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  • Ahmad, Irfan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Institute of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Karah, Nabil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Analysis of colony phase variation switch in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 1, article id e0210082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reversible switching between opaque and translucent colony formation is a novel feature of Acinetobacter baumannii that has been associated with variations in the cell morphology, surface motility, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance and virulence. Here, we assessed a number of phenotypic alterations related to colony switching in A. baumannii clinical isolates belonging to different multi-locus sequence types. Our findings demonstrated that these phenotypic alterations were mostly strain-specific. In general, the translucent subpopulations of A. baumannii produced more dense biofilms, were more piliated, and released larger amounts of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). In addition, the translucent subpopulations caused reduced fertility of Caenorhabditis elegans. When assessed for effects on the immune response in RAW 264.7 macrophages, the OMVs isolated from opaque subpopulations of A. baumannii appeared to be more immunogenic than the OMVs from the translucent form. However, also the OMVs from the translucent subpopulations had the potential to evoke an immune response. Therefore, we suggest that OMVs may be considered for development of new immunotherapeutic treatments against A. baumannii infections.

  • Fröjd, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interaktionen mellan nyfikenhet och yttre motivation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Curiosity is an intrinsic aspiration to obtain new information. It has been considered that external motivation inhibits curiosity, but over the last years new research has indicated a partially different relationship. To investigate the interaction between curiosity and external motivation a picture-based learning experiment was constructed, in which the participants were rewarded, alternatively punished for obtaining new information which pleased their curiosity. In the first part of the experiment, the participants scored their curiosity of mosaic-covered pictures. In the second part of the of the experiment, the scored mosaic-covered pictures were consequently presented next to a constant picture. The task for the 24 participants was then to choose one of the pictures in each round. The chosen mosaic-covered picture would then show according to a certain waiting time - either short or long - depending on if it was new or recurring. Whether the new or recurring picture had a short or long average waiting time varied between the two in-group conditions. It was hypothesized that the participants would be externally motivated to minimize the waiting time by learning and favouring the category of pictures with the shortest waiting time. In addition, it was hypothesized that the participants would be curious of the mosaic-covered pictures. In one of the conditions, the participants external motivation coincided with their curiosity, in the other condition the external motivation was in conflict with their curiosity. In a third controlling condition, the dimension of curiosity was eliminated to measure the learning of the waiting time. The experiment showed that more rounds are needed to learn the waiting time in the controlling conditions compared to when the new pictures also had a shorter average waiting time. When new pictures were associated with a longer average waiting time, it divided the participants into two groups. In one group the participant rarely chose new pictures (proportion: 0.75 – 1.0) while the participants in the other group to a large extent chose new pictures (proportion: 0.0077 – 0.069). These differences were also shown in the participants personal traits connected to curiosity. All together, the study supports the idea that curiosity and external motivation can be integrated and that personal traits are related to the evaluation of information. 

  • Majano, Sara Benitez
    et al.
    Di Girolamo, Chiara
    Rachet, Bernard
    Maringe, Camille
    Guren, Marianne Gronlie
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Iversen, Lene Hjerrild
    Schnell, Edrun Andrea
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Regionalt Cancercentrum Norr, Umeå, Sweden.
    Christensen, Jane
    Morris, Melanie
    Coleman, Michel P.
    Walters, Sarah
    Surgical treatment and survival from colorectal cancer in Denmark, England, Norway, and Sweden: a population-based study2019In: The Lancet Oncology, ISSN 1470-2045, E-ISSN 1474-5488, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 74-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Survival from colorectal cancer has been shown to be lower in Denmark and England than in comparable high-income countries. We used data from national colorectal cancer registries to assess whether differences in the proportion of patients receiving resectional surgery could contribute to international differences in colorectal cancer survival. Methods In this population-based study, we collected data from all patients aged 18-99 years diagnosed with primary, invasive, colorectal adenocarcinoma from Jan 1, 2010, to Dec 31, 2012, in Denmark, England, Norway, and Sweden, from national colorectal cancer registries. We estimated age-standardised net survival using multivariable modelling, and we compared the proportion of patients receiving resectional surgery by stage and age. We used logistic regression to predict the resectional surgery status patients would have had if they had been treated as in the best performing country, given their individual characteristics. Findings We extracted registry data for 139457 adult patients with invasive colorectal adenocarcinoma: 12958 patients in Denmark, 97466 in England, 11450 in Norway, and 17583 in Sweden. 3-year colon cancer survival was lower in England (63.9%, 95% CI 63.5-64.3) and Denmark (65.7%, 64.7-66.8) than in Norway (69.5%, 68.4-70.5) and Sweden (72.1%, 71.2-73.0). Rectal cancer survival was lower in England (69.7%, 69.1-70.3) than in the other three countries (Denmark 72.5%, 71.1-74.0; Sweden 74.1%, 72.7-75.4; and Norway 75.0%, 73.1-76.8). We found no significant differences in survival for patients with stage I disease in any of the four countries. 3-year survival after stage II or III rectal cancer and stage IV colon cancer was consistently lower in England (stage II rectal cancer 86.4%, 95% CI 85.0-87.6; stage III rectal cancer 75.5%, 74.2-76.7; and stage IV colon cancer 20.5%, 19.9-21.1) than in Norway (94.1%, 91.5-96.0; 83.4%, 80.1-86.1; and 33.0%, 31.0-35.1) and Sweden (92.9%, 90.8-94.6; 80.6%, 78.2-82.7; and 23.7%, 22.0-25.3). 3-year survival after stage II rectal cancer and stage IV colon cancer was also lower in England than in Denmark (stage II rectal cancer 91.2%, 88.8-93.1; and stage IV colon cancer 23.5%, 21.9-25.1). The total proportion of patients treated with resectional surgery ranged from 47803 (68.4%) of 69867 patients in England to 9582 (81.3%) of 11786 in Sweden for colon cancer, and from 16544 (59.9%) of 27599 in England to 4106 (70.8%) of 5797 in Sweden for rectal cancer. This range was widest for patients older than 75 years (colon cancer 19078 [59.7%] of 31946 patients in England to 4429 [80.9%] of 5474 in Sweden; rectal cancer 4663 [45.7%] of 10195 in England to 1342 [61.9%] of 2169 in Sweden), and the proportion of patients treated with resectional surgery was consistently lowest in England. The age gradient of the decline in the proportion of patients treated with resectional surgery was steeper in England than in the other three countries in all stage categories. In the hypothetical scenario where all patients were treated as in Sweden, given their age, sex, and disease stage, the largest increase in resectional surgery would be for patients with stage III rectal cancer in England (increasing from 70.3% to 88.2%). Interpretation Survival from colon cancer and rectal cancer in England and colon cancer in Denmark was lower than in Norway and Sweden. Survival paralleled the relative provision of resectional surgery in these countries. Differences in patient selection for surgery, especially in patients older than 75 years or individuals with advanced disease, might partly explain these differences in international colorectal cancer survival. Copyright 2018 (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • Kumar, Arvind
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Saleeb, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Werz, Dominik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Cyclopropylmethyl Protection of Phenols: Total Synthesis of the Resveratrol Dimers Anigopreissin A and Resveratrol-Piceatannol Hybrid2018In: ChemistryOpen, ISSN 2191-1363, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 953-956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the versatile use of the cyclopropylmethyl group to protect phenols through the total synthesis of two benzofuran-based natural products, that is, anigopreissin A and the resveratrol-piceatannol hybrid. This protecting group is a good alternative to the conventional methyl group, owing to the feasibility of introduction, stability under a variety of conditions, and its relative ease of removal under different acidic conditions.

