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  • Andersson, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Influence of File Systems on Performance When Working with an Abundance of Small Files2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance computing is widely used within the scientific community to perform demanding computational work. Using the resources available at a high-performance center in an efficient manner is of great importance. One potential bottleneck for high-performance computing is file systems.

    In this study two different file systems, the Lustre file system and MATLAB Datastore, have been evaluated in terms of performance when performing computations on an abundance of small files. The performance test consisted of classification of large numbers of small (<2 megabytes) images in MATLAB using the high-performance computer system Kebnekaise at HPC2N in Umeå.

    Results indicate that MATLAB Datastore gives better performance than the Lustre file system for all images sets tested in the study. This makes it possible to recommend using MATLAB Datastore over the Lustre file system in situations where large number of smaller files are to be read and from the file system.

  • Danielsson, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vetenskap, beprövad erfarenhet och lärares verklighet: En intervjustudie av lärares förhållande till policyn om vetenskapliggrund och beprövad erfarenhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2010 infördes en ny del i skollagen som fastslog att ”Undervisningen ska vila på vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet”. Samtidigt ger forskning på området vissa indikationer om att lagen inte implementeras i enlighet med Skolverkets förtydliganden. Därför ställer sig den föreliggande undersökningen frågorna ”Hur anpassar lärare sin användning av läxor efter lagen om att ”Undervisningen ska vila på vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet”?” och ”Hur kan bakgrunden till lärarnas anpassningar förklaras?”. För att svara på frågorna genomfördes en kvalitativ intervjustudie, vars resultat analyserades med hjälp av verktyg från implementeringsteorins ”bottom-up”-forskning. Resultaten visade på att de intervjuade lärarna inte tycktes implementera Skolverkets tolkning av lagen om vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet när de arbetade med läxor. Detta berodde enligt uppsatsens resultat på att lärarna, i sin strävan att hantera olika hinder för implementering av lagens formella innebörd, utvecklar egna, alternativa, tolkningar av lagens betydelse. Uppsatsens slutsats är att lärarnas tolkningar, handlingar och viljeyttringar verkar leda till en omformning av policyns innebörd och utfall. För att bekräfta dessa slutsatser krävs dock ytterligare forskning.

  • Borysiewicz, Honorata
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Implementering av elektroniska patientjournaler sett från läkarnas perspektiv: en fallstudie från ett distriktsjukhus i nordöstra Polen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det juridiska kravet på polska vårdinrättningar att föra patientjournaler i elektronisk form skulle ha trätt i kraft den 1 augusti 2014 men deadline har redan flyttats fram ett par gånger. Vissa experter hävdar att en av anledningarna till detta är en negativ attityd till reformen hos läkare som inte vill överge det nuvarande sättet att föra patientjournal.

    Syftet med denna studie är mot bakgrund av detta att undersöka vilka möjligheter att implementera reformen om e-journaler läkarna i Polen anser sig ha. Detta analyserars utifrån implementeringsteorins tre ben – förstå, vilja och kunna. Det empiriska underlaget för analysen har inhämtats genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med läkare och annan personal anställd på ett distriktsjukhus i nordöstra Polen. Det insamlade materialet analyseras med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Vidare är detta en fallstudie, men utifrån denna studie kan även en mer tentativ diskussion föras om svårigheterna att implementera reformen generellt i Polen.

    Från den genomförde analysen framgår att ingen av de tre ovannämnda villkoren är helt uppfylld, och brister särskilt framträder vad gäller villkoret "förstå", vilket kan förklara problemen med implementeringen av reformen. Trots den bristande förståelsen och brister vad gäller sjukhusets tekniska utrustning har de flesta av de intervjuade läkarna dock en positiv inställning till reformen, vilket är på det

  • Sandra, Berggren
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sehlstedt, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    ALLA SITTER I SAMMA BÅT -   MOT SAMMA MÅL.: Medarbetares upplevelser av att arbeta i ett värderingsstyrt tillväxtbolag.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen har satt som mål att 98% av alla hushåll och företag i Sverige ska ha tillgång till bredband innan år 2025. Detta har ökat kravet på snabbt växande infrastruktur, vilket gjort byNet till ett tillväxtbolag i snabb utveckling. Organisationen är värderingsstyrd och strävar mot att använda sig av värderingar som främsta styrmedel för medarbetarna.Denna studie är utförd på uppdrag av byNet, och syftet med studien var att kartlägga och beskriva medarbetarnas upplevelse av att arbeta i en organisation och situation som denna.En enkätundersökning genomfördes med företagets anställda som målgrupp. Både kvantitativa och kvalitativa data samlades in för att få en bredare bild av medarbetarnas åsikter, samt mer djupgående förklaringar till svaren. Fokus i undersökningen var indelat i tre teman; tillväxt och arbetssituation, arbetsmiljö och värderingar. Resultatet visar  till stor del var nöjda med sin arbetssituation och fann tillväxten utmanande och spännande. Många var motiverade i sitt arbete och kände stöd från sina chefer och kollegor. Stressnivåerna bland respondenterna var dock höga, och brist på rutiner framkom som bidragande faktor till detta. Gällande byNets värderingar visade de sig vara relativt väl förankrade bland medarbetarna och sågs som någonting att luta sig tillbaka mot i sitt arbetssätt. I vidare arbete med dessa frågor uppmuntrar vi byNet att bland annat fundera över hur medarbetare som upplever negativ stress kan stöttas i prioritering samt fortsatt utökad dialog med medarbetarna kring värderingar och dess påverkan på bedrivet arbete.

  • Bäcklund, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Larsson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vem stannar och vem flyttar?: En studie om faktorer till påbörjat, avslutat och fortsatt arbete inom en inlandskommun i Västerbottens län.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska urbaniseringen har medfört att cirka hälften av kommunerna i Sverige krymper i befolkningsantal. Detta har inneburit utmaningar och svårigheter för de krympande kommunerna att hitta den kompetens som krävs för att kunna utföra de tjänster de är ålagda att erbjuda sina medborgare.Syftet med denna rapport var att undersöka varför medarbetare inom inlandskommun X väljer att påbörja, fortsätta och eventuella avsikter till att avsluta sin anställning. Genom att intervjua medarbetare inom bristyrken inom offentlig sektor framkom att arbetsmässiga faktorer såsom arbetsmiljö, arbetsbelastning och arbetssysslor i kombination med platsbundna faktorer såsom närhet till natur, jakt och friluftsliv bidrar till dessa intentioner.

  • Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fors, Hampus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Intern employer branding. Hur kan Piteå kommun stärka sitt varumärke som en attraktiv arbetsgivare bland sina anställda?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva och analysera hur Piteå kommun genom intern employer branding kan stärka varumärket som en attraktiv arbetsgivare utifrån de anställdas perspektiv. I studien ingår också ett genusperspektiv där likheter och skillnader mellan kvinnor och män i uppfattningen om en attraktiv arbetsgivare i allmänhet och om Piteå kommun som arbetsgivare analyseras. I studien användes en kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer. Intervjuerna genomfördes med åtta stycken informanter som samtliga har en anställning på Piteå kommun. Studien inspirerades av ett fenomenografiskt angreppssätt, vilket lämpar sig väl för att beskriva olika individers uppfattningar om sin omvärld. Det framkom att anställda på Piteå kommun tycker att det som gör organisationen till en attraktiv arbetsgivare är en känsla av trygghet i anställningen, betydelsefulla arbetsuppgifter och att det finns en mottaglighet för nytänk. Vidare ansågs organisationen som flexibel tack vare god kommunikation och att det fanns ett förtroende för de anställdas kompetens. För att bli ännu attraktivare som arbetsgivare och stärka sitt interna employer brand ytterligare bör organisationen se över vissa förbättringsområden. Dessa är att bli bättre på att visa uppskattning, jobba mer enhetligt inom organisationen samt förbättra utvecklingsmöjligheterna. Dessutom fanns en önskan om en tydligare riktning vart organisation vill och att kritiskt granska arbetssätten. Slutsatsen blev att Piteå kommun överlag upplevs som en attraktiv arbetsgivare men att det fortfarande finns förbättringsmöjligheter.

