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  • Engde, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Säger en bild mer än tusen ord?: En studie om lärares och elevers upplevelser av visuellt stöd i undervisningen.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Is a picture worth a thousand words?

    A study about teachers’ and students’ experiences of visual support in the classroom.

     

     

    The aim of this study is to examine teachers’ and students’ experiences of visual support in the classroom. First, nine teachers’ experiences and knowledge of Developmental Language Disorder and other language difficulties are investigated. Second, it is studied how teachers experience students’ understanding of the verbal information presented in the classroom, and whether difficulties in written and oral language can be supported by visual aids. The study also describes how students, with and without DLD, experience the verbal information given in school and the visual aids used by their teachers. Interviews with 9 teachers and 14 students were conducted and classroom observations were carried out in 5 schools. The results show that teachers believe that there are students with language difficulties in all classes and that visual aids are of great support, both for teaching and for learning. The students’ thoughts about both their understanding of written and oral language, and of visual support, varied. While many students thought that pictures and graphic symbols improve their understanding, others believed they did not make a difference.  

  • Public defence: 2018-03-02 10:00 KB.E3.03 (Stora hörsalen, Carl Kempe-salen), Umeå
    Veenaas, Cathrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Developing tools for non-target analysis and digital archiving of organic urban water pollutants2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes efforts to develop robust methods for the creation and use of digital archives of environmental samples, and proposes guidelines based on the results. Digital archives are repositories that store environmental samples digitally. Traditionally, samples are stored physically in environmental specimen banks over long time periods. However, this has several drawbacks, for example degradation effects and limited accessibility. During the course of my PhD project I developed methods that allow the comprehensive analysis of sewage sludge samples. Sewage sludge is a complex matrix that contains many commercial chemicals. In addition, sewage treatment plants form a link between the human society that generates the sewage and the environment, making sewage sludge a very interesting matrix to analyze. The developed methods enable analysis and subsequent identification of compounds of all sizes and with diverse chemical characteristics. I further explain how unknown compounds can be identified (non-target screening) using mass spectral analysis and several other approaches (e.g. retention indices).

    The thesis is divided into three parts. In the first part, Data Generation, I describe the development of sample preparation methods for analyzing sewage sludge with gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). For the GC approach, two methods involving use of different extraction techniques, solvents, and matrix reduction techniques are presented while for the LC approach different extraction techniques are compared. The methods have been developed to enable the generation of data suitable for digital archiving. In the second part of the thesis, Data Evaluation, I present ways to find and identify compounds of interest. Firstly, time trend analyses provide a way to prioritize pollutants, for example by focusing on pollutants that are increasing with time. Thousands of compounds with significant time trends were detected and several hundred of them were tentatively identified. Compounds with strong increasing trends included, for example, UV-filters from sunscreens. Secondly, a new retention index system for comprehensive two‑dimensional chromatography (GC×GC) is introduced to characterize compounds in terms of their retention times in the second dimension. The new retention index system is based on co-injection of polyethylene glycols and was validated for various compounds of diverse classes. Thirdly, I tested different ways to predict GC×GC retention times or indices. Those methods include a multivariate prediction (PLS) approach using molecular descriptors, which proved to be the best approach, and use of commercially available software. The last part of my thesis, Data Archiving, discusses requirements to create digital archives and how they can be used. Here I present the current state and options for archiving data files, and give recommendations for each step, from sample collection, through instrumental analysis to storage of the final data.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-02 09:00 E04, Farmakologihuset, Umeå
    Tomic, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Data quality in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Data in quality registers are increasingly used for quality assurance of health care, benchmarking, and research. If valid conclusions are to be drawn from such studies, it is vital that register data have high quality. The aim of this thesis was to assess data quality in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden, a nationwide register that since 1998 captures 98% of all cases of Prostate cancer (Pca) in Sweden. The proportion and characteristics of Pca cases not registered in NPCR was investigated in paper I. Four dimensions of data quality were evaluated for NPCR in paper II: completeness, timeliness, comparability, and validity. Proportion and characteristics of Pca cases registered in NPCR but with unknown risk category were investigated in paper III. Finally, the association between Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Pca diagnosis, treatment, and mortality was studied in paper IV. 

    Material and methods: Data quality of NPCR was studied by cross-linkages between NPCR and other health care registers and demographical databases by use of the Swedish personal identity number. Validity was further studied by re-abstraction of patient health care records, followed by comparison of re-abstracted and original register data.

    Results: Men not registered in NPCR, who constituted around 2% of all cases in the Swedish Cancer Register, differed only modestly in characteristics from cases in NPCR, indicating that NPCR is generalizable for all men with Pca in Sweden. Data quality in NPCR was high overall, with high completeness compared to the Swedish Cancer Register with registration mandated by law and few Pca cases were detected by use of death certificates. There was timely registration, and good comparability with registration forms and coding routines that were compliant with international guidelines. Data validity was high with high agreement and correlation for key variables. Men with unknown risk category had, compared to men with known risk category, more often concomitant bladder cancer, higher comorbidity, and lower Pca mortality. Men with high SES had, compared to men with low SES, higher probability of Pca detected during health checkup, shorter waiting times for prostatectomy, and higher probability of curative treatment for intermediate and high-risk cancer. Pca mortality was lower in men with high SES than in men with low SES for high-risk cancer.

    Conclusion: These results indicate that data quality in NPCR is high and that NPCR is population-based. There were consistent differences in diagnostic and therapeutic activity according to SES despite an equal access tax-financed healthcare system in Sweden. 

  • Elkafri, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The Effect of Transfer on Arab and Portuguese Learners' Use of the English Prepositions to and for.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The researcher has studied, in this paper, the effect of transfer on the Arabic and Portuguese learners’ using prepositions during their process of learning English as a second language. The prepositions that the study deals with are to and, for. The aim of the study is to show the influence of the learner’s first language on the target language. The study draws upon literary sources such as Littlewood’s book Foreign and Second Language Learning (Littlewood, 1984), as well as practical experiments which are divided into a multiple choice test and a translation test. Through the analysis of the results of these tests, the study shows the extent of influence of the first language on the process of learning a second language. The answers of the students are analyzed by comparing the rules of using prepositions in the learner’s first language and English. The participants in this study are students in ACS international school in Qatar. The study also includes interviews with two teachers. The interviews are done in order to provide additional information on the effect of the learner’s first language on learning a second language. The teachers express their views which was formed after many years of teaching experience.   

  • Vedbring, Marléne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Tystläsning i helklass: Av gammal vana eller en lektion med syfte?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Independet silent reading - Out of old habit or a lesson with purpose? 

    The aim of this study was to examine whether teachers use the method of independent silent reading purposefully or if they do it out of old habit. The research focuses on what purpose the teachers have and which working methods they use when working with silent reading. I investigated who it is that chooses the books to be read and what factors are determining this choise. Finally, I wanted to find out how the silent reading time is used by the pupils and the teachers. In order to investigate this, observations were made in classes during silent reading time and semistructured interviews were conducted with teachers and students. The results show that most teachers have a clear purpose with silent reading and that they work with different reading strategies to teach the children to become independent silent readers. However, an important part of succeeding in silent reading is that it happens on a regular basis, preferably every day.

     

     

    Finally, I would like to thank my supervisor Yvonne Knospe, university lecturer at the Department of Language Studies, Umeå University for all the feedback and guidence during the work process. It has been a pleasure to have you as a supervisor. Thank you!

  • Norgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Olsson, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    ”Jag har väldigt höga krav på speciallärare” Den nya speciallärarens uppdrag, så uppfattas det av rektorer, specialpedagoger och lärare.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The new special education teacher degree program was launched in Sweden in 2008. The term new was used since the content was new, but the name stayed the same. Knowledge about the new content, based on the regulations of degree, would have contributed to make the different skills of special education teachers visible. The purpose of this study has been to visualize the consensus about how headmasters, SENCOs and teachers look at the assignment for special education teachers with focus on language-, writing- and reading development. The opinions of the various occupational groups have then been compared with the existing regulations of degree. The study showed that their opinions mainly corresponded with the existing regulations of degree. The quantitative nature of the study is based on empirical data, collected by a survey, with 240 informants. The statements the informants had to consider was largely based on the regulations of degree. Headmasters, SENCOs and teachers show a large coherence within their own group in what they think a special education teacher´s duties should consist of. On the other hand, there is less consensus between these professions. This disagreement could possibly be influenced by different perspectives on special education.

