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  • Bello Arufe, Aaron
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Gravitational Waves in General Relativity2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we write a summary about general relativity and, in particular,gravitational waves. We start by discussing the mathematics that generalrelativity uses, as well as the geometry in general relativity's spacetime. Afterwards,we explain linearized general relativity and derive the linearizedversions of Einstein's equations. From here, we construct wave solutionsand explain the polarization of gravitational waves. The quadrupole formulais derived, and generation and detection of gravitational waves is brie ydiscussed. Finally, LIGO and its latest discovery of gravitational waves isreviewed.

  • Larsson, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Offentlig upphandling och lokala företag: Hinder och möjligheter i upphandlingsprocessen för små lokala företag2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Public purchasing is a potentially large business opportunity for many businesses, but the participation of small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) is low. The purpose of this study is to explore the barriers and opportunities of public procurement that SMEs and public purchasers experience. A plan of action for public purchasers and SMEs to commonly increase SMEs participation in public procurement is formulated based on the findings.

    Method: Qualitative interviews with both public purchasers and representatives for local SMEs are performed to answer the research question of how local SMEs and public procurement divisions jointly can increase SMEs participation in public procurement.

    Findings: The results are presented separately for public purchasers and SMEs, but the picture they are painting are coherent. Both procurers and SMEs testify to a difficult regulatory framework that is very resource intensive. The procurers perceive multiple benefits when sourcing from local SMEs, but the SMEs experience is that factors such as service and quality seldom is taken into consideration in public procurements. Procurers and SMEs both declare that procurement processes are of poor quality, where the procurers stresses the lack of resources needed and SMEs testify to poorly written tender documentations and a lack of knowledge about the good or the service that is the subject to the procurement.

    Conclusions: Previous studies have stated that the problems in public procurement experienced by SMEs that were brought to attention twenty years ago are still present. The findings of this study are coherent with that statement, since many of the experienced barriers and opportunities that are articulated by procurers and SMEs are consistent with previous research. The practical contribution of this study consists of a plan of action to enhance cooperation between municipalities and SMEs with the aim to increase local SMEs participation in public procurement. The plan of action is divided in three parts; to initiate a local cooperation, to update the local policy of public procurement and to evaluate the way public procurement is organized.

    Limitations: The study has been executed in a geographical limited area and only covered parts of the public sector, given the orientation towards Swedish municipalities 

  • Lindström, Josefina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Törnlund, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Att förändra världen med stil: En kvalitativ studie om hur mikroföretag i modebransch arbetar med hållbarhet vid  inköp2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbarhet är ett begrepp som de senaste åren har blivit alltmer centralt. Konsumenter efterfrågar i allt större grad hållbara produkter och som en reaktion till detta har allt fler företag valt att arbeta med hållbarhetsfrågor. Ett sätt för företag att arbeta med hållbarhet är genom sitt inköp. Inköpsfunktionen besitter idag en av de största möjligheterna att i praktiken öka hållbarheten i ett företag. En bransch som i allt större utsträckning arbetar med hållbarhetsfrågor är modebranschen. De stora klädjättarna erbjuder nu hållbara kollektioner och utförliga hållbarhetsrapporter. Dessa stora företag, med fler än 250 anställda, står dock för endast 0,1 % av alla klädföretag i Sverige. Istället är det mikroföretagen, med 0–9 anställda, som står för den stora massan, hela 95 % av företagen i modebranschen utgörs av mikroföretag. Arbetet med hållbarhet är däremot inte lika utbrett hos mikroföretagen som hos de större företagen. Orsaker till detta kan vara för att mikroföretagen inte har samma maktposition som de större företagen, och att hållbarhetsarbete kan innebära stora investeringar. Dessutom visar tidigare forskning på ett gap inom ämnena hållbarhet, inköp och mikroföretag.

     

    Denna studie syftar till att bringa klarhet samt få en djupare förståelse för hur svenska mikroföretag inom modebranschen integrerar miljömässiga, sociala och ekonomiska dimensioner av hållbarhet i inköpsprocessen. Vidare syftar studien till att ge praktiska rekommendationer kring hur mikroföretag i modebranschen kan integrera hållbarhet i sitt inköp. För att kunna besvara detta har i vår teoretiska referensram tagit upp teorier kring hållbarhet, drivkrafter till hållbarhet samt inköpsprocessen. Vi har genom en kvalitativ forskningsmetod med semistrukturerade intervjuer kommit fram till vårt resultat. I studien intervjuades elva mikroföretag i modebranschen.

     

    En slutsats vi har kommit fram till är att majoriteten av de tillfrågade företagen har en utarbetad eller påbörjad strategi för hållbarhetsarbete. En annan slutsats vi kom fram till var att det miljömässiga hållbarhetsarbetet ofta säkerställdes genom olika certifikat, och att denna typ av hållbarhetsarbete genomsyrar hela inköpsprocessen. Det sociala hållbarhetsarbetet uttryckte sig genom att dessa företag fokuserade sitt hållbarhetsarbete på att stötta lokala marknader i utsatta områden. Denna typ av arbete sträcker sig längre än det antagande om socialt hållbarhetsarbete som vi utgick från, nämligen att innefatta bra arbetsförhållanden och skäliga löner. Ytterligare en slutsats är att samtliga företag ville ta avstånd från dagens slit-och-släng-attityd. Samtliga företag vill erbjuda kläder till bra kvalitet, som i de flesta fall även skulle kunna gå att ärva eller sälja vidare. 

  • Helin, Klas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Möjligheter och risker med miljöcertifieringssystemet Miljöbyggnad i en totalentreprenad: En ekonomisk optimering2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental assessment for buildings is a means to reach the national environmental goals of Sweden. The construction and real estate sector accounts for a large part of Sweden's green house gas emissions and use of fuel, and environmental assessment tools can work as an incentive to improve on that. The Swedish tool Miljöbyggnad has grown considerably the last few years, and gives a solid option for the Swedish market. The tool assesses 16 indicators that are weighted together to give a building a final rating. The building can be rated Brons, Silver or Gold.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and demonstrate risks and opportunities with the environmental assessment tool Miljöbyggnad, for both parties (the client and the contractor) in a design-build contract. This was accomplished by conducting a economic optimization of selected assessment tools indicators for a final rating of Silver, with the help of a reference building. From the result a methodology and general comprehension were acquired that can be applied in future construction projects. The aim of the study was to assess the reference building according to Miljöbyggnad's criteria. Then from the assessment present two optimal indicator configurations, one for the client and one for the contractor, that both yield a final grade of Silver.

    A model of the reference building was drawn using the architects drawings, and then built within an simulation software. Input for the simulations were mainly design instructions from the property owner of the reference building. Simulations and calculations to assess the building was conducted according to instructions from the Miljöbyggnad manual. From the result of the assessment, possibilities for optimization were investigated. A couple of actions were tested for their possibility to change the indicator grades, and differences in costs and pay-back times were calculated.

    The building was given a final grade of Miljöbyggnad Silver, where the indicator grades ranged from Bronze to Gold. In the optimal indicator configuration for the contractor, the grade of the indicator Heating demand was lowered from the original assessment. From the actions that were tested a saving opportunity was yielded from changing of the envelope, walls, roof and slab was worsened. In the optimal indicator configuration for the client, the grade of the indicator Energy use was increased and the grade of the indicator Energy sources was lowered. Saving opportunities were yielded from doing the same envelope changes but also improving windows, installing solar collectors and using Nordic electricity mix for appliance and building operation electricity.

    The conclusion from this study is that as a client to only demand a final grade for the building as part of the procurement is not recommended. A Miljöbyggnad certification with a design-build contract does not necessarily signify the most energy efficient building, there are distinct risks. Especially regarding the indicators within the area Energy in the assessment tool, and in practice the building's operating costs for energy. In a more controlled design-build contract with demands on specific indicators and even technical solutions, there are opportunities for the client to affect several indicator grades, as well as make cost savings.

  • de Boniface, Jana
    et al.
    Frisell, Jan
    Andersson, Yvette
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Ahlgren, Johan
    Ryden, Lisa
    Bagge, Roger Olofsson
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Surgery Center, Norrland University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Hemming
    Lundstedt, Dan
    Survival and axillary recurrence following sentinel node-positive breast cancer without completion axillary lymph node dissection: the randomized controlled SENOMAC trial2017In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 17, 379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The role of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has increasingly been called into question among patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes. Two recent trials have failed to show a survival difference in sentinel node-positive breast cancer patients who were randomized either to undergo completion ALND or not. Neither of the trials, however, included breast cancer patients undergoing mastectomy or those with tumors larger than 5 cm, and power was debatable to show a small survival difference.

