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  • Roson, Roberto
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Università di Venezia.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Production and trade in interacting economies: a survey of applied equilibrium models1990Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A class of models for analyses of the interaction between economic structure and transportation system in spatially separated economies is discussed. The model class, applied multisector network equilibrium models (AMNE) is presented and existing models, such as Input–Output, CGE, ICGE, SPE and FNE models, are interpreted as special cases.

    Especially ICGE models and a set of linearized ICGE models are considered. This type of models will have an increasing importance in studies of infrastructure investments, in particular in the context of the integration process within the European Community.

  • Sandgren, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Jonsson, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Ögren, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Ögren, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Andersson, Martin
    Strandberg, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Nyholm, Tufve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Widmark, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Radiation dosimetry of [Ga-68]PSMA-11 in low-risk prostate cancer patients2019In: EJNMMI Physics, ISSN 2197-7364, E-ISSN 2191-219X, Vol. 6, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: 68Ga-labeled Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys(Ahx)-HBED-CC ([68Ga]PSMA-11) has been increasingly used to image prostate cancer using positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) both during diagnosis and treatment planning. It has been shown to be of clinical value for patients both in the primary and secondary stages of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the effective dose and organ doses from injection of [68Ga]PSMA-11 in a cohort of low-risk prostate cancer patients.

    Methods: Six low-risk prostate cancer patients were injected with 133–178 MBq [68Ga]PSMA-11 and examined with four PET/CT acquisitions from injection to 255 min post-injection. Urine was collected up to 4 h post-injection, and venous blood samples were drawn at 45 min, 85 min, 175 min, and 245 min post-injection. Kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen, salivary and lacrimal glands, and total body where delineated, and cumulated activities and absorbed organ doses calculated. The software IDAC-Dose 2.1 was used to calculate absorbed organ doses according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 107 using specific absorbed fractions published in ICRP 133 and effective dose according to ICRP Publication 103. We also estimated the absorbed dose to the eye lenses using Monte Carlo methods.

    Results: [68Ga]PSMA-11 was rapidly cleared from the blood and accumulated preferentially in the kidneys and the liver. The substance has a biological half-life in blood of 6.5 min (91%) and 4.4 h (9%). The effective dose was calculated to 0.022 mSv/MBq. The kidneys received approximately 40 mGy after an injection with 160 MBq [68Ga]PSMA-11 while the lacrimal glands obtained an absorbed dose of 0.12 mGy per administered MBq. Regarding the eye lenses, the absorbed dose was low (0.0051 mGy/MBq).

    Conclusion: The effective dose for [68Ga]PSMA-11 is 0.022 mSv/MBq, where the kidneys and lacrimal glands receiving the highest organ dose.

  • Fox, Adam T.
    et al.
    Wopereis, Harm
    Van Ampting, Marleen T. J.
    Nijhuis, Manon M. Oude
    Butt, Assad M.
    Peroni, Diego G.
    Vandenplas, Yvan
    Candy, David C. A.
    Shah, Neil
    West, Christina E.
    Umeå University.
    Garssen, Johan
    Harthoorn, Lucien F.
    Knol, Jan
    Michaelis, Louise J.
    Smets, Francoise
    Mullier, Sandra
    Noimark, Lee
    Muraro, Antonella
    A specific synbiotic-containing amino acid-based formula in dietary management of cow's milk allergy: a randomized controlled trial2019In: Clinical and Translational Allergy, ISSN 2045-7022, E-ISSN 2045-7022, Vol. 9, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Here we report follow-up data from a double-blind, randomized, controlled multicenter trial, which investigated fecal microbiota changes with a new amino acid-based formula (AAF) including synbiotics in infants with non-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated cow’s milk allergy (CMA).

    Methods: Subjects were randomized to receive test product (AAF including fructo-oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V) or control product (AAF) for 8 weeks, after which infants could continue study product until 26 weeks. Fecal percentages of bifidobacteria and Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoidesgroup (ER/CC) were assessed at 0, 8, 12, and 26 weeks. Additional endpoints included stool markers of gut immune status, clinical symptoms, and safety assessments including adverse events and medication use.

    Results: The trial included 35 test subjects, 36 controls, and 51 in the healthy reference group. Study product was continued by 86% and 92% of test and control subjects between week 8–12, and by 71% and 80%, respectively until week 26. At week 26 median percentages of bifidobacteria were significantly higher in test than control [47.0% vs. 11.8% (p < 0.001)], whereas percentages of ER/CC were significantly lower [(13.7% vs. 23.6% (p = 0.003)]. Safety parameters were similar between groups. Interestingly use of dermatological medication and reported ear infections were lower in test versus control, p = 0.019 and 0.011, respectively. Baseline clinical symptoms and stool markers were mild (but persistent) and low, respectively. Symptoms reduced towards lowest score in both groups.

    Conclusion: Beneficial effects of this AAF including specific synbiotics on microbiota composition were observed over 26 weeks, and shown suitable for dietary management of infants with non-IgE-mediated CMA.

  • Tükenmez, Hasan
    et al.
    Edström, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Ummanni, Ramesh
    Fick, Stina Berglund
    Sundin, Charlotta
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Larsson, Christer
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence inhibitors discovered by Mycobacterium marinum high-throughput screening2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-throughput screening facilities do not generally support biosafety level 3 organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To discover not only antibacterials, but also virulence inhibitors with either bacterial or host cell targets, an assay monitoring lung fibroblast survival upon infection was developed and optimized for 384-plate format and robotic liquid handling. By using Mycobacterium marinum as surrogate organism, 28,000 compounds were screened at biosafety level 2 classification, resulting in 49 primary hits. Exclusion of substances with unfavourable properties and known antimicrobials resulted in 11 validated hits of which 7 had virulence inhibiting properties and one had bactericidal effect also in wild type Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This strategy to discover virulence inhibitors using a model organism in high-throughput screening can be a valuable tool for other researchers working on drug discovery against tuberculosis and other biosafety level 3 infectious agents.

  • Muller, David C.
    et al.
    Larose, Tricia L.
    Hodge, Allison
    Guida, Florence
    Langhammer, Arnulf
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Meyer, Klaus
    Cai, Qiuyin
    Arslan, Alan A.
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    Albanes, Demetrius
    Giles, Graham G.
    Sesso, Howard D.
    Lee, I-Min
    Gaziano, J. Michael
    Yuan, Jian-Min
    Bolton, Judith Hoffman
    Buring, Julie E.
    Visvanathan, Kala
    Le Marchand, Loic
    Purdue, Mark P.
    Caporaso, Neil E.
    Midttun, Oivind
    Ueland, Per M.
    Prentice, Ross L.
    Weinstein, Stephanie J.
    Stevens, Victoria L.
    Zheng, Wei
    Blot, William J.
    Shu, Xiao-Ou
    Zhang, Xuehong
    Xiang, Yong-Bing
    Koh, Woon-Puay
    Hveem, Kristian
    Thomson, Cynthia A.
    Pettinger, Mary
    Engstrom, Gunnar
    Brunnstrom, Hans
    Milne, Roger L.
    Stampfer, Meir J.
    Han, Jiali
    Johansson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Brennan, Paul
    Severi, Gianluca
    Johansson, Mattias
    Circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein concentrations and risk of lung cancer: nested case-control study within Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium2019In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 364, article id k4981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type.

    Design Nested case-control study.

    Setting 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States.

    Participants 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls.

    Exposure Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples.

    Main outcome measure Incident lung cancer diagnosis.

    Results A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up.

    Conclusions Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.

  • Paulin, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyback, Maj-Helen
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Associations between hyperacusis and psychosocial work factors in the general population2019In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: We investigated the association between hyperacusis and aspects of psychosocial work environment in a general population. The objectives were to investigate (1) prevalence and characteristics (among age, sex, access to social support at home, education, smoking, physical exercise, and perceived general health) of hyperacusis in a general working population and (2) associations between hyperacusis and psychosocial factors in the work environment. The psychosocial work aspects included effort, reward, overcommitment, worry, and social and emotional support.

    Methods: Using data from a sample stratified for age and sex from the Österbotten Environmental Health Study in Finland, currently employed participants with self-reported hyperacusis and referents were compared on questionnaire instruments quantifying six aspects of their psychosocial work environment.

    Results: Among 856 currently employed participants, 47 constituted a hyperacusis group and 809 a reference group. The hyperacusis group scored significantly higher than the referents on worry at work, social support at work, and reward at work, but not on emotional support at work, work overcommitment, or effort at work. About 40% of the hyperacusis group scored on the upper quartile of the three former work environment factors, with odds ratios ranging from 1.91 to 2.56.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that worrying about aspects at work, perceiving low social support, and not perceiving being rewarded at work are associated with hyperacusis.