  • Lidén Ståhl, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lundmark, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    "Jag är inte fullärd men har blivit mycket bättre": En interventionsstudie om elevers avkodningsförmåga med BrAvkod och Trugs i åk.32017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore how the decoding ability of pupils with reading difficulties was influenced by an intervention in decoding. The study was conducted with two different methods, BrAvkod and Trugs, that have been developed to train pupils reading ability. The study is based on a quantitative method of quasi-experimental design that gave the opportunity to compare the results of two groups: one intervention group and one control group, with pupils from grade three. There were ten pupils in each group. The intervention was conducted for 6 weeks, 4 days a week along with pre- and post-tests. A qualitative approach was also chosen in form of a questionnaire interview, to find out how the pupils experienced working with the methods. The results showed positive effects of intensive exercise with BrAvkod and Trugs. Hence, all pupils in the intervention group increased the test results regarding there decoding ability. As to the pupils´ evaluations about how they experienced working with the two different methods, a positive attitude emerged. Although the methods differ widely, Bravkod and Trugs were valued equally good by the pupils. In conclusions pupils´ decoding ability benefits from intensive training that is varied and combines group and individual sessions.

  • Bennett, Sara
    et al.
    Mahmood, Shehrin Shaila
    Edward, Anbrasi
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda.
    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    Strengthening scaling up through learning from implementation: comparing experiences from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Uganda2017In: Health Research Policy and Systems, ISSN 1478-4505, E-ISSN 1478-4505, Vol. 15, article id 108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many effective innovations and interventions are never effectively scaled up. Implementation research (IR) has the promise of supporting scale-up through enabling rapid learning about the intervention and its fit with the context in which it is implemented. We integrate conceptual frameworks addressing different dimensions of scaling up (specifically, the attributes of the service or innovation being scaled, the actors involved, the context, and the scale-up strategy) and questions commonly addressed by IR (concerning acceptability, appropriateness, adoption, feasibility, fidelity to original design, implementation costs, coverage and sustainability) to explore how IR can support scale-up.

    Methods: We draw upon three IR studies conducted by Future Health Systems (FHS) in Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Uganda. We reviewed project documents from the period 2011-2016 to identify information related, to the dimensions of scaling up. Further, for each country, we developed rich descriptions of how the research teams approached scaling up, and how IR contributed to scale-up. The rich descriptions were checked by FHS research teams. We identified common patterns and. differences across the three cases.

    Results: The three cases planned quite different innovations/interventions and had very different types of scale-up strategies. In all three cases, the research teams had extensive prior experience within the study communities, and. little explicit attention was paid, to contextual factors. All three cases involved complex interactions between the research teams and other stakeholders, among stakeholders, and between stakeholders and the intervention. The IR planned by the research teams focussed primarily on feasibility and effectiveness, but in practice, the research teams also had critical insights into other factors such as sustainability, acceptability, cost-effectiveness and appropriateness. Stakeholder analyses and other project management tools further complemented IR.

    Conclusions: IR can provide significant insights into how best to scale-up a particular intervention. To take advantage of insights from IR, scale-up strategies require flexibility and IR must also be sufficiently flexible to respond to new emerging questions. While commonly used conceptual frameworks for scale-up clearly delineate actors, such as implementers, target communities and the support team, in our experience, IR blurred the links between these groups.

  • Bang, Casper N.
    et al.
    Greve, Anders M.
    Rossebø, Anne B.
    Ray, Simon
    Egstrup, Kenneth
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nienaber, Christoph
    Okin, Peter M.
    Devereux, Richard B.
    Wachtell, Kristian
    Antihypertensive treatment with β-blockade in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis and association with cardiovascular events2017In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 6, no 12, article id e006709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with aortic stenosis (AS) often have concomitant hypertension. Antihypertensive treatment with a beta-blocker (Bbl) is frequently avoided because of fear of depression of left ventricular function. However, it remains unclear whether antihypertensive treatment with a Bbl is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate AS.

    Methods and results: We did a post hoc analysis of 1873 asymptomatic patients with mild to moderate AS and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in the SEAS (Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis) study. Propensity-matched Cox regression and competing risk analyses were used to assess risk ratios for all-cause mortality, sudden cardiac death, and cardiovascular death. A total of 932 (50%) patients received Bbl at baseline. During a median follow-up of 4.3 +/- 0.9 years, 545 underwent aortic valve replacement, and 205 died; of those, 101 were cardiovascular deaths, including 40 sudden cardiovascular deaths. In adjusted analyses, Bbl use was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.7, P<0.001), cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.7, P<0.001), and sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.6, P=0.004). This was confirmed in competing risk analyses (all P<0.004). No interaction was detected with AS severity (all P>0.1).

    Conclusions: In post hoc analyses Bbl therapy did not increase the risk of all-cause mortality, sudden cardiac death, or cardiovascular death in patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate AS. A prospective study may be warranted to determine if Bbl therapy is in fact beneficial.

  • Glamsjö, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Söderlund, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    "Att äta grönare" -trend eller livsstil?: En enkätstudie om intag av vegetarisk mat i Sverige.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background A vegetarian diet can be found in many variants and may benefit both human health and the environment. Today’s Swedes have a lower fruit and vegetable intake than recommended, while at the same time meat intake is higher. In recent years a vegetarian trend has taken place in society and more vegetarian options are offered, which may affect dietary patterns.

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether the intake of vegetarian meals has increased and weather the intake of animal products has changed in Sweden during the past two years, possible reasons to it, and if it differs between gender, age, residential area, educational level and diet.

    Method The survey was conducted by posting a web based survey on Facebook during the autumn 2017.

    Results About 40% of the participants had increased their intake of vegetables and vegetarian meals and about 30% had decreased their intake of animal-products over the past two years. Differences between groups were found: Women considered themselves, to a higher degree than men, having a fruit- and vegetable intake that matched the recommendations (p=0,001). Participants 27 years of age or younger stated, to a higher degree than those 28 years and older, that personal economy was an important reason to eat more vegetarian food (p=0,001). Environmental concerns were considered the strongest occurring motivational factor to eat more vegetarian food.

    Conclusion A significant portion of the participants had over the past two years increased their intake of vegetarian food and decreased their intake of red and processed meat. Many had shown a willingness to increase their intake of vegetarian food. Food service dietitians, together with other professionals in the diet sector carry a responsibility to spread the knowledge about a greener, healthier and more environmentally friendly diet.

  • Goldring, Petronella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Söderberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Är stillasittande och stress associerade med muskuloskeletala besvär hos kontorsarbetare?: -En tvärsnittsstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) constitute a major health problem. The symptoms consist of pain in muscles, joints, ligaments and surrounding tissues. Two causes of MSD in office work are stress and sedentary behaviour. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that stress and sedentary behaviour are associated individually with MSD and associates more with MSD together than separately. The number of participants was 100 office workers, 48 women and 52 men, with sit and stand tables. The average age of all participants was 42 years. They responded to a five-piece web questionnaire to measure the variables stress and sedentary behaviour in relation to MSD. The standardized instruments PSS-10 (Perceived Stress Scale - 10) and NMQ (Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire) were used, among other things, in the survey. Data was analyzed with multiple linear regression, two separate simple linear regressions and stepwise regression. The results showed statistical significance for stress and sedentary behavior together, only stress was associated with MSD (p = 0.011). The result of the two simple linear regressions resulted in stress associated with MSD (p = 0.008) while sedentary behavior did not (p = 0.280). the null hypotheses could not be rejected because sedentary behaviour did not associate with MSD and a comparison between adjusted R2 gave stress separately (adjusted R2 = 0.061) a better model than stress and sedentary behavior together (adjusted R2 = 0.056).

  • Carlsson, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sitter det i väggarna?: Pedagogers uppfattningar om uttalade och outtalade regler i förskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att skapa kunskap om förskolepedagogers uppfattningar om uttalade och outtaladeregler i förskolan. Målet var att studien skulle bidra till en ökad förståelse för vilken betydelse sådanaregler har i förskolans pedagogiska verksamhet. Studiens frågeställningar var, Vad är vanliga exempelpå uttalade och outtalade regler enligt studiens deltagare? Hur uppstår dessa regler? Har barnenmöjlighet att påverka? Vilken betydelse har dessa regler för den pedagogiska verksamheten medbarnen? Val av metod var kvalitativ med semistrukturerade intervjuer som insamlingsmetod. Centralaresultat visade att varken uttalade eller outtalade regler sällan sätts med reflektion kring dess syfte ochhandlar främst om sådant barnen inte får göra eller ur ett säkerhetsperspektiv. Barnens möjligheter tilldemokratiskt inflytande över beslut om regler var således mycket begränsat. Slutsatser var bland annatatt outtalade regler ”sitter i väggarna” medan uttalade regler är förbudsregler. Regler ansågs varaviktiga för barnens trygghet och säkerhet, den sociala samvaron samt för att upprätthålla förskolansverksamhet. Regler sätts sällan utifrån förskolans läroplan. Pedagogerna eftersträvar verktyg ochmetoder för att arbeta med barns demokratiska inflytande kring beslut och reglerprocesser. Reglerpåverkar den pedagogiska verksamheten genom att minska eller öka barnens handlingsutrymmeberoende på reglernas karaktär och eftertanke. Det har i sin tur har relevans för förskolans kvalitét.