  • Ahne, Gustaf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Andersson, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    EN UTMANING SOM BERÖR ALLA.: n studie om kompetensförsörjning i en inlandsort.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle blir det allt tuffare för glesbebyggda inlandskommuner att kunna attrahera och rekrytera personal för samhällsviktiga tjänster. Dessa kommuner måste lägga ner mer resurser på att ha en väl grundad kompetensförsörjningsplan. Genom arbetet med kompetensförsörjning kan kommunerna ge en tydligare bild kring möjligheterna för de som arbetar inom kommunerna. Men vad behöver dessa glesbebyggda inlandskommuner göra för att kunna attrahera människor till kommunen? Och vad kan ett samarbete mellan kommun och näringsliv bidra till gällande kompetensförsörjning?Det huvudsakliga syftet med den här studien är att kunna ge ett underlag för kompetensförsörjning för glesbebyggda inlandskommuner. Den här studien har genomförts i Malå kommun med kommunen och näringslivet. Studien har genomförts med en kvalitativ ansats genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med chefer från både kommun och näringsliv.Studien har visat att marknadsföringen av både Malå kommun och näringslivet som arbetsgivare kan förbättras. Vidare behöver samarbetet mellan kommunen och näringslivet behöver fungera väl för att få en förståelse mellan partnerna. Detta för att tillsammans arbeta ut vad som är bra för Malå kommun.

  • Atiomo, William
    et al.
    Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir
    Chapman, Caroline
    Metzler, Veronika M.
    Abouzeid, Jad
    Latif, Ayşe
    Chadwick, Amy
    Kitson, Sarah
    Sivalingam, Vanitha N.
    Stratford, Ian J.
    Rutland, Catrin S.
    Persson, Jenny L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Clinical Research Center, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ødum, Niels
    Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo
    Jeyapalan, Jennie N.
    Heery, David M.
    Crosbie, Emma J.
    Mongan, Nigel P.
    Expression of NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) is increased in the endometrium of women with endometrial cancer and women with polycystic ovary syndrome2017In: Clinical Endocrinology, ISSN 0300-0664, E-ISSN 1365-2265, Vol. 87, no 5, 557-565 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Women with a prior history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of endometrial cancer (EC). Aim: To investigate whether the endometrium of women with PCOS possesses gene expression changes similar to those found in EC. Design and Methods: Patients with EC, PCOS and control women unaffected by either PCOS or EC were recruited into a cross-sectional study at the Nottingham University Hospital, UK. For RNA sequencing, representative individual endometrial biopsies were obtained from women with EC, PCOS and a woman unaffected by PCOS or EC. Expression of a subset of differentially expressed genes identified by RNA sequencing, including NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), was validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR validation (n = 76) and in the cancer genome atlas UCEC (uterine corpus endometrioid carcinoma) RNA sequencing data set (n = 381). The expression of NQO1 was validated by immunohistochemistry in EC samples from a separate cohort (n = 91) comprised of consecutive patients who underwent hysterectomy at St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, between 2011 and 2013. A further 6 postmenopausal women with histologically normal endometrium who underwent hysterectomy for genital prolapse were also included. Informed consent and local ethics approval were obtained for the study. Results: We show for the first that NQO1 expression is significantly increased in the endometrium of women with PCOS and EC. Immunohistochemistry confirms significantly increased NQO1 protein expression in EC relative to nonmalignant endometrial tissue (P < .0001). Conclusions: The results obtained here support a previously unrecognized molecular link between PCOS and EC involving NQO1.

  • Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Berggren, Zacharias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A Comparison Between MongoDB and MySQL Document Store Considering Performance2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Databases are an important part of today’s applications where data has to be stored and accessed quickly. One of the important criteria when choosing what database technology to use is performance, where you want the operations to be as fast as possible.

    In April 2016 Oracle released a alternative way of working with MySQL as a document store. This creates an opportunity to compare it to MongoDB which is one of the most popular document store databases.

    The comparison was performed by testing different operations on the databases and comparing the resulting time it took.

    The result showed that MongoDB was faster in every test case for every operation.

  • Wicht, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kvinnligt deltagande i DDR-processer: En jämförande studie mellan Liberia och Nepal2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att medvetenheten om väpnade konflikters påverkan på kvinnor har ökat under de senaste åren är kvinnor fortfarande underrepresenterade i fredsprocesser, i vilka DDR-program är en viktig del av. Problemet idag är att många kvinnosoldater inte får delta i DDR-processer och lämnas utan återintegreringsstöd efter konflikt, vilket hindrar länders fredsbyggande. Denna studie syftar till att studera anledningar till lågt kvinnligt deltagande i DDR-processer i två konfliktdrabbade länder som genomgått DDR-processer under 2000-talet. Studien har utförts genom att bygga upp en egen analysram utifrån det teoretiska antagandet om att DDR-processer misslyckas att ta hänsyn till kvinnosoldaters olika behov och erfarenheter, vilket begränsar deras möjligheter att delta. Studien kommer fram till att den främsta anledningen till lågt kvinnligt deltagande i dessa DDR-processer var kvinnosoldaters rädsla för stigma att associeras med den väpnade konflikten. Rädslan för stigma grundar sig i samhällets konservativa syn på de traditionella könsrollerna. Eftersom att kvinnosoldaters roll i konflikten avviker sig från de könsrollerna kan de utsättas för stigmatisering.

  • Svensson, dennis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    En motivanalys av Rysslands annektering av Krim: En samhällsvetenskaplig analys2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har undersökt Rysslands agerande i Ukraina och annekteringen av Krim 2014, via en kvalitativ fallstudie med motivanalys som huvudsaklig metod. Studien har använt sig av en teoriprövande design där det teoretiska materialet har stått i centrum och testats utifrån det valda fallet. Dom teorier som har ställs mot varandra och prövats har varit den strukturella realismen och socialkonstruktivismen. Undersökningen riktade in sig på Rysslands egna motiveringar till deras agerande och resultatet pekade på att dessa motiveringar var otillräckliga för att förklara handlingen som undersöks. Istället så identifierades andra motivindikatorer och slutligen motiv där slutsatserna pekade på att handlingen kan identifieras och motiveras som egennyttjande motiv i korrelation till teorin kring strukturell realism.

  • Köhler de Castro, Carolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Conflict and drought: is it a dual challenge?: A comparative case study of the challenges humanitarian reliefprogrammes in Mozambique and Zimbabwe faced during the 2016El Niño induced drought and conflict in Mozambique2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of people around the world who are affected by humanitarian crises has almost doubled in the past decade. For instance, in 2016, Southern Africa experienced the worst drought in 35 years, due to the weather phenomenon El Niño, and all aspects of society were affected. The aim of this thesis is to identify and analyse different types of challenges humanitarian relief programmes face in their disaster management in two different contexts: a conflict and a non-conflict context. The thesis combines both disaster management and peace and conflict studies.

    Interviews have been conducted in Zimbabwe (non-conflict) and Mozambique (conflict) with INGOs, UN organisations and donors that were involved in the humanitarian relief programmes in the countries during the El Niño induced drought in 2016. The programmes experienced various challenges, and additional challenges have been found in the humanitarian relief programmes in Mozambique due to the conflict. This thesis contributes to the existing theory with one piece of the puzzle: combining the theories on disaster management and peace and conflict studies and showing that neighbouring countries to those in conflict are likely to get spillover challenges from the country in conflict, primarily due to issues with refugees.

  • Kinnersjö, MIchaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Symbolic Responsibility: A Pathway analysis of the Swedish Mineral Strategy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Alfsson, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    An analysis of Mutation testing and Code coverage during progress of projects2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to deliver high quality software projects, a developing team probably needs a well-developed test suite. There are several methods that aim to evaluate test suites in some way, such as Code coverage and Mutation testing. Code coverage describes the degree of source code that a program executes when running a test suite. Mutation testing measures the test suite effectiveness.

    More development teams use code coverage to a greater extent than mutation testing. With code coverage being monitored throughout a project, could the development team risk drop of the test suite effectiveness as the codebase getting bigger with each version?

    In this thesis, a mutation testing tool called PIT is used during progress of four well known open source projects. The reason for this is to show that mutation testing is an important technique to ensure continuously high test suite effectiveness, and does not only rely on code coverage measurements. In general, all projects perform well in both code coverage and test suite effectiveness, with the exception of one project inwhich the test suite effectiveness drops drastically. This drop shows that all projects are at risk of low test suite effectiveness, by not using mutation testing techniques.

  • Hallbom, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Integration i Sverige: En jämförande fallstudie mellan Umeå och Malmö kommun.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is based on a qualitative case study and is based on a social science perspective. The method of study is a comparative study; content analysis focused on document analysis. Interest is based on examining local basic policy programs for integration, as integration has become more noticeable in recent years, and has become increasingly important for science. The survey will be based on Ager and Strang's framework "good integration".