  • Tedebrand, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Introduction1996In: Orphans and foster-children: a historical and cross-cultural perspective / [ed] Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1996, p. 7-10Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Rosén, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Ljuslinder, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Melin, Beatrice S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    The BRCA1 exon 13 duplication: clinical characteristics of 22 families in Northern Sweden2019In: Familial Cancer, ISSN 1389-9600, E-ISSN 1573-7292, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 37-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinical management of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers requires accurate cancer risk estimates. Cancer risks vary according to type and location of the mutation and since there is limited information about mutation-specific cancer risks, genotype-phenotype correlation studies are needed. This is a report of 22 families with the same mutation, BRCA1 duplication exon 13, a mutation that is found world-wide, with the objective to describe the cancer history found in these families. We studied 69 confirmed carriers, 53 women and 16 men, and additionally 29 women who were clinically expected carriers. Among the confirmed carriers, 27 women (51%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 10 (19%) with ovarian cancer, 5 (9%) with breast and ovarian cancer and 17 (32%) without cancer. Nine women (17%) with breast cancer were 35 years or younger at diagnose. Also, two cases of early onset colon cancer were found, and 37,5% of the male carriers were diagnosed with prostate cancer. These data may have implications for risk assessment and cancer prevention decision making for carriers of the BRCA1 duplication exon 13 mutation.

  • Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    When a Waterhole is Full of Dung: An Illustration of the Importance of Environmental Evidence for Refining Archaeological Interpretation of Excavated Features2019In: Archaeometry, ISSN 0003-813X, E-ISSN 1475-4754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prehistoric field systems sometimes encompass excavated, pit-like features which are difficult to classify due to the complex stratigraphies resulting from reuse, infilling and collapse. They are frequently classified as wells and watering holes, but other potential uses for excavated depressions are rarely cited. We argue the need for environmental archaeology in the interpretation of features of this nature, and present a case study from a Bronze Age site at Pode Hole, near Peterborough (UK), where fossil insect material clearly contradicts the archaeological interpretation. We present empirical evidence for a sealed context filled with dung which cannot be interpreted as a water source. This evidence strongly contrasts with other superficially similar features at the site.

  • Paulo, Carlos
    et al.
    Kenney, Janice P L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Persson, Per
    Dittrich, Maria
    Effects of Phosphorus in Growth Media on Biomineralization and Cell Surface Properties of Marine Cyanobacteria Synechococcus2018In: Geosciences, ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, no 12, article id UNSP 471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through geological time, cyanobacterial picoplankton have impacted the global carbon cycle by sequestrating CO2 and forming authigenic carbonate minerals. Various studies have emphasized the cyanobacterial cell envelopes as nucleation sites for calcium carbonate formation. Little is known, however, about how environmental conditions (e.g., nutrient content) trigger a cell surface and its properties and, consequently, influence biomineralization. Our study aims to understand how phosphorus (P) concentration impacts the properties of cell surfaces and cell–mineral interactions. Changes to the surface properties of marine Synechococcus strains grown under various P conditions were characterized by potentiometric titrations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Biomineralization experiments were performed using cyanobacterial cells, which were grown under different P concentrations and exposed to solutions slightly oversaturated with respect to calcium carbonate. We observed the changes induced by different P conditions in the macromolecular composition of the cyanobacteria cell envelope and its consequences for biomineralization. The modified properties of cell surfaces were linked to carbonate precipitation rates and mineral morphology from biomineralization experiments. Our analysis shows that the increase of phosphoryl groups and surface charge, as well as the relative proportion of polysaccharides and proteins, can impact carbonate precipitation by picocyanobacteria.

  • Kim, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Faucillion, Marie-Line
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Larsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    RNA-on-X 1 and 2 in Drosophila melanogaster fulfill separate functions in dosage compensation2018In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 14, no 12, article id e1007842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex plays a key role in dosage compensation by stimulating expression of male X-chromosome genes. It consists of MSL proteins and two long noncoding RNAs, roX1 and roX2, that are required for spreading of the complex on the chromosome and are redundant in the sense that loss of either does not affect male viability. However, despite rapid evolution, both roX species are present in diverse Drosophilidae species, raising doubts about their full functional redundancy. Thus, we have investigated consequences of deleting roX1 and/or roX2 to probe their specific roles and redundancies in Dmelanogaster. We have created a new mutant allele of roX2 and show that roX1 and roX2 have partly separable functions in dosage compensation. In larvae, roX1 is the most abundant variant and the only variant present in the MSL complex when the complex is transmitted (physically associated with the X-chromosome) in mitosis. Loss of roX1 results in reduced expression of the genes on the X-chromosome, while loss of roX2 leads to MSL-independent upregulation of genes with male-biased testis-specific transcription. In roX1 roX2mutant, gene expression is strongly reduced in a manner that is not related to proximity to high-affinity sites. Our results suggest that high tolerance of mis-expression of the X-chromosome has evolved. We propose that this may be a common property of sex-chromosomes, that dosage compensation is a stochastic process and its precision for each individual gene is regulated by the density of high-affinity sites in the locus.

  • Johansson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Venables, Michelle
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Active Image-Assisted Food Records in Comparison to Regular Food Records: A Validation Study against Doubly Labeled Water in 12-Month-Old Infants2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 1904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overreporting of dietary intake in infants is a problem when using food records (FR), distorting possible relationships between diet and health outcomes. Image-assisted dietary assessment may improve the accuracy, but to date, evaluation in the pediatric setting is limited. The aim of the study was to compare macronutrient and energy intake by using an active image-assisted five-day FR against a regular five-day FR, and to validate image-assistance with total energy expenditure (TEE), was measured using doubly labeled water. Participants in this validation study were 22 healthy infants randomly selected from the control group of a larger, randomized intervention trial. The parents reported the infants’ dietary intake, and supplied images of main course meals taken from standardized flat-surfaced plates before and after eating episodes. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated separately using regular FR and image-assisted FRs. The mean (± standard deviations) energy intake (EI) was 3902 ± 476 kJ/day from the regular FR, and 3905 ± 476 kJ/day from the FR using active image-assistance. The mean EI from main-course meals when image-assistance was used did not differ (1.7 ± 55 kJ, p = 0.89) compared to regular FRs nor did the intake of macronutrients. Compared to TEE, image-assisted FR overestimated EI by 10%. Without validation, commercially available software to aid in the volume estimations, food item identification, and automation of the image processing, image-assisted methods remain a more costly and burdensome alternative to regular FRs in infants. The image-assisted method did, however, identify leftovers better than did regular FR, where such information is usually not readily available. View Full-Text

  • Varadharajan, Srinidhi
    et al.
    Sandve, Simen R.
    Gillard, Gareth B.
    Tørresen, Ole K.
    Mulugeta, Teshome D.
    Hvidsten, Torgeir R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Lien, Sigbjørn
    Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn
    Jentoft, Sissel
    Nederbragt, Alexander J.
    Jakobsen, Kjetill S.
    The Grayling Genome Reveals Selection on Gene Expression Regulation after Whole-Genome Duplication2018In: Genome Biology and Evolution, ISSN 1759-6653, E-ISSN 1759-6653, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 2785-2800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD) has been a major evolutionary driver of increased genomic complexity in vertebrates. One such event occurred in the salmonid family ∼80 Ma (Ss4R) giving rise to a plethora of structural and regulatory duplicate-driven divergence, making salmonids an exemplary system to investigate the evolutionary consequences of WGD. Here, we present a draft genome assembly of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and use this in a comparative framework to study evolution of gene regulation following WGD. Among the Ss4R duplicates identified in European grayling and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), one-third reflect nonneutral tissue expression evolution, with strong purifying selection, maintained over ∼50 Myr. Of these, the majority reflect conserved tissue regulation under strong selective constraints related to brain and neural-related functions, as well as higher-order protein–protein interactions. A small subset of the duplicates have evolved tissue regulatory expression divergence in a common ancestor, which have been subsequently conserved in both lineages, suggestive of adaptive divergence following WGD. These candidates for adaptive tissue expression divergence have elevated rates of protein coding- and promoter-sequence evolution and are enriched for immune- and lipid metabolism ontology terms. Lastly, lineage-specific duplicate divergence points toward underlying differences in adaptive pressures on expression regulation in the nonanadromous grayling versus the anadromous Atlantic salmon. Our findings enhance our understanding of the role of WGD in genome evolution and highlight cases of regulatory divergence of Ss4R duplicates, possibly related to a niche shift in early salmonid evolution.

  • Gustrén, Cia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Självpresentationernas logiker: en tematisk studie av gymnasieskolors identitetsskapande på webben2019Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this licentiate thesis is to examine the means of self-presentation on the websites of 18 upper secondary schools in Sweden. This empirical material may be referred to as a kind of marketing since they render a highly idealized image of schools. To some extent they exaggerate what school is about, as a way for schools to promote themselves as well as to maintain their hold on the market. Self-presentations thus play an important role in the struggle to attract prospective students and keep these enrolled. The fact that self-presentations refer to schools and not companies in general—although several schools certainly strive to define themselves as such—indicates that self-presentations are not like any other marketing practice. They can also be read as a kind of imaginative documents. In this capacity, self-presentations do not only express what school is or may be interpreted as, but foremost how it envisions itself in the future. The material underlying the study consists of a selection of excerpts that were collected from the schools' webpages at different points of time during the years 2011/2012 and 2016/2017. This allowed me to study both continuities and change in the way schools are presented online.