  • Bysell Hamrin, Chris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Faktorer som påverkar arabetssökandet för personer med ADHD: betydelsen av utbildning, kompetensutveckling och personlig rådgivning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att bidra med kunskap om faktorer som påverkar arbetssökandetför personer med diagnosen ADHD, samt betydelsen av eventuella stöd såsomutbildning, kompetensutveckling och personlig rådgivning. De frågeställningar somstudien fokuserade på var om tidigare arbetslivserfarenheter har bidragit tilllärdomar för arbetssökandet och om de har fått något stöd samt vilken betydelse deteventuella stödet haft. Studien genomfördes utifrån en kvalitativ hermeneutiskmetod med halvstrukturerade intervjuer och det var sex personer som deltog istudien. Sammanfattningsvis visade resultaten på betydelsen av stöd och dessutompekades två viktiga områden ut, som skulle kunna förbättras för att arbetssökandemed ADHD kan få ett mer effektivt stöd i arbetssökarprocessen. Det första är att detfinns ett uttalat behov av att befintliga rådgivare/karriärcoacher utbildas avseendekarriärvägledning för personer med ADHD, för att på ett effektivare sätt stöttaarbetssökande med ADHD, förbättra bemötandet i de individuella mötena ochdärmed bidra med förutsättningar för att korta ner tiden till ett nytt arbete. Det andraär att några av studiens deltagare uppger att det troligtvis hade varit bra för dem atterhålla en ADHD-diagnos i en tidigare fas i livet. Detta är dock ett komplext områdeoch mer forskning behövs, för att säkrare resultat ska erhållas och rådgivning istudier och karriärvägledning ska kunna erbjudas så många som möjligt. Detframgick också att några av studiens deltagare uttryckte att det sannolikt skulle habidragit till att skapa bättre förutsättningar för en utökad självkännedom ochmöjlighet att utveckla sin yrkesidentitet tidigare i livet för att kunna hitta sin framtidaarbetsplats och därmed undvikit att behöva prova sig fram med återkommandemisslyckanden som påverkar självförtroendet och självkänslan i negativ riktning dåpersoner med ADHD kan ha svårigheter att passa in på arbetsmarknaden.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-02 10:00 Hörsal E, Umeå
    Englund, Claire
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Centre for teaching and learning (UPL), Umeå University.
    Teaching in an age of complexity: exploring academic change and development in higher education2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education (HE) has expanded and diversified at an unprecedented rate over the last two decades in response to a rapidly changing educational and political climate. Change and development are omnipresent, a constant part of university teachers’ sociocultural and organisational practice at multiple levels; the micro-level, the meso-level and the macro-level Against this background, the aim of this thesis is to gain a deeper understanding of the factors that influence academic change. A further aim of the thesis is to provide insight into factors that may be relevant in the design of academic development activities to support teachers and managers in the enhancement of teaching and learning. A twelve-year longitudinal study of teachers on an online pharmacy programme forms the basis for the research, where a multilevel approach is used to investigate academic change and development in a teaching and learning environment supported by educational technology (Edtech). The approach captures the influence of factors such as conceptions and approaches to teaching at the micro-level of the individual teacher, as well as the influence of systemic factors such as the sociocultural context at the meso-level of the department or programme and the structural context at the macro-level of the institution.

    To explore and understand the complexity of change and development in academic practice at micro-, meso- and macro-level two theoretical frameworks are used: conceptions of and approaches to teaching (CAT), and Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). An interventionist method based on the tenets of CHAT was also employed. Data analysed in the thesis includes interviews with teachers (n=57), observations (n=27 hours), student evaluation surveys (n=30) and document analysis (n=11) collected over a 12-year timespan (2004-2016). The analysis indicated that at the micro-level a critical factor in the choice and use of Edtech is the underlying conception of and approach to teaching and learning of the teacher. Opportunities for change and development were found to be facilitated by the sociocultural context at the meso-level of the department, where support from the community and mediating tools for communication were present, but could also be hindered when this was lacking. At macro-level, institutional policy and strategy documents were seen to impede change and development, where research is consistently prioritised over teaching. At the meso-level of the department or programme, the opportunity to work together as a team to collaboratively construct and develop practice was found to be of significance in the development of agency and academic practice.

    Taking into account a combined analysis of the five papers included, it can be concluded that if a deeper understanding of academic change and development is to be achieved, it is necessary to adopt a holistic approach, considering factors at micro-, meso- and macro-level and the interrelationships between these factors. This thesis discusses the consequences of the research for the facilitation of academic change and development. A multilevel, holistic approach is suggested, building on the principles of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) model. SoTL initiatives at all levels should be aligned to promote academic change and development through: the development of teachers’ individual practice at micro-level, the collaborative development of scholarly practice at the meso-level of the department and a strategic institutional approach at macro-level linking SoTL to employment and promotion frameworks and the recognition of teaching quality.

    The main contribution of this thesis lies in the adoption of a holistic approach to understanding academic practice in higher education, taking into consideration factors at micro-, meso- and macro-level and the interrelationships between these factors. 

  • Minock, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Mollevik, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Åsander, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Does TTS-based pedestrian navigation work?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We seek to test the hypothesis that text-to-speech(TTS) navigation systems can adequately guide pedestrians to unknown destinations in an unfamiliar city. Such systems bypass screenbased, multi-modal techniques and simply speak route following instructions incrementally into the pedestrian’s ear piece. Due to errors in GPS positioning, uncertainty of user heading, poor map quality and potential communication and processing latencies, this becomes a surprisingly challenging task. In our study, subjects are led on an unknown tour on the grounds of Ume˚a University. We evaluated both a human wizard controller as well as a simple decision-tree based controller and compared them to an ideal subject that knows the route. Results give support to our hypothesis that TTS-based navigation systems can adequately guide pedestrians. That said, our experiences point toward immediate and future improvements to make such systems more effective and agreeable. All the software and data behind this work will be open sourced to encourage confirmation, replication and, ultimately, improvement upon our results. This will soon be available for public download at http://janus-system.eu.

  • Bystrom, Julia Wigren
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Näslund, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, European CBRNE Center.
    Trulsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, European CBRNE Center. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Wesula Lwande, Olivia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Bucht, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, European CBRNE Center.
    Quantification and kinetics of viral RNA transcripts produced in Orthohantavirus infected cells2018In: Virology Journal, ISSN 1743-422X, E-ISSN 1743-422X, Vol. 15, p. 1-7, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rodent borne viruses of the Orthohantavirus genus cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome among people in Eurasia, and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. At present, there are no specific treatments or efficient vaccines against these diseases. Improved understanding of viral transcription and replication may instigate targeted treatment of Orthohantavirus infections. For this purpose, we investigated the kinetics and levels of viral RNA transcription during an ongoing infection in-vitro. Methods: Vero E6 cells were infected with Puumala Orthohantavirus (strain Kazan) before cells and supernatants were collected at different time points post infection for the detection of viral RNAs. A plasmid containing primer binding sites of the three Orthohantavirus segments small (S), medium (M) and large (L) was constructed and standard curves were generated to calculate the copy numbers of the individual transcripts in the collected samples. Results: Our results indicated a rapid increase in the copy number of viral RNAs after 9 h post infection. At peak days, 2-6 days after infection, the S- and M-segment transcripts became thousand and hundred-fold more abundant than the copy number of the L-segment RNA, respectively. The presence of viral RNA in the cell culture media was detected at later time-points. Conclusions: We have developed a method to follow RNA transcription in-vitro after synchronous infection of Vero cells. The obtained results may contribute to the understanding of the viral replication, and may have implications in the development of antiviral drugs targeting transcription or replication of negative stranded RNA viruses.

  • Minock, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    COVER: Covering the Semantically Tractable Question2017In: Proceedings of the Software Demonstrations of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (EACL), 2017: Demonstration session, 2017, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In semantic parsing, natural language questions map to meaning representation language (MRL) expressions over some fixed vocabulary of predicates. To do this reliably, one must guarantee that for a wide class of natural language questions (the so called semantically tractable questions), correct interpretations are always in the mapped set of possibilities. Here we demonstrate the system COVER which significantly clarifies, revises and extends the notion of semantic tractability. COVER is written in Python and uses NLTK.

