiga delar i deras lärande. Vi har funnit likheter i hur speciallärarna tänker och undervisar när det handlar om metodförmågan och problemlösningsförmågan. Att kombinera förmågorna i undervisningen skapar goda förutsättningar för eleverna i SUM att utveckla sin matematiska förståelse.

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  • Idril, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Arbetsminnets påverkan på matematikutvecklingen -  Bristande och begränsade minnesfunktioner, hur de synliggörs och assisteras2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka hur minnestester används vid kartläggningar i en mindre svensk kommun. Frågeställningarna som låg till grund för studien var: Vilka olika minnestester används i den aktuella kommunen? Vilket syfte framkom till varför just dessa tester används? Hur kan bristande eller begränsat arbetsminne synliggöras och assisteras i den aktuella kommunen, utifrån empiriinsamling och relevant forskning? Empiriinsamlingen har skett genom intervjuer av speciallärare, specialpedagoger och skolpsykolog om minnestest i samband med kartläggningar och efterföljande stödinsatser. Genom gemensamma reflektioner, analyser och utvärderingar diskuterades kategorierna syfte, forskningsbakgrund, normering, elevurval, innehåll, typ av uppgifter, mängd samt efterföljande stödinsatser. I resultatet framkom att flera olika test används med olika inriktningar i olika kartläggningar och att minnestesterna bara är en liten del av dessa. Inriktningarna var mot språk-, läs-, skriv- och räknesvårigheter samt mot vidare NPF eller begåvningsutredningar. Samtliga test och stödinsatser är till för att reducera svårigheter. Arbetsminnet har betydande påverkan på matematikutvecklingen och är en stark prediktor för matematiksvårigheter. Anpassningar och stödinsatser måste vara elevspecifika och utifrån den kontext eleven befinner sig i. Slutresultatet av studien har lett till en kommungemensam praktiknära modell för hur elevhälsan kan arbeta med arbetsminnestest, testresultat, stödinsatser, anpassningar, strategier och kompensatoriska hjälpmedel.

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  • Berg, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bergman, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Begåvade elevers rätt till ledning och stimulans i skolan matematiklärande - Hur elever och lärare beskriver att matematikundervisningen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att få ökad kunskap om hur begåvade elever reflekterar över sin matematikundervisning samt hur lärarna beskriver sin undervisning och anpassar denna för begåvade elever. Tanken är att detta kan bli ett möjligt kunskapsbidrag för pedagoger och oss blivande speciallärare i förebyggande arbete för att kunna tillgodose begåvade elevers kunskapsbehov i matematik. I studien valdes en kvalitativ metod genom intervjuer med elever som går i årskurs åtta och deras lärare i två olika kommunala skolor, en utan och en med inriktning på matematik. För att kunna förstå elevernas syn på undervisning intas ett barns perspektiv i studien, elevernas röster blir hörda då de ger uttryck för sina åsikter.

    Resultatet i studien visade att en elev av fem känner sig helt inkluderade didaktiskt, social och rumsligt. Eleverna kände sig främst socialt exkluderade, främst på skolan utan matematikinriktning där de ville vara mer delaktig i sin läroprocess för att kunna påverka innehållet i undervisningen. Den största skillnaden på hur eleverna upplever sin matematikundervisning var att eleverna på skolan med matematikinriktning, är mer nöjda tack vare att det sker en del anpassningar och att de arbetar med likasinnade. Eleverna på skolan utan inriktning i matematik, ser fler utvecklingsmöjligheter och efterfrågar främst arbete med lärprocessen där deras kommunikation- och resonemangsförmågor prövas och gärna i samverkan med likasinnade och lärare. Båda elevgrupperna uppskattar att arbeta med läromedel som grund som har olika nivåer, men de vill ha mer variation till exempel genom berikning men även acceleration. De intervjuade eleverna tycks ha ett gott självreglerat lärande vilket påverkar deras kunskapsutveckling positivt. 

    I studien framkom det att lärarna på de två skolorna har olika utgångspunkter för att kunna ge ledning och stimulans för begåvade elever. Tack vare den mer homogena gruppsammansättningen på skolan med specifik matematikinriktning, var det lättare att göra anpassningar i undervisningen, medan skolan utan inriktning främst prioriterar de elever som riskerar att inte nå målen. Uppfattningen är att lärare behöver rätt organisatoriska förutsättningar för att kunna samverka med de begåvade eleverna.

    Inom skolans verksamhet behöver vi ta på ”rätt glasögon” för att uppmärksamma denna bortglömda grupp och ge dem den ledning och stimulans som de har rätt till såväl juridiskt som moraliskt. De begåvade eleverna behöver känna sig inkluderade i skolans och samhällets gemenskap. Detta förutsätter att lärare ges rätt förutsättningar att i praktiken kunna genomföra det som stipuleras av politiker.

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  • Waiswa, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Speciallärare med inriktning mot matematik, behövs det? En kvalitativ studie som beskriver och analyserar behovet av speciallärare med inriktning mot matematik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag utbildas speciallärare med olika inriktningar, mot språk, mot särskolan och mot matematik. Det utbildas också specialpedagoger. Dessa examinas sedan för att inneha olika yrkesroller. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka glappet mellan verksamhetens behov och policydokumenten i relation till yrkesroller som definieras i styrdokumenten. Sju rektorer och en biträdande rektor har intervjuats. En skola hade två speciallärare, en med inriktning språk och en med inriktning matematik. Detta var en F – 9 skola med närmare 400 elever. Vid en skola, F – 9 hade man en specialpedagog med en gammal utbildning som vid legitimationsreformen hade fått behörighet som specialpedagog, speciallärare med inriktning matematik och speciallärare med inriktning språk. Hon jobbade dock uteslutande som specialpedagog. Ingen annan skola i hade en speciallärare med inriktning matematik anställd. Flera rektorer utryckte en önskan om att ha en speciallärare med inriktning matematik i sin organisation men ansåg att dom inte hade utrymme för både en med inriktning språk och matematik. Flera rektorer ansåg att det var inom svenska som de största behoven av särskilt stöd fanns. Flera rektorer sade sig känna till att det fanns olika inriktningar i utbildningen för specialpedagogisk kompetens. En rektor ansåg att de olika yrkesrollerna är bara titlar som inte har någon praktisk betydelse. En rektor ansåg att: 

     Det primära för verksamheten var att få tag på rätt person, om den personen har en speciallärarexamen, oavsett inriktning, är det ett stort plus. 