    Under the analysis section, various regulations, local action programs and tasks will be understood and explained from different criteria, based on the perspective of integration. The theoretical framework for "good integration" as proven to be very useful, and a high explanation factor. In summary, the analysis shows that the action programs for Malmö and Umeå, differ between each other, in relation to the framework for "good integration". The action Programs in the municipality of Malmö, complies with 3 of 4 categories in the theoretical framework. The categories fulfilled are

    Employment, Education and Housing. The action programs within the municipality of Umeå however, fulfill only one category; Employment. Both Malmö and Umeå’s action programs demonstrate differences and similarities against "good integration". Accordingly, Umeå's action program has more deficiencies in relation to the criteria for "good integration", in comparison with Malmö's action program. The conclusion is that Malmö's basic policy documents, at a local level; for integration, can be explained to more conditions for a successful integration, in comparison with Umeå's policy documents. However, something that both Malmö and Umeå should focus on is what the analysis showed for the category Health; develop policy documents for dissemination of information, which should include, inter alia and languages other than Swedish, to create conditions that achieve successful integration, according to the framework of "good integration".

  • Nilsson, Rakel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bridging the gaps?: Practitioner’s attitudes and understanding of the temporal,institutional and funding gaps between humanitarian anddevelopment assistance2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an increased humanitarian caseload the UN has called for the international community to work differently from delivering aid to ending needs, partly by enhancing the engagement between humanitarian and development actors. The thesis aims to describe and analyse the dynamics between humanitarian and development aid and by so doing provide an empirical contribution to the larger discussion on how to streamline international assistance by addressing the temporal, institutional and funding gaps between the two types of assistance. This is a qualitative comparative study based on nine interviews with development and humanitarian practitioners from five different organisations providing both types of assistance. Participants of the study were positive to the idea of collaboration across the sectors but that in order to accomplish this the international community, donors and each individual organisation need to overcome great institutional and financial constraints leading to the conclusion that international assistance will not be streamlined successfully until the institutional and funding gaps are properly addressed.

  • Eklöf, Vincy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Löfgren-Burström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Zingmark, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Edin, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Larsson, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Karling, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Alexeyev, Oleg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Rutegård, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Wikberg, Maria L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Cancer-associated fecal microbial markers in colorectal cancer detection2017In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 141, no 12, 2528-2536 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer death in the western world. An effective screening program leading to early detection of disease would severely reduce the mortality of CRC. Alterations in the gut microbiota have been linked to CRC, but the potential of microbial markers for use in CRC screening has been largely unstudied. We used a nested case-control study of 238 study subjects to explore the use of microbial markers for clbA+ bacteria harboring the pks pathogenicity island, afa-C+ diffusely adherent Escherichia coli harboring the afa-1 operon, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in stool as potential screening markers for CRC. We found that individual markers for clbA+ bacteria and F. nucleatum were more abundant in stool of patients with CRC, and could predict cancer with a relatively high specificity (81.5% and 76.9%, respectively) and with a sensitivity of 56.4% and 69.2%, respectively. In a combined test of clbA+ bacteria and F. nucleatum, CRC was detected with a specificity of 63.1% and a sensitivity of 84.6%. Our findings support a potential value of microbial factors in stool as putative noninvasive biomarkers for CRC detection. We propose that microbial markers may represent an important future screening strategy for CRC, selecting patients with a "high-risk" microbial pattern to other further diagnostic procedures such as colonoscopy.

  • Höglund, Clara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kvinna som soldat och den kvinnliga soldaten: En studie av svenska mediers framställning av kurdiska kvinnliga soldater2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syfte är att analysera på vilka sätt som kurdiska kvinnliga soldater har framställts i svenska medier, samt om framställningen skiljer sig från den i brittiska och franska medier. De centrala frågeställningarna är på vilka sätt framställs kvinnliga kurdiska soldater i svenska medier? Samt, skiljer sig presentationen av kurdiska kvinnliga soldater i svenska medier från den i franska och brittiska medier? Om ja, i sådana fall hur?

    Uppsatsen bygger på postkolonial feminism, Edward Saids exotifieringsteori, socialkonstruktivism samt diskurs som teoretiskt ramverk. Datainsamling har skett med hjälp av dokumentanalys av 5 artiklar i olika svenska nyhetstidningar och har analyserats med hjälp av kritisk diskursanalytisk metod. Uppsatsen finner att diskurserna i de franska och brittiska medierna även går att finna i de svenska medierna, vilket får konsekvenserna att stereotypa könsroller och orientalistiska uppfattningar. Syftet med uppsatsen har varit att lyfta hur kurdiska kvinnliga soldater framställs och positionernas i media. Med hjälp av de valda teorierna och metoden har detta kunnat göras.

  • Johansson, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The news framing of the ‘Syria Fighters’in Sweden: A frame analysis of Swedish Newspapers2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the framing of Syria fighters in Swedish newspapers during selected time periods of 2016 and 2017. Syria Fighters refer to individuals who travel to Syria to join the ongoing conflict, an occurrence commonly known as Foreign Fighters. Using framing analysis and framing theory the study finds that Syria fighters and their actions are framed mainly as problematic and as a negative social phenomenon. The study also makes a comparison to similar, previous research of Dutch and Flemish newspapers and finds clear similarities as well as differences.

  • Molin, Tilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Skattekontoret som ville stanna i Lycksele: Om hur lokalisering av statliga arbetstillfällen blir politik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I januari 2017 kom den parlamentariska landsbygdskommittén med ett förslag om att flytta 10 000 statliga arbetstillfällen från Stockholmsregionen till glesbygd. Denna uppsats undersöker delar av upptakten till denna utredning. Den fokuserar särskilt på om Skatteverkets planerade nedläggningar 2015 kan ha varit ett startskott till att lokalisering av statliga jobb åter kom på dagordningen. Anledningen till nedläggningarna var från början att Skatteverket antagit en ny policy som syftade till att myndigheten skulle centraliseras till större orter där företag, tillväxt och rätt kompetens fanns. Ett av skattekontoren som berördes av den tänkta nedläggningen fanns i Lycksele och opinionen lät inte vänta på sig. Utifrån en övergripande teori om sociala skiljelinjer mellan stad och landsbygd samt teori kring hur en fråga kommer upp på dagordningen i vissa tider kommer uppsatsen att undersöka fallet i Lycksele.

  • Brändström Nyström, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Är kolonialismens tid förbi?: En teoriprövande fallstudie om koloniala samhällsstrukturer och språkpolitik på Haiti2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More than 200 years have passed since Haiti cut loose from the French colonial empire. A lot has happened since, both to Haiti as a state and to the society as a whole. This study investigates the critiqued relevance of postcolonialism in the 21th century, taking stance in the question of language of instruction in the Haitian school system. Through a qualitative interview based method of data gathering and a comparison with a postcolonialistic theoretical framework, this study first examines the reasons why the recommended use of Haitian creole as language of instruction, rather than French, has been sparsely implemented with the supposed effect of keeping the majority of Haitians in poverty. Secondly it discusses the conclusions drawn on the issue and what they say about the role of colonial societal structures globally. After establishing proof for the prevalence of colonial societal structures as reasons for the dominance of the French language in Haiti, this report suggests further studies on the subject of the relevance of postcolonialism as a model of explanation for contemporary societal phenomena.

  • Andersson, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Från förtryck till föreställning: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys om medias skildring av samer i samband med Kulturhuvudstadsåret 20142017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about the issues between minorities and the media in the present day, with a focus on the conflicts in northern Sweden involving the Sami-people. This essay uses quantitative content analysis to examine news articles published between 2002 and 2016 to investigate changes in how the Sami minority is depicted in local media. This topic is influenced due to the Culture Capital event of 2014 that took place in the city of Umeå, located in northern Sweden. The event involved a lot of Sami culture, tradition and performances which might have had an effect on the type of news that local newspapers published. The results show that articles that involve news about conflicts, discrimination and other negative attributes have lowered throughout the years since 2002. The biggest change can however be seen in the period after 2009 where the negative articles lowered to a much higher degree than the years before. This essay has found a possible correlation between the event and media portrayal in local newspapers.