    Methods: The prospective randomized SENOMAC trial includes clinically node-negative breast cancer patients with up to two macrometastases in their sentinel lymph node biopsy. Patients with T1-T3 tumors are eligible as well as patients prior to systemic neoadjuvant therapy. Both breast-conserving surgery and mastectomy, with or without breast reconstruction, are eligible interventions. Patients are randomized 1:1 to either undergo completion ALND or not by a web-based randomization tool. This trial is designed as a non-inferiority study with breast cancer-specific survival at 5 years as the primary endpoint. Target accrual is 3500 patients to achieve 80% power in being able to detect a potential 2.5% deterioration of the breast cancer-specific 5-year survival rate. Follow-up is by annual clinical examination and mammography during 5 years, and additional controls after 10 and 15 years. Secondary endpoints such as arm morbidity and health-related quality of life are measured by questionnaires at 1, 3 and 5 years.

    Discussion: Several large subgroups of breast cancer patients, such as patients undergoing mastectomy or those with larger tumors, have not been included in key trials; however, the use of ALND is being questioned even in these groups without the support of high-quality evidence. Therefore, the SENOMAC Trial will investigate the need of completion ALND in case of limited spread to the sentinel lymph nodes not only in patients undergoing any breast surgery, but also in neoadjuvantly treated patients and patients with larger tumors.

  • Berg, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Adsorption of organic andinorganic compounds onactivated carbon and biochar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Andersson, Mathilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Biochar removal of micropollutants in wastewater effluentsfrom Morocco and South Africa2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lindmark, Simone
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Synthesis and characterization of Na-n-mica2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Spang, Christoph
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Backman, Ludvig J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Le Roux, Sandrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Chen, Jialin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Danielson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
    Glutamate signaling through the NMDA receptor reduces the expression of scleraxis in plantaris tendon derived cells2017In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, 218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A body of evidence demonstrating changes to the glutaminergic system in tendinopathy has recently emerged. This hypothesis was further tested by studying the effects of glutamate on the tenocyte phenotype, and the impact of loading and exposure to glucocorticoids on the glutamate signaling machinery.

    Methods: Plantaris tendon tissue and cultured plantaris tendon derived cells were immunohisto-/cytochemically stained for glutamate, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2). Primary cells were exposed to glutamate or receptor agonist NMDA. Cell death/viability was measured via LDH/MTS assays, and Western blot for cleaved caspase 3 (c-caspase 3) and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (c-PARP). Scleraxis mRNA (Scx)/protein(SCX) were analyzed by qPCR and Western blot, respectively. A FlexCell system was used to apply cyclic strain. The effect of glucocorticoids was studies by adding dexamethasone (Dex). The mRNA of the glutamate synthesizing enzymes Got1 and Gls, and NMDAR1 protein were measured. Levels of free glutamate were determined by a colorimetric assay.

    Results: Immunoreactions for glutamate, VGluT2, and NMDAR1 were found in tenocytes and peritendinous cells in tissue sections and in cultured cells. Cell death was induced by high concentrations of glutamate but not by NMDA. Scleraxis mRNA/protein was down-regulated in response to NMDA/glutamate stimulation. Cyclic strain increased, and Dex decreased, Gls and Got1 mRNA expression. Free glutamate levels were lower after Dex exposure.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, NMDA receptor stimulation leads to a reduction of scleraxis expression that may be involved in a change of phenotype in tendon cells. Glutamate synthesis is increased in tendon cells in response to strain and decreased by glucocorticoid stimulation. This implies that locally produced glutamate could be involved in the tissue changes observed in tendinopathy.

  • Skoglund, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Grid connected large-scale energy storage: Literature review regarding present technology and application, with a complementary case study that investigates the profitability of storage within a wind farm2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the transition from traditional power plants to more environmentally friendly alternatives will generate a need for more flexibility in production, transmission and consumption. Energy storage can be provide the flexibility that are required to continue to have a robust and stable electrical system. The purpose of this report is to give an overview of the electrical energy storage technologies. The classification of energy storage technologies used in this report is mechanical, chemical and electrical. In these three categories were ten different technologies presented with function, advantages, disadvantages, degree of maturity and research area for each technology. The distribution between the globally operational energy storage technologies were presented. Also the framework and regulations for actors to own and operate an energy storage in Sweden. This review was complemented with a case study about connecting a lithium ion battery system to a wind farm. The case investigated the profitability for 20 MW wind farm with a 12 MW and 18 MWh energy storage system for a five and ten-year period. The utilization of the storage was optimized with \textit{What's best} for three different investment cost. The review were done in order to answer: what is the futures energy storage technology?, what applications can be replaced by energy storage for an electricity producer? and what will the effects be of the new actor Aggregator?

    The result from comparing three different prices for lithium ion batteries resulted in a non-profit scenario for all the cases in a five-year period. There were a maximum, minimum and predicted futuristic price, which generated a loss of 731, 220 and 76.6 MSEK for respective case. Only the futuristic price for a ten-year period indicated an profit. The conclusion that can be drawn from this case study is that energy storage is too expensive and the extra income from utilization of the energy storage is not enough to motivate an energy storage investment.

    There are not a single technology that possesses all of the required properties for the applications. In the future there will be a combination of technologies to cover all the applications. For the seasonal storage pumped hydro and compressed air are most promising technologies. The flywheels and supercapacitors can contribute with short powerful burst of energy that are needed for power quality and operating reserves. For the more wide range application such as power fleet optimization and integrate the renewable energy production, batteries in form of lithium ion battery and sodium-sulfur battery will most probably be used.

    For electricity producers energy storage can replace existing solutions. Instead of using diesel generators for black start services, an battery can be used. Also the power quality could be enhanced with batteries acting as filters. The process can be more utilized in a more efficient way with an energy storage.

    The aggregator actor gathers small variable load from e.g several houses and participate on the electricity market. This actor will level out the differences in power demand during the day. It will reduce the losses and reduce the need for grid investments in both the transmission and distribution networks. It would also generate more available frequency reserves and probably change how the market is paying for the generated benefits.

  • Törmä, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Refugees in British Media Coverage: A Study of Dehumanizing Conceptual Metaphors2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study exemplifies, analyses and discusses the conceptual metaphors refugees are water and refugees are animals in British media discourse. In order to do this, examples of linguistic tokens of the metaphors were collected from four of the biggest newspapers in Britain; Daily Mail, The Sun, The Guardian and The Daily Telegraph. Linguistic tokens of the metaphors were found in all of the newspapers. The tokens of refugees are animals often appeared within quotation marks, whereas the refugees are water tokens appeared mostly unmarked, implying that refugees are water is more conventionalized than refugees are animals. The analysis of the tokens showed how different aspects of refugees are either highlighted or hidden when it is conceptualized in terms of water or animals. In the process of highlighting/hiding certain aspects of refugees, the refugees are dehumanized. 

  • Nilsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Hameed, Naseer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Which small firm manager will opt out of having a voluntary audit in Sweden?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The business world and its perceived complex accounting structure has made a path for audit to acquire a key role in terms of delivering independent opinions considering the management assertions of the financial statements, as well as in assurance and advisory services. Both opinions and services are equally important for managers, owners and stakeholders of companies that are obliged to issue an audit report and for companies that operate in a context where audits are voluntary. There have been many studies and much research done in portraying the demand for audit. Allied to this, it would be interesting to know about the perception and different characteristics of the small firm managers desiring voluntary audit because of the cost and time associated with the auditing of financial statements.

     

    Regulation for small firms concerning voluntary audit differs from one country to another. In the context of Sweden, auditing has been voluntary since 2010 for companies that do not exceed two out of the following three requirements (i) Balance sheet total: 1 500 000 SEK, (ii) Net turnover: 3 000 000 SEK, (iii) Number of employees: 3. To explore why some managers chooses to audit and some do not when it is a voluntary choice, we wonder whether there is a relationship between the managers’ characteristics and their decision towards voluntary audit and have formulated a research question as follows:

     

    What is the relationship between characteristics of the manager of a small firm and the decision to have financial statements audited?