    Empirin till denna studie har insamlats genom kvalitativa intervjuer. Den teoretiska bakgrunden till denna studie är inspirerad av Claes Nilholms didaktiska teorier.

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  • Karlsson, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Lovskolan - Från formulering till realisering2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen införde en obligatorisk lovskola hösten 2017 för de elever i årskurs 8 och 9 som riskerar att inte bli behöriga till gymnasiets olika program. Denna kvalitativa studien syftar till att öka förståelsen för hur lovskolan organiseras och hur informationen om de brister eleverna uppvisat överförs från ordinarie lärare till de lärare som undervisar på lovskolan. Studien fokuserar även på vilken roll specialpedagogen och specialläraren har i lovskolans organisation. Studien bygger på intervjuer från tre olika skolor runt om i Sverige. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten som denna studie har är läroplansteori. Resultatet visar på två modeller som skolorna väljer att använda sig av. Den ena modellen är att anordna lovskolan lokalt på sin egen skola och den andra modellen är att anordna lovskolan centralt via en utvecklingsgrupp i kommunen. Skolbyggnadens geografiska plats får stor betydelse för hur huvudmännen organiserar sina lovskolor. Med en liten organisation blir överförandet av kunskaper från ordinarie lärare mindre formell än vid den centralt styrda modellen av lovskola, där Skolverkets blanketter utgör grunden till förmedlandet av kunskaper. Den specialpedagogiska kompetensen används framförallt för att ge eleverna en trygghetskänsla vid lovskolans genomförande. 

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  • El-Sayed, Ashraf S. A.
    et al.
    Fathalla, Maher
    Yassin, Marwa A.
    Zein, Nabila
    Morsy, Shaima
    Sitohy, Mahmoud
    Sitohy, Basel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Conjugation of Aspergillus flavipes Taxol with Porphyrin Increases the Anticancer Activity of Taxol and Ameliorates Its Cytotoxic Effects2020In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, no 2, article id 263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taxol is one of the potential anticancer drugs; however, the yield of Taxol and its cytotoxicity are common challenges. Thus, manipulating the Taxol biosynthetic pathway from endophytic fungi, in addition to chemical modification with biocompatible polymers, is the challenge. Four fungal isolates, namely, Aspergillus flavipes, A. terreus, A. flavus, and A. parasiticus, were selected from our previous study as potential Taxol producers, and their potency for Taxol production was evaluated in response to fluconazole and silver nitrate. A higher Taxol yield was reported in the cultures of A. flavipes (185 mu g/L) and A. terreus (66 mu g/L). With addition of fluconazole, the yield of Taxol was increased 1.8 and 1.2-fold for A. flavipes and A. terreus, respectively, confirming the inhibition of sterol biosynthesis and redirecting the geranyl phosphate pool to terpenoids synthesis. A significant inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis by A. flavipes with addition of fluconazole was observed, correlating with the increase on Taxol yield. To increase the Taxol solubility and to reduce its cytotoxicity, Taxol was modified via chemical conjugation with porphyrin, and the degree of conjugation was checked from the Thin layer chromatography and UV spectral analysis. The antiproliferative activity of native and modified Taxol conjugates was evaluated; upon porphyrin conjugation, the activity of Taxol towards HepG2 was increased 1.5-fold, while its cytotoxicity to VERO cells was reduced 3-fold.

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  • Josefsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Karin
    Freyhult, Eva
    Damber, Jan-Erik
    Welén, Karin
    Gene Expression Alterations during Development of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Are Detected in Circulating Tumor Cells2020In: Cancers, ISSN 2072-6694, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is associated with alterations in gene expression involved in steroidogenesis and androgen signaling. This study investigates whether gene expression changes related to CRPC development can be identified in circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Gene expression in paired CTC samples from 29 patients, before androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and at CRPC relapse, was compared using a panel including 47 genes related to prostate cancer progression on a qPCR platform. Fourteen genes displayed significantly changed gene expression in CTCs at CRPC relapse compared to before start of ADT. The genes with increased expression at CRPC relapse were related to steroidogenesis, AR-signaling, and anti-apoptosis. In contrast, expression of prostate markers was downregulated at CRPC. We also show that midkine (MDK) expression in CTCs from metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) was associated to short cancer-specific survival (CSS). In conclusion, this study shows that gene expression patterns in CTCs reflect the development of CRPC, and that MDK expression levels in CTCs are prognostic for cancer-specific survival in mHSPC. This study emphasizes the role of CTCs in exploring mechanisms of therapy resistance, as well as a promising biomarker for prognostic and treatment-predictive purposes in advanced mHSPC.