  • Tang, Shi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. LunaLEC AB.
    Sandström, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. LunaLEC AB.
    Lundberg, Petter
    Lanz, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Larsen, Christian
    LunaLEC AB.
    van Reenen, Stephan
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. LunaLEC AB.
    Design rules for light-emitting electrochemical cells delivering bright luminance at 27.5 percent external quantum efficiency2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 1190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The light-emitting electrochemical cell promises cost-efficient, large-area emissive applications, as its characteristic in-situ doping enables use of air-stabile electrodes and a solution-processed single-layer active material. However, mutual exclusion of high efficiency and high brightness has proven a seemingly fundamental problem. Here we present a generic approach that overcomes this critical issue, and report on devices equipped with air-stabile electrodes and outcoupling structure that deliver a record-high efficiency of 99.2 cd A(-1) at a bright luminance of 1910 cd m(-2). This device significantly outperforms the corresponding optimized organic light-emitting diode despite the latter employing calcium as the cathode. The key to this achievement is the design of the host-guest active material, in which tailored traps suppress exciton diffusion and quenching in the central recombination zone, allowing efficient triplet emission. Simultaneously, the traps do not significantly hamper electron and hole transport, as essentially all traps in the transport regions are filled by doping.

  • Dubreuil, Carole
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ji, Yan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Strand, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Grönlund, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    A quantitative model of the phytochrome-PIF light signalling initiating chloroplast development2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 13884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The components required for photosynthesis are encoded in two separate genomes, the nuclear and the plastid. To address how synchronization of the two genomes involved can be attained in early light-signalling during chloroplast development we have formulated and experimentally tested a mathematical model simulating light sensing and the following signalling response. The model includes phytochrome B (PhyB), the phytochrome interacting factor 3 (PIF3) and putative regulatory targets of PIF3. Closed expressions of the phyB and PIF3 concentrations after light exposure are derived, which capture the relevant timescales in the response of genes regulated by PIF3. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the promoters of the nuclear genes encoding sigma factors (SIGs) and polymerase-associated proteins (PAPs) required for expression of plastid encoded genes, contain the cis-elements for binding of PIF3. The model suggests a direct link between light inputs via PhyB-PIF3 to the plastid transcription machinery and control over the expression of photosynthesis components both in the nucleus and in the plastids. Using a pluripotent Arabidopsis cell culture in which chloroplasts develop from undifferentiated proplastids following exposure to light, we could experimentally verify that the expression of SIGs and PAPs in response to light follow the calculated expression of a PhyB-PIF3 regulated gene.

  • Martinsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Heedman, Per-Anders
    Lundström, Staffan
    Axelsson, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Improved data validity in the Swedish Register of Palliative Care2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 10, e0186804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Swedish Register of Palliative Care (SRPC) is a national quality register that collects data about end-of-life care from healthcare providers that care for dying patients. Data are used for quality control and research. Data are mainly collected with an end-of-life questionnaire (ELQ), which is completed by healthcare staff after the death of a patient. A previous validity assessment of the ELQ showed insufficient validity in some items including symptom relief. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the revised ELQ. Materials and methods: Data from 100 consecutive patients' medical records at two specialised palliative care units were used to complete new ELQs, which were then compared to the ELQ registrations from the SRPC for the same patients. The level of agreement was calculated for each ELQ item. To account for the possibility of the agreement occurring by chance, Cohen's kappa was calculated for suitable items. To examine the extent of registration mistakes when transferring the paper form to the web, the original paper versions of the ELQ filled out at the units were compared to data from the ELQs reported to the SRPC. Results: Level of agreement between ELQ registrations from the SRPC and the new ELQs based on the medical records varied between 0.55 and 1.00, where 24 items showed level of agreement above 0.80 and 9 items showed level of agreement below 0.80. Cohen's kappa with 95% confidence intervals was calculated for 24 items. The kappa values showed that two items had poor agreement, four fair agreement, 11 moderate agreement, five good agreement and two very good agreement. The level of agreement varied between 0.93 and 1.00 when comparing the ELQ registrations in the SRPC and the paper forms. Conclusion: The revised ELQ contains more items with high levels of agreement between registrations in the SRPC and notes in the patients' medical records when compared to the previous version. Validating issues around symptom assessment remains a challenge in our model of quality assessment.

  • Geale, Kirk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. PAREXEL International, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Saridogan, Ertan
    Lehmann, Matthieu
    Arriagada, Pablo
    Hultberg, Marcus
    Henriksson, Martin
    Repeated intermittent ulipristal acetate in the treatment of uterine fibroids: a cost-effectiveness analysis2017In: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research, ISSN 1178-6981, E-ISSN 1178-6981, Vol. 9, 669-676 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are limited treatment options available for women with moderate to severe symptoms of uterine fibroids (UFs) who wish to avoid surgery. For these women, treatment with standard pharmaceuticals such as contraceptives is often insufficient to relieve symptoms, and patients may require surgery despite their wish to avoid it. Clinical trials demonstrate that ulipristal acetate 5 mg (UPA) is an effective treatment for this patient group, but its cost-effectiveness has not been assessed in this population. A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate a cohort of patients in this population under treatment with UPA followed by surgery as needed compared to treatment with iron and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) followed by surgery as needed (best supportive care, BSC). The analysis took the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in England, UK, and was based on the published UPA clinical trials. Results were calculated for the long-term costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each treatment arm and combined into an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) as the primary outcome. The impact of parameter uncertainty on the results was assessed using scenario, deterministic, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The results show that treating patients with the UPA strategy, instead of the BSC strategy, results in an additional cost of 1,115 pound and a gain of 0.087 QALYs, resulting in an ICER of 12,850 pound. Given commonly accepted cost-effectiveness thresholds in England, the use of UPA as a repeated, intermittent treatment for women with moderate to severe symptoms of UF wishing to avoid surgery is likely to be a cost-effective intervention when compared to BSC.

  • Kumar, Keshav
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Espaillat, Akbar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    PG-metrics: a chemometric-based approach for classifying bacterial peptidoglycan data sets and uncovering their subjacent chemical variability2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 10, e0186197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteria cells are protected from osmotic and environmental stresses by an exoskeleton-like polymeric structure called peptidoglycan ( PG) or murein sacculus. This structure is fundamental for bacteria's viability and thus, the mechanisms underlying cell wall assembly and how it is modulated serve as targets for many of our most successful antibiotics. Therefore, it is now more important than ever to understand the genetics and structural chemistry of the bacterial cell walls in order to find new and effective methods of blocking it for the treatment of disease. In the last decades, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry have been demonstrated to provide the required resolution and sensitivity to characterize the fine chemical structure of PG. However, the large volume of data sets that can be produced by these instruments today are difficult to handle without a proper data analysis work-flow. Here, we present PG-metrics, a chemometric based pipeline that allows fast and easy classification of bacteria according to their muropeptide chromatographic profiles and identification of the subjacent PG chemical variability between e.g. bacterial species, growth conditions and, mutant libraries. The pipeline is successfully validated here using PG samples from different bacterial species and mutants in cell wall proteins. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that PG-metrics pipeline is a valuable bioanalytical tool that can lead us to cell wall classification and biomarker discovery.

  • Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Ernstsson, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    "Jag ville ge mitt barn de bästa förutsättningarna": En kvalitativ intervjustudie om tankar kring matvanor under graviditet hos nyblivna förstagångsmammor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Den blivande mammans matvanor under graviditeten är viktiga eftersom hon har ett ökat näringsbehov och försörjer en annan individ. En del av grunden för barnets framtida hälsa och matvanor ges redan i mammans mage. Trots det har studier visat att mammans matintag är otillräckligt jämfört med rekommendationerna samt att intaget av godis och fikabröd ofta ökar under graviditeten.

    Syfte Syftet med studien var att utforska inställningen till hälsosam och ohälsosam mat, samt hur denna inställning upplevdes påverka matintaget, hos nyblivna förstagångsmammor under graviditeten.

    Metod Åtta intervjuer genomfördes med nyblivna förstagångsmammor. Intervjuerna genomfördes med en semistrukturerad intervjuguide och spelades in med hjälp av en inspelningsapp. Data som samlades in transkriberades och analyserades sedan med kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat Deltagarna berättade att de ändrade inställningen till sina matvanor då de blev gravida. Det blev allt viktigare att äta en varierad kost innehållande mycket grönsaker och frukt (hälsosam mat), och intaget av snabbmat och produkter innehållande mycket socker minskade (ohälsosam mat). Denna inställning följdes inte under hela graviditeten, och intaget av snabbmat och sockerrika livsmedel ökade under den senare delen. Kostråden från vårdpersonal upplevdes som bristfälliga på grund av att de gavs för få råd, och att mycket information själv fick hämtas från framförallt Livsmedelsverket.

