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  • Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Lundberg, Emmy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Sörlén, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hult, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Department of Sport Science, School of Sport Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway..
    Effects of interval training on quality of life and cardiometabolic risk markers in older adults: a randomized controlled trial2019In: Clinical Interventions in Aging, ISSN 1176-9092, E-ISSN 1178-1998, Vol. 14, p. 1589-1599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To explore the effects of 10 weeks of progressive vigorous interval training as a single intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiometabolic risk markers in centrally obese 70-year-old individuals.

    Participants and methods: A randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT03450655) including seventy-seven community-dwelling 70-year-old men and women with central obesity defined as > 1 kg visceral adipose tissue for women and > 2 kg for men. Participants randomized to the intervention group were offered a 10-week progressive vigorous interval training program performed three times per week. Control subjects were asked to maintain their daily living and routines throughout the trial. All participants in both groups had received tailored lifestyle recommendations focused on diet and physical activity at one occasion within 12 months prior to trial initiation. Prespecified outcome measures included: changes in HRQoL using the Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36), blood pressure; resting heart rate (HR) and blood lipids. All analyses were conducted on an intention-to-treat basis.

    Results: The intervention resulted in significant effects on the SF-36 mental component summary (MCS) score and the mental health (MH) subscale (P< 0.05 for both), when compared to the control group. Specifically, the intervention group increased their MCS score by 6.3 points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.3–12.3) and their MH score by 6.0 points (95% CI = 1.7–10.4) compared to the control group. Moreover, significant effects were seen on resting HR, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P<0.05 for all).

    Conclusion: It was shown that 10 weeks of vigorous interval training as a single intervention was sufficient to improve mental aspects of HRQoL in older individuals with central obesity, which is a critical aspect of healthy ageing. Positive effects were seen also on cardiometabolic risk markers.

  • Imamura, Fumiaki
    et al.
    Schulze, Matthias B
    Sharp, Stephen J
    Guevara, Marcela
    Romaguera, Dora
    Bendinelli, Benedetta
    Salamanca-Fernández, Elena
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Arriola, Larraitz
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Boeing, Heiner
    Dow, Courtney
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Freisling, Heinz
    Jakszyn, Paula
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Kühn, Tilman
    Mancini, Francesca R
    Masala, Giovanna
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Nilsson, Peter M
    Overvad, Kim
    Pala, Valeria M
    Panico, Salvatore
    Perez-Cornago, Aurora
    Quirós, Jose R
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sluijs, Ivonne
    Stepien, Magdalena
    Spijkerman, Annemieke M W
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Tong, Tammy Y N
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vissers, Linda E T
    Ward, Heather A
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Riboli, Elio
    Forouhi, Nita G
    Wareham, Nick J
    Estimated Substitution of Tea or Coffee for Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Was Associated with Lower Type 2 Diabetes Incidence in Case–Cohort Analysis across 8 European Countries in the EPIC-InterAct Study2019In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Beverage consumption is a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is insufficient evidence to inform the suitability of substituting 1 type of beverage for another.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of T2D when consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was replaced with consumption of fruit juice, milk, coffee, or tea.

    Methods: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–InterAct case–cohort study of 8 European countries (= 27,662, with 12,333 cases of incident T2D, 1992–2007), beverage consumption was estimated at baseline by dietary questionnaires. Using Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusting for other beverages and potential confounders, we estimated associations of substituting 1 type of beverage for another on incident T2D.

    Results: Mean ± SD of estimated consumption of SSB was 55 ± 105 g/d. Means ± SDs for the other beverages were as follows: fruit juice, 59 ± 101 g/d; milk, 209 ± 203 g/d; coffee, 381 ± 372 g/d; and tea, 152 ± 282 g/d. Substituting coffee for SSBs by 250 g/d was associated with a 21% lower incidence of T2D (95% CI: 12%, 29%). The rate difference was −12.0 (95% CI: −20.0, −5.0) per 10,000 person-years among adults consuming SSBs ≥250 g/d (absolute rate = 48.3/10,000). Substituting tea for SSBs was estimated to lower T2D incidence by 22% (95% CI: 15%, 28%) or −11.0 (95% CI: −20.0, −2.6) per 10,000 person-years, whereas substituting fruit juice or milk was estimated not to alter T2D risk significantly.

    Conclusions: These findings indicate a potential benefit of substituting coffee or tea for SSBs for the primary prevention of T2D and may help formulate public health recommendations on beverage consumption in different populations.

  • Öjbrant, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    ”MAN VILL SÅ VÄL, MEN DET ÄR SVÅRT ATT KOMMUNICERA”: - Personer i ledande position beskriver upplevelser och erfarenheter av svåra samtal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Communication is a large part of the managers everyday life, both as an everyday element but also as a tool for being able to lead. Communication can be influenced by several different filters both when we send out communication and when we receive communication. In the managers everyday life, several different types of conversation a rise in the personal meeting with the employees, the everyday and the more structural conversation, but also the difficult conversation that is mainly affected by the managers feelings, the employee’s feelings but also the subject itself. What in the difficult conversation that is perceived as difficult is complex and individual. The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze feelings and experiences about difficult conversations with people in a leading position. In order to answer the questions of this study, semi-structural interviews have been carried out as data collection where seven interviews have been conducted. The results of the interviews showed that all interviewed managers experience uncertainty before the difficult conversations and feelings that are bubbling up within themselves during the conversation, but above all an uncertainty in the handling of the possible reactions that may come from the employee. The result shows that purely experiential, most managers are preparing for the more difficult conversations by thinking about different situations that can happen and through that mentally preparing for different reactions from the employee. All managers are very keen on their employees and that it is in this regard that some difficulties may a rise. However, they mean that they feel it is important to create a relationship with their employees in order to get to know each other. The result has been analyzed with inspiration from Charmaz theory and Grounded theory.

  • Armstrong, Ben
    et al.
    Sera, Francesco
    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Maria
    Abrutzky, Rosana
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Bell, Michelle L
    Chen, Bing-Yu
    de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Micheline
    Correa, Patricia Matus
    Dang, Tran Ngoc
    Diaz, Magali Hurtado
    Dung, Do Van
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Goodman, Patrick
    Guo, Yue-Liang Leon
    Guo, Yuming
    Hashizume, Masahiro
    Honda, Yasushi
    Indermitte, Ene
    Íñiguez, Carmen
    Kan, Haidong
    Kim, Ho
    Kyselý, Jan
    Lavigne, Eric
    Michelozzi, Paola
    Orru, Hans
    Ortega, Nicolás Valdés
    Pascal, Mathilde
    Ragettli, Martina S
    Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento
    Schwartz, Joel
    Scortichini, Matteo
    Seposo, Xerxes
    Tobias, Aurelio
    Tong, Shilu
    Urban, Aleš
    De la Cruz Valencia, César
    Zanobetti, Antonella
    Zeka, Ariana
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    The Role of Humidity in Associations of High Temperature with Mortality: A Multicountry, Multicity Study2019In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 127, no 9, article id 097007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is strong experimental evidence that physiologic stress from high temperatures is greater if humidity is higher. However, heat indices developed to allow for this have not consistently predicted mortality better than dry-bulb temperature.

    Objectives: We aimed to clarify the potential contribution of humidity an addition to temperature in predicting daily mortality in summer by using a large multicountry dataset.

    Methods: In 445 cities in 24 countries, we fit a time-series regression model for summer mortality with a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) for temperature (up to lag 3) and supplemented this with a range of terms for relative humidity (RH) and its interaction with temperature. City-specific associations were summarized using meta-analytic techniques.

    Results: Adding a linear term for RH to the temperature term improved fit slightly, with an increase of 23% in RH (the 99th percentile anomaly) associated with a 1.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8, 1.3] decrease in mortality. Allowing curvature in the RH term or adding terms for interaction of RH with temperature did not improve the model fit. The humidity-related decreased risk was made up of a positive coefficient at lag 0 outweighed by negative coefficients at lags of 1–3 d. Key results were broadly robust to small model changes and replacing RH with absolute measures of humidity. Replacing temperature with apparent temperature, a metric combining humidity and temperature, reduced goodness of fit slightly.

