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  • Sharp, Lena
    et al.
    Westman, Bodil
    Olofsson, Anna
    Leppänen, Arja
    Henriksson, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Regional Cancer Centre, Stockholm-Gotland, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Access to supportive care during and after cancer treatment and the impact of socioeconomic factors2018In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 57, no 10, p. 1303-1310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sweden's national cancer strategy points out several areas of cancer care that need improvements. Among them the need for supportive care resources to be accessible through the entire cancer trajectory and the reduction of socioeconomic inequalities. The aim of this study was to compare the patient-reported access to supportive care in the Stockholm-Gotland region between patients diagnosed in 2014 and 2016. The aim was also to describe how socioeconomic and other demographic factors impact access to supportive care.

    Material and methods: All patients with gynaecological, head and neck, haematological and upper gastrointestinal cancers diagnosed in the Stockholm-Gotland regions were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registries. Data were collected via a questionnaire on demographic, socioeconomic factors and patients' perception (n=1872) of access to supportive care. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics and logistic regression was used for relevant variables.

    Results: Access to some supportive care resources, such as contact nurses (CNs) and individual written care plans (IWCPs) had significantly improved from 2014 to 2016. The proportion of patients that had received information about patient advocacy groups (PAGs) had also improved but remained on a relatively low level (29 and 35%, respectively). The proportion of patients being refereed to palliative care (PC) did not change between 2014 and 2016. In total, 10% of the patients reported to having received information on second medical opinion (SMO). Patients that had undergone multimodality cancer treatment were more likely to report access to supportive care, and those with lower education levels were more likely to have access to CNs and IWCPs.

    Conclusion: Access to some of the supportive care resources have shown improvements in the Stockholm-Gotland region but further efforts are required, especially regarding access to PC, information about PAGs and SMOs.

  • Waerland-Fager, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    EU-medborgarnas stöd för ett mer socialt Europa: En kvantitativ studie om vilka faktorer som förklarar variationen i stödet för EU:s sociala dimension2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine which factors that can explain the variation in EU citizens support for a larger integration of social issues within the EU from a country perspective where 18 EU countries are included in the statistical analysis. The thesis is based on five theoretical assumptions in order to try to explain the variation in the citizen´s support between different EU countries for more decision-making at an EU level for health and social security issues. To study these relations, a multivariate regression analysis is used. The result shows that none of the theoretical assumptions can explain the differences between citizens' support for a more social Europe. The thesis complementary bivariate Pearson R-tests show, on the other hand, that there is a correlation between support for the national government and values for cognitive mobilization (how politically interested citizens are and how often citizens discuss EU issues) and the support for more decision-making at the EU level. However, the result show a opposite direction for the correlations than the theoretical assumptions of the thesis initiates. This emphasizes the relevance of the theoretical framework of this thesis; the concept of response variability, which means that citizens are ambivalent in their support towards different EU issues. Because earlier research for some of the variables are based on theories of european integration from a one dimensional perspective and not from a policy-specific perspective for increased social integration, there is an important difference between these theoretical bases that stand in conflict with each other.

  • Söderstedt, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Säkerhetiseringen av migration i svensk media: Konstruktionen av ett hot2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate a medial construction of securitization. It aims to comprehend the way a discourse of securitization is constructed and in what sense a certain group of immigrants are constructed as an existential threat within it. With postcolonialism, discourse theory and securitization theory providing the theoretical framework the discourse of a far-right internet newspaper is analysed. It is argued that the discourse indeed ought to be considered a discourse of securitization while also maintaining that the relevant group of immigrants are constructed as an existential threat. What this paper thus argues, is that, at least to a limited extent, a securitization of migration is occuring in Swedish far-right media.

  • Skog, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ministeromsättning och jämställdhet: Förutsättningar för kvinnor och män att stanna kvar vid ministerposten i Skandinavien2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies ministerial turnover in Scandinavia, focusing on group level differences of outcome for men and women in ministerial positions and attempting to explain why these might occur. It also attempts to test the applicability and validity of earlier works on the Scandinavian setting, more specifically that of portfolio salience and its presumed interaction with turnover depending on government type. The paper draws on databases compiled of governments and their ministers, primarily analysing them through a multinomial logit model. It reports no significant differences that may be observed regarding the survival rates or duration for Scandinavian ministers, albeit women in ministerial positions seem to outperform their male peers slightly – in contrary to theory expectations. The results of the paper also partly support earlier studies which conclude that portfolio salience protects important ministers from being fired or quitting in disgrace, at least so in countries where governments consist predominantly of coalitions, and suggests an alternative reading of earlier theories that could explain why portfolio salience seemingly does not also protect important ministers from switching posts or being reshuffled.

