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  • Simpson, Andrew J.
    et al.
    Hekking, Pieter-Paul
    Shaw, Dominick E.
    Fleming, Louise J.
    Roberts, Graham
    Riley, John H.
    Bates, Stewart
    Sousa, Ana R.
    Bansal, Aruna T.
    Pandis, Ioannis
    Sun, Kai
    Bakke, Per S.
    Caruso, Massimo
    Dahlén, Barbro
    Dahlén, Sven-Erik
    Horvath, Ildiko
    Krug, Norbert
    Montuschi, Paolo
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Singer, Florian
    Adcock, Ian M.
    Wagers, Scott S.
    Djukanovic, Ratko
    Chung, Kian Fan
    Sterk, Peter J.
    Fowler, Stephen J.
    Treatable traits in the European U-BIOPRED adult asthma cohorts2019In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 406-411Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Rehnmark Käck, Theresa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Extra anpassningar och flerspråkighet: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fokus för studien ligger primärt på att undersöka hur pedagoger anpassar undervisningen för flerspråkiga elever. Jag har särskilt valt att studera extra anpassningar utifrån ett läroplansteoretiskt synsätt med fokus på flerspråkiga elever i årskurs 1, 3 samt förberedelseklass.

    De teoretiska utgångspunkterna för studien är ett sociokulturellt perspektiv, där pedagogens didaktiska val kopplas till elevens lärande på realiseringsarenan. Metoden för genomförandet av studien är kvalitativ bestående av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Dessa intervjuer genomfördes på två av arenorna: transformering- och realiseringsarenan där resultatet av studien jämfördes med skollagen, läroplanen, forskares syn på flerspråkighet, tal – och språkstörning, samt utvecklingsstörning.

    För att avgränsa studien lades fokus på två rektorer, fyra pedagoger i årskurs 1 och 3, en pedagog från förberedelseklass, två personer ur den lokala elevhälsan, samt två modersmålslärare. Resultatet av studien visar att samarbete och kunskapsutveckling bland pedagoger är något som kan generera ökade förutsättningar i skolframgångar för flerspråkiga elever.

  • Emanuelsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Engström, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Intensivträning av läsflytet hos lässvaga elever: En studie av avkodningsträning och morfologisk medvetenhetsträning som insats i liten grupp i årskurs 32019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects on reading flow of decoding training and decoding training in combination with morphological awareness instruction. The study included a small group of students with reading and writing difficulties in grade three. Based on reading comprehension tests, two intervention groups were identified with three students in each class and two corresponding control groups. The students received intensive training for six weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their attitude to reading at school and at home. Three different pre- and posttests have been carried out to measure any change in student reading flow. The results show that there are benefits in terms of reading flow resulting from the short intensive training for this group of students. The interventionstudents gained insight into the importance of reading as well as a more positive attitude towards their own reading ability after the intervention.

  • Benerdal, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Nationell utvärderingspolicy: utformning och förändring på grundskoleområdet 1988-20142019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation has grown in both volume and scope across levels and sectors in recent decades, particularly in the school sector. Despite this growth, there is insufficient knowledge about how and in what ways evaluations are formed, institutionalized and used in education governance and education reforms. This thesis addresses some of these issues by studying evaluation policy. The aim of the thesis is to explore and analyse the design and possible changes in national evaluation policy in compulsory education during two periods of extensive education reforms (1988-1994 and 2008-2014).

    The theoretical framework builds on evaluation research and policy studies, particularly the literature on policy design. These two strands of literature are supplemented with additional analytical tools from historical institutionalism regarding policy change. Drawing on previous research, a definition of evaluation policy that incorporates the policy context and also enables studying an implicit policy is proposed. On the empirical level, the findings are based on official policy documents, material produced by national government agencies as well as evaluations and evaluation systems.