  • Gu, Xiaolian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Coates, Philip J.
    Boldrup, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Wang, Lixiao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Krejci, Adam
    Hupp, Ted
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. RECAMO, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic; Institute of Molecular Genetics, University Paris 7, St. Louis Hospital, Paris, France.
    Norberg-Spaak, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Sgaramella, Nicola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Wilms, Torben
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Copy number variation: A prognostic marker for young patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue2019In: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, ISSN 0904-2512, E-ISSN 1600-0714, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT) is increasing in people under age 40. There is an urgent need to identify prognostic markers that help identify young SCCOT patients with poor prognosis in order to select these for individualized treatment. Materials and methods To identify genetic markers that can serve as prognostic markers for young SCCOT patients, we first investigated four young (<= 40 years) and five elderly patients (>= 50 years) using global RNA sequencing and whole-exome sequencing. Next, we combined our data with data on SCCOT from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA), giving a total of 16 young and 104 elderly, to explore the correlations between genomic variations and clinical outcomes. Results In agreement with previous studies, we found that SCCOT from young and elderly patients was transcriptomically and also genomically similar with no significant differences regarding cancer driver genes, germline predisposition genes, or the burden of somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs). However, a disparate copy number variation (CNV) was found in young patients with distinct clinical outcome. Combined with data from TCGA, we found that the overall survival was significantly better in young patients with low-CNV (n = 5) compared to high-CNV (n = 11) burden (P = 0.044). Conclusions Copy number variation burden is a useful single prognostic marker for SCCOT from young, but not elderly, patients. CNV burden thus holds promise to form an important contribution when selecting suitable treatment protocols for young patients with SCCOT.

  • Martins, Rodrigo Prado
    et al.
    Findakly, Sarah
    Daskalogianni, Chrysoula
    Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule
    Blondel, Marc
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. Université Paris 7, Inserm, UMR 1162, 75013 Paris, France; ICCVS, University of Gda ´nsk, Science, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-308 Gda ´nsk, Poland; RECAMO, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Zluty kopec 7, 65653 Brno, Czech Republic.
    In Cellulo Protein-mRNA Interaction Assay to Determine the Action of G-Quadruplex-Binding Molecules2018In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 23, no 12, article id 3124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein-RNA interactions (PRIs) control pivotal steps in RNA biogenesis, regulate multiple physiological and pathological cellular networks, and are emerging as important drug targets. However, targeting of specific protein-RNA interactions for therapeutic developments is still poorly advanced. Studies and manipulation of these interactions are technically challenging and in vitro drug screening assays are often hampered due to the complexity of RNA structures. The binding of nucleolin (NCL) to a G-quadruplex (G4) structure in the messenger RNA (mRNA) of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded EBNA1 has emerged as an interesting therapeutic target to interfere with immune evasion of EBV-associated cancers. Using the NCL-EBNA1 mRNA interaction as a model, we describe a quantitative proximity ligation assay (PLA)-based in cellulo approach to determine the structure activity relationship of small chemical G4 ligands. Our results show how different G4 ligands have different effects on NCL binding to G4 of the EBNA1 mRNA and highlight the importance of in-cellulo screening assays for targeting RNA structure-dependent interactions.

  • Barman, Malin
    et al.
    Murray, Fiona
    Bernardi, Angelina I.
    Broberg, Karin
    Bölte, Sven
    Hesselmar, Bill
    Jacobsson, Bo
    Jonsson, Karin
    Kippler, Maria
    Rabe, Hardis
    Ross, Alastair B.
    Sjöberg, Fei
    Strömberg, Nicklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Vahter, Marie
    Wold, Agnes E.
    Sandberg, Ann-Sofie
    Sandin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics. Sunderby Research Unit, Region Norrbotten, Luleå, Sweden.
    Nutritional impact on Immunological maturation during Childhood in relation to the Environment (NICE): a prospective birth cohort in northern Sweden2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 10, article id e022013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Prenatal and neonatal environmental factors, such as nutrition, microbes and toxicants, may affect health throughout life. Many diseases, such as allergy and impaired child development, may be programmed already in utero or during early infancy. Birth cohorts are important tools to study associations between early life exposure and disease risk. Here, we describe the study protocol of the prospective birth cohort, 'Nutritional impact on Immunological maturation during Childhood in relation to the Environment' (NICE). The primary aim of the NICE cohort is to clarify the effect of key environmental exposures-diet, microbes and environmental toxicants-during pregnancy and early childhood, on the maturation of the infant's immune system, including initiation of sensitisation and allergy as well as some secondary outcomes: infant growth, obesity, neurological development and oral health. Methods and analysis The NICE cohort will recruit about 650 families during mid-pregnancy. The principal inclusion criterion will be planned birth at the Sunderby Hospital in the north of Sweden, during 2015-2018. Questionnaires data and biological samples will be collected at 10 time-points, from pregnancy until the children reach 4 years of age. Samples will be collected primarily from mothers and children, and from fathers. Biological samples include blood, urine, placenta, breast milk, meconium, faeces, saliva and hair. Information regarding allergic heredity, diet, socioeconomic status, lifestyle including smoking, siblings, pet ownership, etc will be collected using questionnaires. Sensitisation to common allergens will be assessed by skin prick testing and allergic disease will be diagnosed by a paediatrician at 1 and 4 years of age. At 4 years of age, the children will also be examined regarding growth, neurobehavioural and neurophysiological status and oral health. Ethics and dissemination The NICE cohort has been approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Umea, Sweden (2013/18-31M). Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and communicated on scientific conferences.

  • Goormaghtigh, Frederic
    et al.
    Fraikin, Nathan
    Putrins, Marta
    Hallaert, Thibaut
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Garcia-Pino, Abel
    Sjödin, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kasvandik, Sergo
    Udekwu, Klas
    Tenson, Tanel
    Kaldalu, Niilo
    Van Melderen, Laurence
    Reassessing the Role of Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Formation of Escherichia coli Type II Persister Cells2018In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 9, no 3, article id e00640-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistence is a reversible and low-frequency phenomenon allowing a subpopulation of a clonal bacterial population to survive antibiotic treatments. Upon removal of the antibiotic, persister cells resume growth and give rise to viable progeny. Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were assumed to play a key role in the formation of persister cells in Escherichia coli based on the observation that successive deletions of TA systems decreased persistence frequency. In addition, the model proposed that stochastic fluctuations of (p)ppGpp levels are the basis for triggering activation of TA systems. Cells in which TA systems are activated are thought to enter a dormancy state and therefore survive the antibiotic treatment. Using independently constructed strains and newly designed fluorescent reporters, we reassessed the roles of TA modules in persistence both at the population and single-cell levels. Our data confirm that the deletion of 10 TA systems does not affect persistence to ofloxacin or ampicillin. Moreover, microfluidic experiments performed with a strain reporting the induction of the yefM-yoeB TA system allowed the observation of a small number of type II persister cells that resume growth after removal of ampicillin. However, we were unable to establish a correlation between high fluorescence and persistence, since the fluorescence of persister cells was comparable to that of the bulk of the population and none of the cells showing high fluorescence were able to resume growth upon removal of the antibiotic. Altogether, these data show that there is no direct link between induction of TA systems and persistence to antibiotics. IMPORTANCE Within a growing bacterial population, a small subpopulation of cells is able to survive antibiotic treatment by entering a transient state of dormancy referred to as persistence. Persistence is thought to be the cause of relapsing bacterial infections and is a major public health concern. Type II toxin-antitoxin systems are small modules composed of a toxic protein and an antitoxin protein counteracting the toxin activity. These systems were thought to be pivotal players in persistence until recent developments in the field. Our results demonstrate that previous influential reports had technical flaws and that there is no direct link between induction of TA systems and persistence to antibiotics.

  • Forsman, Olivia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Frihet under ansvar?: En studie av åren med motboken och kvinnors rättigheter 1919-19552018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the economic-historical development of the Swedish restriction system against alcohol abuse. It has been of interest to examine how it was designed and then implemented during the period of 1919–1955.

    The study includes a discussion on how the restrictions affected women's opportunities to acquire alcohol, based on gender norms. Therefore, the thesis has been strengthened by a gender-based analysis.

    The material that has been studied for the purpose is real decisions by the government for men and women who have applied for the right of purchasing alcohol.

    This paper has found that men were more often granted their applications, and because women had more difficult conditions. The reason seems to be that gender norms ruled higher than the formal rights.