  • Minock, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evaluating an Automata Approach to Query Containment2017In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Finite State Methods and Natural Language Processing (FSMNLP) / [ed] Frank Drewes, 2017, p. 75-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given two queries Qsuper and Qsub, query containment is the problem of determining if Qsub(D) ⊆ Qsuper(D) for all databases D. This problem has long been explored, but to our knowledge no one has empirically evaluated a straightforward application of finite state automata to the problem. We do so here, covering the case of conjunctive queries with limited set conditions. We evaluate an implementation of our approach against straightforward implementations of both the canonical database and theorem proving approaches. Our implementation outperforms theorem proving on a natural language interface corpus over a photo/video domain. It also outperforms the canonical database implementation on single relation queries with large set conditions.

  • Lindner, Philip
    et al.
    Flodin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Larm, Peter
    Budhiraja, Meenal
    Savic-Berglund, Ivanka
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tiihonen, Jari
    Hodgins, Sheilagh
    Amygdala-orbitofrontal structural and functional connectivity in females with anxiety disorders, with and without a history of conduct disorder2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, p. 1-12, article id 1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conduct disorder (CD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) are often comorbid and both are characterized by hyper-sensitivity to threat, and reduced structural and functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies of CD have not taken account of ADs nor directly compared connectivity in the two disorders. We examined three groups of young women: 23 presenting CD and lifetime AD; 30 presenting lifetime AD and not CD; and 17 with neither disorder (ND). Participants completed clinical assessments and diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional MRI scans. The uncinate fasciculus was reconstructed using tractography and manual dissection, and structural measures extracted. Correlations of resting-state activity between amygdala and OFC seeds were computed. The CD + AD and AD groups showed similarly reduced structural integrity of the left uncinate compared to ND, even after adjusting for IQ, psychiatric comorbidity, and childhood maltreatment. Uncinate integrity was associated with harm avoidance traits among AD-only women, and with the interaction of poor anger control and anxiety symptoms among CD + AD women. Groups did not differ in functional connectivity. Reduced uncinate integrity observed in CD + AD and AD-only women may reflect deficient emotion regulation in response to threat, common to both disorders, while other neural mechanisms determine the behavioral response.

  • Minock, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Using HOL Light to Reason over Second-Order MRLs2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Minock, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    In Pursuit of Decidable 'Logical Form'2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Jers, Carsten
    et al.
    Ravikumar, Vaishnavi
    Lezyk, Mateusz
    Sultan, Abida
    Sjoling, Asa
    Wai, Sun N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Mijakovic, Ivan
    The Global Acetylome of the Human Pathogen Vibrio cholerae V52 Reveals Lysine Acetylation of Major Transcriptional Regulators2018In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 7, article id 537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein lysine acetylation is recognized as an important reversible post translational modification in all domains of life. While its primary roles appear to reside in metabolic processes, lysine acetylation has also been implicated in regulating pathogenesis in bacteria. Several global lysine acetylome analyses have been carried out in various bacteria, but thus far there have been no reports of lysine acetylation taking place in the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we analyzed the lysine acetylproteome of the human pathogen V. cholerae V52. By applying a combination of immuno-enrichment of acetylated peptides and high resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 3,402 acetylation sites on 1,240 proteins. Of the acetylated proteins, more than half were acetylated on two or more sites. As reported for other bacteria, we observed that many of the acetylated proteins were involved in metabolic and cellular processes and there was an over-representation of acetylated proteins involved in protein synthesis. Of interest, we demonstrated that many global transcription factors such as CRP, H-NS, IHF, Lrp and RpoN as well as transcription factors AphB, TcpP, and PhoB involved in direct regulation of virulence in V. cholerae were acetylated. In conclusion, this is the first global protein lysine acetylome analysis of V. cholerae and should constitute a valuable resource for in-depth studies of the impact of lysine acetylation in pathogenesis and other cellular processes.

  • Gyll, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Ridell, Karin
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Akeson, Pia Karlsland
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Vitamin D status and dental caries in healthy Swedish children2018In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 17, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vitamin D is crucial for mineralized tissue formation and immunological functions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and dental status in healthy children with vitamin D supplementation in infancy and at 6 years of age. Method: Eight-year-old children who had participated, in a vitamin D intervention project when they were 6 years old were invited to participate in a dental follow-up study. They had fair or darker skin complexion and represented two geographically distant parts of Sweden. 25-hydroxy vitamin D in serum had been measured at 6 years of age and after a 3-month intervention with 25, 10 or 2 (placebo) mu g of vitamin D-3 per day. Two years later, caries and enamel defects were scored, self-reported information on e.g., oral behavior, dietary habits and intake of vitamin D supplements was collected, and innate immunity peptide LL37 levels in saliva and cariogenic mutant streptococci in tooth biofilm were analyzed. The outcome variables were caries and tooth enamel defects. Results: Dental status was evaluated in 85 of the 206 children in the basic intervention study. Low vitamin D levels were found in 28% at baseline compared to 11% after the intervention, and 34% reported continued intake of vitamin D supplements. Logistic regression supported a weak inverse association between vitamin D status at 6 years of age and caries 2 years later (odds ratio 0.96; p = 0.024) with minor attenuation after an adjustment for potential confounders. Multivariate projection regression confirmed that insufficient vitamin D levels correlated with caries and higher vitamin D levels correlated with being caries-free. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with saliva LL37 levels. Conclusion: An association between vitamin D status and caries was supported, but it was not completely consistent. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with LL37 expression.

  • Jormvik, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kollryd, Catarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Den svårfångade specialpedagogiska kompetensen: Skolledares förståelse för, erfarenheter av och visioner om specialpedagogisk kompetens i skolan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skollagen (SFS 2010:800) föreskriver att skolledare är ytterst ansvariga för att tillgodose att det finns specialpedagogisk kompetens på skolan. Utifrån denna bestämmelse väcktes intresset att undersöka innebörden av specialpedagogisk kompetens utifrån ett skolledarperspektiv. Mer precist var syftet med uppsatsen att bidra med kunskap om vilken förståelse, och vilka erfarenheter samt vilka visioner skolledare har kring specialpedagogisk kompetens. Uppsatsen har en kvalitativ forskningsansats och semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med 12 skolledare verksamma inom grundskolan. För att fördjupa förståelsen av hur skolledarna förstår vad specialpedagogisk kompetens är samt hur denna kompetens bör användas och utvecklas i verksamheten användes i analysen ett socialkonstruktivistiskt ramverk. Resultatet visade att skolledare beskrev specialpedagogisk kompetens som en bred formell kompetens, utvecklad genom formell utbildning, såväl som en icke formell kompetens exempelvis i form av social kompetens. Vidare, en majoritet av skolledarna gjorde inte skillnad på specialpedagogers och speciallärares (i uppsatsen benämnda SNE, Special Needs Educator) funktion. Skolledarna beskrev SNE som mångsysslare, till exempel som rådgivare och samordnare av den specialpedagogiska verksamheten samt att en betydande del av funktionen är undervisning. Skolledare uttryckte även en vision om att SNE via ledarskap, samarbete och handledning kan göra det möjligt att öka lärares specialpedagogiska kompetens, arbeta mer förebyggande samt öka inkluderingen i skolan. Analysen tydliggjorde bland annat att skolledares uppfattningar, erfarenheter och visioner om specialpedagogisk kompetens utvecklas via sin sociala kontext. I diskussionen lyfts bland annat fram att skolledares visioner lättare kan realiseras genom att särskilja specialpedagogens respektive speciallärarens kompetens och funktion.

  • Öhman, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hur möter förskolan barn som inte följer mallen?: En studie om beteendeproblematik i förskolan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien hade som syfte att beskriva och analysera hur pedagoger med specialpedagogiskt uppdrag i förskolan upplever och arbetar med beteendeproblematik. Frågeställningar som skulle besvaras var hur pedagoger med specialpedagogiskt uppdrag i förskolan definierar beteendeproblematik i förskolan, vad de anser kan vara möjliga orsaker till beteendet, vilka grundförutsättningar i verksamheten som är gynnsamma i det praktiska arbetet med beteendeproblematik samt hur det arbetet går till. Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ forskningsmetod, intervju. Data till studien insamlades genom semistrukturerade telefonintervjuer med pedagoger med specialpedagogiskt uppdrag i förskolan i norra Sverige. Studien visade att det är komplext att definiera vad beteendeproblematik i förskolan är. Vad som orsakar beteendeproblematik är även svårbedömt. Både informanterna och forskare anser att beteendeproblematik kan bero på flera olika faktorer men att det är hur den blir bemött som avgör om barnet får möjlighet att utvecklas positivt eller negativt. Det informanterna lyfte som mest betydande vid arbetet med beteendeproblematik var relationer och kunskap. Genom bärande relationer och en ökad kunskap hos pedagogerna ansåg informanterna att beteendeproblematik inte behövde uppstå i förskolan. Har pedagogerna en förståelse för barnets beteende och inte lägger ansvaret för beteendet på barnet skapas en miljö som är tillåtande och positiv som låter barnet utvecklas.