    Discussion:The absence of a positive association of humidity with mortality in summer in this large multinational study is counter to expectations from physiologic studies, though consistent with previous epidemiologic studies finding little evidence for improved prediction by heat indices. The result that there was a small negative average association of humidity with mortality should be interpreted cautiously; the lag structure has unclear interpretation and suggests the need for future work to clarify.

  • Gyllencreutz, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Pedersen, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Enarsson, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Bölenius, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    The experience of healthcare staff of incident reporting with respect to venous blood specimen collection practices’2019In: Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, ISSN 1477-3996, E-ISSN 1477-4003, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 146-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Venous blood specimen collection is an important practical task that results in an analysis response that often leads to a clinical decision. Errors due to inaccurate venous blood specimen collection are frequently reported and can jeopardize patient safety because inaccurate specimens may result in a delayed or incorrect diagnosis and treatment. However, few healthcare personnel have written an error report regarding venous blood specimen collection practices. The aim of this study is to describe the experiences of healthcare personnel with incident reporting of venous blood specimen collection practices in primary health care. Our study is based on 30 individual interviews with healthcare personnel from 10 primary health care centres. Data were analysed using qualitative content analyses. Personnel experiences of incident reporting were summarized in three categories; Uncertainties in the planning and organization, High workload and low priority and, A need for support and guidance. More specifically, barriers hinder personnel in reporting mistakes. An interpretation based on the results is that surrounding circumstances within the organization influence whether personnel report mistakes or not. The result indicates a need for parallel systems, to identify and report errors or near-misses to prevent mistakes. Processed incidents should be returned promptly to the personnel to use as a learning experience. Having a valid questionnaire and a key person to write an incident report, might reduce the burden on the health care staff and increase the numbers of incident reports and patient safety.

  • Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Kvist, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The Prevalence and Consequences of Intragroup Conflicts for Employee Well-Being in Women-Dominated Work2019In: Human service organizations, management, leadership & governance, ISSN 2330-3131, E-ISSN 2330-314XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the prevalence and consequences of intragroup conflicts for well-being in three women-dominated occupations from a gender perspective. Using survey data from 1299 nurses, teachers, and social workers, we found that task conflict was the most common type of conflict but it was unrelated to well-being. Relationship conflict was negatively associated with vigor and positively associated with employee stress, burnout, and depression. Process conflicts were positively associated with depression. Our findings revealed that women and men in the same occupation experience intragroup conflicts in the same way. Organizations should therefore primarily reduce relationship conflicts to ensure employee well-being.

  • Stighäll, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    EMPLOYER BRANDING: En analys av idealbilden inom Employer Branding2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I en allt mer konkurrenskraftig vardag måste dagens arbetsgivare lägga större fokus på̊ att sticka ut. Endel gör det genom innovativa produkter och samarbeten, andra genom en aggressiv marknadsföringsstrategi. Humankapitalet har därför blivit ett betydelsefullt konkurrensmedel där efterfrågan på rätt kompetens har ökat. Därför har Employer Branding idag blivit ett av de hetaste ämnena inom organisatoriska kompetensförsörjning. Men hur tillämpar man Employer Branding mest effektivt enligt praktiker och teoretiker? Syftet med studien är därför att undersöka med hjälp av en diskursanalys hur Employer Branding-praktikers idealbilder ser ut. Genom denna frågeställning har jag satt praktiken i relation till de teoretiska grundpelarna inom Employer Branding. Vilket har resulterat i nyckeltal och tydliga framgångsfaktorer inom ämnet. Studien ger även en bredare insyn av självbegreppet och hur du kan tillämpa strategin för bästa möjliga effekt.

  • Poikela, Cassandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Tengelin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    ”Det här är ingen snällhetsfråga, det är en affärsfråga”: En kvalitativ studie om könsdiskriminering och sexuella trakasserier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Könsdiskriminering och sexuella trakasserier utgör samhällsproblem som reflekteras inom organisationer i alla branscher och sektorer. Alla organisationer är exponerade för problematiken så länge som företeelserna förekommer i samhället. Fenomenen kan orsaka allvarliga konsekvenser försåväl individ, organisation som samhälle. Med anledning av detta står HR inför viktiga uppgifter framöver. Denna studie syftade till att undersöka strategiskt inriktade HR-personers uppfattningar kring könsdiskriminering och sexuella trakasserier. Studiens fyra frågeställningar utgjordes av 1) Vad innebär könsdiskriminering respektive sexuella trakasserier?, 2) Vilken betydelse har metoo-rörelsen haft för HR-arbetet?, 3) Vilka är de främsta skälen till att könsdiskriminering och sexuella trakasserier förekommer på arbetsplatser? och 4) Vad utgör framgångsrika tillvägagångssätt för att komma till rätta med problematiken? Studien utgick från en fenomenografisk metodansats varigenom tio semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med strategiskt inriktade HR-personer. Intervjuresultaten innefattade resonemang om otydligheter kring begreppen könsdiskriminering och sexuella trakasserier,metoo-rörelsens effekter samt synpunkter om individuella, organisationsmässiga och samhälleliga påverkansprocesser varigenom könsdiskriminering och sexuella trakasserier kan utövas och motverkas.Förhoppningen med denna studie var att det framställda resultatet skulle utgöra ett kunskapsbidrag till HR som yrkesgrupp, varvid de skildrade iakttagelserna kan fungera som lärdomar och verktyg.

  • Löfgren, Matilda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ramqvist, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hur digitala verktyg används i rekryteringsprocessen: En jämförande studie av privat och offentlig sektor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rekryteringsprocessen är en avgörande del i HR-arbetet vilken lägger grunden för organisationens överlevnad och konkurrenskraft. På dagens arbetsmarknad råder det kompetensbrist inom många arbetsområden, vilket gör rekryteringsarbetet mer komplext och nödvändigt att kontinuerligt arbeta med. Parallellt med detta sker en stor digital utveckling, där organisationer implementerar digitala rekryteringsverktyg för att bättre möta framtidens krav. Denna kvalitativa studie syftar till att undersöka hur rekryteringsprocessen ser ut i privat och offentlig organisation. Hur används digitala verktyg i rekryteringsprocessen och vilka för- och nackdelar medföljer av att använda digitala verktyg?För att besvara studiens syfte valdes två organisationer från vardera sektorn ut och fyra semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes. Resultaten som framkom pekar på att digitala verktyg i rekryteringsprocessen är relativt utbrett men att det finns fortsatta utvecklingsområden. Vidare kan resultatet konstatera att ingen markant skillnad mellan sektorerna återfinns. Den skillnad som gick att utläsa gällande användandet av digitala verktyg i rekryteringsprocessen berodde främst på vilken typ av tjänst det handlar om och dess komplexitet. För- och nackdelar med att använda digitala verktyg handlar till stor del om kostnads- och tidsaspekter. De främsta fördelarna som framkom med att använda digitala verktyg bestod i ökad delaktighet och förbättrad kommunikation genom rekryteringsprocessen.

  • Gustafson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Using Machine Learning to Identify Potential Problem Gamblers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In modern casinos, personnel exist to advise, or in some cases, order

    individuals to stop gambling if they are found to be gambling in a destructive

    way, but what about online gamblers? This thesis evaluated

    the possibility of using machine learning as a supplement for personnel

    in real casinos when gambling online. This was done through supervised

    learning or more specifically, a decision tree algorithm called

    CART. Studies showed that the majority of problem gamblers would

    find it helpful to have their behavioral patterns collected to be able to

    identify their risk of becoming a problem gambler before their problem

    started. The collected behavioral features were time spent gambling, the

    rate of won and lost money and the number of deposits made, all these

    during a specific period of time. An API was implemented for casino

    platforms to connect to and give collected data about their users, and

    to receive responses to notify users about their situation. Unfortunately,

    there were no platforms available to test this on players gambling live.

    Therefore a web based survey was implemented to test if the API would

    work as expected. More studies could be conducted in this area, finding

    more features to convert for computers to understand and implement

    into the learning algorithm.

  • Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sjögren, Jörgen
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Department of Forestry Management, Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogsforsk), Uppsala.
    Nordin, Annika
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    A struggling collaborative process: revisiting the woodland key habitat concept in Swedish forests2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term woodland key habitat (WKH) was launched in Sweden in 1990. Definitions for the concept have changed over the years, and today the WKH concept and its application are issues of debate in Sweden. Consequently, the Swedish Forestry Agency (SFA) initiated a collaborative process including forest stakeholders with the purpose to clarify the application and develop the inventory methodology of WKH. We have studied, by means of interviews and observations, participant perceptions of how endogenous and exogenous factors affect the collaborative process. During our research, we identified three game changers: the pause in WKH registration in northwestern Sweden that caused several participants to drop out of the process; budget allocations for new nationwide WKH inventories that put the process on hold; and formal instructions from the government that came nine months later and essentially re-initiated the collaborative process. Altogether, this not only affected the participants’ abilities, understanding and willingness to participate, but also the overall legitimacy of the process – indicating the difficulty of conducting policy development in collaborative form, especially when it is highly politicized since it impact on the participants’ anticipation of the process and its end results.

  • Bollig, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    ”Hvárigir skilðu annars mál”: Möten och kommunikation med främmande folk i fornvästnordisk litteratur2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this master’s degree essays is to analyse and compare the first-contact situations and means of communication as described in four different sagas including Legendary Sagas and Sagas of Icelanders, more specifically Vínlandsagas. Two additional papers on contacts and communication with indigenous people from the perspectives of Spanish conquistadores and Brittish settlers in Australia were reviewed to establish a baseline for behaviour in contact situations with unknown peoples. The analysis of both sagas and additional sources shows that neither of them focus in their description on communications tools and instead focus on the different behaviour of the indigenous people as observed by the settlers and conquistadores and on the actions and transactions with the indigenous peoples.

  • Tinc, Pamela J.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Northeast Center for Occupational Health and Safety: Agriculture, Forestry,and Fishing, Cooperstown, NY, USA.
    Sorensen, Julie A.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lindvall, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    An exploration of rollover protective structures (ROPS) rebate program media coverage: strategies for implementation and sustainment2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Media advocacy plays an important role in public health initiatives, as it can provide vital information to target populations, policy makers, or other relevant stakeholders. Unfortunately, little is currently known about the use of media advocacy to promote occupational safety and health programs. This study explores media coverage related to the Rollover Protection Structure (ROPS) Rebate Programs, which were designed to encourage the use of rollover protection on agricultural tractors, thus reducing the risk of tractor overturn fatalities. The Program’s portrayal in the media, as well as the role that the media has played in implementing and sustaining these Programs.

    Methods: Media articles pertaining to any of the state-based or National ROPS Rebate Programs and published between November 1, 2006 and October 31, 2018 were included for review. Discourse analysis was used to understand the messages portrayed by the media and how those messages shaped the outcomes of the ROPS Rebate Programs.

    Results: During the study period, 212 unique articles were published about the ROPS Rebate Programs. While these articles all portrayed the ROPS Rebate Programs in a largely positive light, they were used at different stages, from pre-implementation through sustainment of the ROPS Rebate Programs, and to different extents.

    Conclusions: Media articles have played an important role in implementing and sustaining the ROPS Rebate Programs. Based on the results of this study, more robust and continuous media coverage are important for the longevity and success of public health programs.

  • Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. Umeå University.
    The Power of ‘Both/And’: Simultaneous Trust and Distrust in Inter-Firm Coopetitive Alliances2019In: BAM2019 Conference Proceedings, London: British Academy of Management , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on the association between coopetition—inter-firm relationships that involve the simultaneous interaction of cooperation and competition—and performance has shown inconsistent results. We build on the developing stream of organizational literature that emphasizes the need for both trust and distrust to address this conundrum. By explicitly treating trust and distrust as distinct and multi-dimensional constructs (i.e., trust comprising goodwill and competence dimensions and distrust consisting of malevolence and discredibility), we consider their moderating effects on the coopetition–performance relationship. Our results suggest that while the presence of both trust and distrust positively moderates the relationship between coopetition and performance, the presence of either trust or distrust fails to do so. We contribute by showing the power of ‘both/and’ (against the conventional ‘either/or’) view of trust and distrust in terms of achieving superior, long-run performance in complex relationships like that of coopetition.

  • Ghosh, Trinetri
    et al.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Ma, Yanyuan
    Pennsylvania State University.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Sufficient Dimension Reduction for Feasible and Robust Estimation of Average Causal Effect2019In: Statistica sinica, ISSN 1017-0405, E-ISSN 1996-8507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When estimating the treatment effect in an observational study, we use a semi- parametric locally efficient dimension reduction approach to assess both the treat- ment assignment mechanism and the average responses in both treated and non- treated groups. We then integrate all results through imputation, inverse prob- ability weighting and double robust augmentation estimators. Double robust estimators are locally efficient while imputation estimators are super-efficient when the response models are correct. To take advantage of both procedures, we introduce a shrinkage estimator to automatically combine the two, which re- tains the double robustness property while improving on the variance when the response model is correct. We demonstrate the performance of these estima- tors through simulated experiments and a real dataset concerning the effect of maternal smoking on baby birth weight.

  • Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    Political opportunity and mobilization: The evolution of a Swedish miningsceptical movement2019In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 64, article id 101477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As demand for minerals is expected to increase due to the energy transition needed to meet climate targets, mineral exploration will continue intensifying. Surveys find that public acceptance of the mining industry is low, particularly in the EU, suggesting that mining conflicts may increase in both number and intensity. Conflict usually occurs in places where a significant number of local actors mobilize resistance against a mining company. Their success is dependent on the emergence of a broader social movement that jumps to the relevant scale of regulation, often the national level. Despite this, very little attention is being paid to the emergence of such a movement, as well as to the state and its institutions, in studies on mining conflicts. Most research into mining conflicts examines developing countries, while mining resistance is an emerging issue also in developed nations, not least in the Arctic. Understanding mining resistance is important in avoiding or addressing conflicts that can be costly for companies, communities, and the state. This paper explores the relationship between state politics and mining resistance at the national level, drawing on social movement research and the concept of political opportunity structures. The results show that confrontational mining resistance will grow at the national level when the state offers little access nor influence to mining-sceptical actors in either policy formulation or implementation, and where there is a sufficient number of simultaneously ongoing contested licensing processes. In cases where indigenous people are involved, weak or contested indigenous rights may also spur resistance.

  • Henriksson, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelser av omorganisation i primärvård2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    AbstraktSyfte. Att beskriva distriktssköterskors upplevelser av omorganisation i primärvård.Bakgrund. Omorganisationer inom hälso-och sjukvården är vanligt förekommande. Vård som tidigare erbjudits patienter inom slutenvården har i många fall flyttats över till öppenvården. Primärvården har genom åren genomgått omstruktureringar med anledning av det ökade patientantalet.Design. Induktiv intervjustudie med kvalitativ ansats.Metod. Tio distriktssköterskor från en hälsocentral i norra Sverige intervjuades individuellt under våren 2016. Intervjumaterialet analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys.Resultat. Ur analysen framkom fyra kategorier: Bristande implementering av omorganisationen, omorganisationens konsekvenser för patienterna, den egna hälsan påverkas av omorganisationen samt positiva aspekter på omorganisationen.Konklusion. Omorganisationer som inte är väl implementerade har en negativ påverkan på distriktssköterskors hälsa och arbetsmiljö. Att genomföra en lyckad omorganisation kräver delaktighet, information och kunskap. Ledningen har ett stort ansvar för den psykosociala arbetsmiljön och måste involvera medarbetarna i ett tidigt skede och i större utsträckning genom processen.Nyckelord. Omorganisation, primärvård, distriktssköterskor, kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-18 09:00 Stora Hörsalen, 5B, Umeå
    Holmlund, Sophia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Health professionals’ experiences and views related to obstetric ultrasound in Rwanda and Vietnam2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Obstetric ultrasound has become an indispensable part of maternity care in high-income countries, where it is universally used for screening, diagnostic and surveillance purposes. In low-income countries, insufficient numbers of trained health professionals’ is commonly a barrier to obstetric ultrasound use. Globally, health professionals’ encounter complex clinical situations in which rapid technical improvements in fetal surveillance and pregnancy interventions are components that influence clinical decisions, thereby implicating maternal and fetal health outcomes.

    Aims

    The overall aim of this thesis was to explore health professionals’ experiences and views on the role of obstetric ultrasound in relation to clinical management, including ethical aspects, in two low-to-middle-income countries with different characteristics, cultures, religions and health care systems.