     

    The intention of this thesis is to investigate the characteristics gender, age and work experience of the manager and if it affects the choice of voluntary audit. The base for this thesis stems from relevant and general theories and prior literature that have found differences regarding the behavior of managers in different business activities relating to these characteristics. Such as, theories initiating this study concerns legitimation, upper echelon theory as well as portrays the topic’s importance from an agency perspective. Moreover, the data set for this quantitative thesis have been collected for the empirical and statistical analysis is from the database, Retriever. The accessible data of the small firms we had access to entails all relevant information we use for this study.

     

    The findings of this thesis show how one out of our three investigated characteristics show a statistically significant relationship with the decision to audit financial statements when voluntary, more specifically the characteristic gender. Where male top executives, supporting existing research, tend to choose not to audit financial accounts to a higher degree than female top executives. As for the other characteristics, no relationship can with guaranty be said to exist which contributes to the confusion already existing in current literature regarding the effects of age and work experience when making business decisions.

  • Lohman, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Portfolio investment strategy based on Twitter sentiment2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates if it is possible to create a portfolio investment strategy by looking at the sentiment (i.e. are they positive or negative) of twitter data for ten companies, five IT companies and five fashion companies. 764 340 tweets were collected during the study which spanned 60 trading days, and of those tweets, 483 946 where from the IT companies and the rest from the fashion companies. The tweets were collected in a Python program using Twitters API, and then analyzed and classified in another Python program using three different Naive Bayes classifiers that had been trained on a training set consisting of positive and negative text. The sentiment results were then used to create two different portfolios where one was based solely on sentiment and the other one was a combination of sentiment and market capitalization, the ratio used was determined by testing. Those portfolios were then compared against a market capitalization portfolio and a Sharpe portfolio.

    I found that for the IT companies the portfolio based solely on sentiment performed decently, but was the worst of the four portfolios. The combination portfolio performed well and when comparing it to the Sharpe portfolio and the market capitalization portfolio, it might even be the preferable strategy depending on the investor’s appetite for risk as it had the highest ratio between return and standard deviation. For the fashion companies the sentiment portfolio performed very poorly. The combination portfolio performed decently, but that was only because it consisted mainly (85%) of the market capitalization portfolio which performed the best of all strategies and thereby “saving” the combination portfolio. The poor performance of the sentiment portfolio for the fashion companies might in part be explained by the fact that there were almost twice as many tweets for the IT companies, making the sentiment less accurate and less reliable for the fashion companies when compared to sentiment of the IT companies. It might also be that there is more irrelevant stuff being tweeted about when it comes to the fashion companies, causing the sentiment portfolio to performworse.

  • Burkhardt, Christian
    et al.
    Neuwirth, Christoph
    Sommacal, Andreas
    Andersen, Peter M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Weber, Markus
    Is survival improved by the use of NIV and PEG in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?: A post-mortem study of 80 ALS patients2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, e0177555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) are guideline-recommended interventions for symptom management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Their effect on survival is controversial and the impact on causes of death is unknown.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death in ALS patients.

    Methods: Eighty deceased ALS patients underwent a complete post mortem analysis for causes of death between 2003 and 2015. Forty-two of these patients consented for genetic testing. Effects of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death were analyzed in a multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression.

    Results: Six patients, who requested assisted suicide causing drug-induced hypoxia, were excluded from final analysis. Respiratory failure was the main cause of death in 72 out of 74 patients. Fifteen out of 74 died of aspiration pneumonia 23/74 of bronchopneumonia and 8/74 of a combination of aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia. Twenty died of hypoxia without concomitant infection, and six patients had pulmonary embolism alone or in combination with pneumonia. NIV (p = 0.01) and PEG (p<0.01) had a significant impact on survival. In patients using NIV bronchopneumonia was significantly more frequent (p <0.04) compared to non-NIV patients. This effect was even more pronounced in limb onset patients (p<0.002). Patients with C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions showed faster disease progression and shorter survival (p = 0.01).

    Conclusion: The use of NIV and PEG prolongs survival in ALS. This study supports current AAN and EFNS guidelines which recommend NIV and PEG as a treatment option in ALS. The risk of bronchopneumonia as cause of death may be increased by NIV.

  • Sabir, Aran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Smakmaskering av munsönderfallande tabletter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Tolu, Julie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Meyer-Jacob, Carsten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gerber, Lorenz
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Spatial variability of organic matter molecular composition and elemental geochemistry in surface sediments of a small boreal Swedish lake2017In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 14, no 7, 1773-1792 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of sediment organic matter (OM) exerts a strong control on biogeochemical processes in lakes, such as those involved in the fate of carbon, nutrients and trace metals. While between-lake spatial variability of OM quality is increasingly investigated, we explored in this study how the molecular composition of sediment OM varies spatially within a single lake and related this variability to physical parameters and elemental geochemistry. Surface sediment samples (0-10 cm) from 42 locations in Harsvatten - a small boreal forest lake with a complex basin morphometry - were analyzed for OM molecular composition using pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry for the contents of 23 major and trace elements and biogenic silica. We identified 162 organic compounds belonging to different biochemical classes of OM (e.g., carbohydrates, lignin and lipids). Close relationships were found between the spatial patterns of sediment OM molecular composition and elemental geochemistry. Differences in the source types of OM (i.e., terrestrial, aquatic plant and algal) were linked to the individual basin morphometries and chemical status of the lake. The variability in OM molecular composition was further driven by the degradation status of these different source pools, which appeared to be related to sedimentary physicochemical parameters (e.g., redox conditions) and to the molecular structure of the organic compounds. Given the high spatial variation in OM molecular composition within Harsvatten and its close relationship with elemental geochemistry, the potential for large spatial variability across lakes should be considered when studying biogeochemical processes in-volved in the cycling of carbon, nutrients and trace elements or when assessing lake budgets.

  • Sundström, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Analys av reaktiv effektinmatning till överliggande nät samt optimal kondensatordrift2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this project is that Vattenfall Eldistribution AB (hereinafter referred to as Vattenfall) will establish a system of fees for input of reactive power. This will be done due to problems in the grid caused by reactive power. Umeå Energi Elnät AB (hereinafter referred to as Umeå Energi) has historically input reactive power, motivating this work which investigates the reactive power in the grid of Umeå Energi and provides information on two alternative approaches to responding to the fee. Alternative 0 entails no installation of compensation technology, and that a subscription for reactive power input is established instead. Alternative 1 entails that compensation technology is installed. To investigate the reactive power, data on reactive power in the grid of Umeå Energi were obtained and processed. Historical operations of capacitor banks for the year 2016 were obtained from the history of events of the control center at Umeå Energi. The operations of the capacitor banks during 2015 could only be obtained from an earlier work at Umeå Energi since the number of events stored in the history is limited.

    By subtracting the capacitor banks’ production from the reactive power measured by Vattenfall in the connections of Umeå Energi, data more representative of underlying phenomena were obtained. Without capacitor production of reactive power, the input was calculated according to the definition of Vattenfall to about 34 MVAr, by using data from 2015 and 2016. For the years 2018 through 2023, changes in reactive power due to changes in the grid of Umeå Energi were calculated. These calculations did not consider inductances, and thus yielded zero-load scenarios with maximum reactive power production. By the year of 2023, the input was calculated to have increased to 59 MVAr due to changes in the grid of Umeå Energi. Assuming that Umeå Energi will not operate the capacitors so that the input is increased, for alternative 0 subscriptions for input of reactive power were suggested for the years 2018 through 2023 by considering the abovementioned 34 MVAr and the changes in the grid. Subscriptions of 41 MVAr and 59 MVAr were suggested for the years 2019 and 2023 respectively. The costs of these were calculated with the fee specified by Vattenfall to SEK 820,000 and SEK 1,187,000 respectively. Calculations with the applicable fee yielded that the yearly cost of possible over-input could amount to a maximum of SEK 76,000 with a 95 % probability, using the corrected standard deviation of the input without capacitor production of reactive power for the years 2015 and 2016.

    Optimal capacitor bank operations were calculated for the years 2015 and 2016 by adding the production of reactive power from existing capacitor banks which yielded the minimum absolute reactive power. Depending on how often the capacitors were operated different results were obtained. An investigation of power quality disturbances due to capacitor bank operations is recommended to achieve an understanding of the conditions for optimal capacitor bank operations.