  • Norrbygård, Rasmus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Inbördeskriget i Finland 1918:: Hur har orsakerna bakom händelseförloppet presenterats i läroböcker?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ebrahiem, Waleed
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Arif, Naveed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Internet of Things: How vendors can use IoT to achieve value creation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The IoT (Internet of Things) is developing rapidly, as a result of that, the number of connected devices in Sweden has doubled every year. According to big companies like Ericsson, the estimated number of connected devices worldwide will be 50 billion in 2020. IoT, by itself, may be a relatively simple concept of connected devices and machines, but its implications are profound. For companies in Sweden which offer a broad range of non-connected tools and products, it is becoming increasingly important to adapt their products to IoT; adherence to IoT will warrant new developments which offer value-added services such as monitoring and remote control, etc. The primary research method employed for this thesis is a case study at a vendor company who today offers their customers non-connected tools. To be able to demonstrate the concept of IoT enhanced tools we create a conceptual framework and a prototype, which we present to our interviewees and use as a starting point for qualitative interviews. In this thesis, we want to know how vendors could benefit themselves by the use of IoT in their businesses. We formulated some research questions, being, based on a vendor’s perspective: why do they (vendors) need connected products; how can such products be made marketable to the customer; and what are the predicted benefits of IoT-connected products for the customers? The case study brings to light some issues dealing with the business model, service providing, data display and data security which every company should take into consideration before implementing IoT. 

  • Alvarez, Laura
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid—Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.
    Quintáns, Nieves G.
    Blesa, Alba
    Baquedano, Ignacio
    Mencía, Mario
    Bricio, Carlos
    Berenguer, José
    Hierarchical control of nitrite respiration by transcription factors encoded within mobile gene clusters of Thermus thermophilus2017In: Genes, ISSN 2073-4425, E-ISSN 2073-4425, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Denitrification in Thermus thermophilus is encoded by the nitrate respiration conjugative element (NCE) and nitrite and nitric oxide respiration (nic) gene clusters. A tight coordination of each cluster's expression is required to maximize anaerobic growth, and to avoid toxicity by intermediates, especially nitric oxides (NO). Here, we study the control of the nitrite reductases (Nir) and NO reductases (Nor) upon horizontal acquisition of the NCE and nic clusters by a formerly aerobic host. Expression of the nic promoters PnirS, PnirJ, and PnorC, depends on the oxygen sensor DnrS and on the DnrT protein, both NCE-encoded. NsrR, a nic-encoded transcription factor with an iron-sulfur cluster, is also involved in Nir and Nor control. Deletion of nsrR decreased PnorC and PnirJ transcription, and activated PnirS under denitrification conditions, exhibiting a dual regulatory role never described before for members of the NsrR family. On the basis of these results, a regulatory hierarchy is proposed, in which under anoxia, there is a pre-activation of the nic promoters by DnrS and DnrT, and then NsrR leads to Nor induction and Nir repression, likely as a second stage of regulation that would require NO detection, thus avoiding accumulation of toxic levels of NO. The whole system appears to work in remarkable coordination to function only when the relevant nitrogen species are present inside the cell.

  • Moberg, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kommunikation kring förskolebarn i behov av särskilt stöd: Påverkar kommunikationen förskolepersonalens eget lärande?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att utforska hur kommunikationen kring förskolebarn i behov av särskilt stödsker och fungerar. Syftet var även att ta reda på vilken inverkan den har på förskolepersonalens egetlärande och vilka erfarenheter som finns av informations- och kommunikationsteknik (IKT) ikommunikationsprocessen. I behov av särskilt stöd innebar i studien, förskolebarn som av någonanledning haft kontakt med en barn- och ungdomshabilitering. Studien belyste de inblandades åsikteroch tankar kring kommunikationen mellan tre aktörer (förskola, barn- och ungdomshabilitering ochvårdnadshavare) med förskolan i fokus. Unikt för studien var att den utgick från förskolebarn i behovav särskilt stöd. Den vetenskapsteoretiska utgångspunkten för studien var hermeneutiken. Studien varkvalitativt orienterad med intervjuer som datainsamlingsmetod. För att uppnå syftet och få svar påfrågeställningarna intervjuades förskolepersonal, sex stycken, på tre olika förskolor.Förskolepersonalen var alla ansvariga för ett förskolebarn, vilket innebar att indirekt behandlades sexförskolebarn i studien. Resultatet av den kvalitativa studien visade att informanterna uppfattadekommunikationen mellan förskola och barn- och ungdomshabilitering som bristfällig medankommunikationen mellan förskola och vårdnadshavare ansågs vara tillfredsställande. Huvudsyftetmed studien var att undersöka hur kommunikationen kring förskolebarn i behov av särskilt stöd ser utoch fungerar men resultatet visade även att kommunikationsprocessen inte i så stor grad påverkadeförskolepersonalens eget lärande och att IKT användes i kommunikationen mellan förskola ochvårdnadshavare men inte i kommunikationen mellan förskola och barn- och ungdomshabilitering.

  • Berlin, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ej diagnostiserad ADHD i svenska grundskolan: En retrospectiv studie av upplevd påverkan på skola, studier och arbete2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En brist på ADHD diagnos kan påverka individer så pass mycket att det ger dem problem i framtida akademiska- och yrkesval. De nio deltagarna i denna studie sammanfattade sina år i grundskolan som bland annat kaotiska, problematiska, känslor av utanförskap och överlag negativa. Efter att ha fått diagnos i vuxen ålder föll många bitar på plats och många frågetecken blev besvarade och förklaringar på varför de haft problem fick äntligen ett svar. Trots att det kan ses som positivt att erhålla diagnosen så ser de flesta ADHD som något negativt och det faktum att de inte fick diagnosen i grundskolan har påverkat deras framtid på ett negativt sett. Detta eftersom de känner att de inte uppnått sin fulla potential på grund av att de inte fick de hjälpmedel de hade behövt för att klara grundskolan och med bra betyg kunnat ta sig vidare till gymnasiet och även eventuellt universitet.

  • Public defence: 2018-02-28 10:00 KBE301 - Lilla Hörsalen, KBC-huset, Umeå
    Revoju, Srikanth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Molecular design, synthesis and performance evaluation of phenothiazine-based small molecules for efficient organic solar cells2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaics offers one of the most promising routes to generate electricity in a clean way. As an emerging technology in photovoltaics, organic solar cells (OSC) have attracted a great deal of attention owing to their potential low-cost, lightweight, flexibility and solution processability. Although power conversion efficiencies above 12% have been achieved at this date, there is a great interest for new ideal materials to further improve the PCEs and address device durability, which are major concerns for the commercialization of this technology. The main objective of this thesis is to design and synthesize phenothiazine-based conjugate small molecules and explore their use as electron donor components in OSCs. Phenothiazine is a non-planar moiety with unusual “butterfly” type of geometry, which is known to reduce molecular aggregation and intermolecular excimer formation.

    In the first study of this thesis, a small molecule based on a cyano-arylenevinylene building block with deep HOMO level was prepared. Although a high open-circuit voltage of 1.0 V was achieved, the tendency of the small molecule to crystallize in the active layer at a higher temperature and with time hindered the attainment of an optimal phase morphology required for the achievement of a higher efficiency. In the second and third studies, phenothiazine was used as a π-system bridge and as a core unit to construct small molecules based on symmetric and asymmetric frameworks with varying terminal electron-withdrawing groups. The electron-withdrawing property of the terminal units was found to have a significant influence on the optical absorption properties, electronic energy levels, molecular ordering, charge carrier mobility and morphology of the resulting active layers. In the fourth study, side-chain modification of the phenothiazine unit of symmetrically configured small molecules with an oxygen-containing (methoxyethoxy ethyl) side chain resulted in the enhancement of the dielectric constant. Although absorption properties were unchanged in solution, a dense π-π stacking was observed in the solid state.

    In summary, it is demonstrated that phenothiazine is a promising candidate and worth exploring donor material for OSCs. Its versatility as a π-linker and as a central core unit in symmetric and asymmetric configurations has been explored. The use of nonplanar building blocks such as phenothiazine for the construction of donor materials is an interesting strategy for controlling molecular aggregation and difficult solution processability of small molecules if it is combined with a judiciously designed conjugate backbone.