    Methods

    Study I (Rwanda) and Study III (Vietnam) are based on focus group discussions in which data were analysed using content analysis. Study I included six focus group discussions with 23 midwives recruited from six different hospitals in the area of Kigali and in the Southern province. Study III included four focus group discussions with 25 midwives working at three different hospitals in the Hanoi area. Study II (Rwanda) and Study IV (Vietnam) are cross-sectional studies using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s chi-square test and logistic regression analyses. A questionnaire, including items based on the results from previous qualitative studies, was used as the data collection tool. For Study II, health professionals (midwives, nurses, obstetricians, other physicians; N=907) working at 108 health facilities representing all provinces of Rwanda were recruited. Study IV constituted a regional sample of 824 health professionals (midwives, obstetricians/gynecologists) working at 29 health facilities in urban, semi-urban and rural parts of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Main findings

    Obstetric ultrasound was regarded as a highly valued tool for pregnancy management in Rwanda as well as in Vietnam (Papers I–IV). In Rwanda, access to ultrasound was described as poor, especially for women living in rural areas (Paper I). In contrast, access to obstetric ultrasound was described as being very high in all health facilities in urban, semi-urban and rural areas of Hanoi (Paper III & Paper IV). In Rwanda, if a pregnancy was considered normal, obstetric ultrasound was not routinely performed (Paper I), while pregnant women in Vietnam were reported as undergoing several further ultrasound examinations in addition to the three examinations recommended by the Ministry of Health (Paper III). Midwives in Rwanda expressed a need to be trained in ultrasound, particularly those working at health centres in rural areas where ultrasound was rarely available (Paper I). A majority of health professionals (91%) also agreed that maternity care in Rwanda would improve if midwives were qualified to perform basic ultrasound examinations (Paper II). Sub-optimal pregnancy management due to a lack of or insufficient ultrasound training was reported by health professionals in both Rwanda (65%; Paper II) and Vietnam (37%; Paper IV). The use of obstetric ultrasound without medical indication was described as a troubling phenomenon, especially in Vietnam, where participants also reported that pregnant women sometimes replaced antenatal care surveillancewith ultrasound examinations (Paper III).

    Conclusion

    Obstetric ultrasound plays a significant role in pregnancy management in Rwanda, although access varies significantly. The findings indicate that physicians in Rwanda are in need of additional formal ultrasound training in order to increase the quality of ultrasound surveillance and to improve maternal and fetal health outcomes. To increase ultrasound access for all pregnant women in Rwanda, midwives could potentially be trained to perform basic ultrasound examinations. In the Hanoi area of Vietnam, ultrasound is a well-integrated tool in pregnancy management and access was high. However, overuse and commercialisation of obstetric ultrasound examinations were described as common and need to be addressed to achieve adequate allocation of resources. The rapid development of technology in maternity care needs to be accompanied by medical guidelines stating the appropriate indications for ultrasound surveillance.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-18 10:15 S213H, Umeå
    Gümüscü, Ahmet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Socialtjänsten och familjen: socialarbetares konstruktion av familj och insatser i familjerelaterad komplexitet2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe and analyse how social workers in Swedish social services define “family” and handle complexity when they work with families, and especially “families with complex needs” as the target of their interventions. Whereas families with complex needs can be understood to involve one or more family members having two or more simultaneously occurring needs or problems (e.g. mental health issues, addiction, financial problems, dysfunctionality, child abuse, ageing, disabilities, and family violence), complexity in social work extends beyond that which exists in families. Therefore, to broaden our understanding of these complexities in social work, this research sought answers to the following questions:

    • How do social workers define and set boundaries around the concept of “family” when they target their interventions? How do these definitions differ between different sectors of the social services – elderly care, disability care, addiction, child welfare, and financial assistance? (study I)

    • How do social workers involve families and family members in the casework from intake and through the investigation process within different social service sectors? What happens to the conceptualisation of family through an investigation process? (study II)

    • How do social workers in child welfare services describe and manage complexity in their work generally and when they work with families with complex needs? (study III)

    • How then do social workers in different service sectors conceive of and manage complexities in their everyday work, especially when it comes to families with complex needs? (study IV)

    The empirical material in studies I and IV consists of telephone interviews with 60 social workers working in five different sectors in four municipalities. Study II is based on five focus group interviews with social workers working in five different sectors in one larger municipality. Study III is based on focus groups with vignettes with social workers working in child welfare in three municipalities.

    In the first study findings revealed that different mediating mechanisms were adopted by social workers in what can be understood to be a deconstruction of the family. These mechanisms included legislation (as a control mechanism), household composition (boundary mechanism) and service needs (professional mechanism), which were used in various ways and to differing degrees within each sector. The five unique and sector-specific conceptualisations of families are implicated in how interventions are constructed and work processes targeted at individuals and families.

    In the second study findings showed that clienthood and family are interpreted in different ways. The family was brought into or kept out of service provisions in ways that were connected to social workers’ construction of the family either as expert, client or non-client. How social workers understood the role of the family changed during the casework process. In the third study, findings showed that social workers were challenged in their everyday work where they focused on immediate conditions for children while avoiding problems that were less amenable to being solved. Social workers tried to manage complexities related to families by either sorting prioritizing or oscillating between different child welfare orientations. In the fourth study, findings showed that there were different types of reported complex needs: deeprooted needs and broad-based needs. Complex family needs were transformed into complex cases by social workers, based on considerations of family composition, relationships between clients and social workers, and organizational contexts of practice. The boundaries between these three domains were not distinct, and the interconnectivity and complexities occurring in and between them contributed to the production of much of the “wickedness” that exists in social work practice.

    A main conclusion is that the concept of family is understood and targeted differently in different sectors of social work. In some cases, the use of the family concept can be related to the clients' specific needs. Families who social workers meet often have combinations of needs and problems that result in numerous interventions from the social services. When social workers meet these families, they can feel ambiguity and uncertainty because of the complexity of the needs or other complexities. And, in individualised social services, a narrow focus on the needs of individuals can make it difficult to see the situation of the family as a whole. This research highlights the importance of bringing this web of complexities to the forefront of practice.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-18 13:00 S Hörsal 205, Umeå
    Byström, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå Universitet.
    Tourism Development in Resource Peripheries: conflicting and Unifying Spaces in Northern Sweden2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern Swedish inland is a sparsely populated area with a historical dependence upon natural-resource extraction. Therefore, this region has traditionally been defined as a resource periphery for extractive purposes. However, the rise of tourism challenges this narrative by producing a pleasure periphery for touristic purposes. A pleasure periphery in this context is linked to nature-based tourism that sells dreams of pristine nature and/or vast wilderness. This touristic “story” therefore becomes an antithesis to the region's industrial past. The overlapping touristic and extractive spaces, and their seemingly conflicting development narratives, constitute the theoretical approach to tourism development in the scope of this thesis. Further, this thesis adds to theorizing tourism development in northern peripheries, by contesting established development theories against each other in a northern Swedish setting. Multiple methods using both quantitative and qualitative data are used to answer the questions in this thesis.

    Three conclusions can be derived based on the empirical findings. Firstly, established tourism development theories are at risk of being invalid in more peripheral settings. As an example, protected areas constitute a poor development strategy, and are not producing tourism employment as shown in studies from more densely populated regions. Other destination-development theories presupposing urban-like infrastructure, which is absent in peripheries, also become invalid. Secondly, conflicts between tourism and extractive industries do occur at the discursive level where they tend to be described in dualistic terms. However, in terms of labor-market processes, findings show that tourism and resource extraction are actually rather interrelated. Within mining tourism, such a related diversification occurs due to the spatial distribution of mining and tourism skills and the interaction between them. Thirdly, the location of tourism destinations is broadly governed by resource-extractive infrastructure. Therefore, tourism destinations are normally located in places that have previously been made accessible via investments in the resource-extractive sector. Hence, resource extraction projects (unintentionally) produce accessibility to the touristic “wilderness”.

    In summary, resource extraction becomes a precondition for tourism development in northern Sweden, rather than a conflicting land-use competitor. Therefore, planners and decision makers should consider incorporating aspects of tourism in future plans for resource extraction as these industries often spatially overlap, intertwine, and consequently form a development symbiosis in northern resource peripheries.