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  • Pawlowski, Nelly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Formativ bedömning i undervisning av franska på högstadiet - En jämförelse mellan lärares uppfattning av formativ bedömning i Norge och Sverige.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen redogör för resultatet av kvalitativ och kvantitativ undersökning i form av en enkät i ämnet franska på högstadiet både i Sverige och i Norge. Syftet med undersökningen var att öka kunskap om hur ett urval av lärare inom franska både i Norge och i Sverige förhåller sig till formativ bedömning och hur de tillämpar av fem s.k nyckelstrategier för formativ bedömning i undervisning. Studie innebar att ett urval av lärare skulle svara på vad formativ bedömning innebär för de och i vilken utsträckning de använder sig av de fem nyckelstrategierna. Vidare undersöktes vilka fördelar och utmaningar de inser med den metoden samt vilka resurser de saknas idag. Till sist behandlades också frågan om hur respondenterna uppfattar relationen mellan formativ och summativ bedömning. Resultaten från enkäten jämfördes och analyserades både kvantitativt och kvalitativt. 

     

    Resultatanalysen visar att både i Norge och i Sverige innebar formativ bedömning att föra lärandet framåt och att den mest använda strategin är att ge feedback till elever. I båda länder insågs att formativ bedömning har några fördelar såsom att elever presterar bättre, är mindre stressade och fokuserar mindre på betyg. Av de utmaningar som lärare upplevde var tidsbrist, storlek på grupper samt brist på kunskap om feedback de mest återkommande svaren. Lärare upplevde också att de skulle önska sig ha mindre grupper samt mer fortbildning inom formativ bedömning.  Undersökningen visade också att det var en större andel av norska respondenter än svenska respondenter som skulle vilja jobba bara formativt och inte behöva sätta betyg. Till sist menade de flesta respondenter i båda länder att det gick att kombinera både betygsättningen med det formativa bedömningen. 

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  • Bergegårdh, Abe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Är du demokrat, lille vän? - En läromedelsanalys av Samhällskunskapens demokratimodeller i kurs 1b2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen studerar tre svenska läromedel som omfattar Samhällskunskap kurs 1b i gymnasiet. Den undersöker om dessa lever upp till skolans styrdokuments krav på saklighet och allsidighet samt tar upp olika demokratimodeller i undervisningen kring demokrati och hur dessa värderas. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten är Robert Dahls idealtyper för fullständig proceduriell demokrati samt tre demokratimodeller: den liberala, den republikanska och den marxistiska. Slutsatsen är att det finns en tydlig bias, där läroböckerna inte lever upp till styrdokumentens krav på saklighet och allsidighet, utan den liberala demokratimodellen dominerar och värdesätts tydligt positivt i relation till alternativen, om de alls diskuteras.

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  • Mackay, Heather
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Of fatness, fitness and finesse: Experiences and interpretations of non-communicable diseases in urban Uganda2020In: Cities & Health, ISSN 2374-8834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the experiences and interpretations of non-communicable diseases in two secondary Ugandan cities: Mbale and Mbarara. Drawing inspiration from the concepts of social determinants of health, and geographic scholarship on embedded gendered and classed power dynamics, I employ a qualitative exploration and thick description to analyse data from twenty-two in-depth biographic interviews. Interviewees were from a range of circumstances, including, as AbdouMaliq Simone described, ‘the missing people’. Findings detail aspects of life with diabetes, obesity or hypertension in these cities, noting some views of wider social determinants, and some possible barriers to effective non-communicable disease management. Analysis of interpretations around gendered difference in obesity, in particular, revealed provocative conceptualisations of gendered livelihood strategies interwoven with body size beliefs, and the realities of oft-times insecure daily urban lives. The paper makes apparent the value of incorporating qualitative study, together with quantitative assessments, to investigate the experiences and interpretations of non-communicable disease in a specific context. In addition, the work provides insight into barriers to healthy urban living in the current socio-economic context of Ugandan, and potentially other sub-Saharan African, cities.

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  • Tunehed, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Labor taxation and its effect on employment: A study of labor taxation in 13 countries2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to try to determine the effect that labor taxation has on the employment rate in 12 European countries and the United States. This will be done in order to determine more generally the effect that taxation of income has on the employment rate.

    The empirical model will use an ordinary least squares (OLS) panel regression, and will use panel corrected standard errors. The variables consists of five indicators: the employment rate – which is the dependent variable – and the tax wedge – which is the main independent variable, in addition to GDP per capita, the inflation rate and output per hour which works as control variables. Data covers the years 1998-2008.

    The conclusion is that taxation on labor has a negative effect on the employment rate. A one percentage point increase in the growth rate of the tax wedge causes the growth rate of the employment rate to fall by 0.1205 percentage points in the continental European country group and 0.0555 percentage points in the Anglophone country group. An increase of 0.1763 percentage points was measured for the Nordic country group, but this was not statistically significant.

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    Labor taxation and its effect onemployment
  • Reher, David Sven
    et al.
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Requena, Miguel
    UNED, Spain.
    De Santis, Gustavo
    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Esteve, Albert
    Centre d’Estudis Demogràfics, Spain.
    Livi Bacci, Massimo
    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The COVID-19 pandemic in an aging world2020Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since death rates from the COVID-19 are highest among the oldest, the impact of the current pandemic in a given society depends to a large extent on the share of elderly persons and their living arrangements. Whereas the former is well known, the latter is not. Arguably, contagion itself and the severity of its symptoms are likely to vary among elderly persons living alone, co-residing with family members or dwelling in institutions. Arguments in favour and against the premise that single-living elderly are better able to self-isolate can be made. Long-term care facilities have worsened the effects of the epidemic because they have often become death traps in some but not all countries. Once contagion takes place, living arrangements can make a huge difference in the way the disease can be managed by the individual, his family and society. Properly understanding the dynamics of contagion and the handling of the disease in terms of living arrangements of elderly people is essential for effectively tackling future outbreaks of similar epidemics.