    The thesis shows that during the first period (1988-1994), the evaluation policy was characterized as a means of helping to implement the extensive reforms. Evaluations were to be conducted on all levels of the school system to promote development on each executive level. The policy design reflected evaluation as a learning and capacity-building tool. Schools and municipalities were positioned as owners and co-creators of evaluation knowledge. During the second period (2008-2014), the evaluation policy was partially revised in order to come to terms with inadequate evaluations and declining school results. The policy included more sanctions and hortatory tools, and more emphasis was placed on comparisons and rankings. The evaluation policy was based on the assumption that local actors should and will act on evaluative knowledge created by the agencies and international actors, and that they could be motivated to do so by the threat of, for example sanctions or issues of ranking and comparisons.

    The evaluation policy design was largely stable over time. However, three more incremental but significant changes were identified: i) the policy design element “agents and implementation structures” was altered, ii) the evaluation policy expanded and iii) became more directed towards national and external control. These changes also indicated more negative implications for democracy during the second period. In relation to evaluations’ democratic function the analysis showed that the evaluation policy mainly strengthened the legitimizing and controlling function, whereas the enlightenment function was not prominent.

    This implies a risk that issues that may be relevant from a broader democratic and societal perspective may be overlooked and not subjected to evaluation. The thesis also acknowledges and illustrates the importance of uncovering and reconstructing evaluation policies, policies that are partly veiled, since also implicit policies will have democratic implications.

  • Otten, Volker T C
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    The Uncemented Cup in Total Hip Arthroplasty: stability, Wear and Osteolysis2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Artificial hip joint replacement has undergone tremendous development in the past 100 years. In the beginning, complications, such as infection and early loosening, were the rule rather than the exception. Today, complications of any sort are rare during the first decade after the operation. Artificial hip joint replacement has been chosen as the "Operation of the Century" and has dramatically improved the quality of life of millions of patients. Unfortunately, in the long-term, prosthesis loosening due to pathological bone resorption (osteolysis) around the prosthesis is still common. Traditionally, the prosthesis is anchored in the bone with bone cement (Plexiglas). However, since this cementation method was suspected to cause late loosening, alternative methods, such as the implantation of so-called uncemented prostheses, have been developed and are being increasingly applied. Because the early movement of a prosthesis (migration) increases the risk of loosening, uncemented cups are often augmented with additional screws. The mechanisms regulating the early and late loosening of uncemented cups are not fully established. Wear particles from the artificial joint and intermittent fluid pressure on the bone appear to accelerate or even cause bone loss and can eventually lead to loosening of the prosthesis. Therefore, screw holes in the uncemented cup have been suspected to be a risk factor.

    Aims: We have studied whether the additional augmentation of modern uncemented cups with screws, pegs or hydroxyapatite increases the long-term stability, affects the wear rate, influences the development of osteolysis, or has any impact on the risk of cup revision. Furthermore, we investigated whether computed tomography (CT), which is needed to detect osteolysis around the prosthesis, could also be used in the follow-up of migration studies without losing significant precision compared to radiostereometry (RSA), which is the gold standard for these measurements.

    Patients and Methods: In studies I-III, we evaluated 48 hips (45 patients) randomized to receive cups with or without augmentation. As part of the 14-year follow-up with conventional radiographs of the pelvis, two pairs of stereo radiographs and a CT scan were obtained. Migration and wear were measured by RSA. The volume and type of osteolysis were determined on CT. Furthermore, we calculated the precision and limit of agreement of RSA and CT to compare these two modalities as tools for migration measurements.

    In study IV, we compared the risk of cup revision between 10,371 uncemented cups with and 12,354 without screw holes, using data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register.

    Results: Study I: Cup stability was equally good regardless of cup augmentation. The mean wear rate of the cup liner was high, at 0.21 mm/year, with no significant difference between the groups.

    Study II: The limit of agreement between CT and RSA was 1.15°, 1.51°, and 0.70° for rotation and 0.46, 0.43, and 0.52 mm for translation. These results were within the described normal 99% confidence limits for precision in RSA: 0.3° to 2° for rotation and 0.15 to 0.6 mm for translation.