  • Shi, Changsheng
    et al.
    Sun, Ning
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wu, Zhongbin
    Chen, Jiangshan
    Ahamad, Tansir
    Alshehri, Saad M.
    Ma, Dongge
    Managing excitons for high performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes by using a simple planar heterojunction interlayer2018In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 112, no 2, article id 023301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) were fabricated by inserting a planar heterojunction interlayer between the fluorescent and phosphorescent emitting layers (EMLs). The maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 19.3%, current efficiency of 57.1 cdA(-1), and power efficiency (PE) of 66.2 mu m W-1 were achieved in the optimized device without any light extraction enhancement. At the luminance of 1000 cdm(-2), the EQE and PE remained as high as 18.9% and 60 mu m W-1, respectively, showing the reduced efficiency-roll. In order to disclose the reason for such high performance, the distribution of excitons was analyzed by using ultra-thin fluorescent and phosphorescent layers as sensors. It was found that the heterojunction interlayer can efficiently separate the singlet and triplet excitons, preventing the triplet excitons from being quenched by the fluorescent emitter. The introduction of the heterojunction interlayer between the fluorescent and phosphorescent EMLs should offer a simple and efficient route to fabricate the high performance hybrid WOLEDs. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • Heimer, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans – Induced Release of NETs from Human Neutrophils under Anaerobic Conditions2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Skantz, Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Karlström, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Varför musik?: En kvalitativ studie om musikens betydelse och plats på förskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att fördjupa kunskapen om musikens roll i förskolan och hur förskollärare ser på musikens betydelse för barns utveckling och lärande. De frågeställningar som vi har undersökt är: På vilket sätt används musiken i förskolan? Vad anser förskollärarna att deras egna erfarenheter och relation till musik påverkar hur de arbetar med musik i förskolan? Hur ser förskollärare på musikens som ett hjälpmedel och stöd för barnsutveckling och lärande? Vi har genom en kvalitativ studie genomfört sex intervjuer medverksamma förskollärare. Intervjun tog upp frågor om förskollärares erfarenheter i musik, samt hur förskollärare arbetar med musik och vilken plats musiken har på förskolan.Vi har sett att förskollärares erfarenheter av musik påverkar hur de också arbetar med musik. Förskollärarna har även uttryckt att de har bristande kompetens i musik vilket har gjort att de inte kan erbjuda tillräckligt utmanande och stimulerande musikaliska aktiviteter. Vi har även kommit fram till att musik används som ett hjälpmedel för lärande i andra ämnen av förskollärare i förskolan. Slutsatserna av denna studie är att musiken i förskolan ofta används som ett hjälpmedel inom andra ämnen som till exempel språk och motorik, detta kan vi se oftast beror på att förskollärarna upplever att deras kunskaper inom musik inte är tillräckliga. Forskning visar att musik är ett viktigt ämne för barns utveckling och lärande. Om musiken får en större plats i läroplanen och förskollärarutbildningen kommer det att stärka musikens status i förskolan.

  • Larsson, Henric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Församlingspedagoger kliv fram!: Församlingspedagogernas syn på sin roll inom Svenska kyrkan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att belysa församlingspedagogers syn på sin yrkesroll inom Svenska kyrkan. Detta gjordes genom en enkätundersökning som utgjorde insamlingsinstrument. En blandad metod användes, varpå både kvantitativa och kvalitativa delar användes. Frågorna i enkäten utgick från perspektiven barn och unga, vuxna, yrkesgruppens utvecklingspotential samt möjlighet att bidra till utvecklingen av församlingsverksamheten. Även en litteraturgenomgång gjordes för att placera in studien i den befintliga forskningen. Som teoretisk utgångspunkt användes olika former av lärandebegrepp samt Herzbergs motivationsteori och en jämviktsteori. Studien visade att avseende barn och ungdomsverksamhet (inklusive konfirmationsundervisning) så hade församlingspedagogen en tydlig och uttalad roll. Studien visade även, utifrån verksamhetsområde, att vuxenverksamheten var det område där minst antal församlingspedagoger var verksamma, men det område flest ville utvecklas inom. Församlingspedagogerna ville även i större utsträckning än idag ha mer kunskap i bibeln och trosfrågor. Gällande möjligheten att utvecklas, i synnerhet att utvecklas till chef, så avfärdade de flesta respondenter yrket församlingspedagog som ett yrke inom vilket man kan göra karriär. Församlingspedagogerna upplever att de inte får det erkännande de förtjänar, detta i relation till utbildningslängd, lön och utvecklingsmöjligheter. Detta sänker i sin tur yrkesgruppens motivation samt gör att de yrkesverksamma upplever en snedfördelning mellan deras prestation och output jämfört andra yrkesgrupper som de jämför sig med. Att titta närmare på en differentiering av utbildningsnivå för att studera vidare till församlingspedagog, att införa mentorskap mellan präster och pedagoger, att legitimera yrket samt att i större utsträckning informera om vad nutidens församlingspedagoger har för kompetens och utbildningsmål är några av de förbättringsförslag som lyfts fram i studien.

  • Frängsmyr Svahn, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Kitty - Den Duktiga Flickan.: Diskursiva femininiteter i Kitty-böckerna.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka vilka femininiteter de kvinnliga huvudkaraktärerna i Kittyböckerna uppvisar och om dessa skiljer sig åt mellan böckerna från 1960-talet och de från 2000-talet. Metoden som används är diskursteori och jag valde ut sex Kittyböcker som analyseras genom att identifiera viktiga tecken som diskurserna består av. Resultatet visar att fyra femininiteter formas tydligt i böckerna: Den Duktiga Flickan, Flicknormen, Hjältinnan och Pojkflickan. Den Duktiga Flickan utmärks bland annat genom nodalpunkten duktig, Flicknormen genom sin romantiska sida, Hjältinnan genom sitt ledarskap och Pojkflickan framträder genom sin pojkaktighet. Femininiteterna skiljer sig bara marginellt åt mellan 1960-talet och 2000-talet.

  • Ekdahl, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Making use of automation: Designing a performance driven marketing tool for Smart video2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Online advertising is a multi billion dollar industry used by marketers all over the world. Online advertising methods enable merchants a way to deliver information that is targeted to those consumers who potentially would value the information the most and are most likely to act on it. This can be done by using data collected from people through search history, social media profiles and other services when distributing personalized ads that fit peoples corresponding profiles. With a greater amount of options available for ad targeting and more detailed statistics about online ad performance than ever before, the workload for marketers is constantly increasing. This is where automation can be of major assistance.

    This thesis explores how different Levels Of Automation can be used in online marketing to assist marketers in the process of creating and following upon ad campaigns. The iterative user experience design process have been used to develop a design proposal of a performance driven marketing tool for the Smart video platform. First a research study was conducted in order to gather information about online advertising and automation in interface design. The result from the research was then analyzed and a lo-fi prototype was constructed. The prototype was continuously tested and evaluated in order to improve the design. Finally a hi-fi prototype of the marketing tool was implemented and usability tested. The design proposal illustrates how automation can be used to propose or automatically select a market strategy (that is based on previous ad performance data) for online advertisements. The design proposal uses colors to indicate what level of automation the system is working on. The results from the usability testing, with support from previous studies indicates that information and feedback are two of the most important aspects to consider when designing for automation.

  • Tomic, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Ventimiglia, Eugenio
    Division of Experimental Oncology/Unit of Urology, URI; IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
    Robinson, David
    Department of Urology, Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Häggström, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lambe, Mats
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Regional Cancer Centre Uppsala Örebro, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stattin, Pär
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Socioeconomic status and diagnosis, treatment, and mortality in men with prostate cancer. Nationwide population-based study2018In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with high socioeconomic status (SES) have better cancer outcomes than patients with low SES. This has also been shown in Sweden, a country with tax-financed health care aiming to provide care on equal terms to all residents. The association between income and educational level and diagnostics and treatment as outlined in national guidelines and prostate cancer (Pca) and all-cause mortality was assessed in 74,643 men by use of data in the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden and a number of other health care registers and demographic databases. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, men with high income had higher probability of Pca detected in a health-check-up, top versus bottom income quartile, odds ratio (OR) 1.60 (95% CI 1.45-1.77) and lower probability of waiting more than 3 months for prostatectomy, OR 0.77 (0.69-0.86). Men with the highest incomes also had higher probability of curative treatment for intermediate and high-risk cancer, OR 1.77 (1.61-1.95) and lower risk of positive margins, (incomplete resection) at prostatectomy, OR 0.80 (0.71-0.90). Similar, but weaker associations were observed for educational level. At 6 years of follow-up, Pca mortality was modestly lower for men with high income, which was statistically significant for localized high-risk and metastatic Pca in men with no comorbidities. All-cause mortality was less than half in top versus bottom quartile of income (12% vs. 30%, p < 0.001) among men above age 65. Our findings underscore the importance of adherence to guidelines to ensure optimal and equal care for all patients diagnosed with cancer.