  • Liljegren, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kan vi prata om demokrati?: En studie av demokrati- och medborgarideal i skolans styr- och läromedel för gymnasiet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie av demokrati- och medborgarideal av gymnasieskolans ämnesplan för Samhällskunskap 1 och läromedel för Samhällskunskap 1. Studien visar att demokratiundervisningen inte behandlar de tre dominerande demokratiidealen valdemokrati, deltagardemokrati och samtalsdemokrati som sammanhållna ideal i undervisningen. Studien visar också att det måste till kompensatoriska insatser i form av fakta och uppgifter angående demokrati för att eleverna ska nå ämnesplanens mål om att ”skapa förutsättningar för ett aktivt deltagande i samhällslivet”. Avslutningsvis ställer studien frågor om vad som förespråkas och vilka värdena är i den demokrati som gestaltas i styr- och läromedel.

  • Gustavsson, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Det rationella maktmissbruket: En studie om New Public Management och korruption2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine if the organisational reforms, commonly referred to as New Public Management, have led to an institutional arrangement that promotes corrupt behaviour among officials at the sub-national level. By using a theoretical framework which is based on rationality among actors within the current institutional arrangement it is suggested that these reforms have created an environment where bribes and nepotism will increase and spread. To test this theory, a statistical analysis of the relationship between the percentage of private contracting by public procurement in the elderly and disabled care, and the level of corruption in Swedish municipalities has been conducted. The results indicate that the percentage of private contracting in elderly and disabled care does not have a significant effect on the levels of corruption in the municipalities. Some guidance to why this might be the case is presented in the conclusion, where it is argued that the theoretical framework must include a wider and broader understanding of the root causes of corruption, and further studies on the relationship between public officials and private companies must be carried out.

  • Jansson, Leila
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. bDepartment of Health Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Nurses' experiences of assessing suicide risk in specialised mental health outpatient care in rural areas2018In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 554-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes nurses' experiences of assessing suicide risk in specialised mental health outpatient care in rural areas in Sweden. We used a qualitative, descriptive design based on twelve interviews that were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The results showed that the nurses felt anguish due to a lack of control. They expressed uncertainty and loneliness, and they struggled with ethical issues and organisational challenges. Having the sole responsibility to assess suicide risk can increase a person's emotional vulnerability and moral stress. Consequently, in order to prevent ill health among these nurses, there is a need for a tolerant work climate and an organisation that provides support to its employees.Assessing suicide risk is a demanding task within mental health outpatient care. Further, nurses operating in rural areas have to initiate and conduct assessments on their own, and they are, together with the physician in charge, also held individually responsible for their assessments. Consequently, it is important to describe nurses' experiences of how they deal with questions concerning suicide risk. Their experiences can foster awareness of the responsibility and the ethical standpoints related to assessing suicide risk, can help outline the need for further education and supervision, and can improve support from co-workers and management.

  • Pantu, Mara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Early Warning Mechanism: A case study2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the tumultuous political climate following Brexit, the European integration lives on borrowed time. With the ever-increasing need for democratic legitimacy on the EU stage, the ‘Early Warning Mechanism’ is viewed by many as the last salvation. Since its introduction to the EU with the Treaty of Lisbon of 2007, it has been used to trigger a subsidiarity test three times, issuing so called ‘yellow cards’ to the Commission, and forcing it to review its proposal on grounds of subsidiarity. However, the Commission has ruled in favor of itself at every instance, making both the EU and the Member States question its efficiency. By presenting the three yellow cards, this study aims to scrutinize the Commission’s and the Member States’ involvement in the EWM while discussing their views on subsidiarity as a whole.