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  • Stanfors, Maria
    et al.
    Centre for Economic Demography, Lund University.
    Andersson, Fredrik N G
    Department of Economics, Lund University.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    A century of divorce: long-term socioeconomic restructuring and the divorce rate in Sweden 1915-20102020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased divorce rates over the past century are linked to changing macroeconomic conditions, increased female independence and welfare state expenditure, but few studies have assessed these long-term relationships at the macro level. Research has focused on Anglo-Saxon contexts and not considered developments in vanguard countries like Sweden that determined their role as sociodemographic precursors and early representatives of a society with a high divorce rate. We examine the impact of macroeconomic conditions together with increased female independence and welfare expenditure on the divorce rate by performing time series analysis, using annual aggregate data from Sweden covering almost acentury (1915-2010). We separate between short-run (business cycle), medium-run, and longrun (structural) impacts. Results show that separating between time horizons is important for understanding the determinants of divorce. Increasing divorce rates were part of a structural process, affecting the family through increasing state support for families and work opportunities for women. In the short to medium run demographic factors were key determinants. It is important to consider contexts like Sweden to understand how welfare state expansion can counterbalance economic cycles and modify the relationship between economic conditions and divorce by making divorce accessible through subsidies and services, even in times of recession.

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  • Myllykoski, Mirko
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, High Performance Computing Center North (HPC2N).
    Kågström, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, High Performance Computing Center North (HPC2N).
    Eljammaly, Mahmoud
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Pranesh, Srikara
    The University of Manchester.
    Zounon, Mawussi
    The University of Manchester.
    D2.6 Prototype Software for Eigenvalue Problem Solvers2018Report (Other academic)
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  • Chen, Hao
    et al.
    Sun, Dan
    Tian, Yin
    Fan, Haiming
    Liu, Yonggang
    Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Zhang, Ce
    Surface-Directed Structural Transition of Amyloidogenic Aggregates and the Resulting Neurotoxicity2020In: ACS OMEGA, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 2856-2864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition of amyloidogenic species into ordered structures (i.e., prefibrillar oligomers, protofibrils, mature fibrils, and amyloidogenic aggregates) is closely associated with many neurodegenerative disease pathologies. It is increasingly appreciated that the liquid-solid interface contributes to peptide aggregation under physiological conditions. However, much remains to be explored on the molecular mechanism of surface-directed amyloid formation. We herein demonstrate that physical environmental conditions (i.e., negatively charged surface) affect amyloid formation. Nontoxic amyloid aggregates quickly develop into intertwisting fibrils on a negatively charged mica surface. These fibrillar structures show significant cytotoxicity on both neuroblastoma cell-lines (SH-SY5Y) and primary neural stem cells. Our results suggest an alternative amyloid development pathway, following which A beta peptides form large amyloidogenic aggregates upon stimulation, and later transit into neurotoxic fibrillar structures while being trapped and aligned by a negatively charged surface. Conceivably, the interplay between chemical and physical environmental conditions plays important roles in the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

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  • Ramirez-Villegas, Ricardo
    et al.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Environmental Payback of Renovation Strategies in a Northern Climate-the Impact of Nuclear Power and Fossil Fuels in the Electricity Supply2020In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to assess how the use of fossil and nuclear power in different renovation scenarios affects the environmental impacts of a multi-family dwelling in Sweden, and how changes in the electricity production with different energy carriers affect the environmental impact. In line with the Paris Agreement, the European Union has set an agenda to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by means of energy efficiency in buildings. It is estimated that by the year 2050, 80% of Europe's population will be living in buildings that already exist. This means it is important for the European Union to renovate buildings to improve energy efficiency. In this study, eight renovation scenarios, using six different Northern European electricity mixes, were analyzed using the standard of the European Committee for Standardization for life cycle assessment of buildings. This study covers all life cycle steps from cradle to grave. The renovation scenarios include combinations of photovoltaics, geothermal heat pumps, heat recovery ventilation, and improvement of the building envelope. The results show that while in some electricity mixes a reduction in the global warming potential can be achieved, it can be at the expense of an increase in radioactive waste production, and, in mixes with a high share of fossil fuels, the global warming potential of the scenarios increases with time, compared with that of the original building. It also shows that in most electricity mixes, scenarios that reduce the active heat demand of the building end up in reducing both the global warming potential and radioactive waste, making them less sensitive to changes in the energy system.

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  • Ravishankar, Harsha
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Pedersen, Martin Nors
    Eklund, Mattias
    Sitsel, Aljona
    Li, Chenge
    Duelli, Annette
    Levantino, Matteo
    Wulff, Michael
    Barth, Andreas
    Olesen, Claus
    Nissen, Poul
    Andersson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tracking Ca2+ ATPase intermediates in real time by x-ray solution scattering2020In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 6, no 12, article id eaaz0981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) transporters regulate calcium signaling by active calcium ion reuptake to internal stores. Structural transitions associated with transport have been characterized by x-ray crystallography, but critical intermediates involved in the accessibility switch across the membrane are missing. We combined time-resolved x-ray solution scattering (TR-XSS) experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for real-time tracking of concerted SERCA reaction cycle dynamics in the native membrane. The equilibrium [Ca-2] E1 state before laser activation differed in the domain arrangement compared with crystal structures, and following laser-induced release of caged ATP, a 1.5-ms intermediate was formed that showed closure of the cytoplasmic domains typical of E1 states with bound Ca2+ and ATP. A subsequent 13-ms transient state showed a previously unresolved actuator (A) domain arrangement that exposed the ADP-binding site after phosphorylation. Hence, the obtained TR-XSS models determine the relative timing of so-far elusive domain rearrangements in a native environment.