    Slutsats Deltagarna följde inte sin initiala inställning till upplevd hälsosam och ohälsosam mat under hela graviditeten. Deltagarna efterfrågade även mer information om mat under graviditet från vårdpersonal. Mer stöd och information från vården kan ge den gravida kvinnan bättre förutsättningar till att hålla en hälsosam kost under hela graviditeten.

  • van Wijk, B. C. M.
    et al.
    Pogosyan, A.
    Hariz, Marwan I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience. Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom.
    Akram, H.
    Foltynie, T.
    Limousin, P.
    Horn, A.
    Ewert, S.
    Brown, P.
    Litvak, V.
    Localization of beta and high-frequency oscillations within the subthalamic nucleus region2017In: NeuroImage: Clinical, ISSN 0353-8842, E-ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 16, 175-183 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinsonian bradykinesia and rigidity are typically associated with excessive beta band oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus. Recently another spectral peak has been identified that might be implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease: high-frequency oscillations (HFO) within the 150-400 Hz range. Beta-HFO phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) has been found to correlate with severity of motor impairment. However, the neuronal origin of HFO and its usefulness as a potential target for deep brain stimulation remain to be established. For example, it is unclear whether HFO arise from the same neural populations as beta oscillations. We intraoperatively recorded local field potentials from the subthalamic nucleus while advancing DBS electrodes in 2 mm steps from 4 mm above the surgical target point until 2 mm below, resulting in 4 recording sites. Data from 26 nuclei from 14 patients were analysed. For each trajectory, we identified the recording site with the largest spectral peak in the beta range (13-30 Hz), and the largest peak in the HFO range separately. In addition, we identified the recording site with the largest beta-HFO PAC. Recording sites with largest beta power and largest HFO power coincided in 50% of cases. In the other 50%, HFO was more likely to be detected at a more superior recording site in the target area. PAC followed more closely the site with largest HFO (45%) than beta power (27%). HFO are likely to arise from spatially close, but slightly more superior neural populations than beta oscillations. Further work is necessary to determine whether the different activities can help fine-tune deep brain stimulation targeting.

  • Olofsson, Olivia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Medborgarfostran och digitaliseringi samhällskunskapsundervisningen: Elevers och lärares upplevelser av relationen mellanmedborgarfostran och digitalisering isamhällskunskapsundervisningen på gymnasiet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det råder i forskningslitteraturen inga tvivel om att dagens unga har blivit särskilt berörda av den omfattande digitaliseringen i samhället. I skolan visar sig detta extra tydligt, där undervisningen i allt större utsträckning använder sig av digitala verktyg för att bemöta digitaliseringen. Denna undersökning har syftat till att undersöka och analysera hur några elever och lärare upplever relationen mellan medborgarfostran och digitalisering i samhällskunskapsundervisningen på gymnasiet. För detta ändamål har sex elever och sex lärare från gymnasieskolan blivit intervjuade. Med hjälp av hermeneutisk tolkningsmetod har intervjuerna analyserats med teoretisk utgångspunkt i dels begreppen actualizing citizenship respektive dutiful citizenship samt dels lärandeperspektivet konnektivism. I resultaten framträder upplevelser som indikerar att relationen mellan medborgarfostran och digitalisering i undervisningen handlar om elevers digitala informationsinhämtning, vilket upplevs vara förbundet med ett aktivt samhällsdeltagande. Med informanternas utsagor i utgångspunkt har digitaliseringen även tagit sig uttryck i att elevernas samhällsorientering har kommit att bli avsevärt intressestyrd till följd av att individens preferenser exponeras bland en mångfaldig representation av forum på internet. Studiens lärarinformanter befarar emellertid att detta kan komma att äventyra elevers universella samhällsintressen.

  • Eriksson, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Samhällskunskapslärares bedömningspraxis: I relation till likvärdighet och utbildningens mål2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka samhällskunskapslärares tankar och upplevelser kring bedömningspraxis. Den undersöker hur lärare tänker kring sin egen bedömning i relation till likvärdighet, samt vad de uppfattar som målet med sin bedömning. Detta undersökningsintresse undersöks med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer med fem stycken lärare för att undersöka hur de tänker kring bedömning på en djupare nivå.

    Resultatet visar att lärarna ser bedömning som något bra eller åtminstone nödvändigt. Studien visar att lärare försöker jobba formativt i sin bedömning för att hjälpa eleven utvecklas. Den summativa bedömningen har på så vis mindre plats i bedömningen hos de undersökta lärarna. Den kunskap lärarna söker är både faktakunskap och förmågor där fakta ses som en nödvändig grund för att utveckla elevernas förmågor. Målet med bedömningen enligt lärarna är att ge eleverna kunskaper som de har nytta av genom hela livet och inte enbart under sin skolgång. Lärare ser likvärdighet som något som uppnås på deras egen skola mellan dem och deras kollegor. Likvärdighet ses dock på nationell nivå ouppnåeligt vilket anses problematiskt. För att uppnå likvärdig bedömning mellan elever anser lärarna att beprövad erfarenhet i de flesta fallen säkerställer detta, metoder som matriser är mindre vanligt. Lärare uppfattar på så vis likvärdighet som ett problem men skolan och lärarna har få konkreta metoder för att stärka sin likvärdighet. 

  • Virkovskij, Edgar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åsiktskorridor och mediemisstro: En kvantitativ studie om motståndet motflyktingmottagande2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att studera mediemisstrons inflytande på attityder gentemot viljan att ta emot färre respektive fler flyktingar i Sverige. Den tar sitt fotfäste i att Sverige har under många år tagit ett stort ansvar och toppat statistiken bland europeiska länder som tog emot högst antal asylsökande per capita. Parallellt med det har Sverigedemokraterna växt och etablerat sig som ett parti med den mest restriktiva flyktingpolitiken bland andra riksdagspartier. Det och framväxten av ”alternativ media” med tydlig flykting- och invandringskritisk profil har väckt frågor om det finns kopplingar mellan mediemisstro, stödet för SD och flyktingmotstånd. Förespråkarna för alternativa medier menar att den svenska offentliga debatten styrs av en åsiktskorridor där avvikande åsikter kring flykting- och invandringspolitiken inte passar in och det kan leda till mediemisstro. Tidigare forskning har visat brister inom ämnet och en kvantitativ ansats har tillämpats där materialet från SOMundersökningen 2014 har analyserats statistiskt.

    Den viktigaste slutsatsen som kan dras av studien är att mediemisstro har visat sig ha signifikant påverkan på synen till flyktingmottagandet. Men det viktigaste förklaringen blir inte misstro mot medier i sig, utan det är inställningen att svenska medier döljer sanningar förknippade med invandringen som är det centrala. Fortsatt forskning inom ämnet är av relevans för att sätta sig in i de djupgående förklaringarna bakom sambanden.

  • Lund, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Folkinitiativ och lokalpolitik: En studie av utmaningen från det förstärkta folkinitiativet i Skellefteå kommun2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vikten av att inkludera medborgare i beslut på lokal nivå, har fått ökad uppmärksamhet från både forskarvärlden och beslutsfattare på senare år. I Sverige, liksom i flera andra länder, har man valt att införa möjligheten att lyfta frågor till folkomröstning genom namninsamlingar, så kallade folkinitiativ. 2011 reviderades det dåligt fungerande instrumentet och har sedan dess kunnat användas mer framgångsrikt av olika initiativgrupper. Samtidigt är relationen till det befintliga, representativa systemet komplicerad, då folkomröstningar till följd av namninsamling ofta innebär ett ingrepp i de förtroendevaldas arbete. Den här uppsatsen har tittat närmare på en sådan omröstning, centrumbron i Skellefteå 2014, och hur det representativa systemet hanterade den utmaning som initiativet och omröstningen innebar. Med hjälp av studier från andra länder och intervjuer med förtroendevalda i Skellefteå, har den här studien undersökt om mönster från system med mer frekvent användning av direktdemokratiska instrument går att känna igen i den undersökta kontexten. Analysen visade att det förstärkta folkinitiativet tycks följa de förväntade mönstren och skulle därmed, på samma sätt som i andra länder, kunna bli ett mer 'naturligt' och konstruktivt komplement till det representativa systemet, låt vara i en relativt avlägsen framtiden.