    It was not deemed economically justifiable to install more advanced compensation technologies such as static VAr compensators since variable reactors are able to compensate daily and seasonal variations in reactive power. The production of reactive power in cables is the largest on the 145 kV level and will increase in the future on this level. It is therefore likely here compensation technologies such as reactors should be installed first.

    To be able to make as good decisions as possible concerning the reactive power, it is recommended to as soon as possible commence a working method as if the fee system had already come into effect; thus increasing the amount of representative data.

  • Kangas, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Botulinum toxin för behandling av migrän: Kunskapsläget idag - Effekt och biverkningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Engström, Natalie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Lysergsyradietylamid (LSD) och psilocybin vid depression och ångestsjukdom: En litteraturstudie om effekter och biverkningar av LSD- och psilocybin-assisterad psykoterapi2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Cassini Bäckström, Cristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Safety and efficacy ofguanfacine in treating ADHD in children and adolescents: current status of knowledge: A literature study including important factors to consider as a pharmacist in a patient-counselling role2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Alfredji, Kaothar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Effekt av tillskott av vitamin D på vårt immunförsvar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Pacurar, Daniel Ioan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Pacurar, Monica Lacramioara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Lakehal, Abdellah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Pacurar, Andrea Mariana
    Ranjan, Alok
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    The Arabidopsis Cop9 signalosome subunit 4 (CNS4) is involved in adventitious root formation2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an evolutionary conserved multiprotein complex that regulates many aspects of plant development by controlling the activity of CULLIN-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs). CRLs ubiquitinate and target for proteasomal degradation a vast number of specific substrate proteins involved in many developmental and physiological processes, including light and hormone signaling and cell division. As a consequence of CSN pleiotropic function, complete loss of CSN activity results in seedling lethality. Therefore, a detailed analysis of CSN physiological functions in adult Arabidopsis plants has been hampered by the early seedling lethality of csn null mutants. Here we report the identification and characterization of a viable allele of the Arabidopsis COP9 signalosome subunit 4 (CSN4). The allele, designated csn4-2035, suppresses the adventitious root (AR) phenotype of the Arabidopsis superroot2-1 mutant, potentially by altering its auxin signaling. Furthermore, we show that although the csn4-2035 mutation affects primary and lateral root (LR) formation in the 2035 suppressor mutant, CSN4 and other subunits of the COP9 complex seem to differentially control AR and LR development.

  • Loncar, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Svanholm Hellström, Cathérine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Kulturella effekter på aktiemarknaden: En studie om volatilitet och kultur på europeiska och västerländska aktiemarknader2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problembakgrund: Ett relativt nytt forskningsområde inom den finansiella världen är Cultural Finance. Cultural Finance tog fart som forskningsområde då de traditionella finansiella modellerna misslyckades med att förklara verkligheten. Forskningsområdet undersöker effekter som nationell kultur kan ha på individers ageranden inom det finansiella området. Det finns många olika definitioner på begreppet kultur och i detta arbete förklaras kultur som de värderingar och den gemensamma historian samt geografin som styr en social grupps tankar och handlingar. För att undersöka kulturens påverkan avser denna studie att undersöka aktieprisvolatilitet. Volatilitet är ett riskmått som, med fördel, kan tas hänsyn till vid fattande av finansiella beslut.

    Problemformulering: Förekommer det kulturella skillnader i form av religion, legalt system och grad av neuroticism i aktieprisvolatilitet på olika europeiska och västerländska aktiemarknader?

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om kulturella aspekter kan förklara volatiliteten i marknadsindex på europeiska och västerländska marknader. De kulturella aspekterna som behandlas i studien är religion, grad av neuroticism och legalt system.

    Teori: De teorier som berörs i studien och som används för att tolka resultatet är den effektiva marknadshypotesen, volatilitet, Behavioral Finance, Cultural Finance, den adaptiva marknadshypotesen och prospektteorin.

    Metod: För att undersöka om kulturella effekter har en påverkan på aktieprisvolatilitet har författarna använt en kvantitativ metod med en deduktiv ansats. Det finns många kulturella aspekter som kan tänkas påverka volatiliteten på aktiemarknaden. I denna studie har författarna valt religion, grad av neuroticism samt legalt system som förklarande variabler. Studien har utförts under perioden 2012-2016, där index från respektive land från urvalet har valts som studieobjekt.

    Resultat/Analys: Studiens resultat har visat att kulturella skillnader verkar ha en påverkan på volatiliteten. Både utförda tester där de valda kulturella aspekterna har testats var för sig och där de har testats tillsammans har visat signifikanta resultat. I analysen kopplar författarna resultatet till den teoretiska referensramen och tidigare forskning.

    Slutsats: Resultatet visar att kulturella aspekter tenderar att påverka volatiliteten under den valda tidsperioden. Därmed styrker denna studie det nya forskningsområdet Cultural Finance samt Behavioral Finance. Vidare anser författarna att resultatet ska tolkas försiktigt och att fortsatt forskning krävs för att stärka kunskapen om kulturens påverkan på aktiemarknaden.

  • Furberg, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar inom bearbetningskoncession: Har förändringar uppstått över tid och vad anser berörda aktörer om aktuella ställningstaganden och lagförslag?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to commence mining of minerals in Sweden there are two larger concessions that will need to be granted, the first one is concession for processing. The concession includes an environmental impact assessment. The aim of this study was to examine if and how the environmental impact assessments for the processing concession has changed over time and if the concerned stakeholders did experience any changes. The aim of the study was also to see what the concerned stakeholders thought about the Swedish environmental protection agency analysis and the Environmental- and energy departments law proposition. The results of this study are based on literature studies of environmental impact assessments and interviews with both involved authorities and operators. The study was limited to Sweden's three largest mining counties, Dalarna, Västerbotten and Norrbotten. The results of this study shows that the scope of the environmental impact assessments have grown and that the content has become more focused on human interests. The majority of the interviewed stakeholders agree on that changes have evolved over time. All stakeholders also agree that law propositions similar to the analysis the Swedish environmental protection agency made, would be in favor for all concerned because of the gathered trial of environmental laws. They also agree that the departments law proposition on demand on increased consultation would not make the situation any different from today's trial. It is clear that today's trial in processing concession are somewhat problematic and that changes has to be made.

  • Wenner, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Halter av bly, arsenik, uran och kadmium i brunnsvatten från ett område med berggrund av alunskiffer, Linköpings kommun2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Access to clean water is vital to human health. In Sweden, private households are responsible for the quality of their drinking water and the national food agency (SLV) recommends private households to analyze the quality of their drinking water every three years. However, this recommendations are rarely followed. This project assess water quality (metal concentrations) in well water from a risk area described by the geological survey of Sweden (SGU) that could have high concentrations of cadmium and lead in wells. My project tests the hypothesis that high metal concentrations, observed in wells from a previous study by SGU, are caused by local geological conditions including metal-rich alum shale bedrock. Water samples from 18 wells, located in an area with alum shale bedrock according to the SGU outside of Linköping, was analyzed for metals (arsenic, lead, cadmium and uranium). In contrast to previous studies, I found that concentrations of all the studied metals were below the SLV drinking water standards. Slightly enriched concentrations of uranium in some of the samples indicate that minerals containing uranium in the alum shale affect the water. There is a connection in the study area between alum shale and higher levels of uranium and arsenic in the well water but not lead or cadmium.   

  • Nordin, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kan marin sand och grus utgöra ett subtitut för landbaserade naturgrustäkter?: En undersökning utanför Umeås kust2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sand and gravel are compounds that are directly needed in the fine fraction of making concrete. Concrete is used as a foundation in 90 % of the cases when establishing new buildings in Sweden. Usually, sand and gravel are taken from land based areas. These land based areas with sand and gravel are also needed for the cleaning of the groundwater. Groundwater is the source of drinking water in big parts of Sweden and should therefore not be jeopardized. In the marine environment, there are areas that possess sand and gravel that could be used instead of land based material, and therefore will not jeopardize the quality of drinking water. By learning how the law is regulated in marine sand and gravel extraction cases, looking at existing maps of the marine geology’s structure, learning about the environmental impacts and by looking at the technique that are used for extracting the material of the bottom of the ocean - this report shows the possibilities of marine sand and gravel extraction of the ocean floor outside of Umeå’s coastline. The result shows that there are a few areas that have the right material and lies on the right depth of the ocean floor, but these areas did not have the right thickness. Therefore, an extraction of marine sand and gravel at these areas (Area A and B) would affect the volume percentage. This could lead to a change of the bottom structure that destroys the recovery after the extraction and damage the marine environment. 