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  • Fusee, Leila T. S.
    et al.
    Marin, Monica
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Lopez, Ignacio
    Alternative Mechanisms of p53 Action During the Unfolded Protein Response2020In: Cancers, ISSN 2072-6694, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 orchestrates cellular responses to a vast number of stresses, with DNA damage and oncogenic activation being some of the best described. The capacity of p53 to control cellular events such as cell cycle progression, DNA repair, and apoptosis, to mention some, has been mostly linked to its role as a transcription factor. However, how p53 integrates different signaling cascades to promote a particular pathway remains an open question. One way to broaden its capacity to respond to different stimuli is by the expression of isoforms that can modulate the activities of the full-length protein. One of these isoforms is p47 (p53/47, Delta 40p53, p53 Delta N40), an alternative translation initiation variant whose expression is specifically induced by the PERK kinase during the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) following Endoplasmic Reticulum stress. Despite the increasing knowledge on the p53 pathway, its activity when the translation machinery is globally suppressed during the UPR remains poorly understood. Here, we focus on the expression of p47 and we propose that the alternative initiation of p53 mRNA translation offers a unique condition-dependent mechanism to differentiate p53 activity to control cell homeostasis during the UPR. We also discuss how the manipulation of these processes may influence cancer cell physiology in light of therapeutic approaches.

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  • Rosenberg, Molly
    et al.
    Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier
    Wagner, Ryan G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Rohr, Julia
    Payne, Collin F.
    Berkman, Lisa
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Tollman, Stephen
    Baernighausen, Till
    Kobayashi, Lindsay C.
    The relationships between cognitive function, literacy and HIV status knowledge among older adults in rural South Africa2020In: Journal of the International AIDS Society, ISSN 1758-2652, E-ISSN 1758-2652, Vol. 23, no 3, article id e25457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Although HIV prevalence is exceptionally high in South Africa, HIV testing rates remain below targeted guidelines. Older adults living with HIV are substantially more likely to remain undiagnosed than younger people. Cognitive function and literacy could play key roles in HIV status knowledge due to the decision-making processes required around weighing the costs and benefits of testing, navigating testing logistics and processing results. We aimed to assess the independent relationships among each of cognitive function, literacy and education with HIV status knowledge in a population-based sample of older adults living in a rural South African community with high HIV prevalence. Methods We analyzed data from a population-based study of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older in rural South Africa (Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH community (HAALSI)). HAALSI surveys, conducted between 2014 and 2015, queried self-reported literacy, educational attainment and HIV status knowledge. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess true HIV sero-status. Cognitive function was assessed with a battery of cognitive tests measuring time orientation, immediate and delayed recall, and numeracy and coded using confirmatory factor analysis as a z-standardized latent variable. We estimated the relationship between the outcome of HIV status knowledge and each of three exposures: (1) latent cognitive z-score, (2) literacy and (3) education, using confounder-adjusted modified Poisson regression models in the study population overall and stratified by HIV sero-status. Results We found that HIV status knowledge was higher among those with higher cognitive z-scores (adjusted Prevalence Ratio (aPR) (95% CI): 1.18 (1.14, 1.21) per standard deviation unit), and among literate participants (aPR (95% CI): 1.24 (1.16, 1.32) vs. non-literate participants). Taken together, the associations with literacy and cognitive function completely attenuated the otherwise positive association between educational attainment and HIV status knowledge. The magnitudes of effect were generally similar among laboratory-confirmed HIV-negative and HIV-positive participants. Conclusions Campaigns that target older adults in rural South Africa with HIV testing messages should carefully consider the cognitive and literacy levels of the intended audience. Innovations to ease the cognitive load associated with HIV testing could prove fruitful to increase HIV status knowledge.

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  • Bränström Öhman, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    [Recension] Anna Salomonsson, "Skeendet på stället". Röster och samtidigheter i tre verk av Sara Lidman2018In: Samlaren: tidskrift för svensk litteraturvetenskaplig forskning, ISSN 0348-6133, E-ISSN 2002-3871, Vol. 139, p. 270-276Article, book review (Other academic)
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  • Wolfslehner, Bernhard
    et al.
    Pülzl, Helga
    Kleinschmit, Daniela
    Aggestam, Filip
    Winkel, Georg
    Candel, Jeroen
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Feindt, Peter
    McDermott, Constance
    Secco, Laura
    Sotirov, Metodi
    Lackner, Magdalena
    Roux, Jeanne-Lazya
    European forest governance post-20202020Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests and forest-relevant policies in Europe face a wide array of challenges in a rapidly changing world. Issues such as Brexit, the new European Parliament and European Commission, and the recent European Green Deal proposal are certain to affact policymaking, as are the as-yet unknown impacts of the coronavirus /COVID-19).

    A new science-policy study from EFI provides a timely look at forest governance in Europe, and offers insights into the potential way forward. Many of the forest-relevant policies currently in place have been targeted towards 2020, and while a final evaluation of their achievements is not yet possible, a look into the future is essential.

    Forest products and services are increasingly an inherent and integrated element of many other sectors, ranging from energy to food production to conseravtion and public health. This wide range of sectors and multiple interests, at different levels, leads to a complex multi-sectoral governance system. For example, within the EU, negaotiations are currently ongoing on post-2020 EU policies on agriculture and rural development, biodiversity, climate, industry, food security, circular economy and new legislation on sustainable finance. All of them, and the EU Green Deal in particular, will have an important influence on forest-related decision-making processes.

    A strategic and coordinated policy direction will be required after 2020, not least to support the implementation of globally agreed policy targets such as the SDGs, the Paris Climate Agreement and CBD. In the global policy arena, trade developments related to eg China, Russia and Northamerica will also have important implications for the European forest sector.