     

    Key words: economic history, gender, alcohol, restriction system

  • Pape, Kathrine
    et al.
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Benediktsdottir, Bryndis
    Lodge, Caroline
    Janson, Christer
    Moratalla, Jesus
    Sánchez-Ramos, José Luis
    Bråbäck, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Holm, Mathias
    Jögi, Rain
    Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Johannessen, Ane
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Agreement of offspring-reported parental smoking status: the RHINESSA generation study2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With increasing interest in exposure effects across generations, it is crucial to assess the validity of information given on behalf of others.

    Aims: To compare adult’s report of their parent’s smoking status against parent’s own report and examine predictors for discrepant answers.

    Methods: We studied 7185 offspring (18-51 years) and one of their parents, n = 5307 (27-67 years) participating in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Information about parent’s smoking status during offspring’s childhood and mother’s smoking status during pregnancy was obtained by questionnaires from parents and their offspring. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and Cohen’s Kappa [κ] for agreement using parent’s own report as the gold standard. We performed logistic regression to examine if offspring’s sex, age, educational level, asthma status, own smoking status or parental status, as well as the parent’s sex and amount of smoking during childhood predicted disagreement.

    Results: The sensitivity for offspring’s correct report of parent’s smoking status during childhood (0-10 years) was 0.82 (95% CI 0.81–0.84), specificity was 0.95 (95% CI 0.95–0.96) and a good agreement was observed, κ = 0.79 (95% CI 0.78–0.80). Offspring’s report of mothers’ smoking status during pregnancy showed a lower sensitivity, 0.66 (95% CI 0.60–0.71), a slightly lower specificity, 0.92 (95% CI 0.90–0.95) and a good agreement, κ = 0.61 (95% CI 0.55–0.67). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, offspring not having children was a predictor for discrepant answers (odds ratio [OR] 2.11 [95% CI 1.21–3.69]). Low amount of parents’ tobacco consumption, < 10 cigarettes/day (OR 2.72 [95% CI 1.71–4.31]) also predicted disagreement compared to ≥10 cigarettes per day, and so did offspring’s reports of fathers’ smoking status (OR 1.73 [95% CI 1.09–2.74]) compared to mothers’ smoking status. Offspring’s sex, asthma status, educational level, smoking status or age was not related to discrepant answers.

    Conclusions: Adults report their parent’s smoking status during their childhood, as well as their mother’ smoking status when pregnant with them, quite accurately. In the absence of parents’ direct report, offspring’s reports could be valuable.

  • Bergsten, Mathias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Behovsstyrdventilation för en befintlig kontorsfastighet: )  En LCC-jämförelse mellan DCV och CAV2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Demand controlled ventilation has in this study been investigated in a life cycle cost (LCC) - perspective for an existing office property. The goal was to examine whether a complementary of the existing constant air volume (CAV)-system to a demand controlled ventilation (DCV) -system is profitable.

    This project has been executed on behalf of Fastpartner AB. The studied property is an office building of floor area 6000                          in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Two different types of DCV systems were analyzed: C controlled ventilation and C with temperature controlled ventilation. The software IDA ICE was used in order to examine the energy consumption for district heating, district cooling and electricity for the air handling unit.

    The building has been modelled as accuracy as possible in order to represent the real building. In order to see the effect of various loading rate, simulations with three different occupancy levels for CAV and the DCV-systems was made. The occupancy levels represented organizations with high, low and medium occupancy. In the end nine simulations was made.

    The net present value method was used for each system in the LCC analyses. Costs for installation, purchase and maintenance have been taken into account. The results from the study showed that both of the DCV-systems gives a lower LCC than the existing CAV- system. The most profitable DCV-system is C with temperature- controlled ventilation, that presents a theoretical cost saving up to 250 000 kr.

    The variation of occupancy levels didn’t affect the outcome of LCC for C and temperature controlled ventilation, however C controlled ventilation showed a significant difference depending on low versus high occupancy level. Low occupancy level results in a higher cost saving.

    The fans for the air handling unit had the largest energy saving based on energy sector. Where a reduction up to 75 % can be achieved for C controlled ventilation at low occupancy level.

  • Hultgren, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Fel i tjänst: om felbedömning och påföljdsbestämning vid avtal om tjänster i oreglerade fall2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Swedish law of obligation, reasoning from analogies and general principle is a common method for solving disputes. This is due to the Swedish legal history and the Swedish legislative traditions. The Nordic countries never attained a universal civil code. Instead, the Nordic tradition has been to legislate what was considered central types of contracts, leaving the courts to rely on analogies and general principle within a great portion of the law of obligation. This solution has been fine for a long time, but due to a fast developing market in combination with a new political landscape where updating the fragmented legislation to meet the prerequisites of modern contract law doesn’t seem to be as important, the method has become more problematic. This is particularly true for service contracts since they can be of widely different character and the norms accessible for analogies and deriving general principles from is of equally diverse characteristics.

    With the above stated in mind, the study aims to examine the basis of legal supplementation through analogies and general principles as well as the basis of assessing breach of contract, especially regarding inadequate performance of service (swe: fel i tjänst), and determination of remedies for such contractual defects. The study hereby concludes when inadequate performance of service is at hand in unregulated cases and which contractual remedies is available through general principle in such cases.

  • Taheri, Nayyer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Host-pathogen interactions during Campylobacter and Yersinia infections2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The innate immune system is known for protecting the host against invading pathogens, for instance enteropathogens infecting the gastrointestinal tract. The production of e.g. antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and chemokines by innate immune cells and intestinal epithelial cells contribute to bacterial clearance. Given the significance of this system in overall defense, pathogens affect and/or manipulate immune cells and responses in favor of their own survival. This thesis focuses on how the Gram-negative enteropathogenic bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Campylobacter jejuni affect the host, either directly via type 3 secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins or via outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), and how host factors potentially affect their virulence.

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis uses its T3SS to translocate virulence factors that disable various immune responses and subvert phagocytosis. Neutrophils are main target cells during Yersinia infection. They release granules that contain proteins with antimicrobial properties to the cell's exterior upon activation through a process called degranulation. We found that extracellular Y. pseudotuberculosis could prevent neutrophil degranulation upon cell contact. Prevention of degranulation was shown to be mediated via co-operative actions of the two anti-phagocytic Yersinia outer proteins YopH and YopE. Bacterial contact with neutrophils resulted in a transient inhibition of degranulation and further prevented degranulation upon subsequent contact with avirulent Y. pseudotuberculosis (lacking YopE and YopH) as well as Escherichia coli. Thus, Y. pseudotuberculosis impairs several neutrophil defense mechanisms to remain in the extracellular environment and to increase its survival during infection.

    Campylobacter jejuni lacks a T3SS and appears to use OMVs and flagella as its main secretion apparatus. During passage through the intestine C. jejuni is exposed to bile, an important physiological component and part of the natural barrier of the intestine, and ability to resist bile is advantageous for C. jejuni survival. We investigated how C. jejuni OMV production and protein content is affected by bile. The main invasion and colonization of C. jejuni occurs in the lower part of the intestine where the concentration of bile is low compared with the proximal intestine. The OMV proteomic profiles were radically altered when bacteria were grown in low concentration of bile corresponding to cecal concentrations. Twenty-five present of the detected proteins of OMVs showed an altered abundance in the presence of low concentration of bile. In contrast, the overall proteome of the bacteria was unaffected. Moreover, OMVs frombile-exposed bacteria could enhance adhesion as well as invasion of bacteria into intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting a role of OMVs to the virulence of C. jejuni in the gut. The body temperature differs between the asymptomatic avian carriers of C. jejuni and humans, which develop symptomatic disease. We investigated whether the bacterial growth temperature affects the OMV proteome and found that 59 proteins were differentially expressed at 37°C. Among the higher abundant proteins, significantly more proteins were predicted to be related to virulence. Thus, temperature has an impact on the property of the OMVs, and this might affect the outcome of infection by C. jejuni in different hosts.

    C. jejuni OMV interactions with innate immune cells were studied by analyses of OMV-mediated inflammasome activation. OMVs were found to induce ASC- and caspase-1-dependent inflammasome activation in murine and human macrophages and dendritic cells as well as in human neutrophils. While C. jejuni infection induced a low level of inflammasome-dependent cell death, OMV-induced inflammasome activation did not result in cell death. Thus, OMVs disseminate into tissue without bacteria can be a vehicle for virulence factors without inducing inflammatory cell death.