  • Nyberg, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Berätta då: En narratologisk och tematisk analys av alla vilda och Kärlek i Europa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is on how the identity narrative is constructed and how the narrative effects the reader’s perception of the protagonist’s identity in the autobiographical novels Kärlek i Europa and alla vilda by Birgitta Stenberg. The discourse of autobiographical writing is used to analyse the novels with the perspective that an autobiographical text communicates with it’s readers. By close-reading the pattern of the narrative becomes visible. The analys of the narrative show that the narrator changes positions throughout the novels. In effect, this means that the narrator and the protagonist sometimes occupies the same position in the text, and sometimes not. By mapping the narrator’s positions and by separating the author, narrator and protagonist the narrative structure emerges as complex.

    The authors position and the referentiality to something ”real” outside the text creates a picture of the protagonist as a part of the awareness of gender discrimination toward female writers. It also raises the issue of the historical discrimination toward LGBTQ persons and ethnic groups. The narrator’s changing position re-structures time and space by inserting different timelines. Through the historical, the traveling and the future timelines the development of the protagonist’s identity emerges. In contrast to the genre bildungsroman the identity narrative becomes visible as a self-reflexive project. The reflexive project allows the narrator to compare the identity of the self through time. This structure also invites the reader to co-create the protagonist identity alongside the narrator. 

  • Hilmevall, Izabella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Analys av kloridhalt i dricksvatten: Risk för saltvatteninträngning i dricksvattenbrunnar inom ett kustnära område i Botkyrka kommun2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyse the chloride concentrations in drinking water to examine if there is an indication of saltwater intrusion in drinking water wells in Sandviken, a coastal area located in Botkyrka in Sweden. Previous studies show that the water wells in this area may already be affected by saltwater intrusion. Most of the households in this area are only used as summer houses. Only two of the house owners that participated in this study live in Sandviken permanently. A survey was sent to the house owners to find out qualities of the water wells. Water samples were taken from the water wells in Sandviken to analyse the concentration of chloride in the drinking water. 18 water wells were analysed and the results show that the lowest concentration of chloride was measured at 15 mg/l and the highest concentration of chloride was measured at over 400 mg/l. Most of the house owners haven’t felt the taste of salt in their drinking water. The results show that the coefficient of determination (R2) is low for the chloride concentration and the distance from the water well to the sea, the chloride concentration and the depth of the water well and also for the chloride concentration and the age of the water well. This study is showing that there is a certain impact of saltwater intrusion in the water wells in Sandviken.

  • Ryberg, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Söderström, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Att utvecklas som ledare: En kvalitativ studie om möjligheterna till ledarskapsutveckling genom medarbetarsamtal2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarskapsutveckling anses av många företag vara ett verktyg för att öka en organisations konkurrenskraft; denna utveckling sker vanligen genom kurser och utbildningar. Ett stående problem som har uppdagats gällande dessa kurser och utbildningar rör sammanhanget som de genomförs i. Ofta genomförs kurserna utanför den verklighet som ledarna normalt arbetar i; exempelvis anordnas utbildningar på annan ort. Denna problematik leder till att resurserna som investeras i ledarskapsutveckling inte resulterar i effektiva resultat, varkenför ledarna eller företagen.Ett verktyg som företag ofta använder för utveckling av sin personal i allmänhet är medarbetarsamtal. Dessa samtal är regelbundna och sker i samma kontext som personalen vanligen arbetar i. Ledarskapsutveckling och den svenska varianten medarbetarsamtal är två områden som oss veterligen inte har sammankopplats i tidigare forskning. Vårt syfte i denna uppsats är att skapa förståelse gällande vilka möjligheter som finns för ledarskapsutveckling genom medarbetarsamtal. Vidare har vi även sökt förståelse för huruvida individuella skillnader, såsom synen på sitt eget ledarskap samt ledares benägenheten till självutveckling, potentiellt påverkar utvecklingen som sker genom medarbetarsamtal. För att skapa förståelse kring dessa områden behandlar vi i denna uppsats tidigare forskning gällande ledarskapsutveckling, medarbetarsamtal, transaktionellt-transformerande ledarskap samt självutveckling för ledare. Utifrån denna teoretiska förståelse har vi använt oss av en kvalitativ metod och semistrukturerade intervjuer för att besvara vår frågeställning och uppfylla vårt syfte.I uppsatsen har vi valt att avgränsa oss till tjänstesektorn och efter intervjuer med sju respondenter, som alla är ledare, har vi använt oss av en tematisk analys därvikopplar deras svar till befintlig teori och även söker att uppfylla uppsatsens syfte. Utifrån vår analys har vi kunnat konstatera att det finns möjligheter för ledarskapsutveckling genom medarbetarsamtal. Vi menar att dessa möjligheter främst gäller inommänsklig utveckling, snarare än mellanmänsklig, samt att åtminstone två faktorer påverkar potentialen av denna utveckling. Den överordnade ledaren i samtalen har en stor betydelse för möjligheterna till ledarskapsutveckling genom dessa samtal. Den andra påverkande faktorn är huruvida medarbetarsamtalen har formella inslag av ledarskap eller ej. Vi har inte kunnat se att synen ledarna har på sitt eget ledarskap eller att benägenheten till självutveckling påverkar vad ledarna har lärt sig om ledarskap av medarbetarsamtalen.

  • Lina, Andersson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Giftfri förskola: Arbetet med att rensa bort plast i förskoleverksamheten i Sveriges kommuner med fokus på Umeå kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children are sensitive to exposure of endocrine disrupting substances that may affect reproduction, cognition and the development of allergies and cancer. Therefor it is of importance to strive for a toxic free indoor environment both at home and at preschools. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent preschools are eliminating plastic to diminish the toxic environment in different municipalities of Sweden. The report will also investigate more specific how an information campaign conducted by the environmental office in Umeå affected the reduction of plastic at preschools in the municipality. The study included three different surveys directed to municipalities of Sweden, the management of preschools of Umeå and preschool teachers in Umeå. Despite the low response rate in the different surveys the result of clearing plastic was positive. Among municipalities of Sweden, 42 % indicated that they have started the process of clearing plastic, the management of preschools of Umeå, 94 % answered that the work has started. The preschool teachers in Umeå, 93% of the respondents stated that the process of eliminating plastic have started and approximately 2/3 of the plastic toys were eliminated. To conclude the work for a more toxic free environment in preschool in Sweden is progressing in a right direction towards a healthier setting for the children 

  • Larsson, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Förekomst av ftalater i Umeås spillvatten: En kartläggning av mängden ftalater i de olika upptagningsområdena till Öns avloppsreningsverk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the amount of phthalates in the wastewater in Umeå and if possible determine if specific areas in the city contributes in a higher extent to the amount of phthalates in the influent in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), Ön. Wastewater samples were collected at 6 sampling points, i.e. pump stations, directly connected to Ön’s WWTP. The result showed that the sampling point U9 contributed to the largest amounts of phthalates in the influent to Ön’s WWTP, over 47 %. However, to U9 are more than 60 % of the total registered inhabitants in Umeå connected. 4 out of 6 sampling points had a correlation between the number of registered inhabitants in the area and the phthalate amount leading to a conclusion of diffuse leakage from building materials. One sampling point, T5, with only 0,03 % of the total amount of registered inhabitants to Ön’s WWTP contributed with almost 12 % of the total amount of phthalates in the influent. Leading to the conclusion that the high amount of phthalates at T5 can be caused by a point source. There is a difference in amounts of phthalates in the wastewater from different areas in Umeå. Mainly caused by the number of inhabitants but also point sources. The rate of reduction of phthalates at Ön’s WWTP was more than 92 % for di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP).

  • Pörn, Sebastian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Rönnblom, Arvid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Assesing counterparty risk classification using transition matrices: Comparing models' predictive ability2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An important part when managing credit risk is to assess the probability of default of different counterparties. Increases and decreases in such probabil- ities are central components in the assessment, and this is where transition matrices become useful. These matrices are commonly used tools when as- sessing counterparty credit risk, and contain the probability of default, as well as the probability to migrate between different predefined rating classifica- tions. These rating classifications are used to reflect the risk taken towards different counterparties. Therefore, it is important for financial institutions to develop accurate transition matrix models to manage predicted changes in credit risk exposure. This is because counterparty creditworthiness and prob- ability of default indirectly affect expected loss and the capital requirement of held capital.