    Study III: Osteolysis of some degree was visible in all 48 hips on CT. We found three different types of osteolytic lesions: type 1A, absent trabecular bone and a sclerotic border around the lesion; type 1B, absent trabecular bone and no sclerotic border; and type 2, reduced radiodensity and reduced trabecular number. Cups with screw holes were surrounded with larger osteolytic lesions, and osteolysis around these cups was more likely to be a type 1A lesion.

    Study IV: Cups without screw holes showed a decreased risk of cup revision (implant exchange or removal) due to any reason at both 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio, HR: 0.6, confidence interval, CI: 0.5-0.8) and 10 years (HR: 0.7, CI: 0.5- 0.9). However, for aseptic loosening, there was no significant difference between cups with and without screw holes, with an implant survival rate of 99.9% (CI: 99.8-99.9) at 2 years and 99.1% (CI: 98.6-99.7) at 10 years.

    Conclusion: Uncemented cups augmented with screws, pegs, or hydroxyapatite do not have improved long-term stability compared with cups with press-fit only. Unsealed screw holes in uncemented cups appear to be a risk factor for the development of larger osteolytic lesions. CT showed three different types of osteolytic lesions. The risk of aseptic loosening for modern uncemented cup designs is very low, and cups without additional augmentation do not have an increased revision rate. In contrast, the risk of cup revision for any reason was higher for cups with screw holes. CT can be used for migration studies for the longitudinal evaluation of patients with tantalum markers with precision comparable to that of RSA.

  • Pedersen, Terje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Gymnasielärares förhållningssätt till bedömning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bedömning är av central betydelse i skolan. Traditionellt har den summativa bedömningen varit dominerande. Emellertid har denna syn på bedömning ändrats under det senaste decenniet genom att den formativa bedömningen fått allt större inflytande. Denna synsättsförändring har dock varit föremål för en debatt inom skolvärden med avseende på hur dessa två bedömningsmetoder skall användas och vad de egentligen innebär.

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur gymnasielärare förhåller sig till dessa bedömningsformer och hur de använder sig av dessa i sin undervisningspraktik samt att undersöka hur lärarna ser på sitt eget- samt skolans arbetssätt för att uppnå en likvärdig bedömning. För att genomföra studien har semistrukturerade intervjuer använts samt en tematisk innehållsanalys av dessa intervjuer, vilket har resulterat i följande resultat: Lärarna har ett varierat förhållningssätt till bedömningsformerna samt använder sig av dessa i olika utsträckning beroende på vilket ämne de undervisar i. Majoriteten av lärarna anser i studien att den summativa bedömningen i dagens skola inte är likvärdig. Orsaker till detta är otydliga bedömningskriterier, skillnad i bedömningsstöd beroende på undervisningsämne samt användningen av olika läromedel i undervisningen. För att göra bedömningen mer likvärdig efterlyser lärarna tydligare bedömningskriterier samt utökat bedömningsstöd från skolverket.

    Framtida forskning inom detta område skulle kunna bestå av hur formativ bedömning kan tillämpas på olika ämnen.

  • Östman, Sofi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Hristova, Ivanka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Miljöarkeologisk analys av prover från härdgropar, en boplatsgrop samt ett fynd av bränd gröt eller dynga inom Hedenstorp 1:3, RAÄ Sandseryd 396, Småland2019Report (Other academic)
  • Murray, Christopher J. L.
    et al.
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Population and fertility by age and sex for 195 countries and territories, 1950–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172018In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, no 10159, p. 1995-2051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Population estimates underpin demographic and epidemiological research and are used to track progress on numerous international indicators of health and development. To date, internationally available estimates of population and fertility, although useful, have not been produced with transparent and replicable methods and do not use standardised estimates of mortality. We present single-calendar year and single-year of age estimates of fertility and population by sex with standardised and replicable methods.