    This report reviews significant developments in the forest governance framework including EU and international developments, and discusses how coordination in other policy areas than forests can to to policy integration. Based on evidence from a literature review, stakeholder interviews and workshop results, it outlines several potential pathways for future fore policymaking in Europe.

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    European Forest Governance post 2020
  • Matthaeus, Claudia
    et al.
    Lahmann, Ines
    Kunz, Severine
    Jonas, Wenke
    Melo, Arthur Alves
    Lehmann, Martin
    Larsson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Lundmark, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Kern, Matthias
    Blueher, Matthias
    Olschowski, Hannah
    Kompa, Julian
    Bruegger, Britta
    Mueller, Dominik N.
    Haucke, Volker
    Schuermann, Annette
    Birchmeier, Carmen
    Daumke, Oliver
    EHD2-mediated restriction of caveolar dynamics regulates cellular fatty acid uptake2020In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 117, no 13, p. 7471-7481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eps15-homology domain containing protein 2 (EHD2) is a dynamin-related ATPase located at the neck of caveolae, but its physiological function has remained unclear. Here, we found that global genetic ablation of EHD2 in mice leads to increased lipid droplet size in fat tissue. This organismic phenotype was paralleled at the cellular level by increased fatty acid uptake via a caveolae- and CD36-dependent pathway that also involves dynamin. Concomitantly, elevated numbers of detached caveolae were found in brown and white adipose tissue lacking EHD2, and increased caveolar mobility in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. EHD2 expression itself was down-regulated in the visceral fat of two obese mouse models and obese patients. Our data suggest that EHD2 controls a cell-autonomous, caveolae-dependent fatty acid uptake pathway and imply that low EHD2 expression levels are linked to obesity.

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  • Busker, S.
    et al.
    Qian, Wang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haraldsson, M.
    Espinosa, B.
    Johansson, L.
    Attarha, S.
    Kolosenko, I
    Liu, J.
    Dagnell, M.
    Grander, D.
    Arner, E. S. J.
    Tamm, K. Pokrovskaja
    Page, B. D. G.
    Irreversible TrxR1 inhibitors block STAT3 activity and induce cancer cell death2020In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 6, no 12, article id eaax7945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of its key role in cancer development and progression, STAT3 has become an attractive target for developing new cancer therapeutics. While several STAT3 inhibitors have progressed to advanced stages of development, their underlying biology and mechanisms of action are often more complex than would be expected from specific binding to STAT3. Here, we have identified and optimized a series of compounds that block STAT3-dependent luciferase expression with nanomolar potency. Unexpectedly, our lead compounds did not bind to cellular STAT3 but to another prominent anticancer drug target, TrxR1. We further identified that TrxR1 inhibition induced Prx2 and STAT3 oxidation, which subsequently blocked STAT3-dependent transcription. Moreover, previously identified inhibitors of STAT3 were also found to inhibit TrxR1, and likewise, established TrxR1 inhibitors block STAT3-dependent transcriptional activity. These results provide new insights into the complexities of STAT3 redox regulation while highlighting a novel mechanism to block aberrant STAT3 signaling in cancer cells.

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  • Eriksson, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Oral microbiota in relation to host traits, environment, and dental caries2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dental caries still appears at high prevalence worldwide. Disease distribution is skewed with more disease in socio-economically weak groups. However, also in populations considered as “low caries” there is a significant fraction with continuous disease development. Caries develops when the hard tissues of the tooth is demineralized, which occurs when pH drops below approximately 5.5 for enamel and 6.2 for dentine. The pH drop follows fermentation and acid production by tooth colonising bacteria upon dietary carbohydrate exposure. Thus, understanding the interactions between oral bacteria, diet and host factors is essential for managing the disease. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the oral microbiota in relation to caries and its association with sugar intake and driving forces behind sugar intake.

    Material and method: Saliva and tooth biofilm samples, information on caries status, dietary habits and other lifestyle data were collected from 17-23 year old participants. The participants also carried out a tasting session for the tastes sour, sweet and bitter. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva and tooth biofilm and analysed using 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing with two platforms. Taxa were classified against the eHOMD database. Taste gene genotyping was done by mass spectrometry. Data were compared by univariate and multivariate statistical methods.

    Results: Oral microbiota was analysed in 64 adolescents. Streptococcus mutans, Scardovia wiggsiae, Bifidobacterium longum and Lepotrichia sp. HOT 498 displayed strong association with having caries, whereas Corynebacterium matruchotii and tooth brushing were associated with being caries-free. It was also confirmed that S.mutans was not compulsory for having caries. The oral microbiota in caries affected adolescents without S. mutans in was evaluated, and found to be characterised by a wide panel of saccharolytic non-S.mutans species. In contrast, tooth biofilms in individuals with caries and S. mutans were enriched for relatively few saccharolytic species in addition to S.mutans. Further, the overall microbiota pattern fell into four distinct clusters with deviating caries prevalence. The association with a set of lifestyle factors was searched, and sugar intake was found to differ between the groups. In the cluster with the highest sugar intake, the microbiota was less diverse and low sugar intake was characterized by enumeration of C. durum, C. matruchotiiand S. sanguinis. To deepen the knowledge on mechanisms behind sweet food intake, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping in genes reported to be associated with taste regulation or sugar intake was done. SNPs in four genes were associated with sensitivity and preference for sweet taste and in the SLC2A2 gene also with caries.

    Conclusions: This project confirmed that dental caries is not a single species disease, and in the present population S. mutans, S. wiggsiae, and B. longum were significant for having caries. It was also confirmed that S. mutans is not essential for having caries. Tooth biofilm microbiota in S. mutans free adolescents was characterised by a larger diversity of species than seen in those with caries and S. mutans. It may be hypothesised that sugar intake and associated pH drops alone or in interaction with host biology play a role in the differentiation of the microbiota into the distinct profiles. This was supported by the finding that sugar intake was related to microbiota clustering and less community diversity. In this perspective the genetically based influence on sugar preference should be taken into account in dietary counselling which is an important aspect in caries prevention and treatment.