  • Mohammad, Dalia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Chefer och mångfald: En kvalitativ studie om sektionschefers uppfattningar om och erfarenheter av ett trainee-program2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte har varit att beskriva och analysera sektionschefers uppfattningar om och erfarenheter av ett trainee-program för ökad mångfald på ÅF. I studien har det undersökts dels hur sektionscheferna anser att trainee-programmet har fungerat, dels vilka hinder och möjligheter de beskriver i arbetet med kulturell mångfald. Vidare har det studerats hur sektionscheferna ser på sin ledarroll och vilka strategier de haft i sitt arbete med trainee-programmet. Undersökningen genomfördes genom fem kvalitativa intervjuer. Sektionscheferna som ingick i studien arbetar på olika orter i Sverige och de har haft minst en anställd från trainee-programmet i över ett år. Resultatet visar att sektionscheferna anser att trainee-programmet i stort har fungerat bra. Olikheter berikar varandra, man kan nå fler kunders behov med olika kulturer i arbetsgruppen samt att man lär av varandra var möjligheter som lyftes fram. De hinder som beskrevs var främst kopplade till kommunikativa och språkliga hinder. Det framkom varierade resultat gällande sektionschefernas ledarskap där en del ansåg att de inte haft några särskilda strategier och andra ansåg att de anpassat sitt ledarskap mot medarbetare från trainee-programmet.

  • Jonsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöström, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vi rullar vidare med introduktionen- Ett chefsperspektiv inom tillverkningsindustrin2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur produktionsledarna på Volvo GTO i Umeå arbetar med introduktionen av nya medarbetare i jämförelse med riktlinjerna för introduktionsprocessen från ledningshåll. Detta är en kvalitativ studie där resultatet baseras på intervjuer med åtta produktionsledare, såväl som två möten med ansvarig HR-chef, samt en HR business partner. Intervjuerna har utgått från frågor om vilka syften produktionsledarna anser att introduktionsprocessen har, hur de beskriver sina egna attityder och upplevelser kring processen samt hur de utformar introduktionen. Resultaten tyder på att produktionsledarna anser att en standardisering av processen är positiv, men att det behövs mer utbildningsmaterial för att förtydliga vad som skall ingå under introduktionen. De efterfrågar även en mer noggrann uppföljning från HR:s sida samt en tydligare kommunikation kring syftet, från ledningens håll, såväl som mer delaktighet i processen.

  • Eriksson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karlsson, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    EMPLOYER BRANDING: ETT SÄTT ATT ATTRAHERA, REKRYTERA OCH BEHÅLLA KOMPETENTA MEDARBETARE?: - En fältstudie om viktiga värdefaktorer för medarbetare inom IT-branschen.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bristen på kvalificerad arbetskraft är idag utbredd över många branscher. IT-sektorn är en av de branscher som är hårdast drabbad och de närmaste åren förväntas bristen öka. Denna studie syftar till att hjälpa företag inom IT-branschen att se vad som får potentiella medarbetare att söka sig till en specifik arbetsgivare. Denna kunskap ska sedan kunna användas som ett verktyg för att utveckla sitt arbete med employer branding och genom det kunna attrahera, rekrytera och behålla kvalificerade medarbetare. Studien genomfördes på ett företag från Umeå som valt att vara anonyma, hädanefter kallat företag X. Datainsamlingen grundade sig i en värdefaktorsmodell och två olika metoder användes för att samla in datan. För det första genom en enkät som besvarades av 35 potentiella medarbetare, alltså personer som sökt arbete hos företag X. För det andra genom fem semistrukturerade intervjuer som genomfördes med medarbetare på företag X. Resultatet visade att det finns en diskrepans mellan vad potentiella medarbetare söker och vad företag X i nuläget erbjuder. Det potentiella medarbetare värderar högst hos en arbetsgivare är att kunna lita på sina chefer och ledare samt att få möjlighet att utveckla sina kompetenser, vilka av medarbetarna på företag X upplevs som utvecklingsområden hos företaget. Denna diskrepans utmynnade i ett förslag i hur företag X kan utveckla sitt arbete med employer branding och genom detta möta de förväntningar potentiella medarbetare har.