  • Staneva, Maya
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    The Potential of Intra-fraction Monitoring of Patient Anatomy Using a Parameterized Motion Model2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radiotherapy aims to strike a tumour with high accuracy, but anatomic changes and internal organ motion introduce uncertainties and therefore large margins are conventionally used to compensate for this. The MR-Linac will enable target tracking prior to and during treatment which will make daily adjustments of a treatment plan possible. But a motion tracking of the target requires fast 3D imaging and image processing which are currently not viable with sufficiently low latency. In this project a method to estimate the motion of a target by using a parameterized motion model created prior to treatment and a stream of 2D images acquired during treatment was studied. The motion model had been parameterized by using principal component analysis (PCA). The 2D images were aligned to the corresponding images in the motion model through deformable image registration which resulted in a deformation field. Then new parameters (eigenmode weights) of the motion model were calculated by taking the projection of the deformation field on a vector space spanned by the eigenmodes of the PCA motion model. An estimation of the motion was then created by applying the new weights to the PCA motion model. The results were evaluated by visual comparison and with quantitative metrics such as the Dice similarity coefficient. The method was applied to data from 9 volunteers and the results confirmed that the proposed method can estimate the motion of a target and indicated that it is most suitable for volunteers with large intra-fraction motion. The results also showed that the temporal resolution of the motion model can be increased by using 2D images of lower spatial resolution. The created motion model can be used for many clinical applications like retrospectively calculating the accumulated doses in the tumour and the organs-at-risk and potentially could be used for real-time target tracking.

  • Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Explicating politicians’ arguments for sex quotas in Sweden: Increasing power and influence rather than increasing quality and productivity2019In: Frontiers in Communication, E-ISSN 2297-900X, Vol. 4, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quotas are employed or proposed in several European countries as a means to decrease differences in outcomes across groups. Quotas belong to a family of biased selection and treatment measures based on group membership, rather than individual ability. The effects of such measures depend on the underlying model of the relevant variables and their relationships, but this model is not explicit in the political discourse. Here, thematic analysis is applied to statements that argue for legislated sex quotas in Sweden, issued by leading politicians and government officials. The most common, recurrent themes are that: (a) Women are at least as able as men; (b) less able men are currently selected over more able women; (c) the proportion of women should be increased to at least 40%, which (d) will increase organizations' quality and productivity; (e) this should be achieved by means of quotas but (f) not through improved meritocratic assessment. It is shown that these claims are inconsistent, as (1) improved meritocratic assessment was not proposed, although that would more effectively select the more able than would quotas, and (2) quotas will lead to lower rather than higher quality and productivity, as it demands that the less able be appointed if they are female. This suggests that the purpose of quotas is to increase the influence of the favored group even if it is currently less able.

  • Mohammadi, Shirin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Bevisregeln vid fingerad arbetsbrist - Arbetsdomstolens tillämpning av den delade bevisbördan.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Mård, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Det är väl bara att omplacera arbetstagaren, eller? En undersökning av arbetsgivarens arbetsledningsrätt och hur den begränsas genom lag och avtal.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sandberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Solvärme som energieffektiviseringsmetod för badhusanläggningar: Solar heating as an energy efficiency method for bathing facilities2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Swe:

    Uppvärmning med hjälp av solvärme är ett alternativ som är värt att starkt överväga. Badhus och simhallar som kräver stora mängder energi under sommartid har mycket att hämta från en solvärmeanläggning. Bättre kan det bli om investeringen läggs på ett hybridsolfångarsystem.

    Rapporten jämför fyra olika typer av solfångare i kombination med tre systemförslag. Systemutformningarna är baserade på en anslutning till befintligt fjärrvärmesystem.

    En ekonomisk analys jämförs mellan hybridsolfångarsystem och nollalternativ.

    Resultatet visar att hybridsolfångarna i kombination med ackumulatortank kan ge en besparing på 170 MWh värmeenergi samt 30 MWh elenergi per år.

    Vidare utredningar bör göras innan investeringsbeslut tas.

    Eng:

    Solar heating is an option worth considering for bathhouses/swimming pools that require large amounts of energy during summertime.

    The investment might be yielding higher benefits if it is placed on a hybrid solar collector system. The report compares three different types of solar collectors in combination with three system proposals. The system designs are based on a connection to the existing district heating system. 

    An economic analysis is compared between the hybrid solar collector system and the current state alternative. The result shows that a hybrid solar collector system in combination with a storage tank can provide a saving of 170 MWh of heat energy and 30 MWh of electricity per year.

    Further investigations should be made before making any final decisions.

  • Simon, Philippe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Undersökning av Nosema hos bin: utbredning och förekomst i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report investigates the presence of Nosema in Sweden. Nosema is an intracellular parasite within the order Microsporidia and is considered a global threat. The most recent academic study on the presence of Nosema in Sweden was published in 2013, however in that study no presence of Nosema in the north of Sweden was reported. The aim of this study was to explore the presence of Nosema in Sweden, particularly in the north of Sweden. Samples were gathered from different locations in Sweden, and thereafter analysed (n=74), 54 samples were analysed under microscope. A geographical map was created to establish the range of Nosema on a global perspective. PCR primers and FISH gene probes for molecular identification were evaluated and tested both in SILVA and in an own database created in the bioinformatics software package ‘ARB’. Main findings of the study were that Nosema were detected in two samples in Sweden and that further studies with more sophisticated methods and better sequencing needs to be developed in order to fully investigate the presence of Nosema in the north of Sweden.

  • Palamede, Audrey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Stabilization of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and chlordecone in soils from three former industrial areas.: Leaching behavior of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and chlordecone from three soils2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Holmberg, Max
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    THE IMPACT OF USING GENERATED DATA IN LEARNING OBJECT DETECTION2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ‘The development of autonomous cars is in full progress. For the autonomous cars to be able to detect where other cars are, many machine learning models are utilised. One problem in the fi€eld of object detection, is that a human has to tell where objects are in images, for a machine to be able to learn to detect objects in images it has never seen before. To tackle this problem synthetic images can be created, where the ground truth of where objects are in images is known, without having to use human knowledge. Th‘is thesis study the approach of using a translation model to translate images to look more like real photographs. Several object detection models are then used to evaluate if training on the translated images increases the generalisation to the real world photographs. In some cases the results show that the translated images help to increase the performance on real world photographs when detecting cars in images of street scenes.

  • Vidmark, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    CONSTRUCTING AND VARYING DATA MODELS FOR UNSUPERVISED ANOMALY DETECTION ON LOG DATAData modelling and domain knowledge’s impact on anomaly detection and explainability2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the complexity of today’s systems increases, manual system monitoring and log fi€le analysis are no longer applicable, giving an increasing need for automated anomaly detection systems. However, most current research in the domain, tend to focus only on the technical details of the frameworks and the evaluations of the algorithms, and how this impacts anomaly detection results. In contrast, this study emphasizes the details of how one can approach to understand and model the data, and how this impact anomaly detection performance.Given log data from an education platform application, data is analysed to conform a concept of what is normal, with regards to educational course section behaviour. Data is then modelled to capture the dimensions of a course section, and a detection model created, running a statically tuned K-Nearest neighbours algorithm as classi€er - to emphasize the impact of the modelling, not the algorithm.‘ The results showed that single point anomalies could successfully be detected. However, the results were hard to interpret due to lack of reason and explainability.‘ Thereby, this study presents a method of modifying a multidimensional data model to conform a detection model with increased explainability. ‘The original model is decomposed into smaller modules by utilizing explicit categorical domain knowledge of the available features. Each module will represent a more speci€c aspect of the whole model and results show a more explicit coverage of detected point anomalies and a higher degree of explainability of the detection output, in terms of increased interpretability as well as increased comprehensibility.

  • Nowak, Ethan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Language loss and Illocutionary Silencing2019In: Mind (Print), ISSN 0026-4423, E-ISSN 1460-2113, article id fzz051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The twenty-first century will witness an unprecedented decline in the diversity of the world’s languages. While most philosophers will likely agree that this decline is lamentable, the question of what exactly is lost with a language has not been systematically explored in the philosophical literature. In this paper, I address this lacuna by arguing that language loss constitutes a problematic form of illocutionary silencing. When a language disappears, past and present speakers lose the ability to realize a range of speech acts that can only be realized in that language. With that ability, speakers lose something in which they have a fundamental interest: their standing as fully empowered members of a linguistic community.