    In this study, schools' self-presentations are analyzed thematically in combination with Jason Glynos and David Howarth's so called logics approach, which has been developed out of poststructuralist discourse theory and its ontological assumptions. A logic may be understood in this case as a rule or pattern governing the way a phenomenon like school is constituted. As a research strategy, logics have helped me explore, step by step, the conditions of possibility as well as impossibility of identity-formation processes. I mainly deal with four logics that comprise the overarching principles that structure what it means to be a school: business adaptation, academization, individualization and social responsibility. The empirical study thus consisted in setting out the social, political and fantasmatic aspects of these logics—which consequently served to thematically analyze the contemporary identity-formation on schools' websites. Social aspects have been a descriptive tool to study what characterizes school as presented in the empirical material, whereas political and fantasmatic aspects refer to analytical and critical perspectives. The aim has been to illuminate not only the way schools' identities are organized but also how and why this happens – in other words, what logics do to the identity-formation of schools. Importantly, the logics in question are interrelated and work together at the same time as they 'struggle' over the significance of being a school. As I argue, the identity-formation of upper secondary schools can hence be perceived as crisscrossed by competing and complementary logics that all make certain claims as to what a school is supposed to be (or not).

    The main task of a traditional Swedish school has been to foster democratic members of society. The findings of my study, however, question such a general understanding. In my empirical material a self-referential meaning of school rather emerges with the purpose to produce good employees; that is, a competent work-force willing to submit to the norms and values of the corporate sector. Subsequently, the boundaries between school and the surrounding world are also increasingly loosened, as business is brought into the classroom and made a premise of learning and development in accordance with the needs and interests of the labor market. However, this replacement of a traditional school is only partial. Since schools are equally dependent on the societal tradition to appear as legitimate and credible alternatives on the educational arena they cannot wholeheartedly commit themselves to a corporate identity. Hence, self-presentations often indicate a struggle to be different enough to stand out from the host of other schools, but also to be similar enough to be considered a 'proper' school. This licentiate thesis has in common with previous studies that statements about qualification and employability measures have indeed increased. A corresponding decline of statements about active citizenship and critical thinking could not be detected – but then again, educational-political aspects confirm that a traditional school may be understood as a background against which an alternative school is formed. This is a conclusion which is consistent with the findings of previous studies on school and education policy.

  • Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Svenska jämviktsmodeller för tillämpad flersektoranalysManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Modelling Spatial Structural Change in the Swedish Economy1988Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Industrial Change, Trade and Education in Norrbotten1987In: Structural Change in Pheripheral and Rural Areas / [ed] Ulf Wiberg, Folke Snickars, Stockholm: Swedish Council for Building Research , 1987, p. 32-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Souza, Abel Pinto Coelho de
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Application-aware resource management for datacenters2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High Performance Computing (HPC) and Cloud Computing datacenters are extensively used to steer and solve complex problems in science, engineering, and business, such as calculating correlations and making predictions. Already in a single datacenter server, there are thousands of hardware and software metrics – Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) – that individually and aggregated can give insight in the performance, robustness, and efficiency of the datacenter and the provisioned applications. At the datacenter level, the number of KPIs is even higher. The fast growing interest on datacenter management from both public and industry together with the rapid expansion in scale and complexity of datacenter resources and the services being provided on them have made monitoring, profiling, controlling, and provisioning compute resources dynamically at runtime into a challenging and complex task. Commonly, correlations of application KPIs, like response time and throughput, with resource capacities show that runtime systems (e.g., containers or virtual machines) that are used to provision these applications do not utilize available resources efficiently. This reduces datacenter efficiency, which in term results in higher operational costs and longer waiting times for results.

    The goal of this thesis is to develop tools and autonomic techniques for improving datacenter operations, management and utilization, while improving and/or minimizing impacts on applications performance. To this end, we make use of application resource descriptors to create a library that dynamically adjusts the amount of resources used, enabling elasticity for scientific workflows in HPC datacenters. For mission critical applications, high availability is of great concern since these services must be kept running even in the event of system failures. By modeling and correlating specific resource counters, like CPU, memory and network utilization, with the number of runtime synchronizations, we present adaptive mechanisms to dynamically select which fault tolerant mechanism to use. Likewise, for scientific applications we propose a hybrid extensible architecture for dual-level scheduling of data intensive jobs in HPC infrastructures, allowing operational simplification, on-boarding of new types of applications and achieving greater job throughput with higher overall datacenter efficiency.

  • Olovsson, Tord Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå universitet.
    Näsström, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå universitet.
    Ämnesövergripande undervisning och betyg i årskurs 4-6 i svensk grundskola i SO- och NO-ämnena2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 4, p. 88-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden introduced a new national curriculum (Lgr11) for the compulsory school in 2011. It included new syllabi for the school subjects and a grading system now starting from school year 6. Social studies (civics, geography, history and religious studies) and natural sciences (biology, chemistry and physics) received syllabus with knowledge requirements for each respective subject. Despite the sectioning, Lgr11 encourages subject-integrated teaching and, when teaching has mainly been subject-integrated, summarised grades in both social studies and natural sciences are possible in school year 6. The purpose of this study is to investigate, analyse and compare to which extent teaching in school year 4-6 is subject-integrated and whether the grades in school year 6 are summarised in social studies as well as natural sciences. In the autumn of 2017, principals from 113 schools comprehending school years 4-6, completed a questionnaire. The results, also analysed in relation to Bernsteins theoretical model, show that teaching in each individual subject, as well as alternation between subject-integrated teaching and teaching in the individual subjects is most common. Fully subject-integrated teaching in social studies and nature sciences respectively is the least common practise. Three quarters of the schools give grades in the individual subjects. In schools with fully subject-integrated teaching, it is more common with summarised grades than grades in the individual subjects. However, this is more common in social studies than in the natural sciences. Almost all of the schools that teach in the individual subjects also give grades in the individual subjects.

  • Idahl, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Darelius, Anna
    Sundfeldt, Karin
    Palsson, Mathias
    Strandell, Annika
    Hysterectomy and opportunistic salpingectomy (HOPPSA): study protocol for a register-based randomized controlled trial2019In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 20, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is a great need for a prospective randomized trial to evaluate the risks and benefits of opportunistic salpingectomy. Recently, genetic and morphologic studies have indicated that epithelial ovarian cancer predominantly develops in the Fallopian tubes. Consequently, there is reason to believe that salpingectomy would reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. Studies on reducing the risk of ovarian cancer have compared indicated salpingectomy with no salpingectomy, while studies on surgical safety as well as ovarian function after opportunistic salpingectomy have been small with a short follow-up. No study has reported menopausal symptoms.

    Methods/design

    In this national register-based randomized controlled trial, women <55 years old, planned for a hysterectomy for a benign cause, will be randomized to concomitant salpingectomy or no salpingectomy. The follow-up will be conducted according to already established routines within the register using on-line questionnaires. Primary outcomes have been defined for three different time points: short-term complications up to 8 weeks postoperatively (n = 2800), intermediate-term changes in menopausal symptoms measured by the Menopause Rating Scale at baseline and after 1 year (n = 1670), and long-term epithelial ovarian cancer assessed through national registers after 30 years (n = 5052) (or n = 7001 for high-grade serous cancer). In a sub-study of 75 women, ovarian function will be evaluated through change in anti-Müllerian hormone measured before surgery and after 1 year.

    Discussion

    Hysterectomy for a benign cause is a common surgical procedure and several national societies recommend salpingectomy while performing a benign hysterectomy, despite a lack of scientific evidence for the safety of the procedure. Sweden has unique conditions for clinical trials because of its national quality registers and health registers with excellent quality and near complete coverage. If no additional risks are associated with concomitant salpingectomy, it can be recommended at the time of benign hysterectomy to reduce the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. If not, the risks and benefits must be balanced. The results of this study will be important for informing women undergoing a benign hysterectomy.

    Trial registration

    ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03045965. Registered on 8 February 2017

  • Ahmad, Irfan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Institute of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Karah, Nabil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Analysis of colony phase variation switch in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 1, article id e0210082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reversible switching between opaque and translucent colony formation is a novel feature of Acinetobacter baumannii that has been associated with variations in the cell morphology, surface motility, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance and virulence. Here, we assessed a number of phenotypic alterations related to colony switching in A. baumannii clinical isolates belonging to different multi-locus sequence types. Our findings demonstrated that these phenotypic alterations were mostly strain-specific. In general, the translucent subpopulations of A. baumannii produced more dense biofilms, were more piliated, and released larger amounts of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). In addition, the translucent subpopulations caused reduced fertility of Caenorhabditis elegans. When assessed for effects on the immune response in RAW 264.7 macrophages, the OMVs isolated from opaque subpopulations of A. baumannii appeared to be more immunogenic than the OMVs from the translucent form. However, also the OMVs from the translucent subpopulations had the potential to evoke an immune response. Therefore, we suggest that OMVs may be considered for development of new immunotherapeutic treatments against A. baumannii infections.