    This thesis will analyze how two specific models perform when used for generating transition matrices. These models will be tested to investigate their performance when predicting rating transitions, including probability of default. 

  • Åhlund, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    LCC av eventuell utbyggnad av fjärrvärmenätet i Falun.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work has been carried out on behalf of and together with Falu Energi och Vatten. The purpose of the work was to study under what circumstances it´s economically profitable to expand the district heating network to residential area with electrical heating compared to keep it as it is today. The expansion of the district heating network will also be simulated to investigate if the existing dimensions of the network are big enough to provide enough heat after the expansion.

    In this work three different areas in Falun city area has been studied. Two areas (Ritar-, and Skrivarvägen and Digertäktsvägen) where there is no district heating today, and one area (residential district Haraldsbo) where a part of the area is connected to the district heating network and some are not.

    The study has been performed under the assumption that the production in the facilities are sufficient for providing also the new areas with heat without any need of new facilities. Another limitation that has been set is that only fuel costs will be taken into account in the production costs for district heating.

    From the calculations of the net present value for the three different areas with expansions of the district heating system, compared to the calculations of the net present value of keeping it as it is today showed that Ritar-, and Skrivarvägen will need to have at least 30-35% households connected to have the same or higher net present value. The corresponding values for Digertäktsvägen is 35-45% connected households and för Haraldsbo around 15% connected households.

    It was also examined how the connection rates influenced the prize for the households, if the net present value was going to be equal or bigger than for the present situation without any connection cost.  It was found that for Harladsbo where there already are some households with district heating only 15% of the today not connected needed to sign up for district heating and in the areas that does not have any district heating today (Ritar-, and Skrivarvägen and Digertäktsvägen) 50-70% needed to sign up for district heating.

    “Falu Energi och Vatten” calculations today demand a payback time of 12 years of the investment in the district heating infrastructure. To get that 30 -40% needed to connect in Ritar-, and Skrivarvägen and Digertäktsvägen, on Haraldsbo the connection rate had to be over 15%.

    The results from the simulations made on the district heating infrastructure showed that on Ritar-, and Skrivarvägen the network is sufficient to supply the whole area with heat at the dimensional outdoor temperature of -23°C, also with 100% connections on Haraldsbo the pressure difference, flow speed and pressure gradient are within the permitted span. Simulations of Haraldsbo showed that with a connection rate of 100% the pressure difference got to low in one corner of the area. If the connection rate instead is 50% at Haraldsbo the area manage to keep the pressure difference at an approved level of 160 kPa, if we then also connect 100% at Ritar-, and Skrivarvägen, the pressure difference sinks down to 100 kPa which is the absolute lowest that is permitted.

  • Larsson, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Currency Basis Swap Valuation: Theory & Practise2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Banks finance their operations in several ways, by shareholders equity, receiving deposits from customers and by borrowing from investors and other financial institutions. One widely used approach is to issue a bond. Bonds issued on the foreign capital markets is a way to increase the financing options and mitigate risk exposure. When a bank converts foreign capital to domestic capital, there is a degree of currency risk involved. One commonly used instrument for converting capital from one currency to another is a cross currency swap.

    Since the Global Financial Crisis 2007-2009 regulations imposed by regulators have increased. Banks are required to have sound risk management practises where risk exposure is estimated. In response to recent regulations banks have several departments which assess and follow up risks taken in the operations. As a result, at least two systems are used when valuing financial instruments, one where all trades are conducted, the front office system, and one where risk exposure is estimated, the risk system.

    The aim of this project is to investigate why there is a discrepancy between the two systems. We will also analyse how this discrepancy affects risk measures.

    By replicating the two systems’ valuation it is possible to distinguish why there is a discrep- ancy between the systems, regarding the valuation of cross currency basis swaps. When the replication is in place, risk measure calculations are conducted to enable analysis of the impact on risk measures. There are two main differences found between the two systems and how they value a cross currency basis swap: (i) how the underlying risk factors are used; and (ii) how an upcoming cash flow is settled. The effect of these discrepancies are that the risk system overestimate the risk exposure compared with the front office system. 

  • Lundberg, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Söderlund, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Flow simulation of Body In White: Optimization of the production sequence and identification of bottlenecks at Volvo Trucks plant in Umeå2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a discrete event model was created and used in combination with an optimization method to find the optimal production sequence at Volvo Group’s cab plant in Umeå. The optimization was performed with a heuristic approach combined with a genetic search algorithm. The result provides an optimized production sequence with an increased production performance. Potential improvements in the production flow were identified to significantly increase the throughput.

    Volvo Group Trucks Operations plant in Umeå is a part of Volvo Group AB and is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of heavy duty trucks. The plant in Umeå produces cab bodies and consists of Stamping and Part production, Body In White and the Paint Shop. As of today, the plant produces about XXX produced cabs per week with the goal to achieve the invested capacity of 1666 produced cabs per week.

    The production is structured with a daily scheduling of the cab production. Today cabs are produced in the same sequence as the orders are received. There has been an investigation regarding the production capacity in the past but further investigation was required due to insufficient data available at the time. Volvo wants to investigate the potential improvements in the BIW unit, increase the production rate and reach the level of invested capacity. Therefore, this project was introduced which led to the following problem definition:

    “What is the optimal production sequence in the BIW unit?”

    To further find potential improvements, a secondary problem definition got formulated:

    “How would the production sequence be affected if the current biggest bottleneck were removed?”

    The objective was achieved with Discrete Event Simulation, where heuristic based sequences were optimized in a genetic search algorithm. This resulted in identified sequence patterns, which were used to improve the production sequence. When analyzing the model, the floor subflow was identified as the biggest bottleneck in the production.

    A general suggestion would be to avoid large batches due to significant risk of limiting the throughput. Results suggest that sequences should be in cycles of 3FH-1FM with segments of batches as long as the floor buffer does not run out of parts. This resulted in a potential increased throughput of 3.2-3.7% for the Body In White. If the biggest bottleneck were to be removed, there would be a potential production increase by roughly 10% compared to the production today.

  • Lindgren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energikartläggning för Norconsults 18 kontor i Sverige2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, June 1, 2014, law 2014: 266 on energy mapping in large companies came into force. An energy mapping is a map of the company's energy use. It describes what type of energy carrier is used, electricity, district heating, fuel, and how big the consumption is. It also describes the part in which this energy is used within the company, for example in business or transport.

    The purpose of making an energy mapping is to get an overview of the consumption of energy in the company and to find possible actions to reduce the consumption and the cost for energy.

    This energy mapping deals with Norconsult's 18 offices operations in Sweden. The project also includes Norconsult Fältgeoteknik AB, a subsidiary of Norconsult.

    The result from the energy mapping was that the total energy consumption for the company 2016 was 3 588 MWh. The total cost of all consumed energy is estimated to approximately 3 100 000 SEK in 2016. The energy consumption of the company is divided into three different uses, district heating, electricity and transport.

    From the result the total use for the transport accounts for 56 percent of total consumption, 26 percent of transportation is Norconsult's consumption of gasoline and 20 percent is Norconsult Fältgeoteknik's consumption of diesel. 21 percent of the total consumption is electricity, and 20 percent is district heating. 

    Based on the overall energy use, examples for energy reductions have been made for the various areas, which has given an opportunity to improve energy use at the company Norconsult. The suggestions are presented below. 

    The Gothenburg office uses district heating and district cooling. For several months in 2016, these systems were running simultaneously. The conclusion is that there is a significant savings possibility, as there is no need for costing to fix the problem, just an adjustment of the control of heat and cooling.

    Monitors and computers are often in sleep mode during evenings and weekends, which causes unnecessary energy. By establishing routines for shutting down screens, computers and printers, it can make energy saving of 2.4 percent of total electricity consumption.  

    In 2016 Norconsult personnel flew 159 times from Stockholm to Gothenburg. This resulted in an increased energy consumption of 13.18 MWh compared to if the travels were made by train. This amount stands for 0.37 percent of the total energy consumption, which is not very much. However, air transport consumes energy through combustion of aviation fuel, while energy consumption for trains is by electricity. Electricity is a much purer source of energy emissions, which results in a reduced environmental impact. The conclusion it that it is possible to save both money, time and reducing the negative effect on the environment by switching from flights to rail transport.