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  • Félix, Inês
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    School journeys: ideas and practices of new education in Portugal (1890-1960)2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation I examine school journeys in secondary education in Portugal between 1890 and 1960, focusing on State regulation, educational ideas and school practice. By bringing together the various parts of a broader discourse on a way of thinking and making schooling, I look at how this active method was regulated, argued and reportedly undertaken with a twofold aim: to expand the knowledge on the history of school journeys, and to contribute to the research on the ideas and practices of educational modernity.

    School journeys were an activity that was intended to take the students out of the school in order to observe, study and actively experience historical heritage, industrial processes, natural objects and phenomena, and societal achievements in situ, i.e. all culture related to what was to be seen, thought about and acted upon. Moreover, these journeys were imbued with the desire to produce a metamorphosis from student to citizen by promoting the students’ learning and becoming processes.

    The advent of school journeys in Portugal was deeply connected to the aims of New Education and to the idea of education as an instrument of societal renewal and progress of the nation. Their boom in the mid-1910s was accompanied by the proliferation of ideas that ultimately referred to the need to accomplish results. This, in turn, led to the strengthening of the teachers’ role and to the reliance on once perceived traditional forms of teaching and learning in which the students’ engagement was restricted to that of observers, readers, listeners and writers of notes. Although by the 1930s this had already become engrained in the grammar of schooling, it was the meticulous regulations enforced by the recently established dictatorship that crystallised the legal framework, educational ideas and practice of school journeys.

    Thus, by taking the particular case of school journeys, I show how ideas of educational modernity became increasingly articulated and blended with longestablished practices, and how learning was placed in relation to learning and becoming, both closely connected to narratives of national progress and belonging. Indeed, activities based on observation, study and experience were connected to knowledge transfer as much as to the production of subjectivities. For this reason, I argue that school journeys were part of a ‘Reason’ that established objective systems to apprehend both individuals and the world, connecting each other by shaping an idea of cultural empowerment and intellectual emancipation through knowledge and identity.

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  • Gasi, Ema
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Antibiotic consumption and resistance in Sweden and Bosnia-Herzegovina: A study based on resistance data, antibiotic consumption data and published articles2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Ekhteraei-Tousi, Samaneh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Lewerentz, Jacob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Larsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Painting of Fourth and the X-Linked 1.688 Satellite in D. melanogaster is Involved in Chromosome-Wide Gene Regulation2020In: Cells, ISSN 2073-4409, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromosome-specific regulatory mechanisms provide a model to understand the coordinated regulation of genes on entire chromosomes or on larger genomic regions. In fruit flies, two chromosome-wide systems have been characterized: The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which mediates dosage compensation and primarily acts on the male X-chromosome, and Painting of fourth (POF), which governs chromosome-specific regulation of genes located on the 4th chromosome. How targeting of one specific chromosome evolves is still not understood; but repeated sequences, in forms of satellites and transposable elements, are thought to facilitate the evolution of chromosome-specific targeting. The highly repetitive 1.688 satellite has been functionally connected to both these systems. Considering the rapid evolution and the necessarily constant adaptation of regulatory mechanisms, such as dosage compensation, we hypothesised that POF and/or 1.688 may still show traces of dosage-compensation functions. Here, we test this hypothesis by transcriptome analysis. We show that loss of Pof decreases not only chromosome 4 expression but also reduces the X-chromosome expression in males. The 1.688 repeat deletion, Zhr1(Zygotic hybrid rescue), does not affect male dosage compensation detectably; however, Zhr1 in females causes a stimulatory effect on X-linked genes with a strong binding affinity to the MSL complex (genes close to high-affinity sites). Lack of pericentromeric 1.688 also affected 1.688 expression in trans and was linked to the differential expression of genes involved in eggshell formation. We discuss our results with reference to the connections between POF, the 1.688 satellite and dosage compensation, and the role of the 1.688 satellite in hybrid lethality.

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  • Rebwar Hama Saeed, Przha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    KVALITETSINDIKATORER OCH PATIENTERS SYN PÅ SERVICE PÅ SVENSKA APOTEK: Ett enkätutvecklingsprojekt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Brauckmann, Stefan
    et al.
    Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt.
    Pashiardis, Petros
    University of Cyprus.
    Ärlestig, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bringing context and educational leadership together: fostering the professional development of school principals2020In: Professional Development in Education, ISSN 1941-5257, E-ISSN 1941-5265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy makers increasingly acknowledge that problems and challenges arising at the school level should be resolved on site. At the same time, the political expectation to delegate more responsibility to the individual school is rather heavily contrasted with the weak knowledge about how this new public management approach can be translated into successful leadership practices. Thus, considering that there is a close relationship between context and leadership, principal preparation programmes should be guided by a deeper examination of contextual factors. Against this background, we aim to critically examine existing views of practitioners and researchers on the challenge of establishing more context-sensitive school leadership preparation programmes in an era of New Public Management in Education. In doing so, we introduce the Swedish Model of principal preparation as an example for a more context-sensitive leadership preparation program. To that end, we argue that a differentiated perspective about contextual conditions and their role as facilitators or obstacles to effective leadership must be further explored. Moreover, school leaders should be encouraged to consider the relevance of such approaches to their own needs.