  • Carlbaum, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Hanberger, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Utvärdering av Läslyftet: Delrapport 11: Erfarenheter av Läslyftets genomförande och effekter i förskolan 2017/182019Report (Other academic)
  • Elekes, Zoltán
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Västernorrlands styrkeområden: Detaljstudie av de funktionella arbetsmarknaderna i Örnsköldsvik, Sollefteå, Kramfors och Sundsvall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla lokala arbetsmarknader i Västernorrland har jämfört med Sverige i övrigt tydliga specialiseringar inom offentligt finansierad service (skola, vård och omsorg samt till viss del offentlig service och tjänster i alla arbetsmarknader förutom Örnsköldsvik). Två andra gemensamma karaktärsdrag är koncentrationer i skogsnäringarna även om det finns viss variation i vilka skogsnäringar respektive region är specialiserad inom (tex massa och papper i Kramfors, Örnsköldsvik och Sundsvall, sågning/hyvling i Kramfors och drivning och skogsskötsel i framförallt Sollefteå). Utöver detta delar alla av regionens lokala arbetsmarknader en tydlig profil kring maskinindustriell tillverkning. Här bör det noteras att dessa tydliga regionala specialiseringar också är märkbart könsuppdelade då de offentligt finansierade verksamheterna (framförallt vård och omsorg) domineras av kvinnor medan tillverkningsindustri och skogsnäringarna i högre utsträckning domineras av män. Denna könsfördelning är också sammankopplad med skillnader i inkomstnivåer då de mer kvinnodominerande verksamheterna har avsevärt lägre lönenivåer än de mansdominerande tillverkningssektorerna.

    Utöver dessa gemensamma karaktärsdrag finns också tydliga lokala specialiseringar som inom mer funktionella gränser kanske bättre speglar regionens näringsliv än vad den övergripande regionala strukturen gör. Örnsköldsvik är föga förvånande relativt specialiserad inom fordonstillverkning och teknisk konsultverksamhet, men har inte lika tydlig närvaro av exempelvis offentlig förvaltning, finans och försäkring eller IKT. Sollefteå å andra sidan har inte lika tydliga specialiseringar och det är framförallt offentligt finansierade verksamheter som dominerar liksom besöksnäringar, transport samt kraftförsörjning. I Kramfors och framförallt i Sundsvall återfinns de tydligaste koncentrationerna av finans och försäkring. I Kramfors återfinns också tydliga koncentrationer av offentliga tjänster samt sågning/hyvling och tillverkning av kablar och maskiner liksom besöksnäringar. Sundsvall speglar å andra sidan en mer servicebetonad del av näringslivet där förutom ett tydligt kompetensknippe kring finans och försäkring återfinns specialiseringar inom IKT och media, teknisk konsultverksamhet, detaljhandel och offentlig förvaltning.

    Den övergripande slutsatsen vi kan dra av detta fokus på de funktionella arbetsmarknaderna är att en generell regional utvecklingsstrategi för hela regionen också måste ta hänsyn till de lokala variationerna då respektive arbetsmarknad består av olika kompetensresurser och därmed också har olika förutsättningar för framtida specialiseringar. Utöver skogsnäringarna återfinns inte någon av regionens identifierade styrkeområden i alla fyra av regionens arbetsmarknader. Istället är det mer lokala specialiseringar som karaktäriserar sammansättningen av regionens näringsliv. Det innebär i princip två olika vägar för framtida regionala utvecklingsstrategier. Antingen kan dessa skillnader bejakas och utveckla respektive delarbetsmarknad utifrån vad som finns där idag då det kan gynna hela regionens utveckling, eller verka för att regionens styrkeområden bättre ska representeras i hela regionen. För en mer hållbar utveckling som bygger på befintliga lokala resurser bör dessa lokala särdrag bejakas då det underlättar bildandet av nya framtida specialiseringar (Elekes & Eriksson 2019a). Det är också främst inom den funktionella arbetsmarknaden där den lokala kompetensstrukturen reproduceras genom att det möjliggör jobbyten utan att nödvändigtvis behöva byta bostadsort.

    Slutligen bör framtida strategier tydligt verka för att öka mångfalden inom respektive del av arbetsmarknaden. En tydlig utmaning ligger i att exempelvis öka andelen kvinnor i de mer tillverkningsorienterade specialiseringarna. Framtida studier bör därför särskilt betona hur strukturomvandlingen (skapandet av nya och försvinnandet av gamla specialiseringar) påverkar män respektive kvinnor. Ytterligare studier på yrkesstrukturers förändring kan också tydligare fånga förändrade kompetensbehov inom sektorer, huruvida det påverkar könsfördelningen i näringslivet, och om det skiljer sig mellan de lokala arbetsmarknaderna

  • Traore, Lamine
    et al.
    Assele-Kama, Ariane
    Keung, Sarah N Lim Choi
    Karni, Liran
    Klein, Gunnar O
    Lilja, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Unit of Research, Education, and Development Östersund Hospital, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Scandurra, Isabella
    Verdoy, Dolores
    Yuksel, Mustafa
    Arvanitis, Theodoros N
    Tsopra, Rosy
    Jaulent, Marie-Christine
    User-Centered Design of the C3-Cloud Platform for Elderly with Multiple Diseases: Functional Requirements and Application Testing2019In: MEDINFO 2019: Health and Wellbeing e-Networks for All / [ed] Lucila Ohno-Machado, Brigitte Séroussi, IOS Press, 2019, Vol. 264, p. 843-847Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of patients with multimorbidity has been steadily increasing in the modern aging societies. The European C3-Cloud project provides a multidisciplinary and patient-centered "Collaborative Care and Cure-system" for the management of elderly with multimorbidity, enabling continuous coordination of care activities between multidisciplinary care teams (MDTs), patients and informal caregivers (ICG). In this study various components of the infrastructure were tested to fulfill the functional requirements and the entire system was subjected to an early application testing involving different groups of end-users. MDTs from participating European regions were involved in requirement elicitation and test formulation, resulting in 57 questions, distributed via an internet platform to 48 test participants (22 MDTs, 26 patients) from three pilot sites. The results indicate a high level of satisfaction with all components. Early testing also provided feedback for technical improvement of the entire system, and the paper points out useful evaluation methods.

  • Laleci Erturkmen, Gokce B
    et al.
    Yuksel, Mustafa
    Sarigul, Bunyamin
    Arvanitis, Theodoros N
    Lindman, Pontus
    Chen, Rong
    Zhao, Lei
    Sadou, Eric
    Bouaud, Jacques
    Traore, Lamine
    Teoman, Alper
    Lim Choi Keung, Sarah N
    Despotou, George
    de Manuel, Esteban
    Verdoy, Dolores
    de Blas, Antonio
    Gonzalez, Nicolas
    Lilja, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Unit of Research, Education, and Development, Östersund Hospital, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    von Tottleben, Malte
    Beach, Marie
    Marguerie, Christopher
    Klein, Gunnar O
    Kalra, Dipak
    A Collaborative Platform for Management of Chronic Diseases via Guideline-Driven Individualized Care Plans2019In: Computational and structural biotechnology journal, ISSN 2001-0370, Vol. 17, p. 869-885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older age is associated with an increased accumulation of multiple chronic conditions. The clinical management of patients suffering from multiple chronic conditions is very complex, disconnected and time-consuming with the traditional care settings. Integrated care is a means to address the growing demand for improved patient experience and health outcomes of multimorbid and long-term care patients. Care planning is a prevalent approach of integrated care, where the aim is to deliver more personalized and targeted care creating shared care plans by clearly articulating the role of each provider and patient in the care process. In this paper, we present a method and corresponding implementation of a semi-automatic care plan management tool, integrated with clinical decision support services which can seamlessly access and assess the electronic health records (EHRs) of the patient in comparison with evidence based clinical guidelines to suggest personalized recommendations for goals and interventions to be added to the individualized care plans. We also report the results of usability studies carried out in four pilot sites by patients and clinicians.