  • Bäckström, David C
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    The biology of cognitive decline and reduced survival in Parkinson disease: prognostic factors in a population-based cohort2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects about 1% of the population over 60 years. The cardinal symptoms are motor disabilities but cognitive decline is also common. About 50% of all persons with PD develop dementia within 10 years after disease onset. Dementia in PD account for high social costs and has large, negative effects on quality of life. 

    Aims. The aim of the study was to investigate clinical, neurobiological and genetic factors of importance for progression and for the prognosis in PD and parkinsonism. First, we aimed to describe mortality and risk factors for death, including possible associations with cognitive dysfunction, in patients with idiopathic parkinsonism. Second, we aimed to study if biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are useful for the diagnosis of different forms of idiopathic parkinsonism and prediction of cognitive decline in PD. 

    Methods. A population-based cohort consisting of patients with new-onset, idiopathic parkinsonism was studied prospectively. After screening in a catchment area of ~142 000 inhabitants in Sweden, 182 patients with parkinsonism were included. The patients were investigated comprehensively, including neuropsychological testing, multimodal neuroimaging and genetic and biosample analyses. During follow up, 143 patients were diagnosed with PD, 13 with multiple system atrophy (MSA), and 18 with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). A total of 109 patients died. 

    Results. Patients with MSA and PSP had the shortest life expectancy. PD patients who presented with normal cognitive function had a largely normal life expectancy. In contrast, the mortality was increased in PD patients with cognitive impairment, freezing of gait, hyposmia, and mildly elevated leukocytes in the CSF. Of importance for the prognosis, patients with PD with an early CSF pattern of high Neurofilament light protein, low β-amyloid, and high heart fatty acid binding protein had an 11.8 times increased risk of developing PD dementia (95% CI 3.3-42.1, p <0.001), compared with PD patients with a more ”normal” CSF pattern. Variation in genes associated with dopamine function was also associated with some effects on cognitive functions in PD. 

    Conclusions. PD subtypes, for instance the subtype characterized by cognitive decline, have distinguishing clinical, neurochemical and neurobiological traits, which are of importance for the prognosis and the survival. An early CSF analysis is useful for predicting cognitive decline. The finding of a low-grade immune reaction in the CSF of patients with PD may have clinical implications. In clinical practice, CSF biomarkers could be useful for improving diagnosis and prognostication.

  • Mohammad, Jani B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Biochemical analysis of Pfh1, the essential Pif1 family helicase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    DNA stores the genetic information of all living organisms, and this information needs to be copied accurately and passed on to each daughter cell when a cell divides. However, the DNA replication machinery often meets obstacles in the genome that cause fork pausing and might result in DNA damage. DNA helicases are motor proteins that unwind duplex DNA structures using the energy from ATP hydrolysis. Helicases can also assist in replication fork progression by resolving obstacles that arise at hard-to-replicate sites such as tightly DNA-bound proteins, R-loops, and DNA secondary structures like G-quadruplexes (G4s). In this thesis, we focused on Schizosaccharomyces pombe DNA helicase Pfh1, which is localized in both the nucleus and the mitochondria and belongs to the evolutionary conserved Pif1 helicases. Pfh1 is an accessory replicative helicase, and the goal in this thesis was to gain a better mechanistic understanding of the role of nuclear Pfh1 (nPfh1). Our first aim was to elucidate the role of nPfh1 at G-quadruplex (G4) DNA. Aim two was to understand the function of nPfh1’s signature motif. Aim three was to characterize the role of nPfh1 in strand annealing.

    Some G-rich sequences can form a four-stranded DNA structure called G4 DNA, and the S. pombe genome contains about 450 bioinformatically predicted G4 structures. We selected two of these sequences, one located in the ribosomal DNA region and one located in the telomeric DNA region, and showed that they form inter- and intramolecular G4 structures, respectively. Next, we established a method to express and purify recombinant nPfh1 and demonstrated that nPfh1 binds to and unwinds these structures. In addition, Pfh1 bound to both the ribosomal and telomeric DNA regions in vivo, suggesting that Pfh1 can bind and unwind G4 structures in vivo. The purified nPfh1 also unwound RNA/DNA more efficiently than DNA/DNA structures, suggesting that nPfh1 has the ability to unwind R-loops in vivo. nPfh1 also showed protein displacement activity, suggesting that it can remove tightly bound proteins from DNA. All of these properties of nPfh1 suggest that it is important for fork progression and for preserving genome integrity.

    Furthermore, nPfh1 stimulated strand annealing, and this activity did not require ATP hydrolysis. The strand-annealing activity was higher for complementary DNA/DNA compared to RNA/DNA substrates and did not require a DNA overhang. Furthermore, by analyzing Pfh1 truncated variants we demonstrated that the N-terminus region of Pfh1 was mainly responsible for the strand-annealing activity, however the C-terminus region also possessed some strand-annealing activity. Point mutations in the Pif1 signature motif (SM) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in humans and with inviable S. pombe cells. We purified several SM variants and found that the unwinding and protein displacement activities of nPfh1 were dependent on the SM, but not the strand-annealing activity, suggesting that the SM is important for functions that require ATP hydrolysis.

    In conclusion, in this thesis we identified nPfh1 as a potent G4 unwinder, and this is the only G4 unwinder identified in S. pombe to date. We also provided detailed mechanistic insights into nPfh1 and its different domains, and this has enhanced our understanding of Pfh1’s role in maintaining genome integrity.

  • Westin, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Persson, Håkan
    En kortsiktig flersektoriell jämviktsmodell1985Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det följande beskrivs en flersektoriell allmän jämviktsmodell för komparativ statisk analys av ekonomin under en kortsiktig tidshorisont.

    Modellen ansluter till den medelsiktiga modell som finns beskriven i Johansson & Persson (1983). Den är därmed baserad på en "årgångsansats", där industrisektorerna består av ett antal anläggningar med individuella effektivitets- och produktionskaraktäristika.

    Det primära användningsområdet för modellen är analyser av vilka effekter som störningar i den internationella handeln har på ekonomin.

    Genom att utnyttja kunskapen om anläggningarnas lokalisering, kan även de regionala effekterna studeras.

    Arbetet har utförts på uppdrag av FOA som även bidragit ekonomiskt till modellens utvecklande.

  • Souza, Abel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Rezaei, Mohamad
    PDC Center for High Performance Computing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Laure, Erwin
    PDC Center for High Performance Computing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tordsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hybrid Resource Management for HPC and Data Intensive WorkloadsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, High Performance Computing (HPC) and Data Intensive (DI) workloads have been executed on separate hardware using different tools for resource and application management. With increasing convergence of these paradigms, where modern applications are composed of both types of jobs in complex workflows, this separation becomes a growing overhead and the need for a common computation platform for both application areas increases. Executing both application classes on the same hardware not only enables hybrid workflows, but can also increase the usage efficiency of the system, as often not all available hardware is fully utilized by an application. While HPC systems are typically managed in a coarse grained fashion, allocating a fixed set of resources exclusively to an application, DI systems employ a finer grained regime, enabling dynamic resource allocation and control based on application needs. On the path to full convergence, a useful and less intrusive step is a hybrid resource management system that allows the execution of DI applications on top of standard HPC scheduling systems.In this paper we present the architecture of a hybrid system enabling dual-level scheduling for DI jobs in HPC infrastructures. Our system takes advantage of real-time resource utilization monitoring to efficiently co-schedule HPC and DI applications. The architecture is easily adaptable and extensible to current and new types of distributed workloads, allowing efficient combination of hybrid workloads on HPC resources with increased job throughput and higher overall resource utilization. The architecture is implemented based on the Slurm and Mesos resource managers for HPC and DI jobs. Our experimental evaluation in a real cluster based on a set of representative HPC and DI applications demonstrate that our hybrid architecture improves resource utilization by 20%, with 12% decrease on queue makespan while still meeting all deadlines for HPC jobs.

  • Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Industristruktur och konkurrenskraft i Norrbotten 1968-19831986Report (Other academic)
  • Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Civilsamhällets respons på olyckor och kriser: bistånd eller motstånd?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet undersöker vilka trender och drivkrafter som finns bakom civilsamhällets respons på olyckor och kriser. Forskningen analyserar olika former av frivilligt engagemang både ur ett internationellt och ett svenskt perspektiv.

  • Berggren, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Development of a Mobile Reactor for Large Scale Water Treatment2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water pollution is one of many environmental problems that currently exists and inadequate treatment of industrial wastewater is contributing to further pollution. SpinChem AB's Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) technology offers the possibility of water treatment by carrying out reactions between a solution and a solid phase. To move further in the field of large scale water treatment, SpinChem AB developed a prototype of a mobile reactor, i.e. a raft, carrying the RBR technology. The prototype proved that a mobile reactor can greatly reduce the process time for larger water volumes compared to a stationary RBR. The aim of this thesis is to develop the next version of the mobile reactor, with increased operational stability and autonomous driving (autopilot) as main goals. This work covers all parts in the development of the new mobile reactor which involves design, simulation, construction, electronics, software implementations and testing. The presented mobile reactor is a twin hull surface vehicle with the possibility of using two RBRs for water treatment. The steering is based on differential motor thrust and the autonomous driving was achieved using sensor data from a GPS, magnetometer and accelerometer, together with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) type control system. The autopilot was put to the test on two different travel routes with a P and PI controller. The mobile reactor successfully followed the given routes, thus verifying that the developed mobile reactor can be used for future autonomous large scale water treatment.  

  • Nilsson Sjöström, Dennis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    A Mathematical Model of Hacking the 2016 US Presidential Election2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After the 2016 US presidential election, allegations were published that the electronic voting machines used throughout the US could have been manipulated.These claims arose due to the reported attacks by Department of Homeland Security toward voter registration databases. The US is more vulnerable against these types of attacks since electronic voting machines is the most prevalent method for voting. To reduce election costs, other countries are also considering replacing paper ballots with electronic voting machines. This, however, imposes a risk. By attacking the electronic voting machines, an attacker could change the outcome of an election. A well-executed attack would be designed to be highly successful, but at the same time the risk for detection would be low. The question evaluated in this paper is whether such an attack would be possible and if so, how much it would cost to execute.

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the 2016 US presidential election.The model is based on voting machine equipment data and pollingdata. The model is used to simulate how rational attackers would maximize their effect on the election and minimize their effort by hacking voting machines. By using polls, it was possible to determine the effort needed to change the outcome of the 2016 US presidential election and thus estimate the costs. Based on the model, the estimated cost to hack the 2016US presidential election would amount to at least ten million dollars. The results show that these attacks are possible by attacking only one manufacturer of electronic voting machines. Hence, the use of electronic voting machines poses too much of a risk for democracy, and paper ballots should still be considered for elections. This kind of model can be implemented on the elections of other countries that use electronic voting machines.

  • Persson, Aron
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    On the Existence of Electrodynamics on Manifold-like Polyfolds2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines the question whether the classical theory of electrodynamics can be extended to a spacetime which locally changes dimension and if such an endeavour is mathematically possible. Recent research has developed a new generalisation of smooth manifolds, the so called M-polyfolds, which constitutes a sufficient foundation to make this endeavour a physical plausibility. These M-polyfolds then facilitate the capability to define the velocity of a curve going through a dimensionally shifting spacetime. Moreover, necessary extensions to the theory of M-polyfolds is developed in order to tailor the theory to a more physically focused framework. Concluding the essay, Maxwell’s equations on M-polyfolds are defined.

  • Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Freidovich, Leonid B.Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Proceedings of the 16th Student Conference in Interaction Technology and Design and the 5th Student Conference in Electronics and Mechatronics2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The joint Student Conference in Interaction Technology and Design and Student Conference in Electronics and Mechatronics is the annual grand finale of the courses Current Topic in Interaction Technology and Design and Student Conference in Electronics and Mechatronics at the Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University. The idea and objective of the two courses are to give the students a forum where they can actively participate in scientific research and development through their own ideas and interests.  The course introduces students to independently researching an interesting topic, using a foreign language orally and in writing, writing a scientific article, peer-review and presenting their work at a conference. The conference format was chosen to provide a realistic environment for the presentation of the results. The work has been reviewed both by other participant on the course and members of the department. If the reviews are favorable, the paper is accepted as a full paper at the conference and included in the proceedings. Research that has an interesting topic and potential for future publication is presented as work-in-progress at the conference and the abstract is included in the conference proceedings. This year 10 full papers and 2 work-in-progress papers were accepted at the conference and all included in this proceedings as full papers and extended abstracts, respectively.

  • Burman, Erik
    et al.
    University College London, UK, Department of Mathematics.
    Hansbo, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development.
    Larson, Mats G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Larsson, Karl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Massing, Andre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Finite element approximation of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on a surface with boundary2019In: Numerische Mathematik, ISSN 0029-599X, E-ISSN 0945-3245, Vol. 141, no 1, p. 141-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a finite element method for the Laplace–Beltrami operator on a surface with boundary and nonhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. The method is based on a triangulation of the surface and the boundary conditions are enforced weakly using Nitsche's method. We prove optimal order a priori error estimates for piecewise continuous polynomials of order k ≥ 1 in the energy and L2 norms that take the approximation of the surface and the boundary into account.

  • Oja, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Höstfenologi i norra Sveriges fjällkedja: Sker invintring av växter samtidigt oberoende av varierande topografi och vegetation?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although the autumn phenology of plants is important for a wide range of processes including primary production, carbon sequestration and food availability for herbivores, few studies have addressed spatial variation of autumn phenology and how it changes with climate change. The greatest increase of temperature is predicted near the pole and therefor it is important to estimate how this change will affect Arctic ecosystems. The phenology of vegetation is a valuable indicator of climate change and knowledge about phenology will give indications how the Arctic terrestrial ecosystems will react on climate changes. So far, the spring phenology is well-known compared to the autumn phenology. The aim of this study was to examine how autumn phenology varies among and within locations in forest-tundra ecotone in Northwestern Sweden. The phenology of the plant communities was measured spectrally with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI]. This allow me to directly compare the results of this study with the results from large scale studies using satellite-derived indices. I found that the timing of the autumn senescence varies among locations, topographic positions and vegetation types. These results are important because they contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the processes regulating primary production and food availability for herbivores in the Scandinavian mountains, and provide important information for forecasting the responses of these ecosystems to future climate changes. 

  • Pettersson, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Kampanjfilmen - en talhandling till folket2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Politisk reklam i form av kampanjfilmer har sedan 2010 varit ett medieformat svenska partier använder sig av för att nå ut med sina politiska budskap till väljarkåren. I den här uppsatsen analyseras Nya Moderaternas officiella kampanjfilm från 2018 och den har visats i de kommersiella tv-kanalerna inför valet och på så sett nått ut till en bred och varierad målgrupp. För att fånga upp intresset hos denna målgrupp använder filmskaparna sig av olika fototekniska metoder för att påverka det visuella uttrycket i den riktning partiet vill. Genom en multimodal analysmetod granskas här de semiotiska resurser (tekniker) som använts för att på något sätt förstärka eller förminska detta visuella uttryck. Sådana semiotiska resurser kan t.ex. vara grepp som höjer respektive sänker värdet på något i bilden, det kan vara hur man använt ljus och ljuskontrast eller hur en deltagares blick och kroppsspråk används o.s.v. Genom en retorisk- och samtalsanalytisk metod studeras filmens samtal närmare, både vad det gäller interaktionen deltagarna emellan, samtalens disposition och retorik. Även här kan filmskapare påverka uttrycket genom att t.ex. använda sig av retoriska stilfigurer som anaforer, metaforer eller hopning. Denna analysmetod ger oss även en bild av hur filmskaparen valt att presentera partiledare Ulf Kristersson. Resultatet visar att de semiotiska resurser som används är i första hand för att idealisera bilden av partiledaren, hans familj och hem och att de retoriska stilfigurer som till stor del används för att förstärka det sagda. Samtalsanalysen visar upp en mindre smickrande bild av partiledaren vilket indirekt bekräftas av den retoriska analysen av hans hustru Birgittas tal vilket under arbetets gång visade sig vara filmens primära samtal och som gav ett oväntat resultat vad det gäller filmens budskap.