  • Fröjd, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interaktionen mellan nyfikenhet och yttre motivation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Curiosity is an intrinsic aspiration to obtain new information. It has been considered that external motivation inhibits curiosity, but over the last years new research has indicated a partially different relationship. To investigate the interaction between curiosity and external motivation a picture-based learning experiment was constructed, in which the participants were rewarded, alternatively punished for obtaining new information which pleased their curiosity. In the first part of the experiment, the participants scored their curiosity of mosaic-covered pictures. In the second part of the of the experiment, the scored mosaic-covered pictures were consequently presented next to a constant picture. The task for the 24 participants was then to choose one of the pictures in each round. The chosen mosaic-covered picture would then show according to a certain waiting time - either short or long - depending on if it was new or recurring. Whether the new or recurring picture had a short or long average waiting time varied between the two in-group conditions. It was hypothesized that the participants would be externally motivated to minimize the waiting time by learning and favouring the category of pictures with the shortest waiting time. In addition, it was hypothesized that the participants would be curious of the mosaic-covered pictures. In one of the conditions, the participants external motivation coincided with their curiosity, in the other condition the external motivation was in conflict with their curiosity. In a third controlling condition, the dimension of curiosity was eliminated to measure the learning of the waiting time. The experiment showed that more rounds are needed to learn the waiting time in the controlling conditions compared to when the new pictures also had a shorter average waiting time. When new pictures were associated with a longer average waiting time, it divided the participants into two groups. In one group the participant rarely chose new pictures (proportion: 0.75 – 1.0) while the participants in the other group to a large extent chose new pictures (proportion: 0.0077 – 0.069). These differences were also shown in the participants personal traits connected to curiosity. All together, the study supports the idea that curiosity and external motivation can be integrated and that personal traits are related to the evaluation of information. 

  • Majano, Sara Benitez
    et al.
    Di Girolamo, Chiara
    Rachet, Bernard
    Maringe, Camille
    Guren, Marianne Gronlie
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Iversen, Lene Hjerrild
    Schnell, Edrun Andrea
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Regionalt Cancercentrum Norr, Umeå, Sweden.
    Christensen, Jane
    Morris, Melanie
    Coleman, Michel P.
    Walters, Sarah
    Surgical treatment and survival from colorectal cancer in Denmark, England, Norway, and Sweden: a population-based study2019In: The Lancet Oncology, ISSN 1470-2045, E-ISSN 1474-5488, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 74-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Survival from colorectal cancer has been shown to be lower in Denmark and England than in comparable high-income countries. We used data from national colorectal cancer registries to assess whether differences in the proportion of patients receiving resectional surgery could contribute to international differences in colorectal cancer survival. Methods In this population-based study, we collected data from all patients aged 18-99 years diagnosed with primary, invasive, colorectal adenocarcinoma from Jan 1, 2010, to Dec 31, 2012, in Denmark, England, Norway, and Sweden, from national colorectal cancer registries. We estimated age-standardised net survival using multivariable modelling, and we compared the proportion of patients receiving resectional surgery by stage and age. We used logistic regression to predict the resectional surgery status patients would have had if they had been treated as in the best performing country, given their individual characteristics. Findings We extracted registry data for 139457 adult patients with invasive colorectal adenocarcinoma: 12958 patients in Denmark, 97466 in England, 11450 in Norway, and 17583 in Sweden. 3-year colon cancer survival was lower in England (63.9%, 95% CI 63.5-64.3) and Denmark (65.7%, 64.7-66.8) than in Norway (69.5%, 68.4-70.5) and Sweden (72.1%, 71.2-73.0). Rectal cancer survival was lower in England (69.7%, 69.1-70.3) than in the other three countries (Denmark 72.5%, 71.1-74.0; Sweden 74.1%, 72.7-75.4; and Norway 75.0%, 73.1-76.8). We found no significant differences in survival for patients with stage I disease in any of the four countries. 3-year survival after stage II or III rectal cancer and stage IV colon cancer was consistently lower in England (stage II rectal cancer 86.4%, 95% CI 85.0-87.6; stage III rectal cancer 75.5%, 74.2-76.7; and stage IV colon cancer 20.5%, 19.9-21.1) than in Norway (94.1%, 91.5-96.0; 83.4%, 80.1-86.1; and 33.0%, 31.0-35.1) and Sweden (92.9%, 90.8-94.6; 80.6%, 78.2-82.7; and 23.7%, 22.0-25.3). 3-year survival after stage II rectal cancer and stage IV colon cancer was also lower in England than in Denmark (stage II rectal cancer 91.2%, 88.8-93.1; and stage IV colon cancer 23.5%, 21.9-25.1). The total proportion of patients treated with resectional surgery ranged from 47803 (68.4%) of 69867 patients in England to 9582 (81.3%) of 11786 in Sweden for colon cancer, and from 16544 (59.9%) of 27599 in England to 4106 (70.8%) of 5797 in Sweden for rectal cancer. This range was widest for patients older than 75 years (colon cancer 19078 [59.7%] of 31946 patients in England to 4429 [80.9%] of 5474 in Sweden; rectal cancer 4663 [45.7%] of 10195 in England to 1342 [61.9%] of 2169 in Sweden), and the proportion of patients treated with resectional surgery was consistently lowest in England. The age gradient of the decline in the proportion of patients treated with resectional surgery was steeper in England than in the other three countries in all stage categories. In the hypothetical scenario where all patients were treated as in Sweden, given their age, sex, and disease stage, the largest increase in resectional surgery would be for patients with stage III rectal cancer in England (increasing from 70.3% to 88.2%). Interpretation Survival from colon cancer and rectal cancer in England and colon cancer in Denmark was lower than in Norway and Sweden. Survival paralleled the relative provision of resectional surgery in these countries. Differences in patient selection for surgery, especially in patients older than 75 years or individuals with advanced disease, might partly explain these differences in international colorectal cancer survival. Copyright 2018 (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • Kumar, Arvind
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Saleeb, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Werz, Dominik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Cyclopropylmethyl Protection of Phenols: Total Synthesis of the Resveratrol Dimers Anigopreissin A and Resveratrol-Piceatannol Hybrid2018In: ChemistryOpen, ISSN 2191-1363, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 953-956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the versatile use of the cyclopropylmethyl group to protect phenols through the total synthesis of two benzofuran-based natural products, that is, anigopreissin A and the resveratrol-piceatannol hybrid. This protecting group is a good alternative to the conventional methyl group, owing to the feasibility of introduction, stability under a variety of conditions, and its relative ease of removal under different acidic conditions.

  • Gu, Xiaolian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Coates, Philip J.
    Boldrup, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Wang, Lixiao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Krejci, Adam
    Hupp, Ted
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. RECAMO, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic; Institute of Molecular Genetics, University Paris 7, St. Louis Hospital, Paris, France.
    Norberg-Spaak, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Sgaramella, Nicola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Wilms, Torben
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Copy number variation: A prognostic marker for young patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue2019In: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, ISSN 0904-2512, E-ISSN 1600-0714, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT) is increasing in people under age 40. There is an urgent need to identify prognostic markers that help identify young SCCOT patients with poor prognosis in order to select these for individualized treatment. Materials and methods To identify genetic markers that can serve as prognostic markers for young SCCOT patients, we first investigated four young (<= 40 years) and five elderly patients (>= 50 years) using global RNA sequencing and whole-exome sequencing. Next, we combined our data with data on SCCOT from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA), giving a total of 16 young and 104 elderly, to explore the correlations between genomic variations and clinical outcomes. Results In agreement with previous studies, we found that SCCOT from young and elderly patients was transcriptomically and also genomically similar with no significant differences regarding cancer driver genes, germline predisposition genes, or the burden of somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs). However, a disparate copy number variation (CNV) was found in young patients with distinct clinical outcome. Combined with data from TCGA, we found that the overall survival was significantly better in young patients with low-CNV (n = 5) compared to high-CNV (n = 11) burden (P = 0.044). Conclusions Copy number variation burden is a useful single prognostic marker for SCCOT from young, but not elderly, patients. CNV burden thus holds promise to form an important contribution when selecting suitable treatment protocols for young patients with SCCOT.