    Methods: We estimated population in 195 locations by single year of age and single calendar year from 1950 to 2017 with standardised and replicable methods. We based the estimates on the demographic balancing equation, with inputs of fertility, mortality, population, and migration data. Fertility data came from 7817 location-years of vital registration data, 429 surveys reporting complete birth histories, and 977 surveys and censuses reporting summary birth histories. We estimated age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs; the annual number of livebirths to women of a specified age group per 1000 women in that age group) by use of spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression and used the ASFRs to estimate total fertility rates (TFRs; the average number of children a woman would bear if she survived through the end of the reproductive age span [age 10–54 years] and experienced at each age a particular set of ASFRs observed in the year of interest). Because of sparse data, fertility at ages 10–14 years and 50–54 years was estimated from data on fertility in women aged 15–19 years and 45–49 years, through use of linear regression. Age-specific mortality data came from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 estimates. Data on population came from 1257 censuses and 761 population registry location-years and were adjusted for underenumeration and age misreporting with standard demographic methods. Migration was estimated with the GBD Bayesian demographic balancing model, after incorporating information about refugee migration into the model prior. Final population estimates used the cohort-component method of population projection, with inputs of fertility, mortality, and migration data. Population uncertainty was estimated by use of out-of-sample predictive validity testing. With these data, we estimated the trends in population by age and sex and in fertility by age between 1950 and 2017 in 195 countries and territories.

    Findings: From 1950 to 2017, TFRs decreased by 49·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 46·4–52·0). The TFR decreased from 4·7 livebirths (4·5–4·9) to 2·4 livebirths (2·2–2·5), and the ASFR of mothers aged 10–19 years decreased from 37 livebirths (34–40) to 22 livebirths (19–24) per 1000 women. Despite reductions in the TFR, the global population has been increasing by an average of 83·8 million people per year since 1985. The global population increased by 197·2% (193·3–200·8) since 1950, from 2·6 billion (2·5–2·6) to 7·6 billion (7·4–7·9) people in 2017; much of this increase was in the proportion of the global population in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The global annual rate of population growth increased between 1950 and 1964, when it peaked at 2·0%; this rate then remained nearly constant until 1970 and then decreased to 1·1% in 2017. Population growth rates in the southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania GBD super-region decreased from 2·5% in 1963 to 0·7% in 2017, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa, population growth rates were almost at the highest reported levels ever in 2017, when they were at 2·7%. The global average age increased from 26·6 years in 1950 to 32·1 years in 2017, and the proportion of the population that is of working age (age 15–64 years) increased from 59·9% to 65·3%. At the national level, the TFR decreased in all countries and territories between 1950 and 2017; in 2017, TFRs ranged from a low of 1·0 livebirths (95% UI 0·9–1·2) in Cyprus to a high of 7·1 livebirths (6·8–7·4) in Niger. The TFR under age 25 years (TFU25; number of livebirths expected by age 25 years for a hypothetical woman who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) in 2017 ranged from 0·08 livebirths (0·07–0·09) in South Korea to 2·4 livebirths (2·2–2·6) in Niger, and the TFR over age 30 years (TFO30; number of livebirths expected for a hypothetical woman ageing from 30 to 54 years who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) ranged from a low of 0·3 livebirths (0·3–0·4) in Puerto Rico to a high of 3·1 livebirths (3·0–3·2) in Niger. TFO30 was higher than TFU25 in 145 countries and territories in 2017. 33 countries had a negative population growth rate from 2010 to 2017, most of which were located in central, eastern, and western Europe, whereas population growth rates of more than 2·0% were seen in 33 of 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2017, less than 65% of the national population was of working age in 12 of 34 high-income countries, and less than 50% of the national population was of working age in Mali, Chad, and Niger.