  • Eriksson, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Sjukdom som uppsägningsorsak - Arbetsgivarens möjligheter att säga upp en arbetstagare som till följd av sjukdom innehar nedsatt arbetsförmåga.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Fagerholm, Fanny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bakom främsta linjen: Militärläger i Hangö från II:a världskriget som konfliktarkeologiska objekt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conflict archaeology is a newly emerged field in archaeology. My purpose with this study is toexamine what kind of information it actually can provide regarding history. The main focus are onthe World War II German soldiers in Tulliniemi transition camp in Hanko. My choice of subject isbased in the fact that there are, for understandably reasons, only little knowledge of the everydaylife of German soldiers in Finland. This is done by focusing on the objects found in Tulliniemi andthe possible stories behind them. My study of different objects is done by analyzing, theorizing andidentifying them. This study shows that an object is more than just a physical form. It can tell usabout soldiers enjoyments, what they do on their free time and the traces war leaves in everydayobjects. These objects are the key to a more detailed perspective of the different aspects in war.

  • Dmytryshyn, Andrii
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Kågström, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Van Dooren, Paul
    Department of Mathematical Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
    Geometry of Matrix Polynomial Spaces2019In: Foundations of Computational Mathematics, ISSN 1615-3375, E-ISSN 1615-3383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how small perturbations of general matrix polynomials may change their elementary divisors and minimal indices by constructing the closure hierarchy (stratification) graphs of matrix polynomials' orbits and bundles. To solve this problem, we construct the stratification graphs for the first companion Fiedler linearization of matrix polynomials. Recall that the first companion Fiedler linearization as well as all the Fiedler linearizations is matrix pencils with particular block structures. Moreover, we show that the stratification graphs do not depend on the choice of Fiedler linearization which means that all the spaces of the matrix polynomial Fiedler linearizations have the same geometry (topology). This geometry coincides with the geometry of the space of matrix polynomials. The novel results are illustrated by examples using the software tool StratiGraph extended with associated new functionality.

  • Törngren, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Djurisk agens: Andra djurs agens i reseskildringar från 1600-talet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine how a few travellers described animal agency in travelogues from the 17th century, printed in Swedish language. Because the aim of this paper was to study animal agency, the posthumanist perspective was chosen to analyse how the travellers both objectified animals and described certain animals to be able to express free agency. Furthermore, the study also examines how the travellers interpreted the animal’s free agency.

    First, the results show that animals were objectified in situations where animals functioned as economic resources, which also has been shown in previous research. Animals were objectified as tools, food, means of transportation and commodities.

    Second, the study shows that larger predators, the chameleon, the elephant and larger apes, were described to be able to express free agency. The larger predators exercised agency outside human living quarters and was interpreted negatively because of the danger they posed. This has also been shown in previous research.

    Third, and most important, the results indicate that humans didn’t view all animals the same. The travellers seem to have thought that certain animal individuals in certain situations could express free agency. For example, specific crocodiles were described to be able to choose whether to attack humans or not. They could also play with each other, which indicates that the author thought that the specific crocodile had emotions. Moreover, the elephant was described to be able to make its own decisions and only lacked the human ability to speak. In addition, the larger apes were deemed to be able to comprehend abstract concepts and act on conscious intention, like the elephant. Also, although the apes didn’t speak, they were believed to be able to. This shows that the travellers thought that specific animals could express free agency in given situations and had many so-called human abilities.

  • Norberg, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Something wonderful and incomprehensible: Expressions and experiences of spirituality among very old people2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to illuminate very old people’s experiences and expressions of spirituality and is a part of the Umeå 85+/Gerontological Regional Database (GERDA). The participants (n = 12) had declared an interest in spirituality, were 86–99 years of age, and were interviewed in their own homes. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed that spirituality was experienced as being in communion, transcending life’s circumstances, and living in a spiritual reality. Spirituality was expressed as an inner sense of communion with God and with other people, and as a spiritual reality. The participants expressed a desire to talk about spiritual experiences and personal beliefs but regarded spirituality as an uncommon topic. Nurses and other professionals need to be aware of spiritual needs and prepared to give spiritual care.

  • Kübler, Isabella
    et al.
    Independent Scholar.
    Richter, Kai-Florian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Fabrikant, Sara Irina
    Department of Geography and Digital Society Initiative, University of Z€urich.
    Against All Odds: Multicriteria Decision Making with Hazard Prediction Maps Depicting Uncertainty2019In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a multicriteria decision-making study where participants were asked to purchase a house shown on maps that include hazard prediction information. We find that participants decided to buy different houses, depending on whether uncertainty is shown on the map display and on the type of uncertainty visualization (i.e., varying color value, focus, or texture). We also find that participants’ individual differences with respect to their assessed risk-taking behavior influences their spatial decision making with maps. Risk-takers seem to underestimate the dangers of natural hazards when prediction uncertainties are depicted. We are thus able to shed additional light on how people use visualized uncertainty information to make complex map-based decisions. We can demonstrate that not only are design characteristics relevant for map-based reasoning and decision-making outcomes but so are the decision makers’ individual background and the map-based decision-making context.

  • Holmlund, Sophia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Lan, Pham Thi
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Edvardsson, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology. Judith Lumley Centre, School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Phuc, Ho Dang
    Department of Probability and Mathematical Statistics, Institute of Mathematics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Ntaganira, Joseph
    School of Public Health, University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Small, Rhonda
    Judith Lumley Centre, School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Women's and Children's and Reproductive Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kidanto, Hussein
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aga Khan University - Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Ngarina, Matilda
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mogren, Ingrid
    Judith Lumley Centre, School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Health professionals’ experiences and views on obstetric ultrasound in Vietnam: a regional, cross-sectional study2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, article id e031761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Obstetric ultrasound is an important part of antenatal care in Vietnam, although there are great differences in access to antenatal care and ultrasound services across the country. The aim of this study was to explore Vietnamese health professionals’ experiences and views of obstetric ultrasound in relation to clinical management, resources and skills.

    Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was performed as part of the CROss Country UltraSound study.

    Setting: Health facilities (n=29) in urban, semiurban and rural areas of Hanoi region in Vietnam.

    Participants: Participants were 289 obstetricians/ gynaecologists and 535 midwives.

    Results: A majority (88%) of participants agreed that ‘every woman should undergo ultrasound examination’ during pregnancy to determine gestational age. Participants reported an average of six ultrasound examinations as medically indicated during an uncomplicated pregnancy. Access to ultrasound at participants’ workplaces was reported as always available regardless of health facility level. Most participants performing ultrasound reported high-level skills for fetal heart rate examination (70%), whereas few (23%) reported being skilled in examination of the anatomy of the fetal heart. Insufficient ultrasound training leading to suboptimal pregnancy management was reported by 37% of all participants. ‘Better quality of ultrasound machines’, ‘more physicians trained in ultrasound’ and ‘more training for health professionals currently performing ultrasound’ were reported as ways to improve the utilisation of ultrasound.

    Conclusions: Obstetric ultrasound is used as an integral part of antenatal care at all selected health facility levels in the region of Hanoi, and access was reported as high. However, reports of insufficient ultrasound training resulting in suboptimal pregnancy management indicate a need for additional training of ultraso

  • Sidjabat, Hanna E.
    et al.
    Håkansson, Eva Grahn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Essum AB.
    Cervin, Anders
    Draft Genome Sequence of the Oral Commensal Streptococcus oralis 89a with Interference Activity against Respiratory Pathogens2016In: Microbiology Resource Announcements, ISSN 2576-098X, Vol. 4, no 1, article id e01546-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the draft genome sequence of the oral commensal Streptococcus oralis 89a isolated from the throat of a healthy child during a streptococcal tonsillitis outbreak in Umea, Sweden. S. oralis 89a was known to have interference activity against respiratory pathogens in which the colicin V was the potential bacteriocin-encoding gene.

  • Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institution of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The effect of neighbourhood social capital on child injuries: a gender-stratified analysis2019In: Health & Place, Vol. 60, article id 102205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We designed a longitudinal retrospective cohort study to analyse the associations between neighbourhood social capital and child injures. Register data from the Umeå Simsam Lab in Sweden was used to measure child injuries and demographic and socioeconomic factors at individual, household and neighbourhood level. A social capital score from a previous survey was used to measure neighbourhood social capital. We conducted a three-level multilevel negative binomial regression analysis, with children (level 1, N = 77,193) nested within households (level 2, N = 10,465), and households nested within neighbourhoods (level 3, N = 49). The incidence rate of child injuries was lower in high social capital neighbourhoods. When controlling for factors at individual, household and neighbourhood levels, living in a high social capital neighbourhood was protective of injuries among girls, but not among boys. Promoting social capital in local neighbourhoods could be seen as a prevention strategy for injuries among girls.