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  • Carlsson, Evelinn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Viklund, Nicolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Gör miljön en tjänst och handla second hand: En kritisk retorikanalys av Sellpys kommunikation2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is something that people are growing more concerned about. In conjunction with this, sustainability is becoming more important for Swedish consumers who shop online. Studies have also shown that it has become more common to shop second hand. A company that seeks to capitalize on this is Sellpy. The company describes itself as Sweden's largest e-commerce for second hand items. The purpose of this essay was to conduct a critical rhetoric analysis to investigate how the rhetoric works in Sellpy's communication on the web page “Vårt ansvar”. In addition the study aimed to investigate if there were underlying meanings in Sellpy's communication. To accomplish the purpose of the study the theoretical framework includes rhetorical theories, more particularly the rhetorical situation and the rhetorical disposition. The theoretical framework also includes the terms greenwashing and corporate social responsibility. These terms are used as tools to strengthen our reasoning and to helps us interpret why Sellpy's communication looks the way it does. The method used in this study is critical rhetoric analysis and includes the aspects disposition and situation. It aims to gather a deeper understanding of why a message is formatted as it is. The result showed that the text on the page "Vårt ansvar" largely follows the five parts included in the rhetorical disposition. The results also indicate that the rhetoric in Sellpy's communication is used to convince the audience that Sellpy is a reliable company with a good sustainability agenda that continuously strives for improvement through its sustainability work. Finally our results show that there is a primary underlying meaning in Sellpy's communication, namely that Sellpy wants to capitalize. In addition to this we interpret that there are also two secondary underlying meanings: the audience is good and does the environment and society a favour if they use Sellpy’s service and Sellpy is a reliable company that does good. 

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    Gör miljön en tjänst och handla second hand
  • Larsson, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Reinholdsson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Feminism som handelsvara: En semiorisk analys av Estrids kommunikation på sociala medier2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Each day we’re exposed to advertisement with various commercial messages. It therefore becomes important for companies to stand out from the crowd in order to catch consumers’ attention. In line with the success of feminism, many companies have chosen to engage in the issue of equality and women’s rights. The aim of this study has been to investigate how feminism as a brand strategy is expressed and used. The razor company Estrid has been studied to exemplify how semiotic resources on social media can be used to produce feminist signs as well as how they can be used as a tool for the company’s brand. Gender and feminist theories have been used to answer the study’s purpose. Stereotypes and concepts such as Pinkwashing, Corporate Social Responsibility and Femvertising have also been used as a support in the analysis.

    The method, semiotic analysis, helped us to analyse Estrid’s Instagram posts and YouTube clips to find out what symbols, characters and expressions of stereotype- breaking material and feminism there are. The result that emerged from the analysis showed that Estrid communicated against stereotypes and used feminism as a brand strategy by expressing feminist values. The results also showed that it’s difficult for companies to appear as genuinely feministic because of the commercial interest and that it requires more than just communicating against stereotypes.

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  • Stenbeck, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Kairos: Motståndets kritiska ögonblick2019In: Tidskrift för litteraturvetenskap, ISSN 1104-0556, E-ISSN 2001-094X, Vol. 49, no 2-3, p. 100-108Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • Stenbeck, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    [Recension] Anna Möller-Sibelius, Dikt och ideologi. Gösta Ågrens, Lars Huldéns och Claes Anderssons 1960–70-talspoesi2019In: Nordisk poesi. Tidsskrift for lyrikkforskning, ISSN 2464-4137, Vol. 4, no 01, p. 67-70Article, book review (Other academic)
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  • Lindahl Karlson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Kan D-vitamin förbättra symtom vid autism hos barn?: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Torany, Rana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Sambandet mellan långtidsbehandling med metformin och brist på vitamin B12 hos patienter med typ-2 diabetes: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Elvhäger, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Extemporetillverkade orala vätskor till barn: En litteraturstudie omberedningarnas stabilitet och hållbarhet2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Mekhelif, Nadda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Användning av morfin som tillägg till ryggbedövning under förlossning: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Sadr Mousavi, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Benotmane, Noria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Vägen in till en kriminell livsstil: Riskfaktorer under uppväxten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kriminalitet är ett stort och aktuellt samhällsproblem. Av denna anledning har vi valt att undersöka hur unga män som tidigare haft en kriminell livsstil förstår den egna vägen in i brottslighet. Studien har en kvalitativ ansats där vi har inhämtat det empiriska materialet via intervjuer med fyra män som innehar tidigare erfarenhet kring den kriminella livsstilen. Respondenterna delade med sig av sina tidigare livserfarenheter samt anledningen till att de valde den kriminella vägen.

    För att få kunskap om vägen in i kriminalitet har fokus varit riktat på de riskfaktorer som de intervjupersonerna ansåg ligga till grund för valet av den kriminella livsstilen. De riskfaktorer som framkom var att man växt upp i en splittrad familj, man var under ett identitetssökande och fann sin identitet genom att vara kriminell, man umgicks med personer som hade samma kriminella tankesätt som en själv, man kände svek från skolan, man saknade känslan av tillhörighet och strävade efter att tjäna snabba pengar i stor omfattning. Ytterligare en riskfaktor var att ungdomarna hade en avsaknad av låg självkontroll samt saknade konsekvenstänk.

    Vi har under studiens gång konstaterat att det inte finns en specifik orsak till varför man väljer den kriminella livsstilen. Det vi däremot kan konstatera är att det finns ett mönster samt olika anledningar till varför man väljer den kriminella livsstilen. Vi har genom vår studie fått ökad kunskap om och skapat oss en djupare förståelse kring anledningen till att man väljer den kriminella vägen.

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  • Jonasson, Josephine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Kanels påverkan på blodsocker vid diabetes typ 2: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Svensson, Kathrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Inhalationssteroider vid KOL-behandling: Samband med pneumonier2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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