    Interpretation: Population trends create demographic dividends and headwinds (ie, economic benefits and detriments) that affect national economies and determine national planning needs. Although TFRs are decreasing, the global population continues to grow as mortality declines, with diverse patterns at the national level and across age groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide transparent and replicable estimates of population and fertility, which can be used to inform decision making and to monitor progress.

  • Sontheimer, Christoph
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Czubacki, Benjamin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Shark Repellents: Predicting the Takeover-Likelihood by Means of Pre-emptive Anti-Takeover Provisions & Key Performance Indicators2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with public companies (listed on the stock exchange) which are threatened by an unwanted takeover-attempt. Particularly, the investigation is centered around opportunities for such companies to defend themselves against hostile takeovers. Therefore, this study covers defense strategies, the so-called anti-takeover provisions (ATPs) or shark repellents. More specifically, pre-emptive ATPs were analyzed in order to determine whether they are effective measures for a takeover-target to avoid being acquired. This question is widely discussed by existing literature that is concerned with the overall topic of mergers & acquisitions, whereby findings of prior researchers often are contradicting or inconclusive. Moreover, there is a lack of literature examining the case of takeover-attempts which are characterized by a hostile deal-attitude specifically. As the adoption of pre-emptive ATPs does have its pitfalls, we aimed to find implications for the management of publicly traded companies concerning the question if they should deploy pre-emptive ATPs or not.

     

    We analyzed hostile takeover-events which took place within the timeframe of 2003-2018, whereby target-companies where located all over the world. As done by other researchers before, the level of resistance against takeovers has been measured by forming an index (in this study denoted by G-Index*), which accounts for the number of pre-emptive ATPs adopted by the takeover-target. That index was used subsequently to test, if companies with a low/high level of resistance against takeovers were more/less likely to be acquired. As not only the resistance against takeovers is an influencing factor on the outcome of a takeover-event, we also measured the impact of performance- and contextual factors. Those comprise key performance indicators (KPIs) for efficiency and profitability, as well as the context factors region and industry. That measurement has been carried out using the binary logistic regression, whereby all mentioned aspects were included in one model to form a representative model of takeover-events. This model was used to examine the individual impacts of all variables on the one hand, and for predicting the takeover-likelihood for each company on the other hand. Subsequently, the predicted takeover-likelihood was tested via the Pearson correlation with the number of pre-emptive ATPs adopted by the public companies.

     

    By using the binary regression, we found that a higher level of managerial resistance against takeovers is decreasing the probability for a company to be acquired. High resistance against takeovers, measured by a high number of pre-emptive anti-takeover provisions adopted, does have a statistically significant negative effect on the takeover-likelihood. Moreover, another key finding is that a company which is more efficient than the average of its industry, is more likely to be acquired. High efficiency (measured by gross profit margin) does have a statistically significant positive effect on the takeover-likelihood. By using the Pearson correlation, we found a statistically significant relation between the number of pre-emptive ATPs adopted and the predicted takeover-likelihood. The predicted takeover-likelihood correlates negatively with the number of pre-emptive ATPs.

     

    These results show that pre-emptive ATPs can be an effective measure against hostile takeovers.