  • Martins, Rodrigo Prado
    et al.
    Findakly, Sarah
    Daskalogianni, Chrysoula
    Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule
    Blondel, Marc
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. Université Paris 7, Inserm, UMR 1162, 75013 Paris, France; ICCVS, University of Gda ´nsk, Science, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-308 Gda ´nsk, Poland; RECAMO, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Zluty kopec 7, 65653 Brno, Czech Republic.
    In Cellulo Protein-mRNA Interaction Assay to Determine the Action of G-Quadruplex-Binding Molecules2018In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 23, no 12, article id 3124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein-RNA interactions (PRIs) control pivotal steps in RNA biogenesis, regulate multiple physiological and pathological cellular networks, and are emerging as important drug targets. However, targeting of specific protein-RNA interactions for therapeutic developments is still poorly advanced. Studies and manipulation of these interactions are technically challenging and in vitro drug screening assays are often hampered due to the complexity of RNA structures. The binding of nucleolin (NCL) to a G-quadruplex (G4) structure in the messenger RNA (mRNA) of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded EBNA1 has emerged as an interesting therapeutic target to interfere with immune evasion of EBV-associated cancers. Using the NCL-EBNA1 mRNA interaction as a model, we describe a quantitative proximity ligation assay (PLA)-based in cellulo approach to determine the structure activity relationship of small chemical G4 ligands. Our results show how different G4 ligands have different effects on NCL binding to G4 of the EBNA1 mRNA and highlight the importance of in-cellulo screening assays for targeting RNA structure-dependent interactions.

  • Barman, Malin
    et al.
    Murray, Fiona
    Bernardi, Angelina I.
    Broberg, Karin
    Bölte, Sven
    Hesselmar, Bill
    Jacobsson, Bo
    Jonsson, Karin
    Kippler, Maria
    Rabe, Hardis
    Ross, Alastair B.
    Sjöberg, Fei
    Strömberg, Nicklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Vahter, Marie
    Wold, Agnes E.
    Sandberg, Ann-Sofie
    Sandin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics. Sunderby Research Unit, Region Norrbotten, Luleå, Sweden.
    Nutritional impact on Immunological maturation during Childhood in relation to the Environment (NICE): a prospective birth cohort in northern Sweden2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 10, article id e022013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Prenatal and neonatal environmental factors, such as nutrition, microbes and toxicants, may affect health throughout life. Many diseases, such as allergy and impaired child development, may be programmed already in utero or during early infancy. Birth cohorts are important tools to study associations between early life exposure and disease risk. Here, we describe the study protocol of the prospective birth cohort, 'Nutritional impact on Immunological maturation during Childhood in relation to the Environment' (NICE). The primary aim of the NICE cohort is to clarify the effect of key environmental exposures-diet, microbes and environmental toxicants-during pregnancy and early childhood, on the maturation of the infant's immune system, including initiation of sensitisation and allergy as well as some secondary outcomes: infant growth, obesity, neurological development and oral health. Methods and analysis The NICE cohort will recruit about 650 families during mid-pregnancy. The principal inclusion criterion will be planned birth at the Sunderby Hospital in the north of Sweden, during 2015-2018. Questionnaires data and biological samples will be collected at 10 time-points, from pregnancy until the children reach 4 years of age. Samples will be collected primarily from mothers and children, and from fathers. Biological samples include blood, urine, placenta, breast milk, meconium, faeces, saliva and hair. Information regarding allergic heredity, diet, socioeconomic status, lifestyle including smoking, siblings, pet ownership, etc will be collected using questionnaires. Sensitisation to common allergens will be assessed by skin prick testing and allergic disease will be diagnosed by a paediatrician at 1 and 4 years of age. At 4 years of age, the children will also be examined regarding growth, neurobehavioural and neurophysiological status and oral health. Ethics and dissemination The NICE cohort has been approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Umea, Sweden (2013/18-31M). Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and communicated on scientific conferences.

  • Goormaghtigh, Frederic
    et al.
    Fraikin, Nathan
    Putrins, Marta
    Hallaert, Thibaut
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Garcia-Pino, Abel
    Sjödin, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kasvandik, Sergo
    Udekwu, Klas
    Tenson, Tanel
    Kaldalu, Niilo
    Van Melderen, Laurence
    Reassessing the Role of Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Formation of Escherichia coli Type II Persister Cells2018In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 9, no 3, article id e00640-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistence is a reversible and low-frequency phenomenon allowing a subpopulation of a clonal bacterial population to survive antibiotic treatments. Upon removal of the antibiotic, persister cells resume growth and give rise to viable progeny. Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were assumed to play a key role in the formation of persister cells in Escherichia coli based on the observation that successive deletions of TA systems decreased persistence frequency. In addition, the model proposed that stochastic fluctuations of (p)ppGpp levels are the basis for triggering activation of TA systems. Cells in which TA systems are activated are thought to enter a dormancy state and therefore survive the antibiotic treatment. Using independently constructed strains and newly designed fluorescent reporters, we reassessed the roles of TA modules in persistence both at the population and single-cell levels. Our data confirm that the deletion of 10 TA systems does not affect persistence to ofloxacin or ampicillin. Moreover, microfluidic experiments performed with a strain reporting the induction of the yefM-yoeB TA system allowed the observation of a small number of type II persister cells that resume growth after removal of ampicillin. However, we were unable to establish a correlation between high fluorescence and persistence, since the fluorescence of persister cells was comparable to that of the bulk of the population and none of the cells showing high fluorescence were able to resume growth upon removal of the antibiotic. Altogether, these data show that there is no direct link between induction of TA systems and persistence to antibiotics. IMPORTANCE Within a growing bacterial population, a small subpopulation of cells is able to survive antibiotic treatment by entering a transient state of dormancy referred to as persistence. Persistence is thought to be the cause of relapsing bacterial infections and is a major public health concern. Type II toxin-antitoxin systems are small modules composed of a toxic protein and an antitoxin protein counteracting the toxin activity. These systems were thought to be pivotal players in persistence until recent developments in the field. Our results demonstrate that previous influential reports had technical flaws and that there is no direct link between induction of TA systems and persistence to antibiotics.

  • Forsman, Olivia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Frihet under ansvar?: En studie av åren med motboken och kvinnors rättigheter 1919-19552018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the economic-historical development of the Swedish restriction system against alcohol abuse. It has been of interest to examine how it was designed and then implemented during the period of 1919–1955.

    The study includes a discussion on how the restrictions affected women's opportunities to acquire alcohol, based on gender norms. Therefore, the thesis has been strengthened by a gender-based analysis.

    The material that has been studied for the purpose is real decisions by the government for men and women who have applied for the right of purchasing alcohol.

    This paper has found that men were more often granted their applications, and because women had more difficult conditions. The reason seems to be that gender norms ruled higher than the formal rights.

     

    Key words: economic history, gender, alcohol, restriction system

  • Pape, Kathrine
    et al.
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Benediktsdottir, Bryndis
    Lodge, Caroline
    Janson, Christer
    Moratalla, Jesus
    Sánchez-Ramos, José Luis
    Bråbäck, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Holm, Mathias
    Jögi, Rain
    Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Johannessen, Ane
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Agreement of offspring-reported parental smoking status: the RHINESSA generation study2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With increasing interest in exposure effects across generations, it is crucial to assess the validity of information given on behalf of others.

    Aims: To compare adult’s report of their parent’s smoking status against parent’s own report and examine predictors for discrepant answers.

    Methods: We studied 7185 offspring (18-51 years) and one of their parents, n = 5307 (27-67 years) participating in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Information about parent’s smoking status during offspring’s childhood and mother’s smoking status during pregnancy was obtained by questionnaires from parents and their offspring. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and Cohen’s Kappa [κ] for agreement using parent’s own report as the gold standard. We performed logistic regression to examine if offspring’s sex, age, educational level, asthma status, own smoking status or parental status, as well as the parent’s sex and amount of smoking during childhood predicted disagreement.

    Results: The sensitivity for offspring’s correct report of parent’s smoking status during childhood (0-10 years) was 0.82 (95% CI 0.81–0.84), specificity was 0.95 (95% CI 0.95–0.96) and a good agreement was observed, κ = 0.79 (95% CI 0.78–0.80). Offspring’s report of mothers’ smoking status during pregnancy showed a lower sensitivity, 0.66 (95% CI 0.60–0.71), a slightly lower specificity, 0.92 (95% CI 0.90–0.95) and a good agreement, κ = 0.61 (95% CI 0.55–0.67). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, offspring not having children was a predictor for discrepant answers (odds ratio [OR] 2.11 [95% CI 1.21–3.69]). Low amount of parents’ tobacco consumption, < 10 cigarettes/day (OR 2.72 [95% CI 1.71–4.31]) also predicted disagreement compared to ≥10 cigarettes per day, and so did offspring’s reports of fathers’ smoking status (OR 1.73 [95% CI 1.09–2.74]) compared to mothers’ smoking status. Offspring’s sex, asthma status, educational level, smoking status or age was not related to discrepant answers.