  • Bergström, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Nordström, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Skräddarsydda Kundrelationer: En kvalitativ studie om kundrelationer inom private banking2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Banksektorn har genomgått stora förändringar den senaste tiden i den mening att stora delar av bankens tjänsteutbud har digitaliserats. Det har spekulerats kring huruvida detta har lett till mer eller mindre nöjda kunder med tanke på att kundmötena har minskat. Servicekvalitet har bevisats leda till nöjda kunder vilket i sin tur leder till lojalitet. Förmögna kunder har visat sig kräva mer av sin bankman och kan därför antas kräva mer i form av en personlig relation för att uppleva att servicen är av hög kvalitet. Därmed ställs det krav på bankrådgivare som hanterar detta kundsegment att kunna skapa goda kundrelationer. 

    Denna studie undersöker hur rådgivare hanterar sina kunder inom private banking. Syftet med studien är att förstå hur rådgivare inom private banking arbetar för att skapa och upprätthålla goda kundrelationer och därmed skapa hög servicekvalitet. Studien avser att skapa en kartläggning över hur rådgivare hanterar sina kunder samt studera sambandet mellan servicekvalitet och emotionell intelligens. För att kunna besvara syftet har vi gjort en kvalitativ studie där vi genomfört semi-strukturerade intervjuer med sju personer från fyra svenska storbanker. Den empiriska undersökningen har grundat sig i teorier om servicekvalitet och emotionell intelligens. 

    Studiens frågeställning är följande: Hur arbetar svenska storbanker med sina kundrelationer inom private banking? Studien visar att rådgivarna är medvetna om kundernas värde för banken vilket medför att de strävar att leverera hög kvalitet i både relation och service. Rådgivarna har förståelse för att förmögna kunder kräver mer i form av både professionalitet och personlig relation. Resultatet uppvisar att det är fyra dimensioner som respondenterna framförallt fokuserar på; privilegiera, förtroende, förståelse och hantera motgångar och genom att vara emotionellt intelligent i samtliga dimensioner så uppnås hög relationskvalitet. 

  • Rist, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Hällerstrand, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Corporate Sustainability in the context of a cross-border acquisition integration2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing global challenges, such as natural disasters, poverty and many others, pose new threats to societies and businesses. Therefore, companies increase their engagement in Corporate Sustainability (CS), which connects social, environmental and economic responsibilities. Through this approach, CS aims at overcoming environmental and social constraints in a business context to increase competitiveness in today’s fast-changing world. This fast pace, with which the business environment changes, is related to external influences, such as the above-mentioned climate change, and to fundamental structural developments. One of those is the increasing number of emerging-market companies (EMNCs) that internationalize rapidly through cross-border M&A deals, also into developed markets. Since both trends, the increase in CS engagement and the growing international M&A activity of EMNCs, gain in practical and academic importance, we conducted our study under the following research question.

    How is CS integrated on a strategic level after a cross-border acquisition by an EMNC?

    The theoretical angle from which we approached the topic aligns with the resource-based view, including the natural-resource-based view, and a stakeholder perspective. When reviewing the literature regarding CS, it became clear that substantial outcomes are still lacking despite an increasing commitment to CS. This difficulty can be linked to the variety of interpretations regarding the conception of CS and the resulting confusion among implicated parties. The review of M&A literature, with a special focus on EMNCs, revealed that these companies deploy a unique approach, which is characterized by the soft post-M&A integration of the target to allow organizational learning within both businesses.

    Therefore, our empirical research aimed at exploring how the strategic CS of both companies, the target and the parent, influence each other and thus, develop towards a common CS strategy. The longitudinal single case study we selected, allowed us to investigate this research proposal. Through the collection and analysis of documentary data enriched by semi-structured interviews, our study revealed the following. The exchange of knowledge and CS-related communication represented the basis for the integration of strategic CS as it nurtures organizational learning. Consequently, the CS strategies of both companies increased in maturity, which means that their sophistication evolved. In addition, we also found that the target developed towards a more permissive sustainability to align with its parent company’s CS strategy. Our main study contributions relate to an enhancement of the theoretical knowledge in the related fields. Besides this, we also identified critical practical issues, such as the importance of establishing a common conception of CS to ensure a successful CS integration on a strategic level.

  • Nilsson, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Thalin, Albin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Value delivery and sales: A qualitative case study on how IT-startups can improve their sales process2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many entrepreneurs pursue the IT-industry, which is characterized by opportunities and international growth. However, due to failures in sales, marketing and operations, many IT-startups never reach profitability and sustainable performance.  On behalf of the IT-startup Realbridge, the authors have been asked to investigate how their sales process can be made more efficient. By identifying elements in the sales process, the authors can provide suggestions supported by theories and qualitative data on how Realbridge and similar companies can redesign and improve their sales process. The study further investigates the role of sales in the business model and how a changed sales process impact value delivery and innovate the business model. Consequently, the thesis aims to answer the following research questions:

    • How does a firm’s sales process impact value delivery in the business model?
    • How can small IT-companies similar to Realbridge and their product improve their sales process efficiency?

    This degree project has several purposes. Firstly, it aims to further investigate the role of sales in value delivery in the business model. This will extend knowledge and research on value delivery and sales, and will further investigate the relationship between components of the business model. Secondly, it will serve as a guide for managers in IT-firms on how they can improve the sales process. Thirdly, it will create an understanding of how IT-firms similar to Realbridge can develop or innovate their business model in terms of changed value delivery, key activities and sales process.

    As the aim of this study is to extend knowledge in the business model and sales literature, as well as analyze Realbridge’s sales process and culminate in recommendations on how IT-startups can increase their sales efficiency, this degree project takes form as a qualitative case study. Interviews have been conducted with interviewees in four different organizations with three different perspectives: Realbridge’s perspective, customer in the car dealership industry’s perspective and non-customer in the car dealership industry’s perspective. The data has been processed in accordance to thematic analysis.

    The analysis has led the authors to the conclusion that a changed sales process impact value delivery and consequently innovate the business model. It is also found that the sales process impact value creation and capture. Moreover, in order to effectively design a sales process, Realbridge and similar companies must effectively segment the market, focus on fewer segments initially and target them according to their expected financial contribution. They should state and communicate a specific value proposition related to the approached segment’s main needs. Furthermore, customer preferences have to be accounted for in terms of sales channels and type of relationships, and it can be seen as a financial risk to maximize value creation and value delivery for all customers.

  • Hjältén, J.
    et al.
    Hägglund, R.
    Löfroth, T.
    Roberge, J-M
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Olsson, J.
    Forest restoration by burning and gap cutting of voluntary set-asides yield distinct immediate effects on saproxylic beetles2017In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 26, no 7, 1623-1640 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the importance of restoring natural forest disturbance regimes and habitat structures for biodiversity is widely recognized. We evaluated the immediate effects of two restoration methods on wood-inhabiting (saproxylic) beetles in boreal forest voluntary set-asides. We used a before-after control-impact experimental set-up in 15 set-asides; each assigned to one of three treatments: (1) restoration burning, (2) gap cutting and (3) no-treatment reference stands. Before treatment, abundance, species richness and assemblage composition of trapped beetles did not differ significantly among treatments. Burning resulted in a significant change in assemblage composition and increased species richness and abundance compared to reference stands. As predicted, saproxylic species known to be fire favoured increased dramatically after burning. The immediate response shows that, initially, fire favoured species are attracted from the surrounding landscape and not produced on site. Gap cutting increased the abundance of cambium consumers but had no significant effect on total species richness or assemblage composition of saproxylic beetles. The stronger effect of burning compared to gap cutting on saproxylic assemblages is probably due to the very specific conditions created by fires that attracts many disturbance-dependent species, but that at the same time disfavour some disturbance-sensitive species. By contrast, gap cutting maintained assemblage composition, increased abundances and is likely to increase species richness in the years to follow, due to elevated level of dead wood. The restoration methods applied in this study may prove particularly useful, partly because of positive effect on saproxylic beetles, but also due to the cost-efficiency of the measures; the voluntary set-asides were already established and the restoration costs fully covered by revenue from the extracted timber.