  • Spangenberg, Ulrike
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Forum for Studies on Law and Society.
    Mumford, Ann
    Dickson Poon School of Law, King’s College London, United Kingdom.
    Daly, Stephen
    Birmingham Law School, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Navigating taxation towards sustainability: contradictions between social, gender, environmental, and economic ambitions, obligations and governance capacities in European tax law2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses existing tax competences in EU law, in the light of European and international obligations, and their evolution since the initial founding of the European Economic Community. It approaches this task not just from the perspective of competences, but examines values, objectives, obligations and actual governance capacities underpinning the implementation and realisation of these aims and duties in the field of taxation. The analysis is linked to discourses addressing sustainability gaps within EU taxation law and policy, in particular: a prevailing focus on economic growth; a lack of EU-level environmental taxation; an absence of tax measures that tackle, much less consider inequalities in income and wealth; and, persisting socio-economic inequalities between men and women.

    The concept of sustainable development features prominently in the objectives of the European Union and is closely linked to the function of the internal market. The implications of sustainability for legal obligations, however, remain unclear, and particularly so in the context of taxation. This paper provides an outline of the current legal framework for positive and negative integration of taxation, and considers the evolution of values, objectives and obligations in European and International law with a particular focus on the legal concept of sustainable development. From this basis, it examines legislative capacities to address the economic, ecological and social dimensions of sustainable development in the area of taxation and offers preliminary options for the amendment of hard and soft law mechanisms, so as fully to support European values and objectives in the field of taxation.

  • Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Melin, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Pedagogernas upplevelser av extra anpassningar i undervisningen: -för elever med läs-och skrivsvårigheter/dyslexi.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    This work examines teachers’ experiences of teaching students with reading and writing difficulties / dyslexia in a regular class-room setting. The questions were: General experiences of the needs of additional adjustments in teaching. How additional adjustments strengthen classroom teaching. Experiences of the implementation of digital teaching tools in teaching and reflections regarding additional adjustments in relation to the control documents? A research design with semi-structured interviews with a phenomenological approach was chosen. Ten teachers from six different schools participated in the interviews. Some general patterns occurred in the interviews. The participating teachers generally identified students’ need of extra support by observing their degree of participation in different instructional activities in the classroom. The participating teachers found implementation of digital tools difficult because of their own lack of knowledge as well as technical issues regarding the capacity of the network at the school and computer problems. The teachers were well aware of the overall goal in the curriculum about giving all students equal opportunities to reach the goals in the curriculum. However, the teachers’ knowledge about policies and guidelines in relation to how to implement and evaluate instructional adjustments were scarce.   

  • Skogeby, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Performance assessment of fluorescent nuclear track detectors in physically optimised spread-out Bragg peaks: Carried out at the German Cancer Research Center2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical heavy ion beams provide the most accurate means of external radiation treatment of tumors available. The study of energetic heavy ions on individual cells have been hampered by shortcomings in available detector technology. The fluorescence nuclear track detector developed by the Landauer Inc. is a small chiplike detector with all the properties needed for these kinds of studies. It is biocompatible, autoclavable, does not require post-irradiation chemical processingand allows the readout of a sufficient number of physical parameters for the determination of a particle’s radiobiological and physical properties. Previous studies in clinical spread-out Bragg peaks have shown a discrepancy in what is detected to what is seen in Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. While the fluence of heavy primary ions agrees to within one percent, the detection of fragments is underestimated by at least an order of magnitude.

    In this thesis the performance of the track-recording has been assessed for light ion fragmentsfrom hydrogen, helium and carbon primary particles in physically optimised spread-out Braggpeaks. The underestimation of light ion fragments for carbon beams, mentioned in previousstudies, was reproduced. The underestimation of light ion fragments is prevalent also for helium primary particles. No significant amount of lost tracks are seen in hydrogen beams. The analysis verifies the hypothesis that the detection of large angle trajectories for light ion fragments is not a principal limitation of the detector. The underestimation most probably stems from some limiting features of the readout and image analysis procedure.

  • West, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    "JAG ÄR INTE BARA EN SJUK TARM": Mat och måltider vid inflammatorisk tarmsjukdom och patienters upplevda stöd från närstående och sjukvården2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic and require continuous contact with the healthcare.

    Objective To explore individual’s experiences of how their inflammatory bowel disease affected their daily life focusing on food and meals and how they experienced the support from next of kin and healthcare professionals.

    Method Seven qualitative interviews with a semi-structured interview guide were conducted. The interviews were recorded and transcribed accurately word for word. The data collection was analyzed using a qualitative content analysis.

    Results The results were divided into four categories: My body reminds me of my illness, the food and meals need to be adapted, accept and be open with my illness and the treatment and support from next of kin and healthcare is important. The diseases were noticeable even in remission and affected the participants physically, emotionally and psychosocially. The majority reported that they could not eat and drink everything and the meals meant a lot of planning. The support from those nearest and healthcare was described as important, and many had accepted that they had a chronic disease. The participants were open with their chronic disease but there were occasions when they concealed their condition. The treatment and support from family members, friends and colleagues was generally described as positive but not from the healthcare professionals.

    Conclusion The food was important in social context and the meals could be a challenge as they often required a lot of planning and adaptations. Based on the participants’ perspective, the treatment from healthcare professionals needs to be improved. It is also important that this patient group is offered contact with a dietician who is specialized in gastroenterology. There is a need for increased understanding of these diseases both in health care and society. These diseases are rarely visible on the outside and it is important to break taboo around gastrointestinal disorders.

  • Blanck, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    American Option Price Approximation for Real-Time Clearing2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    American-style options are contracts traded on financial markets. These are derivatives of some underlying security or securities that in contrast to European-style options allow their holders to exercise at any point before the contracts expire. However, this advantage aggravates the mathematical formulation of an option's value considerably, explaining why essentially no exact closed-formed pricing formulas exist. Numerous price approximation methods are although available, but their possible areas of application as well as performance, measured by speed and accuracy, differ. A clearing house offering real-time solutions are especially dependent on fast pricing methods to calculate portfolio risk, where accuracy is assumed to be an important factor to guarantee low-discrepancy estimations. Conversely, overly biased risk estimates may worsen a clearing house's ability to manage great losses, endangering the stability of a financial market it operates.

    The purpose of this project was to find methods with optimal performance and to investigate if price approximation errors induce biases in option portfolios' risk estimates. Regarding performance, a Quasi-Monte Carlo least squares method was found suitable for at least one type of exotic option. Yet none of the analyzed closed-form approximation methods could be assessed as optimal because of their varying strengths, where although the Binomial Tree model performed most consistently. Moreover, the answer to which method entails the best risk estimates remains inconclusive since only one set of parameters was used due to heavy calculations. A larger study involving a broader range of parameter values must therefore be performed in order to answer this reliably. However, it was revealed that large errors in risk estimates are avoided only if American standard options are priced with any of the analyzed methods and not when a faster European formula is employed. Furthermore, those that were analyzed can yield rather different risk estimates, implying that relatively large errors may arise if an inadequate method is applied.

  • Eklund, Ingela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Eriksson, Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Den reciproka undervisningens betydelse för läsförståelsesvaga elever i åk 2 och 3.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find out whether six weeks of reciprocal teaching in grade 2 and 3 would improve pupils text comprehension. Students’ text comprehension was assessed with a standardized test and by analysing students’ use of meta-cognitive strategies in a conversation about a text. The assessments were carried out pre- and post-intervention. Sixteen pupils were identified with weak text comprehension in a standardized assessment of text comprehension in grade 2 and 3 respectively with a total of 78 students participating in the assessment. The students with weak text comprehension were divided in an intervention group (eight pupils) and a control group (eight pupils). The control group participated in regular class-room instruction during the intervention. 

      The intervention was carried out in small groups and focused on meta-cognitive strategies (e.g. predicting story-content, ask questions to the text, identifying and learning new words and summarizing story-content) and lasted for six weeks, three lessons a week and about 35 minutes/lesson. The students in the intervention group improved their results in the standardized test in text comprehension compared to the control group. The pupils in the intervention group used meta-cognitive strategies to a larger extent after the intervention compared to before the intervention. They also increased their talking space in a conversation about a text compared to the control group. Interaction with each other didn´t increase noticeably after six weeks of intervention in neither group. No statistical analysis were conducted.

  • Lundmark, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Yeah Hillary, what happened?: En kommunikativ studie av den andra amerikanska presidentdebatten 20162017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to analyze how Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump communicated verbally and non-verbally during the second presidential debate of the 2016 US election. To do this the essay utilizes a method focused on analyzing actio. The essay also analyses main trends in the rhetoric’s of the candidates. To aid the findings from this analysis the essay takes support from theories such as Impression management, footing, face as well as different theories in representation, including stereotypes, gender in politics and the construction of otherness.