  • Hellström, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Liu, Yuna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Stock Exchange Mergers and Weak-Form Information Efficiency: Evidence from the OMX Nordic and Baltic Consolidation2018In: The Nordic Journal of Business, ISSN 2342-9003, E-ISSN 2342-9011, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 114-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study whether the creation of a uniform Nordic and Baltic stock trading platform has affected weak-form information efficiency. A time-varying measure of return predictability for individual stocks is used in a panel-data seting to test for stock market merger effects. The results indicate that the stock market consolidations have had a positive effect on the information efficiency and turnover for an average firm. The merger effects are, however, asymmetrically distributed, indicating, among other, a flight to liquidity effect, i.e. relatively large (small) firms located on relatively large (small) markets experience an improved (reduced) information efficiency.

  • Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Labor Income Taxes in an Economic Federation with Proportional Membership Fees2019In: International Tax and Public Finance, ISSN 0927-5940, E-ISSN 1573-6970, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 1137-1165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant part of the revenue in the EU budget is raised via a GNI-based resource. The purpose of this paper is to use a stylized model of an economic federation to analyze how this way of raising funds to the central authority affects the labor income taxes implemented by the lower-level governments. This question is analyzed both when the federal fee is proportional to GNI and proportional to GDP. One key result is that if the government in a lower-level jurisdiction acts as a Nash follower vis-a-vis the other governments in the public sector, then there is an incentive to implement a higher tax on labor. Another is that if the lower-level government is able to exercise decentralized leadership vis-à-vis a federal government which is concerned with redistribution, then the incentive structure underlying the taxation of labor is independent of how the federal government collects its revenue.

  • Kriit, Hedi Katre
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Health economic assessment of a scenario to promote bicycling as active transport in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e030466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To conduct a health economic evaluation of a proposed investment in urban bicycle infrastructure in Stockholm County, Sweden.

    DESIGN: A cost-effectiveness analysis is undertaken from a healthcare perspective. Investment costs over a 50-year life cycle are offset by averted healthcare costs and compared with estimated long-term impacts on morbidity, quantified in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The results are re-calculated under different assumptions to model the effects of uncertainty.

    SETTING: The Municipality of Stockholm (population 2.27 million) committed funds for bicycle path infrastructure with the aim of achieving a 15% increase in the number of bicycle commuters by 2030. This work is based on a previously constructed scenario, in which individual registry data on home and work address and a transport model allocation to different modes of transport identified 111 487 individuals with the physical capacity to bicycle to work within 30 min but that currently drive a car to work.

    RESULTS: Morbidity impacts and healthcare costs attributed to increased physical activity, change in air pollution exposure and accident risk are quantified under the scenario. The largest reduction in healthcare costs is attributed to increased physical activity and the second largest to reduced air pollution exposure among the population of Greater Stockholm. The expected net benefit from the investment is 8.7% of the 2017 Stockholm County healthcare budget, and 3.7% after discounting. The economic evaluation estimates that the intervention is cost-effective and each DALY averted gives a surplus of €9933. The results remained robust under varied assumptions pertaining to reduced numbers of additional bicycle commuters.

    CONCLUSION: Investing in urban infrastructure to increase bicycling as active transport is cost-effective from a healthcare sector perspective.

  • Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Claesson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Höglund-Åberg, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Haubek, Dorte
    Lindholm, Mark
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Jasim, Sarah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Genetic Profiling of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Serotype B Isolated from Periodontitis Patients Living in Sweden2019In: Pathogens, ISSN 2076-0817, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 1-13, article id 153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis and with systemic diseases, such as endocarditis. By assessing a Ghanaian longitudinal adolescent cohort, we earlier recognized the cagE gene as a possible diagnostic marker for a subgroup of JP2 and non-JP2 genotype serotype b A. actinomycetemcomitans strains, associated with high leukotoxicity as determined in a semi-quantitative cell assay. This group of A. actinomycetemcomitans is associated with the progression of attachment loss. In the present work, we used conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR to perform the cagE genotyping of our collection of 116 selected serotype b A. actinomycetemcomitans strains, collected over a period of 15 years from periodontitis patients living in Sweden. The A. actinomycetemcomitans strains carrying cagE (referred to as cagE+; n = 49) were compared to the cagE-negative strains (n = 67), present at larger proportions in the subgingival plaque samples, and were also much more prevalent in the young (≤35 years) compared to in the old (>35 years) group of patients. Our present results underline the potential use of cagE genotyping in the risk assessment of the development of periodontal attachment loss in Swedish adolescents.

  • Valbuena-Gonzalo, Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Identifying Genetic Causes of Hybrid Necrosis in Arrabidopsis lyrata2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deleterious gene interactions due to accumulation of individual genetic variations between different lineages are a cause of population diversification by creating reproductive barriers that ultimately lead to differentiation of species. One type of deleterious interactions is called “hybrid necrosis”, in which epistatic interactions between some plant immunity genes (usually very variable) cause autoimmunities that produce a necrotic and dwarf phenotype. Hybrid necrosis has been widely studied in several plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and many gene interactions were found for that plant. This study tests the applicability of these results on a close relative, A. lyrata, by crossing individuals from different populations and genotyping F2 progeny with polymorphic markers close to homologous sequences to those involved in hybrid necrosis in A. thaliana. Results suggest the possibility of a homologous gene to DM8 or DM9 in chromosome 7 to be involved in formation of hybrid necrosis.

  • Blomgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Europaparlamentsvalet 2019: ett splittrat politiskt landskap2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultatet av 2019 års val till Europaparlamentet (EP) visar att partier från de stora grupperna (kristdemokraterna och socialdemokraterna) backar i flera av medlemsländerna. Detta är en trend som pågått under flera EP-val och även i många nationella val. Bilden är dock inte entydig. I vissa länder förmår dessa partier försvara sina positioner. De högerradikala och de EUkritiska partierna ökar sitt stöd, däremot inte så mycket att de förmår blockera parlamentets arbete. Något som kanske inte förväntades var att de liberala och gröna partierna växer. Faktum är att tappet för de kristdemokratiska och socialdemokratiska partierna framförallt vägs upp av framgångar för liberala och gröna partier. Vänstern i bred bemärkelse förlorar och kommer inte att kunna formera något som liknar en majoritet. Det kommer således att krävas breda majoriteter för att genomföra beslut. Det troliga utfallet är ett samarbete mellan kristdemokrater, socialdemokrater, liberaler och de gröna. Att EP nu består av mer jämnstora partier ökar fragmentiseringen av parlamentet. Detta kan göra den politiska processen mer komplicerad. Men det kan också leda till en ökad debatt i viktiga frågor. Sålunda behöver denna utveckling inte nödvändigtvis föra med sig något ont, utan bidra till en större tydlighet om vilka alternativ som EU står inför.

  • Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Fatalistic Decision Maker: Time Perspective, Working Memory, and Older Adults’ Decision-Making Competence2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, p. 1-9, article id 2038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research indicates that time perspective (TP; views of past, present, and future) is related to decision-making style. By contrast, no prior study considered relations between TP and decision-making competence. We therefore investigated associations between dimensions of the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) and performance on the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery in a sample of older adults (60–90 years, N = 346). A structural equation model involving four A-DMC components as indicators of a general DMC factor and the six TP dimensions as the predictors revealed a significant negative association between the Present Fatalistic dimension and DMC. Given that age-related differences were apparent in DMC and that Present Fatalistic orientation increased with age, we tested a model by which the age-related differences in DMC were mediated by age-related differences in Present Fatalistic attitudes and in working memory. The results were consistent with full mediation of the age effects, with Present Fatalistic and working memory jointly accounting for a substantial amount of the variance in DMC (51%). The finding that DMC among older adults, in particular more cognitively demanding aspects such as applying decision rules, can be undermined by increased present fatalistic attitudes and declines in working memory is discussed in terms of theoretical frameworks highlighting the contribution of both motivational and cognitive factors to effective decision making.