  • Jakobsson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Påverkar europeisering den partipolitiskakonfliktnivån på nationell nivå?: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys på svenskariksdagsutskottsbetänkanden och politiska partiers valmanifest2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hallberg, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Simulation and optimization of a multi-TW few-cycle optical parametric synthesizer2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Light Wave Synthesizer 20 (LWS20) is an Optical Parametric Synthesizer (OPS) system used for relativistic attosecond physics research. The LWS20 performs OPS through the means of multiple two-color pumped Noncollinear Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification (NOPCPA) stages. NOPCPA is basedon the nonlinear optical effect Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) which is only described analytically through simplified expressions. A natural route around this difficulty is through the means of numerical models. In this thesis a (2+1) dimensional simulation software [1], [2] is used to simulate the four currently present NOPCPA stages of the LWS20, operated under two different options. The simulationwill be key to the planned upgrade of the LWS20, propelling the system fromthe current 16 TW power [3] to the wanted 100 TW power domain.

    It is shown that the used software is able to, with some caveats, emulate the results achieved in a laboratory environment and that the two operational options are optimized under slightly different settings. Furthermore, some barely documented, albeit crucial, features of the simulation software have been exposed, indicating that it is not very well optimized for simulating the OPA processes of the LWS20. By increasing the pump energy of the simulation beyond the realisticlevel it is still possible to attain relatively realistic amplification and thus the software ought to prove a valuable tool for the planned system upgrade. Some alternative approaches to the continuation of the simulations are presented which would further increase the software’s usefulness in the process of expanding theLWS20. Historically, the LWS20 has been operated successfully under the sameconditions under the two possible operational options, but the simulations clearly show that an optimized set-up for one option is far from optimal for the other option. Therefore, there is a possibility to further optimize the LWS20, an idea worth pursuing in future experiments.

  • Rudström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Speaking of Identity: Students’ Experiences of Language Use and Identity Issues inthe Educational System of Postcolonial Seychelles2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Colonialism has left its marks in the ordinary lives of people in postcolonial countries. One example of this can be found in the relationship people in postcolonial countries have with the local vernaculars compared to the colonial languages. Often the native languages are restricted to the private and social sphere, while for example English is viewed as the go-to way of ensuring socioeconomic development in countries of this kind (Fleischmann 2008; Hilaire 2009; Rajah-Carrim 2007; Sauzier-Uchida 2009). By reviewing the case of the Seychelles islands, this thesis aims to explore the possible effects of colonialism in how parts of the youth in the country think and feel regarding their language use and their own construction of identity as Seychellois. For historical reasons, Seychelles has three official national languages: Kreol, English and French. The first one did not get its official status as a national language until after the independence 1976, even if being the mother tongue of the vast majority (Bollée 1993, 96). Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted during an eight-week long field study in Seychelles. The respondents were students between 16 and 20 years old who were in their final phase of school, or had recently completed their schooling and started working. The results show that some colonial ideas and norms still can be found in how these young Seychellois thinks about their mother tongue Kreol Seselwa in relation to the colonial language English. Another aspect of the interviews was the respondents’ ambivalence regarding their construction of identity in relation to the national languages. This could be viewed as examples of hybrid, mixed-culture, identities that can appears in postcolonial contexts.

  • Lindelöw, Felicia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vad är problemet med matsvinn?: En kritisk analys av svenska myndigheters problemframställning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien handlar om hur svenska myndigheter framställer problemet med matsvinn. Utgångspunkten har varit att identifiera vilka antaganden som ligger till grund för denna problemframställning, och att särskilt kolla på individens roll i sammanhanget. Med hjälp av delar av Carol Bacchis analysverktyg What’s the problem represented to be? undersöks hur diskursen, definitioner och statistik underbygger den problemframställning som råder. I analysen redogörs det över vilka begränsningar den här presentationen bidrar med i sättet att tänka om och förstå komplexiteten med matsvinn. Slutsatser som tas genom analysen är att problemet med matsvinn till stor del handlar om brist på kunskap och en viss typ av beteenden, och att det är genom information och en beteendeförändring som ett minskat matsvinn kan ske. Vidare kommer analysen fram till att sättet som tabeller och illustrationer presenteras skapar en viss typ av förståelse av matsvinnsproblematiken. Det handlar bland annat om att det är individers beteende som spelar en särskild roll i matsvinnsproblemet.

  • Karlsson, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Löftet om en folkomröstning: En studie om medial policypåverkan i Storbritannien2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Storbritannien har alltid haft en ambivalent hållning till EU och det europeiska integrationsprojektet. I maj 2010 tillträder den konservative David Cameron som premiärminister tillsammans med den liberaldemokratiske Nick Clegg. De båda utarbetar ett gemensamt ramverk för hur de skall förhålla sig till EU och inga direkta planer på någon folkomröstning existerar. Halvvägs genom mandatperioden går Cameron ut och lovar att hålla en folkomröstning om landets EU medlemskap om han blir omvald 2015. Denna studie undersöker medias roll i Camerons beslut att utlova folkomröstningen. Studien använder sig av Robinsons policy media interaction model för att fastställa hur och när media kan påverka politiska processer och beslut. Efter en kartläggning över hur regeringens policylinje förändras i relation till medial aktivitet finns det empiriska resultat som visar att media haft en påverkan på premiärministerns beslut.

  • Joseph Johansson, Vanessa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    De curlade, de spelberoende & de ansvarslösa: En analys av populärkultur och makt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De ekonomiska klyftorna i Sverige växer i stadig takt, samtidigt som den svenska ekonomin i övrigt går väldigt bra. Men vad händer med de som drabbas av fattigdomen? Hur konstrueras den fattigas position i samhället? Den här studien syftar till att utreda hur ekonomiskt utsatta människor representeras och problematiseras i dagens populärkultur. Utifrån maktens tredje ansikte undersöks därför tv-programmet Lyxfällan med särskilt fokus på att analysera subjektspositioner och subjektifieringseffekter. Ytterligare undersöks vilka maktrelationer som skapas och reproduceras i Lyxfällan. Till sin hjälp stödjs studien av ett teoretiskt ramverk vilken beskriver hur fattigdom representerats genom historiens lopp samt vilka eventuella effekter det skapar i det politiska livet. Särskilt fokus ligger på att undersöka huruvida vi i Sverige använder oss av diskursen ’undeserving poor’. Materialet som undersöks är ett urval av Lyxfällans avsnitt under 2017. Studiens resultat visar att den diskurs som upprätthålls i Lyxfällan har inflytande på deltagares aktörsskap till det negativa. Slutsatsen av det här arbetet är att fattigdom har individualiserats vidare analyseras vilka konsekvenser det kan tänkas ha för politiken.

  • Huppunen, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Utsatt men viktig?: Konstruktionen av kvinnor i den svenska biståndspolitiken2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag pågår ett stort arbete för ökad jämställdhet i världen. I januari 2016 tog de Globala målen vid som en fortsättning på de tidigare Millenniemålen. Jämställhet har fått ett eget mål här och ska även genomsyra alla de andra målen. Dock har jämställdhetsarbete mottagit kritik från olika håll för att inte lyckas och inte synliggöra problematik som finns. Alla länder ska arbeta mot att nå de Globala målen men länderna får själva ta fram verktyg för hur det arbetet ska se ut. Därmed blir syftet i denna uppsats att undersöka vilken konstruktion av kvinnor som finns i den svenska biståndspolitiken, där arbetet mot de Globala målen är central. För att göra detta har en undersökning av regeringens Policyramverk för svenskt utvecklingssamarbete och humanitärt bistånd tillsammans med Utrikesförvaltningens handlingsplan för feministiska utrikespolitik 2015-2018 med fokus på 2017. Det teoretiska ramverket består av den postkoloniala feministiska teorin och en kritisk diskursanalys. Den kritiska diskursanalysen används även som metod där analysen görs efter Faircloughs tredimensionella modell. Slutsatserna presenterar en beskrivning av kvinnor som är mottagare av bistånd som utsatta samt viktiga. Studien visar på en homogenisering av gruppen kvinnor i materialet som studerats.