  • Holmström, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Dimensionering och praktiska försök av kopplingar i HD/F-plattor2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hollow core slabs are a common concrete product that reduces material costs and is used, among other things, where you want longer ranges for a more open plan solution. Strängbetong designs, manufactures and assembles prefabricated concrete elements where hollow core slabs are one of the products. To get a stable and robust construction, the concrete elements need to be connected. This in order to avoid progressive collapse of a building in case of an accident, such as an collision or explosion. This dissertation aiming to investigate two so-called collapse-couplings between a hollow core slab and a concrete wall. One of the connections is according to Strängbetong's standard and is designed with a S-reinforcing bar in the hollow core slab void, but this standard solution provides extra work in the manufacture. That's why it's an advantage, if it is practically possible, to assemble the bar in the joint between two slabs instead. The tests are in order to investigate whether the bended reinforcement bar becomes enought enclosed by concrete and that the concrete in the joint does not crack apart. The results from the practical part and from the theoretical calculation are then compiled to see if the reality differs from the theory. The capacity of the jack was 20 ton, which made the tests limited to only note that the pull-out capacity of a hollow core slab joint and void is at least 195 kN. The result of the tests gave material ultimate in the reinforcement. The results show that it is possible to replace today's standard connection in the void by instead assembly the bar in the joint between two slabs. The dissertation can be seen as an attempt to test if the connection is a possible solotion and the work may be the basis for further study.

  • Atik Gumuscu, Sezen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Use of marketing communication tools by micro and small enterprises: A case study based on three small restaurants in Umeå2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Changing and development characterize all areas of life in contemporary world, also businesses have begun to move from traditional marketing approaches to relationship marketing which is a customer based approach. New marketing strategies and application have developed for reaching more customers and keeping existing customers. Marketing communication tools are one of these marketing strategies. However, the application of these strategies like marketing communication tools is based on enterprises ́ budget. In this context,small enterprises are more influencedthan large organizations as relating to high costs. This study examines a fundamental issue using marketing communication tools by small businesses, i.e., the functions such toolsto build new customers or keep existing customers. I argue that small firms face some challenges applyingmarketing communication tools such as, financial limitations and lack of marketing experience. In addition, the fact that small firms struggle with theselimitations has been studied through this study. A qualitative research strategy has been applied with the semi-structured interviews to collect the data for this study. In order to collect data for this study appropriate sampling strategy was used and this study includes primary data about three micro and small restaurants that are available and accessible in the environment that is in northern Sweden, Umeå. The interviews have been structured based on the previous theories identified in marketing communication tools. To summarize, basing on analyzingfindings the most used marketing communication tools advertising, Internet and sales promotion by three small restaurants and financial limitations have been most important barriers to applymarketing communication tools by small restaurant businesses. Because of this reason, small sized restaurants have not used marketing communication tools according to their needs. The results of this study also show that although the importance of marketing communication tools is known by small firms, but these businesses cannot encourage for improving their marketing activities because of challenging limitations. For improving the known potential efficiency of marketing communication tools for small firms, marketing communication tools should be used as professionally by small firms and small firms should separate budget to use these tools.

  • Söderlund, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Autonomous email notification- and booking management system: In a property administration environment2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The contracting company is in the desire of an autonomous system that can do tedious administrative work that is today done manually. They would like to autonomically notify customers about incoming alarms from the customers’ real estates’ Data Under Centrals and to notify about bookings, in which a complete booking system has to be created, together with a file system analyzer that notifies about new files in the customers’ project folders. A notification system was made that was easily deployable and ready to use. The system had to be completely configurable for the contracting company to use it to its full potential. The notification system was to send notifications when a new alarm had entered the database, a booking had to be reminded of, a rebooking was made or a file had been added to the file system in a designated project folder. The contracting company had a web portal that was further developed in ASP.net in which a booking calendar and booking viewer page was added together with a form creation and management system. A demo buttons page was also added for generating demo notifications for the company to show it’s customers how the system responds to certain events. The employees at GATE IBS feel confident that this system will help them in their working environment to further strengthen their position as an industry leading business in control- and monitoring technology.

  • Ingolfsdotter, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Viklund, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Success Factors of Swedish Sequential Gazelle Companies: A study on differentiating firm attributes and the significance of using external professional business services2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are big contributors to today’s business

    environment and the society as a whole, and their contributions are highly valued.

    Gazelle companies can be seen as the most successful SMEs and hence the interest to

    analyze them. Far from all companies succeed to maintain a profitable growth and

    recieve the Gazelle title sequential times. Due to this, this research aims to answer the

    question what differentiates sequential Gazelle companies from one time Gazelle

    companies. In Sweden, the Gazelle title is announced to companies who fulfill certain

    criteria, meaning that they are homogenous in many ways. However, there must be

    some differences since some succeed to maintain the title whereas others do not. By the

    following research question, this research intends to identify some of these

    differentiating attributes.

    Is there a difference between sequential Gazelle companies and one time

    Gazelle companies regarding the chosen firm attributes?

    Existing research show that one common factor behind maintained profitable growth is

    the ability to ask for help in fields where management competence is lacking. It is

    argued that this help can be in form of external professional business services and hence

    this research intends to answer this second research question:

    Do usage of external professional business services contribute to sequential

    Gazelle title?

    Since the ability to maintain profitable growth is discussed to depend on internal

    competence and knowledge, or lack thereof, Resource-Based Theory is found to be an

    appropriate explanation tool. This theory is supported by the Stages of Growth model to

    further explain the development of the firms.

    This research had a quantitative method where a survey was used to collect data. In

    order to accept/reject the formed hypotheses, the data was imported to SPSS where it

    was statistically tested in two separate logistic regressions. The results of this research

    statistically show that the mixture of the included firm attributes do differ between

    sequential Gazelle companies and one time Gazelle companies. However, the test

    proved nonsignificant when examining the usage of external professional services. This

    means that even though there were indications of high importance, one cannot

    statistically argue that usage of external professional business services leads to

    sequential Gazelle title.

  • Al-Obaidi, Mays
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Effekt av vitamin A-tillskott på mortalitet och morbiditet hos barn mellan 6 månader och 6 års ålder: En litteraturstudie med fokus på effekter av vitaminA-tillskott på dödlighet och sjuklighet i diarré och luftvägsinfektioner hos barn i utvecklingsländer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Shaker, Fatema
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Läkemedelsinducerad agranulocytos2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Svantesson, Elise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Hepatorenalt syndrom: Rådande teorier om patomekanismer och terlipressins plats i behandlingen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ritchey, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Har klozapin eller olanzapin högre risk för metabola biverkningar?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Suikki, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Modern hälsooro, stress och somatisering som möjliga riskfaktorer för utveckling av särskild miljökänslighet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern health worry (MHW) has been shown to correlate with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) and somatoform disorders in numerous studies. This study aimed to investigate if MHW, stress and somatization are possible factors in developing an IEI for chemicals and/or electromagnetic fields (EMF). Hierarchic regression analyses were conducted on data from respondents in the Västerbotten Environmental Health Survey (VEHS) who had answered the survey at two survey occasions (2010 and 2013; n=2336). The respondents were between 18-79 years old at the first survey in 2010. The respondents were 56% female and 44% male. IEI were examined with the Chemical Sensitivity Scale for Sensory Hyperreactivity and Electromagnetic Field Sensitivity Scale, MHW with the Modern Health Worries Scale, somatization with the Patient Health Questionnaire 15-Item Somatic Symptom Severity Scale and stress with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale. Factors that were controlled for statistically were age, sex, anxiety, depression, burnout, and highest education level. Results show that an increase in MHW over time but not stress or somatization was correlated with an increase in IEI for chemicals. For an increase in IEI against EMF MHW was also correlated, but here stress also had a significant correlation, but not somatization. However, the explained variance was low. As a first study of its kind it is interesting and opens up for more follow-up studies.

  • Bergh, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Intra-Familial and Extra-Familial Child Sexual Abuse: Differences in Swedish Court Cases2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) has been shown to differ depending on the relationship between child complainant and defendant, yet no found studies have compared intra-familial and extra-familial CSA in Sweden. The present thesis aimed to study quantitative differences between alleged intra-familial and extra-familial cases of CSA. Cases from Swedish District Courts (n = 174) of sexual abuse against children up to 7 years old were analyzed. In line with previous research, several differences in characteristics between alleged intra- and extra-familial cases were found. A significant difference in juridical decision to convict or acquit was also shown, with more intra-familial cases resulting in acquittal and more extra-familial cases resulting in conviction. Extra-familial relationship was also a significant predictor to conviction. Future studies may want to further examine whether an explanation for the difference in juridical decision could be found in differences in evidence provided.