  • Olsson Engblad, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Barns bekräftelsebehov i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie om barnssökande efter bekräftelse och bemötandet av detta2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att synliggöra hur barns behov av bekräftelse hanteras i en del förskolor och vilka reflektioner som skapas hos pedagogerna gällande detta. För att utforska detta utfördes intervjuer tillsammans med observationer som komplement där urvalet var slumpmässigt. Studien bygger på forskning om självkänsla och självförtroende och visar på den oenighet som finns gällande begreppen. Dessa begrepp har i sin tur en stor påverkan på barnens sökande efter bekräftelse vilket både bakgrund och resultat visar. Resultatet visar också på en stor vilja hos pedagogerna att möta det sökande som barnen uppvisar men även här finns skilda meningar om hur detta ska genomföras. Ett mönster mellan ambitionen att berömma barnen och ett ökat sökande efter bekräftelse hittades i analysen vilket även litteraturen tar upp.

  • Östling, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Life cycle analysis as a tool for CO2 mitigation in the building sector2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Pärnänen, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Myhrberg, Tina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    De tvångsomhändertagna barnen: - LVU-domar i Västerbottens län 2013 och 20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är en studie av LVU-domar i Västerbottens län. De studerade domarna utgörs av samtliga LVU-domar i Västerbottens län åren 2013 och 2017. Totalt omfattas studien av 241 domarna avseende 315 barn. Domarna är undersökta utifrån såväl kvantitativ som kvalitativ metod. Den kvantitativa studien visar statistik över domarna och identifierar tolv skiljaktiga domar avseende rekvisiten beredande av vård (§1); omsorgsbrist (§2) samt annat socialt nedbrytande beteende (§3) inom LVU. Den kvalitativa studien av de tolv skiljaktiga domarna har genomförts med innehållsanalys. Den här analysen har identifierat teman och subteman och identifierar skäl och motiveringar till diskrepansen mellan socialnämndens utredning och förvaltningsrättens domskäl. Identifierade teman är barns utsatthet, föräldraförmåga, barnets egna förutsättningar, våld i nära relation, skolan, placering och rättssäkerhet. Studien visar att antalet LVU-ärenden i Västerbottens län har ökat från år 2013 till år 2017. Förändringen åskådliggör en ökning i antalet domar från 96 domar år 2013 till 145 domar år 2017. Resultatet av studien pekar på en komplexitet i riskbedömning gällande barns bästa och barns behov. Utredningar kompliceras av behandlingslogik kontra rättslogik och de subjektiva bedömningar som förvaltningsrätten har att ta ställning till. Ett placeringsbeslut ska vara rättssäkert och grundat i en övertygelse om att beslutet innebär en förbättrad situation för barnet. Resultatet visar även att omgivningsfaktorer såsom skola och NPF-diagnoser kan påverka barns utsatthet och inte enbart på grund av bristande föräldraförmåga eller utifrån barnets eget beteende.

  • Berg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Digitala läromedel i svenskundervisningen: En studie av svensklärares attityder till digital undervisningspraktik2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate upper secondary school teachers’ perception of publisher produced digital tools within the frame of each teachers’ subject teaching in Swedish. The study questions following the issues: (1) what attitude do teachers have towards publisher produced digital tools within the field of their subject Swedish? (2) Which, if any, expectations from the principal/ school administration do the teachers have of using the publisher produced digital tool in their education? And (3) how is the publisher produced digital tool applied in the education? To answer these questions, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six upper secondary school teachers who, among other subjects, teach Swedish. This study relies on a phenomenographic method and the phenomenon is the publisher produced digital tool. The result shows that the six interviewed teachers use publisher produced digital tools between 10 and 20 percent of their lesson time in subject of Swedish. That low utilization can partially be explained by the teachers’ long tradition of constructing their own teaching materials. Another explanation could be that publisher produced digital tools are relatively new and that the teachers feel uncomfortable using them. The expectations from the principal/school administration about the teachers’ usage of these digital tools in their teaching is relatively low. Whether the usage of publisher produced digital tools is going to increase or not in the future is unknown – it is up to the teachers of Swedish to determine.

  • Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Liljemark, Zakarias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Digitaliserad läsning: En studie av hur pojkar och flickor uppfattar läsning och navigering på dator2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate how pupils in secondary school, who are used to digital educational materials, experience reading and navigating on a computer compared to reading and navigating on paper, to what extent they read in respective format and how they choose to consume different types of texts. Moreover it aims to find out if this differs in regards to gender. To answer our questions we carried out a reading test and created a follow-up survey for the target group to answer. Our conclusions are that: digital texts might be perceived as longer than printed texts since it is more difficult to get an overview, boys seem to have less trouble navigating in digital texts than girls do because of their experience of computer games, the pupils overall spend very little time on reading but when they do there is a small favor for the digital format and that the pupils tend to favourize the printed format for consuming longer texts.

  • Landberg, Carolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åkerberg, Olivia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personlighet och Prestationsångest bland Universitetsstudenter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Students is a group that constantly is facing different elements of performance and therefore, this study aims to measure whether there is a correlation between the personality traits of the Big Five theory and performance anxiety for university and college students in Sweden, to further investigate if different personality traits are more or less sensitive to performance anxiety. The study received 86 answers from a web-poll where students first responded to background variables such as; gender, age, number of academic years, study-pace and if they worked during their studies. Furthermore, the survey measured Big Five's personality traits with The Big Five Inventory (BFI) and performance anxiety, got operationalized with Fear of Failure (FF), measured with The Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory (PFAI). The study found a significantpositive relationship between general FF and the personality trait neuroticism and a significantpositiverelationship between general FF and women.Much suggests that everyone experiences some degree of FF but that some have the ability to turn it to something positive due to a strong passion and motivation to succeed in achieving their goals.

  • Karlsson, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. -.
    Examining the competitive abilities of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) in a growth chamber experiment.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Competition between different species (interspecific competition) is an important factor to consider when estimating population trends, geographic distributions, and management options of species. Many historically common vascular plant species found in agricultural environments have been negatively affected by changes in community composition and in turn, changes in competition pressures. Even so, the relative importance of plant competition in an ecological context is still unclear. In this study I examine the competitive ability of the meadow plant cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.) when grown together with common oat (Avena sativa) and common poppy (Papaver rhoeas), during a seven-week long growth chamber experiment. Seeds were sown in pots in four different setups; 1) C. cyanus control, 2) C. cyanus + P. rhoeas, 3) C. cyanus + A.sativa, 4) All three species. Six different growth parameters were measured (aboveground dry-weight, belowground dry-weight, root length, leaf area, number of leaves and above/belowground dry-weight ratio). I found that growth rates of C. cyanus were significantly inhibited according to all six growth parameters when C. cyanus competed solely with A. sativa. Competition from P. rhoeas had an insignificant effect on C. cyanus growth in five out of six growth parameters. Finally, I discuss the possibility that historically common meadow plants have declined in abundance in part because of weak competitive abilities, and that rare vascular plant species are negatively affected by growing in proximity with cereal crops.

  • Karlsson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jordbruksmark eller hållbar stadsutveckling?: En undersökning av jordbruksmarkens status inom fysisk planering i Västerbottens, Norrbottens och Stockholms län2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of agricultural land within nine municipalities. It was carried out through an assignment from LRF – The Federation of Swedish Farmers, which led to this report. The questions at issue were as follows; 1. How has the development and use of agricultural land seen historically and in the future in Sweden and in Västerbotten, Norrbotten and Stockholm? 2. What status does agricultural land have in the national legislation? 3. What status does agricultural land have in practice in local community planning? 4. What are the differences between conditions and conflicts in urban communities and sparsely populated rural communities, in the regions of Västerbotten, Norrbotten and Stockholm? The method of the study was made through 17 phone interviews with informants from the nine municipalities and the municipality groups from LRF. The result showed that the development and use of agricultural land is mostly negligible within the investigated municipalities, through reduced farmland, which decrease due to urban expansion. The status of agricultural land is considered to be high within many of the municipalities, but low according to most of the informants from LRF. Legislation is showed to not be enough to protect the agricultural land, and the agricultural land is in conflict with the municipalities' willingness to expand, and develop sustainable and attractive cities.