  • Grönlund Müller, Molly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Civilsamhället i kläm: Biståndsorganisationers roll i att öppna ett krympande utrymme2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka Sidas ramorganisationers syn på sin roll i att motverka trenden av krympande utrymme för civilsamhället internationellt. Här användes en kvalitativ metod, där semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med fyra ramorganisationer som arbetar med mänskliga rättigheter, demokrati eller jämställdhet. Materialet analyserades med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. I studien framgick att respondenterna ser organisationens roll som tredelad i frågan. Den första rollen var att motverka och kringgå direkta restriktioner från regeringar i länder som tar emot bistånd. Den andra fokuserade på dialogen med Sida och andra givare för att underlätta finansiering och administration för organisationen, dess partners i verksamhetsländerna och andra, mer administrativt svaga organisationer som annars riskerar att exkluderas. Respondenterna såg även hur civilsamhällets utrymme att verka riskerade att minskas av motstridiga ekonomiska och politiska intressen. Svensk handelspolitik togs upp som ett område som i vissa fall står i kontrast till regeringens uttalanden om att stödja civilsamhället internationellt. Följaktligen såg de sin tredje roll i att påverka regeringen för att lyfta frågan om det krympande utrymmet, inte bara som en biståndsfråga, utan som något som ska genomsyra fler politikområden.

  • Fridolfsson, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Cypern och Grekland, tillsammans mot EU: en policyanalys av EU:s utvidgningspolicy mot Cypern 1988-20042017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Cypern och Grekland har nära historiska, kulturella och ekonomiska kopplingar till varandra. När Cypern år 1990 ansökte om medlemskap i europeiska unionen och möttes av motstånd mot att ett land med en territoriell konflikt skulle ansluta sig, så stödde Grekland den grekcypriotiska sidan och förändrade EU-policyn mot Cypern genom att agera policyentreprenör. I min uppsats undersöker jag genom formuleringar i EU-dokument och med hjälp av tidigare forskning om Cypern och EU vilka policyprocesser det var som styrde beslutet att först låta Cypern bli kandidatland och sedan fullvärdig medlem. Detta görs med grund i Multiple Streams-teorin, som ger studien ett policyfokus som saknats i tidigare studier av förhållandet mellan EU och Cypern.

  • Public defence: 2017-12-15 09:30 Carl Kempe Salen, KBC, Umeå
    Egelkraut, Dagmar D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Long-lasting ecological legacies of reindeer on tundra vegetation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reindeer can have strong effects on the plant species composition and functioning of tundra ecosystems, and often promote a transition towards a graminoid-dominated vegetation type. As a result, they influence many ecological processes, such as nutrient dynamics, soil biotic composition and functioning, and carbon storage. Several studies suggest that the effect of reindeer on vegetation may follow predictable patterns and could induce an alternative stable vegetation state. However, little empirical data on the long-term stability of reindeer effects on vegetation exist, as it is inherently challenging to study these ecological processes experimentally on a sufficiently long timescale. The main objective of this thesis was therefore to gain a better understanding of the long-term ecological processes following reindeer-induced vegetation shifts.

    In order to gain a more mechanistic insight in what initially drives this transition, I used a field-based grazing simulation experiment in which I separated defoliation, trampling, moss removal and the addition of feces. This allowed me to test the relative contribution of reindeer-related activities to initiating the shift from moss and heath- dominated tundra towards a graminoid-dominated vegetation state. Additionally, I studied the long-term ecological stability following such a vegetation shift. I did this by addressing historical milking grounds (HMGs): sites where high reindeer concentrations associated with historical traditional reindeer herding practices induced a vegetation transition from shrubs towards graminoids several centuries earlier, but which were abandoned a century ago. Studying HMGs allowed me to address: 1. The potential stability of reindeer-induced vegetation shifts; 2. The ecological mechanisms contributing to the long-term stability of these vegetation shifts; and 3. How such long-lasting vegetation changes influence soil carbon- and nutrient cycling.

    I found that trampling by reindeer is an important mechanism by which reindeer cause vegetation change. Addressing HMGs further revealed that this vegetation change can be hightly persistent, as the studied HMGs showed only a low encroachment at the surrounding borders in the last 50 years. The vegetation in the core areas of all studied HMGs had remained strikingly stable, and were hardly invaded by surrounding shrubs. Interestingly, soil nutrient concentrations and microbial activities were still different from the surrounding area as well, and even comparable to actively grazed areas. Even after many centuries of changed vegetation composition and soil processes, there was no difference in total carbon sequestration. This suggests that the environmental conditions for microbial decomposition were more important than vegetation composition for the soil carbon stocks, in our study site.

    After studying the contemporary habitat use of HMGs by reindeer and other herbivores, investigating the potential plant-soil feedbacks mechanisms and detailed soil analyses, I concluded that several ecological mechanisms contribute to the long-term stability of HMGs: first, the altered soil biotic and abiotic conditions appear to have a stronger advantage for HMG vegetation than for the surrounding tundra vegetation. Furthermore, I found a clear browsing preference of small rodents on single shrubs proliferating in HMGs, causing a strong limitation on shrub expansion. Moreover, the dense established sward of graminoids likely poses a strong direct competition for space and nutrients, hindering seedling establishment. Finally, I conclude that HMGs are highly stable on relevant ecological timescales, and propose how the concepts of historical contingency and ASS can be applied to understand stability of these reindeer-induced vegetation transitions.

  • Ernestam, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hansen, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Dietisthjälp på distans: En kvantitativ studie om virtuell vård med FODMAP som kostbehandlingsmetod2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Virtual care includes all digital care solutions such as phone, video, and chat. Therefore, virtual care does not require physical meetings. By using virtual care in the treatment of less acute cases, such as patients with Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the need for physical meetings would be reduced and time and money could be saved.

    Objective To investigate the perception of virtual care as the dietary treatment method for individuals undergoing the dietary treatment FODMAP.

    Method(s) In collaboration with the company Belly Balance, a web-based survey was sent to the companys’ members who underwent or had previously taken part of the companys’ virtual treatment program Magbalans. The obtained responses (n = 47) were analysed in SPSS and tested using Fischers Exact Test. The level of significance was p ≤ 0.05.

    Results Reasons why the participants requested virtual care were insufficient help from the regular care and pain and discomfort from the gastrointestinal tract. The participants were overall satisfied with the virtual treatment and the freedom to perform the treatment when and where they wanted to was highlighted as positive. Most participants were helped by the treatment, younger participants (< 47 years) perceived to a greater extent that they were helped than the older participants (≥ 47 years). The study showed that no consideration has to be taken for factors such as age and education when planning virtual care.

    Conclusion The participants in the study had a positive attitude towards and a good effect from the virtual FODMAP dietary treatment. This implies that this treatment approach to a greater extent should be used for individuals with IBS. As the technology is under constant development, more studies, based on today's access to virtual tools, are needed to be able to make generalizable conclusions about how virtual care should be developed in the future. 

  • Yang, Hairu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Hultmark, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Institute of Biomedical Technology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Drosophila muscles regulate the immune response against wasp infection via carbohydrate metabolism2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 15713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We recently found that JAK/STAT signaling in skeletal muscles is important for the immune response of Drosophila larvae against wasp infection, but it was not clear how muscles could affect the immune response. Here we show that insulin signaling is required in muscles, but not in fat body or hemocytes, during larval development for an efficient encapsulation response and for the formation of lamellocytes. This effect requires TOR signaling. We show that muscle tissue affects the immune response by acting as a master regulator of carbohydrate metabolism in the infected animal, via JAK/STAT and insulin signaling in the muscles, and that there is indirect positive feedback between JAK/STAT and insulin signaling in the muscles. Specifically, stimulation of JAK/STAT signaling in the muscles can rescue the deficient immune response when insulin signaling is suppressed. Our results shed new light on the interaction between metabolism, immunity, and tissue communication.

  • Public defence: 2017-12-15 10:00 N 320, Umeå
    Björk, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Drama, hat och vänskap: om ungdomars interaktioner i sociala medier2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from narratives of young people, the aim of this thesis is to deepen the knowledge about the meaning of their social interactions in social media.

    In this qualitative study, young people’s interactions when they use social media are studied in a Swedish context. The study constitutes an important contribution since it makes young people’s voices heard. It is based on semi-structured interviews with 32 young people aged 13-15.

    The results show that young people do not use the term bullying when they define a situation that is of a negative nature. They use other terms such as hate and drama to define a situation they perceive to be negative, both in situations when they themselves are involved and in situations when they are among the audience. It depends on how they define the situation. Explanations for why drama, hate and negative actions occur can be understood based on on-going relation-building work and an effort to fit into a certain peer culture. The results also indicate that it is important to receive attention from significant others. In interaction with others, social skills are developed to navigate drama, hate, friendship, negative actions and relation-building efforts in social media.