  • Wagner, Ryan G.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Crowther, Nigel J.
    Gomez-Olive, Xavier
    Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Mhembere, Memory
    Myakayaka, Zola
    Tollman, Stephen M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Wade, Alisha N.
    Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, clinical and behavioural predictors of body mass index vary by sex in rural South African adults-findings from the AWI-Gen study2018In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, p. 80-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite increasing obesity in South African adults, data on the prevalence and determinants of body mass index (BMI) from rural communities, home to a significant proportion of the population, are scarce. Objectives: To investigate overall and sex-specific determinants of BMI in a rural adult South African population undergoing rapid social and epidemiological transitions. Methods: Baseline cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, clinical and behavioural data were collected between 2015 and 2016 from 1388 individuals aged 40-60 years and resident in the Agincourt sub-district of Mpumalanga province, a setting typical of rural northeast South Africa. A Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) underpins the sub-district and contributes to the Africa Wits-INDEPTH partnership for Genomic Studies (AWI-Gen). Linear regression was used to investigate univariate associations between log-transformed BMI and individual variables and multiple linear regression was used to investigate independent predictors of BMI overall and in sex-stratified analyses. Results: Median BMI was significantly higher in females (28.7 kg/m(2) [95% CI 24.2-33.2] vs 23.0 kg/m(2) (95% CI 20.3-26.8tp < 0.001) with male sex associated with 17% lower BMI. In sex-stratified multiple linear regression models, compared to those never married, BMI was 7% higher in currently married males and 6% in currently married females. Current smoking in men and former smoking in women were associated with reductions in BMI of 13% and 26% respectively, compared with non-smokers. Higher educational attainment in women and higher socioeconomic status in men were both associated with higher BMI, while being HIV positive and alcohol consumption in women were associated lower BMI. Conclusions: Female sex strongly predicts higher BMI in this rural African population. While some predictors of higher BMI differ by sex, married individuals in both sexes had a higher BMI, suggesting that, in addition to developing sex-specific interventions to combat overweight and obesity, targeting married couples may result in reduction in population BMI.

  • Harlid, Sophia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Epigenetics & Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Xu, Zongli
    Kirk, Erin
    Wilson, Lauren E.
    Troester, Melissa A.
    Taylor, Jack A.
    Hormone therapy use and breast tissue DNA methylation: analysis of epigenome wide data from the normal breast study2019In: Epigenetics, ISSN 1559-2294, E-ISSN 1559-2308, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hormone therapy (HT) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, strongly dependent on type, duration, and recency of use. HT use could affect cancer risk by changing breast tissue transcriptional programs. We hypothesize that these changes are preceded by changes in DNA methylation. To explore this hypothesis we used histologically normal-appearing breast tissue from the Normal Breast Study (NBS). DNA methylation β-values were obtained using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChips for 90 samples including all NBS-participants who used HT within 5 y before surgery. Data were analyzed using the reference-free cell mixture method. Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) mRNA-Seq data were used to assess correlation between DNA methylation and gene expression. We identified 527 CpG sites in 403 genes that were associated with ever using HT at genome wide significance (FDR q < 0.05), of these, 68 sites were also significantly associated with duration of use or recency of use. Twelve sites reached significance in all analyses one of which was cg01382688 in ARHGEF4 (p < 1.2x10-7). Mutations in ARHGEF4 have been reported in breast tumors, but this is the first report of possible breast cancer-related DNA methylation changes. In addition, 22 genes included more than one significant CpG site and a majority of these sites were significantly correlated with gene expression. Although based on small numbers, these findings support the hypothesis that HT is associated with epigenetic alterations in breast tissue, and identifies genes with altered DNA methylation states which could be linked to breast cancer development.

  • Björn, Norlin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sjögren, David
    Uppsala universitet.
    Educational history in the age of apology: The Church of Sweden’s “White book” on historical relations to the Sami, the significance of education and scientific complexities in reconciling the past2019In: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, no 1, p. 69-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconciliation processes – wherein governments and other organizations examine their past institutional practices to understand contemporary problems in relation to minorities or indigenous groups – have become a widespread international phenomenon in recent decades. In Sweden, such an ongoing process is the reconciliation work between the Church of Sweden and the Sami. In this process, which recently resulted in the publication of a scholarly anthology (or a “white book”), educational history has come to play a vital part. The present article uses the Church of Sweden’s White Book as an empirical object of study to examine in more detail the role and significance of knowledge of educational history for this specific reconciliation process. By focusing on various scientific complexities and epistemological tensions that tend to arise in these kinds of undertakings, this paper also aims to problematize the white book genre itself as a path to historical knowledge. By doing this, this article’s overall ambition is to contribute to future scholarly work in reconciliation activities, white papers and truth commissions. This study applies a qualitative content analysis and connects theoretically to the growing field of transitional justice research.