  • Selin, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    West, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    INTERAKTIONEN MELLAN INRE MOTIVERANDE INFORMATIONSVINST OCH YTTRE MOTIVATION I EN VISUELL SÖKUPPGIFT2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är vanligt att det uppstår en konflikt mellan handlingar som tillfredsställer nyfikenhet och handlingar som tillför någonting annat. Ett exempel är att välja en omväg för att få se någonting nytt, jämfört med den väg som effektivast leder till destinationen. Denna konflikt har försökt fångas i ett datoriserat experiment med 24 deltagare. Deras uppgift var att hitta en prick gömd i brusiga bilder. Med varje musklick klarnade området under muspekaren. De flesta bilder bestod av spatialt rosa brus medan vissa föreställde naturliga scener. Scenbildernas huvudmotiv och prickens lokalisering var olika fördelade. Det gjorde det möjligt att se om deltagarna försökte hitta pricken eller intresserade sig för bildinformation, varav det senare tolkas som ett uttryck för nyfikenhet. Om deltagarna valde mer sceninformativa områden skulle därför sökuppgiften ta längre tid, och om de blev uttråkade borde de söka mindre effektivt efter pricken över tid. Resultaten visar att deltagarna blev distraherade av bildinformationen och avvek från sökuppgiften, t(23) = 3.3, p = .0031. På gruppnivå avtog motivation över tid vilket har tolkats som en indikation på långtråkighet hos deltagarna, r(167) = .975, p < .000. Däremot fann vi inget stöd för att deltagarna avvek allt mer från sökuppgiften.

  • Walldorf, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andreas, Hansson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att mäta utmattning med varianter av symbol digit modalities test2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish healthcare system is under increasing pressure from patients seeking help due to fatigue syndrome. Cognitive impairments are a core symptom of the syndrome; effective screening tools to detect cognitive impairment related to fatigue are warranted to identify the condition. The aim of the present study was to develop a modified Symbol Digit Modalities. A total of 90 participants consisting of undergraduate students were divided into two groups after self-assessed fatigue. Twenty-four individuals were identified in the low fatigue group and thirty-four in the high fatigue group. The two groups’ test performance were compared. The test consisted of three blocks consisting of symbols, neutral words, and threat words; the duration of each test block was 90 seconds. The results showed no significant differences between low and high fatigue in terms of performance on the tests. However, there were significant differences across the blocks when comparing all participants' performance. The modified test failed to differentiate between low and high fatigue participants. The result indicating significant differences across the blocks is interesting and shows that there may be an effect of attentional bias that future research can build upon.

  • Murmester, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Viberg, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effekter av ett internetbaserat tvåveckors mindfulnessprogram på stress och tidsattityd2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårdpersonal har kategoriserats som en yrkesgrupp med höga stressnivåer och ungefär 70 % av tillfrågade sjuksköterskor har beskrivit sitt arbete som psykiskt påfrestande. Sjuksköterskestudenter upplever liknande problematik. Tidigare studier har visat att mindfulnessbaserade interventioner (MBI) kan reducera stress, öka mindfulnessförmågor samt främja mer positiva tidsattityder. Befintlig forskning har dock inte undersökt sambanden mellan dessa variabler tillsammans. Syftet i denna studie var att undersöka sambanden mellan tidsattityd, mindfulnessförmåga och grad av stress. Ytterligare syften var att granska effekten av mindfulnessträning på dessa variabler hos sjuksköterskestudenter samt att undersöka om tidsattityd och mindfulness kan predicera stress. Studien var en randomiserad kontrollerad studie med pre-post-kontrollgruppsdesign. Urvalet bestod av 75 sjuksköterskestudenter som genom randomisering delades in i kontrollgrupp (n=37) och experimentgrupp (n=38). Experimentgruppen genomförde ett tvåveckors webbaserat mindfulnessprogram medan kontrollgruppen stod på väntelista. Mätningar genomfördes innan och efter interventionen med formulären Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Adolescent Time Inventory (ATI) samtMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Resultaten visade på signifikanta interaktioner där experimentgruppen ökade sin mindfulnessförmåga, minskade i grad av stress och fick en mer positiv syn på sin framtid medan det omvända gällde för kontrollgruppen. Mindfulnessförmåga och negativ attityd till nuet predicerade stress. Resultatet stödjer att MBI kan vara en relevant intervention för stressreducering i denna urvalsgrupp.

  • Kööhler, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson Lantto, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Compassion, kamratrelationer och depression: - en tvärsnittsstudie på gymnasieungdomar2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the concept of compassion and its correlation with perceived

    quality of peer relations and how these two variables can predict depression among youths (N

    = 209, 15 - 18 year). Compassion - a sensitivity to suffering in self and others with a

    commitment to act on it - is an important factor to sustain mental health. 4 self-report measures

    were utilized: Compassion Engagement and Action Scale- Youth (CEAS-Y), Patient Reported

    Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Peer Relations, Becks Youth

    Inventory-Depression (BUS-D) and Revised Children’s Anxiety and Depression Scale

    (RCADS). Data was gathered electronically through Textalk Websurvey. To statistically

    analyze data, Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and multiple linear regression was used.

    Results states that the 3 subscales in CEAS-Y; Compassion for self, Compassion from others

    and Compassion for others, correlates significantly with a weak to moderate effect, which

    indicates that the scales measure different aspects of the concept compassion. Compassion for

    self and Peer relations predicted the variance in symptoms of depression measured with

    RCADS statistic significant, while the same variables together with Compassion for others

    predicted the variance in symptoms of depression measured by BUS-D statistic significant. To

    find out more about the direction of this correlations further research is needed. It is likely that

    there is a reciprocity between peer relations and compassion where compassion skills are

    trained in interpersonal relations and vice versa. Finally, this study imply that peer relations

    and compassion are important factors to prevent depression within youths.

  • Björk, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Control of Multibody Machines usingRate Gyros and Optronics2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project deals with design and prototype testing of a reversing car trailer systemequipped with a rate gyro and optronics to locate a target and drive to it. Simulink isused for developing and implementing the control system, it was also used to remotelyoperate the vehicle with a Man-in-the-Loop input. Given a starting position the user cancontrol a servo holding a laser range finder and a laser pointer to find a suitable target,and then lock the vehicle on it to later make it autonomously approach it.

    The finished car trailer system can, when driving straight backwards, reach the destinationwithin the vicinity of 10 ± 7 cm from a starting position 3 m away. When reversingto a target with an angular offset the accuracy and precision is decreasing.

    Provided the short time frame for a project that covers both designing, building andtesting of the final product the robot was experimentally tested only a few times. Moretesting is necessary to show limitations in design and implementation.

    The combination of experimental results and simulations this project has resulted inshows a proof of concept for this type of autonomous vehicle, although further improvementsand tests are vital to improve performance and reliability.

  • Dongre, Mitesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Singh, Bhupender
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Aung, Kyaw Min
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Larsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Miftakhova, Regina R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Askarian, Fatemeh
    Johannessen, Mona
    von Hofsten, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Persson, Jenny L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Erhardt, Marc
    Tuck, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Flagella-mediated secretion of a novel Vibrio cholerae cytotoxin affecting both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts2018In: Communications Biology, ISSN 2399-3642, Vol. 1, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Caenorhabditis elegans as an infection host model for Vibrio cholerae predator interactions, we discovered a bacterial cytotoxin, MakA, whose function as a virulence factor relies on secretion via the flagellum channel in a proton motive force-dependent manner. The MakA protein is expressed from the polycistronic makDCBA (motility-associated killing factor) operon. Bacteria expressing makDCBA induced dramatic changes in intestinal morphology leading to a defecation defect, starvation and death in C. elegans. The Mak proteins also promoted V. cholerae colonization of the zebrafish gut causing lethal infection. A structural model of purified MakA at 1.9 Å resolution indicated similarities to members of a superfamily of bacterial toxins with unknown biological roles. Our findings reveal an unrecognized role for V. cholerae flagella in cytotoxin export that may contribute both to environmental spread of the bacteria by promoting survival and proliferation in encounters with predators, and to pathophysiological effects during infections.