     

    The results that the study reached where that very little critic could be raised towards Clinton's actio except for questioning how effective her choice to face the live audience instead of the tv audience was. That only a few major errors could be found in Clinton's actio & her rhetoric as well, was theorized to be due to the stark contrast of her errors against Trump's which many times where a lot worse. The study also found some similarities in how to candidates used similar rhetorical and, to some extent, actio techniques to compel their audience, thou stark differences could be found in the execution of said techniques. Further the study could not point to any definite female or male use of body language, but theorized that this is due to the nature of a political debate and how Clinton might have adapted to the male dominated world of politics. Finally, in the end discussion a speculation was raised that whoever the audience perceived as a “winner” of the debate came down largely to pre-perceived notions of each candidate at least when it came to body language and rhetoric. 

  • Helgesson, Sarah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Researrangörernas förskönade verklighet: En kvantitativ analys av missnöjda inlägg på Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study intends to examine how the media conditions have created opportunities for travel agencies to convey an embellished picture of their travel destinations, but also opportunities för there customers to participate in the debate when they are dissatisfied. The travel agencies concerned are Ving, Apollo and TUI. The theoretical framework explains how media platforms come closer and create opportunities for greater participation among audiences. To highlight the unrealistic material, hyper-reality is discussed and there are also discussions about how travel operators only intends to satisfy their customers needs. There has been a quantitative approach to the travel agencies' Facebook pages where dissatisfied posts have been analyzed following a code schedule. The result has shown that the aspects of their travels they were most dissatisfied with were the service, the transportation, the destination and the website/application. The conclusion of the study has been that the media conditions are to blame for the expectations of their destinations becoming too high. The travel agencies embellished material creates conditions for increased sales, but as customers get more space to express their dissatisfaction, travel agencies have a lot to lose.  It also creates an understanding of how the media, with their prerequisites, reflect the needs of the public and that expectations are based on both marketing and own assumptions.

  • Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier
    et al.
    Mosquera, Paola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Pablo Alzate, Juan
    Pottie, Kevin
    Welch, Vivian
    Akl, Elie A.
    Jull, Janet
    Lang, Eddy
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Morton, Rachel
    Thabane, Lehana
    Shea, Bev
    Stein, Airton T.
    Singh, Jasvinder
    Florez, Ivan D.
    Guyatt, Gordon
    Schunemann, Holger
    Tugwell, Peter
    Considering health equity when moving from evidence-based guideline recommendations to implementation: a case study from an upper-middle income country on the GRADE approach2017In: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237, Vol. 32, no 10, p. 1484-1490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of evidence-based guidelines does not ensure their implementation and use in clinical practice or policy making. Inequities in health have been defined as those inequalities within or between populations that are avoidable, unnecessary and also unjust and unfair. Evidence-based clinical practice and public health guidelines ('guidelines') can be used to target health inequities experienced by disadvantaged populations, although guidelines may unintentionally increase health inequities. For this reason, there is a need for evidence-based clinical practice and public health guidelines to intentionally target health inequities experienced by disadvantaged populations. Current guideline development processes do not include steps for planned implementation of equity-focused guidelines. This article describes nine steps that provide guidance for consideration of equity during guideline implementation. A critical appraisal of the literature followed by a process to build expert consensus was undertaken to define how to include consideration of equity issues during the specific GRADE guideline development process. Using a case study from Colombia we describe nine steps that were used to implement equity-focused GRADE recommendations: (1) identification of disadvantaged groups, (2) quantification of current health inequities, (3) development of equity-sensitive recommendations, (4) identification of key actors for implementation of equity-focused recommendations, (5) identification of barriers and facilitators to the implementation of equity-focused recommendations, (6) development of an equity strategy to be included in the implementation plan, (7) assessment of resources and incentives, (8) development of a communication strategy to support an equity focus and (9) development of monitoring and evaluation strategies. This case study can be used as model for implementing clinical practice guidelines, taking into account equity issues during guideline development and implementation.

  • Flih, Sarah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the effect of emotionally induced arousal on curiosity2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Curiosity can be defined as a drive to engage in exploratory behaviors and has been associated with an increased state of arousal (Berlyne, 1954). Exploratory behaviors, such as feedback requests, are associated with an information gain and the reduction of uncertainty. Although previous research has demonstrated the effects of emotions on the value of information gain (Marvin & Shohamy, 2016), and that the manipulation of arousal affected confidence (Allen et al., 2016) suggesting uncertainty can be affected independent of task difficulty, no previous study independently manipulated arousal to test its effect on curiosity. Given the effects of curiosity on motivation and learning, understanding how arousal influence curiosity would be beneficial for applications in fields such as education. In the present study, we hypothesized that emotionally-induced arousal has an impact on curiosity by influencing uncertainty and the value of information gain. A sample of 17 students were presented with arousing supraliminal emotional cues prior to rating confidence about their answers to trivia questions and deciding on feedback choices. Feedback requests were associated with a time delay, in a way that participants were required to trade off time for information. Results showed that uncertainty levels did not reliably predict feedback choices. Further analyses failed to demonstrate an effect of arousal on feedback choices. Finally, the pupillary response to events suggested that arousal levels did not differ significantly across conditions. Results can be due to the small sample or the test sensitivity. Possible improvements to the experimental paradigm are discussed, and directions for future research are considered.

  • Johansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hult, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Morseth, Bente
    Department of Community Medicine, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.School of Sport Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway..
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. School of Sport Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway..
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Self-reported protein intake and properties of bone in community-dwelling older individuals2018In: Archives of Osteoporosis, ISSN 1862-3514, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SUMMARY:This study revealed that a quick and simple estimation of protein intake was related to measures of bone density and area in 70-year-old individuals. Furthermore, these associations were mediated by muscle mass when investigating peripheral measurement sites such as arms and legs.

    PURPOSE: Recent evidence suggests that dietary protein is beneficial for bone health in older individuals, but less is known about the influence of muscle mass on this relationship. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate associations among protein intake, bone health, and muscle mass in 2332 men and women aged 70 years.

    METHODS: Volumetric bone mineral density of the radius and tibia was measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, we measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the L1-L4 vertebrae, radius, and femoral neck, together with appendicular lean mass. Participants reported their average meal size and proportion of meat/fish intake. Associations were investigated using multiple linear regression models, adjusted for multiple covariates.

    RESULTS: Self-reported protein intake was associated with aBMD of the femoral neck (β = 0.082) and L1-L4 vertebrae (β = 0.063) in men (both p < 0.05) after adjusting for multiple covariates, including appendicular muscle mass. No significant association was detected among women. In addition, protein intake was associated with tibial cortical area (β = 0.08), periosteal circumference (β = 0.072), radial aBMD (β = 0.064), and trabecular area (β = 0.078) in men (all p < 0.05), although these associations were attenuated after adjustment for appendicular muscle mass (all p > 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Self-reported protein intake was associated with bone properties in 70-year-old men. The strength of these associations in peripheral bone sites may be partially mediated by muscle mass from protein intake.

  • Ostovar, Ahmad
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Ringdahl, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Adaptive Image Thresholding of Yellow Peppers for a Harvesting Robot2018In: Robotics, E-ISSN 2218-6581, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented work is part of the H2020 project SWEEPER with the overall goal to develop a sweet pepper harvesting robot for use in greenhouses. As part of the solution, visual servoing is used to direct the manipulator towards the fruit. This requires accurate and stable fruit detection based on video images. To segment an image into background and foreground, thresholding techniques are commonly used. The varying illumination conditions in the unstructured greenhouse environment often cause shadows and overexposure. Furthermore, the color of the fruits to be harvested varies over the season. All this makes it sub-optimal to use fixed pre-selected thresholds. In this paper we suggest an adaptive image-dependent thresholding method. A variant of reinforcement learning (RL) is used with a reward function that computes the similarity between the segmented image and the labeled image to give feedback for action selection. The RL-based approach requires less computational resources than exhaustive search, which is used as a benchmark, and results in higher performance compared to a Lipschitzian based optimization approach. The proposed method also requires fewer labeled images compared to other methods. Several exploration-exploitation strategies are compared, and the results indicate that the Decaying Epsilon-Greedy algorithm gives highest performance for this task. The highest performance with the Epsilon-Greedy algorithm ( ϵ = 0.7) reached 87% of the performance achieved by exhaustive search, with 50% fewer iterations than the benchmark. The performance increased to 91.5% using Decaying Epsilon-Greedy algorithm, with 73% less number of iterations than the benchmark.