    Conclusions: Adults report their parent’s smoking status during their childhood, as well as their mother’ smoking status when pregnant with them, quite accurately. In the absence of parents’ direct report, offspring’s reports could be valuable.

  • Bergsten, Mathias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Behovsstyrdventilation för en befintlig kontorsfastighet: )  En LCC-jämförelse mellan DCV och CAV2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Demand controlled ventilation has in this study been investigated in a life cycle cost (LCC) - perspective for an existing office property. The goal was to examine whether a complementary of the existing constant air volume (CAV)-system to a demand controlled ventilation (DCV) -system is profitable.

    This project has been executed on behalf of Fastpartner AB. The studied property is an office building of floor area 6000                          in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Two different types of DCV systems were analyzed: C controlled ventilation and C with temperature controlled ventilation. The software IDA ICE was used in order to examine the energy consumption for district heating, district cooling and electricity for the air handling unit.

    The building has been modelled as accuracy as possible in order to represent the real building. In order to see the effect of various loading rate, simulations with three different occupancy levels for CAV and the DCV-systems was made. The occupancy levels represented organizations with high, low and medium occupancy. In the end nine simulations was made.

    The net present value method was used for each system in the LCC analyses. Costs for installation, purchase and maintenance have been taken into account. The results from the study showed that both of the DCV-systems gives a lower LCC than the existing CAV- system. The most profitable DCV-system is C with temperature- controlled ventilation, that presents a theoretical cost saving up to 250 000 kr.

    The variation of occupancy levels didn’t affect the outcome of LCC for C and temperature controlled ventilation, however C controlled ventilation showed a significant difference depending on low versus high occupancy level. Low occupancy level results in a higher cost saving.

    The fans for the air handling unit had the largest energy saving based on energy sector. Where a reduction up to 75 % can be achieved for C controlled ventilation at low occupancy level.

  • Hultgren, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Fel i tjänst: om felbedömning och påföljdsbestämning vid avtal om tjänster i oreglerade fall2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Swedish law of obligation, reasoning from analogies and general principle is a common method for solving disputes. This is due to the Swedish legal history and the Swedish legislative traditions. The Nordic countries never attained a universal civil code. Instead, the Nordic tradition has been to legislate what was considered central types of contracts, leaving the courts to rely on analogies and general principle within a great portion of the law of obligation. This solution has been fine for a long time, but due to a fast developing market in combination with a new political landscape where updating the fragmented legislation to meet the prerequisites of modern contract law doesn’t seem to be as important, the method has become more problematic. This is particularly true for service contracts since they can be of widely different character and the norms accessible for analogies and deriving general principles from is of equally diverse characteristics.

    With the above stated in mind, the study aims to examine the basis of legal supplementation through analogies and general principles as well as the basis of assessing breach of contract, especially regarding inadequate performance of service (swe: fel i tjänst), and determination of remedies for such contractual defects. The study hereby concludes when inadequate performance of service is at hand in unregulated cases and which contractual remedies is available through general principle in such cases.

  • Taheri, Nayyer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Host-pathogen interactions during Campylobacter and Yersinia infections2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The innate immune system is known for protecting the host against invading pathogens, for instance enteropathogens infecting the gastrointestinal tract. The production of e.g. antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and chemokines by innate immune cells and intestinal epithelial cells contribute to bacterial clearance. Given the significance of this system in overall defense, pathogens affect and/or manipulate immune cells and responses in favor of their own survival. This thesis focuses on how the Gram-negative enteropathogenic bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Campylobacter jejuni affect the host, either directly via type 3 secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins or via outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), and how host factors potentially affect their virulence.

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis uses its T3SS to translocate virulence factors that disable various immune responses and subvert phagocytosis. Neutrophils are main target cells during Yersinia infection. They release granules that contain proteins with antimicrobial properties to the cell's exterior upon activation through a process called degranulation. We found that extracellular Y. pseudotuberculosis could prevent neutrophil degranulation upon cell contact. Prevention of degranulation was shown to be mediated via co-operative actions of the two anti-phagocytic Yersinia outer proteins YopH and YopE. Bacterial contact with neutrophils resulted in a transient inhibition of degranulation and further prevented degranulation upon subsequent contact with avirulent Y. pseudotuberculosis (lacking YopE and YopH) as well as Escherichia coli. Thus, Y. pseudotuberculosis impairs several neutrophil defense mechanisms to remain in the extracellular environment and to increase its survival during infection.

    Campylobacter jejuni lacks a T3SS and appears to use OMVs and flagella as its main secretion apparatus. During passage through the intestine C. jejuni is exposed to bile, an important physiological component and part of the natural barrier of the intestine, and ability to resist bile is advantageous for C. jejuni survival. We investigated how C. jejuni OMV production and protein content is affected by bile. The main invasion and colonization of C. jejuni occurs in the lower part of the intestine where the concentration of bile is low compared with the proximal intestine. The OMV proteomic profiles were radically altered when bacteria were grown in low concentration of bile corresponding to cecal concentrations. Twenty-five present of the detected proteins of OMVs showed an altered abundance in the presence of low concentration of bile. In contrast, the overall proteome of the bacteria was unaffected. Moreover, OMVs frombile-exposed bacteria could enhance adhesion as well as invasion of bacteria into intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting a role of OMVs to the virulence of C. jejuni in the gut. The body temperature differs between the asymptomatic avian carriers of C. jejuni and humans, which develop symptomatic disease. We investigated whether the bacterial growth temperature affects the OMV proteome and found that 59 proteins were differentially expressed at 37°C. Among the higher abundant proteins, significantly more proteins were predicted to be related to virulence. Thus, temperature has an impact on the property of the OMVs, and this might affect the outcome of infection by C. jejuni in different hosts.

    C. jejuni OMV interactions with innate immune cells were studied by analyses of OMV-mediated inflammasome activation. OMVs were found to induce ASC- and caspase-1-dependent inflammasome activation in murine and human macrophages and dendritic cells as well as in human neutrophils. While C. jejuni infection induced a low level of inflammasome-dependent cell death, OMV-induced inflammasome activation did not result in cell death. Thus, OMVs disseminate into tissue without bacteria can be a vehicle for virulence factors without inducing inflammatory cell death.

  • Bäckström, David C
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    The biology of cognitive decline and reduced survival in Parkinson disease: prognostic factors in a population-based cohort2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects about 1% of the population over 60 years. The cardinal symptoms are motor disabilities but cognitive decline is also common. About 50% of all persons with PD develop dementia within 10 years after disease onset. Dementia in PD account for high social costs and has large, negative effects on quality of life. 

    Aims. The aim of the study was to investigate clinical, neurobiological and genetic factors of importance for progression and for the prognosis in PD and parkinsonism. First, we aimed to describe mortality and risk factors for death, including possible associations with cognitive dysfunction, in patients with idiopathic parkinsonism. Second, we aimed to study if biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are useful for the diagnosis of different forms of idiopathic parkinsonism and prediction of cognitive decline in PD. 

    Methods. A population-based cohort consisting of patients with new-onset, idiopathic parkinsonism was studied prospectively. After screening in a catchment area of ~142 000 inhabitants in Sweden, 182 patients with parkinsonism were included. The patients were investigated comprehensively, including neuropsychological testing, multimodal neuroimaging and genetic and biosample analyses. During follow up, 143 patients were diagnosed with PD, 13 with multiple system atrophy (MSA), and 18 with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). A total of 109 patients died. 

    Results. Patients with MSA and PSP had the shortest life expectancy. PD patients who presented with normal cognitive function had a largely normal life expectancy. In contrast, the mortality was increased in PD patients with cognitive impairment, freezing of gait, hyposmia, and mildly elevated leukocytes in the CSF. Of importance for the prognosis, patients with PD with an early CSF pattern of high Neurofilament light protein, low β-amyloid, and high heart fatty acid binding protein had an 11.8 times increased risk of developing PD dementia (95% CI 3.3-42.1, p <0.001), compared with PD patients with a more ”normal” CSF pattern. Variation in genes associated with dopamine function was also associated with some effects on cognitive functions in PD. 

    Conclusions. PD subtypes, for instance the subtype characterized by cognitive decline, have distinguishing clinical, neurochemical and neurobiological traits, which are of importance for the prognosis and the survival. An early CSF analysis is useful for predicting cognitive decline. The finding of a low-grade immune reaction in the CSF of patients with PD may have clinical implications. In clinical practice, CSF biomarkers could be useful for improving diagnosis and prognostication.