  • Andersson, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vit makt i skolan: Skolors motarbete2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Öster, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Samhällets osedda: Om mental ohälsa hos soldater2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Till följd av det krigsfyllda 1900-talet har allmänheten blivit mer medveten om hur krig påverkar drabbade människor. Några av de hårdast drabbade är soldater som ofta tjänstgör långa perioder under stor stress i högriskområden. Men vad är det som ligger till grund för uppkomsten av mental ohälsa hos soldater? Denna uppsats undersöker vad som ligger bakom uppkomsten av mentala hälsoproblem särskilt hos manliga soldater i västerländska samhällen. Utgångspunkten är att förklara problemet med hjälp av de socialt konstruerade könsnormer som dominerar den västerländska kulturen, och detta synsätt kontrasteras mot andra forskningsperspektiv som tagit fasta på andra förklaringsmodeller. Är könsnormer den dominerande förklaringsfaktorn till uppkomst av mental ohälsa hos soldater, eller finns det andra faktorer som har större betydelse? Vilka problem kan en soldat möta vid försök att hitta hjälp för mentala hälsoproblem? Är könsnormerna i grunden skadliga för dessa män, eller är det snarare en fråga om hur samhället använder sig av könsnormerna i möten med soldater? Hur bör dessa problem hanteras på ett konstruktivt sätt? I denna uppsats undersöks dessa frågor med socialkonstruktivistiskt perspektiv, där argumentationen kommer att utgå från den s.k belastningsteorin, utvecklad av psykologen Joseph Pleck.

  • Öberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Den mindre av nationella minoriteter: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om judarnas upplevelser av antisemitism i Umeå2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aimed at understanding anti-Semitism and how it is perceived by Jewish inhabitants of Umeå municipality. Considerable research has previous been conducted, mainly by historians, and has proven invaluable to further enhance our understanding of anti-Semitism. The purpose of this paper was thus to explore how three Jewish swedes, residing in Umeå, underwent the process of awareness and understanding of anti-Semitism. The theoretical framework was based on Christopher MacDonald-Dennis previous qualitative study on Jewish undergraduates, and how the process toward awareness unfolds. This paper conducted its research through semi-structured interviews, and operationalization of the theory for analysis was characterized by inductive recognition of phases in a five-stage process. The results show that one respondent has faced anti-Semitism previously and is continually experiencing exposure because she is Jewish and originates from Israel. Another respondent has formerly been exposed to anti-Semitism but perceives today no anti-Semitism directed at her. The third respondent distinguish no anti-Semitism directed at him personally ever since he moved to Umeå but has formerly experienced anti-Semitism in other cities. The results show that the respondents have all gone through the first three phases of the five-stage process, but not the fourth nor the fifth. Although all respondents showed anticipation for a new constellation of a Jewish community, only one of them seemed ready to redefine the structures which are enabling anti-Semitism; which in turn is holding a larger Jewish community back. This paper concludes its finding with an appeal for more qualitative research on anti-Semitism in its local context.

  • Nilsson, Truls
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Institutionella komplikationer för att uppnå en stabil demokratisering: En kvalitativ fallstudie om Libyens demokratiseringsprocess i en institutionell avsaknad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research study is about the process of democratization currently taking place in Libya. For decades, the now dead dictator Muammar Gaddafi has ruled Libya, himself as the central power. Under his rule, he led a policy that deinstitutionalized the country. When the dictatorship was overthrown, there were hopes that the country would begin its democratization. Now when democratization has started, free and known elections have taken place and a constitution has been formed. The constitution guarantees the most basic human rights and that the country will eventually become a democracy. New data show that the civil war and the absence of institutions makes it impossible to achieve the goal of democracy. This study aims to problematize the absence of institutions in order to achieve consolidated democratization. The starting point for the study is to assume the basis of the theoretical framework's criteria on what a consolidated democratization is. One assumption in the study is that public institutions are absolutely necessary in order for a consolidated democratization to be achieved.

  • Muhialdin, Rani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gryende populism: En propagandaanlys av Nya Demokratis och Sverigedemokraternas valmanifest2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study critically studies two different manifestos, New democracy manifesto from 1991 and Sweden Democrats manifesto from 2010. The purpose with this is to discover in what way populist rhetoric is used and what parlance the parties have used in these two manifestos. Using Lennart Hellspong’s model for propaganda analysis, textual compilations will be discovered and analyzed through a set of questions.

    Previous research show that these two parties has a lot in common and even though both have different political ideology and framework, they both have populist rhetoric as one of the key elements in their rhetoric. With Sweden democrats currently being the third biggest party in Sweden there is an interest to see what they have in common with the first populist party in Sweden during the modern era, New Democracy. Do the populist characteristics in Sweden Democrats manifesto have similar attributes as the in New Democracy manifesto?

    The result of the study shows that the populist rhetoric is used in different ways, with different ideological purposes but is built from the same springboard.

  • Lundström, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Avnazifieringen & Avbaathifieringen: Utrensningar under ockupation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie är en kvalitativ jämförande fallstudie som avser att beskriva och analysera utformningen och implementeringen av avbaathifieringen respektive avnazifieringen. Dessa var utrensningar som initierades av amerikanska ockupanter i Tyskland efter andra världskriget och i Irak efter störtandet av Saddam Hussein år 2003. Utrensningarna syftade till att avskeda vissa kategorier av partimedlemmar i det tyska nazistpartiet och i det irakiska Baathpartiet. Studien är av teorikonsumerande karaktär, med utgångspunkt i en teori som behandlar transitional justice mekanismers effektivitet samt en modell som beskriver ett hypotiserat förhållande mellan ockupanterna och nationella aktörer i det ockuperade landet. Vidare är den huvudsakliga metod som har använts i denna studie focused structured comparison. Studien fann att ingen av dessa utrensningar är att betrakta som effektiva vilket bland anat beror på att båda processerna utformades på ett sätt som bidrog till kollektiv skuldbeläggning. Vidare fann denna studie att en gemensam utmaning för de amerikanska ockupanterna i både Irak och Tyskland var att få den nationella befolkningen att betrakta utrensningarna i allmänhet och de implementerande myndigheterna som legitima. En intressekonflikt manifesterades också mellan ockupanterna och nationella aktörer då utrensningarna bytte skepnad när nationella myndigheter övertog det huvudsakliga ansvaret över utrensningarna.

  • Kumlin, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vägen till valet: En fallstudie med förstagångsväljare och partirepresentanter i Västra Götaland inför riksvalet 20182018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka förstagångsväljande gymnasieelever vid två skolor i Västra Götaland samt hur några av de politiska partierna i regionen arbetar för att nå dessa. Det som ämnas granskas är vilka informationskällor de medverkande förstagångsväljarna använder sig av när de ska ta ett beslut angående den röst de eventuellt kommer att lägga i riksdagsvalet 2018. Det studeras även hur dessa förstagångsväljare upplever att de undersökta informationskällorna inverkar på dem samt hur de medverkande partirepresentanterna tror att förstagångsväljarna använder sig och påverkas av dessa informationskällor.

    Det teoretiska ramverket utgår från Rational Choice-teorin samt tidigare forskning rörande förstagångsväljare, informationskällor och inverkan av dessa. Studien använder sig av en kvantitativ och en kvalitativ metod. Den kvantitativa metoden utgörs av en digital enkätundersökning av de medverkande förstagångsväljarna och den kvalitativa av semistrukturerade samtalsintervjuer och en intervju via e-post med partirepresentanter från ett antal av Sveriges politiska partier.

    I resultatet framkommer det att de medverkande förstagångsväljarnas främsta val av källa för information är sociala medier och information direkt från partierna. Men det som inverkar på dem mest anser de vara TV och vänner. Dock är partirepresentanterna inte av samma åsikt när det kommer till inverkan från TV utan de tror och anser att familj och vänner inverkar på förstagångsväljarna mest.