    Social norms, gender norms and negotiating identities come to expression when the young people discuss self-presentations in pictures.

    Explanations as to why they choose to publish a certain kind of picture can be linked with complex relationship and identity construction processes where the young peoples position themselves and others in the struggle to doing gender and a desire to participate in a certain peer culture.

  • Public defence: 2017-12-15 10:15 Hörsal F, Umeå
    Priebe, Janina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Greenland's future: narratives of natural resource development in the 1900s until the 1960s2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis identifies and analyzes narratives of Greenland's future that emerged in the context of developing and modernizing the dependency's natural resources industries in the 1900s until the 1960s. After almost two centuries of Danish colonial rule, the turn of the 20th century witnessed a profound change in Greenland's governance. Although contested at first, the notion of cultural progress increasingly linked developing a modern industry to a productive economy under Danish auspices. Ideas of modernity that connected rationalities of the market with political power and science were unparalleled in the colonial discourse on Greenland's future. How were the development of Greenland's natural resource industries and its role in Danish governance debated? Which narratives emerged in this context? As the studies in this compilation thesis suggest, the rationalities of science, markets, and power became entangled in an unprecedented way during these decades, creating new ways to imagine Greenland's future.

    The first paper analyzes the application of a private stakeholder group of Copenhagen's financial and economic elite for access to Greenland as a private, for-profit venture to extract and trade with the colony's living resources in 1905. The motif of an Arctic scramble was constructed through the authority of science, still resonating in the debate on rare earth mining today. The second paper identifies the business relationships between the group's members, connecting major Danish financial institutes and private economic interests in the late 19th and early 20th century. The third paper focuses on the commercialization of Greenlandic fisheries in the 1910s until the late 1920s and the fisheries scientist Adolf Severin Jensen (1866-1953). Jensen's work is an example of how applied sciences connected both scientific and political agendas, carried out in a colonial setting. The fourth paper focuses on the narrative analysis of (Danish-language) Greenlandic newspaper coverage of Qullissat between 1942 and 1968. Representations of the coal mine and nearby settlement on Greenland's west coast, which were closed down in 1972, are at the center of this study. While the coal mine was presented as a Danish success to establish an independent energy supply and to introduce modernization measures, it was presented as a Greenlandic failure to adapt to modern demands of economic productivity in the years leading up to its closure. 

  • Public defence: 2017-12-15 13:15 Hörsal E, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Kalucza, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Who becomes a teenage parent?: life course perspectives on selection into teenage motherhood and fatherhood trajectories in Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The aim of the research described in thesis is to study processes of selection leading to teenage parenthood in contemporary Sweden. I ask how factors related to socio-economic position, mental health issues in youth, and family formation behaviour of previous generations directs young individuals into teenage parent trajectories. Having children as a teenager is often seen as a burden and a failure, and framed as a public health concern. This is true, even as mounting evidence points to the fact that the connections between teenage parenthood and future adverse outcomes are muddled by selection effects. This research makes a contribution to the body of knowledge by looking at how several factors influence selection processes, namely socio-economic background factors, mental health issues in adolescence and family formation patterns of the teenage parent’s own parents. Both teenage mothers and teenage fathers are considered from a life course perspective. The theoretical framework also draws on the literature relating to opportunity costs and competing alternatives.

    Method. Two longitudinal data sources are utilized: register population data accessed through the Umeå SIMSAM lab and the Northern Swedish Cohort survey. In order to answer questions about both selection leading into events and trajectories, random intercept models for longitudinal data as well as sequence analysis are applied.

    Results. The results show that, apart from confirming the continued importance of socio-economic factors selecting young men and women to become teenage parents and embark on teenage parenthood trajectories, mental health issues in youth are also important. Through this route, both teenage girls and boys enter into teenage parenthood in a way that does not happen with on-time parenthood. Furthermore, the results show that selection not only affects the chances of becoming a teenage parent, but also which type of teenage parent trajectory the individual follows. Moreover, the results reveal that these trajectories, and not only the event of becoming a teenage parent, are repeated over generations. The results illustrate that teenage parents are a heterogeneous group with diverse backgrounds and selection processes, and hence policy measures aimed at teenage parents should not try to offer blanket solutions.

  • Public defence: 2017-12-15 09:00 Sal 135, Umeå
    Karhina, Kateryna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Social capital and well-being in the transitional setting of Ukraine2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The military conflict in Ukraine that started in 2014 was accompanied with many changes in the political, economic and social spheres. It brought informal volunteering activities (i.e. one form of social capital) to emerge, function and later to be formalized, in order to support soldiers and their families. This situation is unique given the transitional setting of Ukraine, which has led to comparably low levels of social capital and negative indicators of health and well-being. This thesis aims to explore social capital during military conflict in contemporary Ukraine and to analyze the associations between social capital and well-being, as well as the distribution of social capital among Ukrainian women and men.

    Methods: The study combines a qualitative and quantitative research design. A case study was conducted using qualitative methodology. Eighteen in-depth interviews were collected with providers and utilizers of volunteering services. Grounded Theory and social action ideal types methodology of Weber were used for the analysis. The quantitative research utilized two secondary datasets. The World Health Survey was utilized to analyze the association between social capital and physical and mental well-being for women (n=1723) and men (n=910) by means of multivariate logistic regression. The European Social Survey (wave 6) was used in order to investigate access to social capital and the determinants of gender inequalities in the access with a sample of 1377 women and 797 men. Multivariate logistic regression and postregression Fairlie’s decomposition analysis were used to analyze the determinants of the inequalities.

    Results: The key findings of this thesis show that social capital transforms during military conflict and takes particular forms in transitional settings. There are positive and negative effects on well-being connected to crisisrelated volunteering. The associations between social capital and well-being vary for women and men in favour of women. Social capital is unequally distributed between different social groups. Some forms of social capital may have stronger buffering effect on women than men in Ukraine. Access to social capital can be viewed as an indicator for social well-being, and thus social capital can be used both as a determinant and an outcome in social capital and health research.

    Conclusion: Informal social participation, i.e. volunteering might play an important role in societal crises and needs to be considered in social capital measurements and interventions. Social capital measurements utilized in stable societies do not evidently capture these forms, i.e. it is not taken into account. The associations between social capital and well-being depend on the measurements that are used. Since social capital has both positive and negative effects on well-being, this should be considered in research, policies and practices in order to prevent negative and promote positive outcomes. In Ukraine, as well as in other settings, social capital is an unequal resource for different societal groups. Reducing gender and income inequalities would probably influence the distribution of social capital within the society.

  • Ingole, Vijendra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune 411011, India; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Kovats, Sari
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Hajat, Shakoor
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Armstrong, Ben
    Socioenvironmental factors associated with heat and cold-related mortality in Vadu HDSS, western India: a population-based case-crossover study2017In: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 61, no 10, 1797-1804 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambient temperatures (heat and cold) are associated with mortality, but limited research is available about groups most vulnerable to these effects in rural populations. We estimated the effects of heat and cold on daily mortality among different sociodemographic groups in the Vadu HDSS area, western India. We studied all deaths in the Vadu HDSS area during 2004-2013. A conditional logistic regression model in a case-crossover design was used. Separate analyses were carried out for summer and winter season. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for total mortality and population subgroups. Temperature above a threshold of 31 A degrees C was associated with total mortality (OR 1.48, CI = 1.05-2.09) per 1 A degrees C increase in daily mean temperature. Odds ratios were higher among females (OR 1.93; CI = 1.07-3.47), those with low education (OR 1.65; CI = 1.00-2.75), those owing larger agricultural land (OR 2.18; CI = 0.99-4.79), and farmers (OR 1.70; CI = 1.02-2.81). In winter, per 1 A degrees C decrease in mean temperature, OR for total mortality was 1.06 (CI = 1.00-1.12) in lag 0-13 days. High risk of cold-related mortality was observed among people occupied in housework (OR = 1.09; CI = 1.00-1.19). Our study suggests that both heat and cold have an impact on mortality particularly heat, but also, to a smaller degree, cold have an impact. The effects may differ partly by sex, education, and occupation. These findings might have important policy implications in preventing heat and cold effects on particularly vulnerable groups of the rural populations in low and middle-income countries with hot semi-arid climate.