  • Mohammad, Jani B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Biochemical analysis of Pfh1, the essential Pif1 family helicase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    DNA stores the genetic information of all living organisms, and this information needs to be copied accurately and passed on to each daughter cell when a cell divides. However, the DNA replication machinery often meets obstacles in the genome that cause fork pausing and might result in DNA damage. DNA helicases are motor proteins that unwind duplex DNA structures using the energy from ATP hydrolysis. Helicases can also assist in replication fork progression by resolving obstacles that arise at hard-to-replicate sites such as tightly DNA-bound proteins, R-loops, and DNA secondary structures like G-quadruplexes (G4s). In this thesis, we focused on Schizosaccharomyces pombe DNA helicase Pfh1, which is localized in both the nucleus and the mitochondria and belongs to the evolutionary conserved Pif1 helicases. Pfh1 is an accessory replicative helicase, and the goal in this thesis was to gain a better mechanistic understanding of the role of nuclear Pfh1 (nPfh1). Our first aim was to elucidate the role of nPfh1 at G-quadruplex (G4) DNA. Aim two was to understand the function of nPfh1’s signature motif. Aim three was to characterize the role of nPfh1 in strand annealing.

    Some G-rich sequences can form a four-stranded DNA structure called G4 DNA, and the S. pombe genome contains about 450 bioinformatically predicted G4 structures. We selected two of these sequences, one located in the ribosomal DNA region and one located in the telomeric DNA region, and showed that they form inter- and intramolecular G4 structures, respectively. Next, we established a method to express and purify recombinant nPfh1 and demonstrated that nPfh1 binds to and unwinds these structures. In addition, Pfh1 bound to both the ribosomal and telomeric DNA regions in vivo, suggesting that Pfh1 can bind and unwind G4 structures in vivo. The purified nPfh1 also unwound RNA/DNA more efficiently than DNA/DNA structures, suggesting that nPfh1 has the ability to unwind R-loops in vivo. nPfh1 also showed protein displacement activity, suggesting that it can remove tightly bound proteins from DNA. All of these properties of nPfh1 suggest that it is important for fork progression and for preserving genome integrity.

    Furthermore, nPfh1 stimulated strand annealing, and this activity did not require ATP hydrolysis. The strand-annealing activity was higher for complementary DNA/DNA compared to RNA/DNA substrates and did not require a DNA overhang. Furthermore, by analyzing Pfh1 truncated variants we demonstrated that the N-terminus region of Pfh1 was mainly responsible for the strand-annealing activity, however the C-terminus region also possessed some strand-annealing activity. Point mutations in the Pif1 signature motif (SM) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in humans and with inviable S. pombe cells. We purified several SM variants and found that the unwinding and protein displacement activities of nPfh1 were dependent on the SM, but not the strand-annealing activity, suggesting that the SM is important for functions that require ATP hydrolysis.

    In conclusion, in this thesis we identified nPfh1 as a potent G4 unwinder, and this is the only G4 unwinder identified in S. pombe to date. We also provided detailed mechanistic insights into nPfh1 and its different domains, and this has enhanced our understanding of Pfh1’s role in maintaining genome integrity.

  • Westin, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Persson, Håkan
    En kortsiktig flersektoriell jämviktsmodell1985Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det följande beskrivs en flersektoriell allmän jämviktsmodell för komparativ statisk analys av ekonomin under en kortsiktig tidshorisont.

    Modellen ansluter till den medelsiktiga modell som finns beskriven i Johansson & Persson (1983). Den är därmed baserad på en "årgångsansats", där industrisektorerna består av ett antal anläggningar med individuella effektivitets- och produktionskaraktäristika.

    Det primära användningsområdet för modellen är analyser av vilka effekter som störningar i den internationella handeln har på ekonomin.

    Genom att utnyttja kunskapen om anläggningarnas lokalisering, kan även de regionala effekterna studeras.

    Arbetet har utförts på uppdrag av FOA som även bidragit ekonomiskt till modellens utvecklande.

  • Souza, Abel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Rezaei, Mohamad
    PDC Center for High Performance Computing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Laure, Erwin
    PDC Center for High Performance Computing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tordsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hybrid Resource Management for HPC and Data Intensive WorkloadsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, High Performance Computing (HPC) and Data Intensive (DI) workloads have been executed on separate hardware using different tools for resource and application management. With increasing convergence of these paradigms, where modern applications are composed of both types of jobs in complex workflows, this separation becomes a growing overhead and the need for a common computation platform for both application areas increases. Executing both application classes on the same hardware not only enables hybrid workflows, but can also increase the usage efficiency of the system, as often not all available hardware is fully utilized by an application. While HPC systems are typically managed in a coarse grained fashion, allocating a fixed set of resources exclusively to an application, DI systems employ a finer grained regime, enabling dynamic resource allocation and control based on application needs. On the path to full convergence, a useful and less intrusive step is a hybrid resource management system that allows the execution of DI applications on top of standard HPC scheduling systems.In this paper we present the architecture of a hybrid system enabling dual-level scheduling for DI jobs in HPC infrastructures. Our system takes advantage of real-time resource utilization monitoring to efficiently co-schedule HPC and DI applications. The architecture is easily adaptable and extensible to current and new types of distributed workloads, allowing efficient combination of hybrid workloads on HPC resources with increased job throughput and higher overall resource utilization. The architecture is implemented based on the Slurm and Mesos resource managers for HPC and DI jobs. Our experimental evaluation in a real cluster based on a set of representative HPC and DI applications demonstrate that our hybrid architecture improves resource utilization by 20%, with 12% decrease on queue makespan while still meeting all deadlines for HPC jobs.

  • Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Industristruktur och konkurrenskraft i Norrbotten 1968-19831986Report (Other academic)
  • Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Civilsamhällets respons på olyckor och kriser: bistånd eller motstånd?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet undersöker vilka trender och drivkrafter som finns bakom civilsamhällets respons på olyckor och kriser. Forskningen analyserar olika former av frivilligt engagemang både ur ett internationellt och ett svenskt perspektiv.

  • Berggren, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Development of a Mobile Reactor for Large Scale Water Treatment2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water pollution is one of many environmental problems that currently exists and inadequate treatment of industrial wastewater is contributing to further pollution. SpinChem AB's Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) technology offers the possibility of water treatment by carrying out reactions between a solution and a solid phase. To move further in the field of large scale water treatment, SpinChem AB developed a prototype of a mobile reactor, i.e. a raft, carrying the RBR technology. The prototype proved that a mobile reactor can greatly reduce the process time for larger water volumes compared to a stationary RBR. The aim of this thesis is to develop the next version of the mobile reactor, with increased operational stability and autonomous driving (autopilot) as main goals. This work covers all parts in the development of the new mobile reactor which involves design, simulation, construction, electronics, software implementations and testing. The presented mobile reactor is a twin hull surface vehicle with the possibility of using two RBRs for water treatment. The steering is based on differential motor thrust and the autonomous driving was achieved using sensor data from a GPS, magnetometer and accelerometer, together with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) type control system. The autopilot was put to the test on two different travel routes with a P and PI controller. The mobile reactor successfully followed the given routes, thus verifying that the developed mobile reactor can be used for future autonomous large scale water treatment.  

  • Nilsson Sjöström, Dennis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    A Mathematical Model of Hacking the 2016 US Presidential Election2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After the 2016 US presidential election, allegations were published that the electronic voting machines used throughout the US could have been manipulated.These claims arose due to the reported attacks by Department of Homeland Security toward voter registration databases. The US is more vulnerable against these types of attacks since electronic voting machines is the most prevalent method for voting. To reduce election costs, other countries are also considering replacing paper ballots with electronic voting machines. This, however, imposes a risk. By attacking the electronic voting machines, an attacker could change the outcome of an election. A well-executed attack would be designed to be highly successful, but at the same time the risk for detection would be low. The question evaluated in this paper is whether such an attack would be possible and if so, how much it would cost to execute.

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the 2016 US presidential election.The model is based on voting machine equipment data and pollingdata. The model is used to simulate how rational attackers would maximize their effect on the election and minimize their effort by hacking voting machines. By using polls, it was possible to determine the effort needed to change the outcome of the 2016 US presidential election and thus estimate the costs. Based on the model, the estimated cost to hack the 2016US presidential election would amount to at least ten million dollars. The results show that these attacks are possible by attacking only one manufacturer of electronic voting machines. Hence, the use of electronic voting machines poses too much of a risk for democracy, and paper ballots should still be considered for elections. This kind of model can be implemented on the elections of other countries that use electronic voting machines.

  • Persson, Aron
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    On the Existence of Electrodynamics on Manifold-like Polyfolds2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines the question whether the classical theory of electrodynamics can be extended to a spacetime which locally changes dimension and if such an endeavour is mathematically possible. Recent research has developed a new generalisation of smooth manifolds, the so called M-polyfolds, which constitutes a sufficient foundation to make this endeavour a physical plausibility. These M-polyfolds then facilitate the capability to define the velocity of a curve going through a dimensionally shifting spacetime. Moreover, necessary extensions to the theory of M-polyfolds is developed in order to tailor the theory to a more physically focused framework. Concluding the essay, Maxwell’s equations on M-polyfolds are defined.

  • Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Freidovich, Leonid B.Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Proceedings of the 16th Student Conference in Interaction Technology and Design and the 5th Student Conference in Electronics and Mechatronics2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The joint Student Conference in Interaction Technology and Design and Student Conference in Electronics and Mechatronics is the annual grand finale of the courses Current Topic in Interaction Technology and Design and Student Conference in Electronics and Mechatronics at the Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University. The idea and objective of the two courses are to give the students a forum where they can actively participate in scientific research and development through their own ideas and interests.  The course introduces students to independently researching an interesting topic, using a foreign language orally and in writing, writing a scientific article, peer-review and presenting their work at a conference. The conference format was chosen to provide a realistic environment for the presentation of the results. The work has been reviewed both by other participant on the course and members of the department. If the reviews are favorable, the paper is accepted as a full paper at the conference and included in the proceedings. Research that has an interesting topic and potential for future publication is presented as work-in-progress at the conference and the abstract is included in the conference proceedings. This year 10 full papers and 2 work-in-progress papers were accepted at the conference and all included in this proceedings as full papers and extended abstracts, respectively.

  • Oja, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Höstfenologi i norra Sveriges fjällkedja: Sker invintring av växter samtidigt oberoende av varierande topografi och vegetation?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although the autumn phenology of plants is important for a wide range of processes including primary production, carbon sequestration and food availability for herbivores, few studies have addressed spatial variation of autumn phenology and how it changes with climate change. The greatest increase of temperature is predicted near the pole and therefor it is important to estimate how this change will affect Arctic ecosystems. The phenology of vegetation is a valuable indicator of climate change and knowledge about phenology will give indications how the Arctic terrestrial ecosystems will react on climate changes. So far, the spring phenology is well-known compared to the autumn phenology. The aim of this study was to examine how autumn phenology varies among and within locations in forest-tundra ecotone in Northwestern Sweden. The phenology of the plant communities was measured spectrally with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI]. This allow me to directly compare the results of this study with the results from large scale studies using satellite-derived indices. I found that the timing of the autumn senescence varies among locations, topographic positions and vegetation types. These results are important because they contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the processes regulating primary production and food availability for herbivores in the Scandinavian mountains, and provide important information for forecasting the responses of these ecosystems to future climate changes. 

  • Pettersson, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Kampanjfilmen - en talhandling till folket2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Politisk reklam i form av kampanjfilmer har sedan 2010 varit ett medieformat svenska partier använder sig av för att nå ut med sina politiska budskap till väljarkåren. I den här uppsatsen analyseras Nya Moderaternas officiella kampanjfilm från 2018 och den har visats i de kommersiella tv-kanalerna inför valet och på så sett nått ut till en bred och varierad målgrupp. För att fånga upp intresset hos denna målgrupp använder filmskaparna sig av olika fototekniska metoder för att påverka det visuella uttrycket i den riktning partiet vill. Genom en multimodal analysmetod granskas här de semiotiska resurser (tekniker) som använts för att på något sätt förstärka eller förminska detta visuella uttryck. Sådana semiotiska resurser kan t.ex. vara grepp som höjer respektive sänker värdet på något i bilden, det kan vara hur man använt ljus och ljuskontrast eller hur en deltagares blick och kroppsspråk används o.s.v. Genom en retorisk- och samtalsanalytisk metod studeras filmens samtal närmare, både vad det gäller interaktionen deltagarna emellan, samtalens disposition och retorik. Även här kan filmskapare påverka uttrycket genom att t.ex. använda sig av retoriska stilfigurer som anaforer, metaforer eller hopning. Denna analysmetod ger oss även en bild av hur filmskaparen valt att presentera partiledare Ulf Kristersson. Resultatet visar att de semiotiska resurser som används är i första hand för att idealisera bilden av partiledaren, hans familj och hem och att de retoriska stilfigurer som till stor del används för att förstärka det sagda. Samtalsanalysen visar upp en mindre smickrande bild av partiledaren vilket indirekt bekräftas av den retoriska analysen av hans hustru Birgittas tal vilket under arbetets gång visade sig vara filmens primära samtal och som gav ett oväntat resultat vad det gäller filmens budskap.

  • Olsson Engblad, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Barns bekräftelsebehov i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie om barnssökande efter bekräftelse och bemötandet av detta2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att synliggöra hur barns behov av bekräftelse hanteras i en del förskolor och vilka reflektioner som skapas hos pedagogerna gällande detta. För att utforska detta utfördes intervjuer tillsammans med observationer som komplement där urvalet var slumpmässigt. Studien bygger på forskning om självkänsla och självförtroende och visar på den oenighet som finns gällande begreppen. Dessa begrepp har i sin tur en stor påverkan på barnens sökande efter bekräftelse vilket både bakgrund och resultat visar. Resultatet visar också på en stor vilja hos pedagogerna att möta det sökande som barnen uppvisar men även här finns skilda meningar om hur detta ska genomföras. Ett mönster mellan ambitionen att berömma barnen och ett ökat sökande efter bekräftelse hittades i analysen vilket även litteraturen tar upp.

  • Östling, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Life cycle analysis as a tool for CO2 mitigation in the building sector2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Pärnänen, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Myhrberg, Tina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    De tvångsomhändertagna barnen: - LVU-domar i Västerbottens län 2013 och 20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är en studie av LVU-domar i Västerbottens län. De studerade domarna utgörs av samtliga LVU-domar i Västerbottens län åren 2013 och 2017. Totalt omfattas studien av 241 domarna avseende 315 barn. Domarna är undersökta utifrån såväl kvantitativ som kvalitativ metod. Den kvantitativa studien visar statistik över domarna och identifierar tolv skiljaktiga domar avseende rekvisiten beredande av vård (§1); omsorgsbrist (§2) samt annat socialt nedbrytande beteende (§3) inom LVU. Den kvalitativa studien av de tolv skiljaktiga domarna har genomförts med innehållsanalys. Den här analysen har identifierat teman och subteman och identifierar skäl och motiveringar till diskrepansen mellan socialnämndens utredning och förvaltningsrättens domskäl. Identifierade teman är barns utsatthet, föräldraförmåga, barnets egna förutsättningar, våld i nära relation, skolan, placering och rättssäkerhet. Studien visar att antalet LVU-ärenden i Västerbottens län har ökat från år 2013 till år 2017. Förändringen åskådliggör en ökning i antalet domar från 96 domar år 2013 till 145 domar år 2017. Resultatet av studien pekar på en komplexitet i riskbedömning gällande barns bästa och barns behov. Utredningar kompliceras av behandlingslogik kontra rättslogik och de subjektiva bedömningar som förvaltningsrätten har att ta ställning till. Ett placeringsbeslut ska vara rättssäkert och grundat i en övertygelse om att beslutet innebär en förbättrad situation för barnet. Resultatet visar även att omgivningsfaktorer såsom skola och NPF-diagnoser kan påverka barns utsatthet och inte enbart på grund av bristande föräldraförmåga eller utifrån barnets eget beteende.

  • Berg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Digitala läromedel i svenskundervisningen: En studie av svensklärares attityder till digital undervisningspraktik2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate upper secondary school teachers’ perception of publisher produced digital tools within the frame of each teachers’ subject teaching in Swedish. The study questions following the issues: (1) what attitude do teachers have towards publisher produced digital tools within the field of their subject Swedish? (2) Which, if any, expectations from the principal/ school administration do the teachers have of using the publisher produced digital tool in their education? And (3) how is the publisher produced digital tool applied in the education? To answer these questions, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six upper secondary school teachers who, among other subjects, teach Swedish. This study relies on a phenomenographic method and the phenomenon is the publisher produced digital tool. The result shows that the six interviewed teachers use publisher produced digital tools between 10 and 20 percent of their lesson time in subject of Swedish. That low utilization can partially be explained by the teachers’ long tradition of constructing their own teaching materials. Another explanation could be that publisher produced digital tools are relatively new and that the teachers feel uncomfortable using them. The expectations from the principal/school administration about the teachers’ usage of these digital tools in their teaching is relatively low. Whether the usage of publisher produced digital tools is going to increase or not in the future is unknown – it is up to the teachers of Swedish to determine.

  • Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Liljemark, Zakarias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Digitaliserad läsning: En studie av hur pojkar och flickor uppfattar läsning och navigering på dator2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate how pupils in secondary school, who are used to digital educational materials, experience reading and navigating on a computer compared to reading and navigating on paper, to what extent they read in respective format and how they choose to consume different types of texts. Moreover it aims to find out if this differs in regards to gender. To answer our questions we carried out a reading test and created a follow-up survey for the target group to answer. Our conclusions are that: digital texts might be perceived as longer than printed texts since it is more difficult to get an overview, boys seem to have less trouble navigating in digital texts than girls do because of their experience of computer games, the pupils overall spend very little time on reading but when they do there is a small favor for the digital format and that the pupils tend to favourize the printed format for consuming longer texts.