  • Edholm, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ingemansson, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Arbetslivets praktik vs. Utbildningens teori.: En kartläggning av personalvetaralumnens nytta och plats på arbetsmarknaden.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att kartlägga hur tiden efter examen för personalvetaralumner från Umeå universitet har sett ut. För att besvara vårt syfte ställde vi oss frågor kring utbildningens genererade kunskaper och färdigheter, alumnernas upplevelse av deras anställningsbarhet och hur arbetssituationen ser ut idag. Inspirerade av Thomas Brunkerts ”Personalvetarlumnen mitt i matchningsmatchen” utfördes en i princip likadant utformad enkätundersökning för att göra jämförelser över tid, men med en differentiering genom semistrukturerade intervjuer. På så vis kunde vi utöver kartläggningen av den breda massans åsikter också beskriva enskilda upplevelser. Enkäten skickades ut till cirka 160 alumner vilket renderade i 69 respondenter, varpå vi slumpade ut fem av dessa för intervju. Resultatet visade på att alumnerna har ett väldigt brett register av titlar och kompetenser. De beskriver sin anställningsbarhet som god och arbetsmarknadssituationen ses som gynnsam. Viktigast med utbildningen i retrospektiv var de praktiska inslagen i form av arbetslivsförankrade delar såväl som praktikperioden.I jämförelse med Brunkerts studie från 2010 kan vi konstatera att den här studiens alumner i regel har högre löner, könsfördelningen har ytterligare differentierats och arbetslivserfarenheten innan studier är längre. I övrigt har våra respektive respondenter relativt lika befattningar och arbetsuppgifter.

  • Berlouis, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att belöna eller inte belöna?: En studie om belöningar på ett icke-vinstdrivande företag i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har syftat till att undersöka hur finansiella och icke-finansiella belöningar fungerar motiverande för medarbetarna på ett icke-vinstdrivande företag samt vad som får medarbetarna att känna sig uppskattade i sitt arbete. Syftet har besvarats genom följande frågeställningar; Hur resonerar medarbetarna såväl finansiella som icke-finansiella belöningar? Vad upplever medarbetarna motiverar dem i deras arbete? Hur önskar medarbetare att uppskattning visas för deras arbetsprestationer? Forskning visar att finansiella och icke-finansiella belöningar har olika påverkan på medarbetares motivation. Studien har genomförts med kvalitativa telefonintervjuer. Resultatet visar att medarbetarna upplever inre motivation till sina arbetsuppgifter men att de saknar icke-finansiella och finansiella belöningar från ledningen.

  • Adolfsson, Märta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Ebba
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    HR i den artificiella intelligensens tid.: En intervjustudie om användningsområden, möjligheter och utmatningar med artificiell intelligens inom HR.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den nuvarande utvecklingen inom artificiell intelligens kommer att påverka hela arbetsmarknaden, likaså HR-arbetet. Denna kvalitativa studie syftar till att undersöka HR-medarbetares uppfattningar om utvecklingen. Hur kommer artificiell intelligens att kunna användas inom HR och vilka möjligheter och utmaningar för det med sig? Sju semistrukturerade intervjuer med HR-medarbetare inom olika branscher, med olika roller och med viss förförståelse för begreppet artificiell intelligens, har legat till grund för resultatet i studien. Artificiell intelligens kommer enligt informanterna att kunna nyttjas inom de flesta områden inom HR. I dagsläget är det mest aktuellt inom rekrytering, HR-administration och för att besvara HRfrågor av enklare karaktär. Detta öppnar upp möjligheter för mer tids- och kostnadseffektivt HR-arbete, starkare arbetsgivarvarumärke och högre kvalitet på arbetet. Samtidigt möts utvecklingen av utmaningar gällande etik, kompetens och kunskapsbrist samt det mänskliga värdet. Gällande HR-funktionens värde i organisationen finns både chans till ett ökat värde och risk för ett minskat värde. HRmedarbetare kommer i framtiden att tillåtas arbeta mer strategiskt och med mer komplexa frågor till följd av minskat manuellt arbete, något som kommer att gynna organisationen på olika sätt i längden. Om robotar ersätter den mänskliga arbetskraften riskerar HR-funktionen dock att tappa sitt värde, däremot kommer nya arbetsuppgifter som efterfrågar HR-kompetens växa fram. Trots utmaningarna ses utvecklingen som spännande och är något som HR-medarbetarna är nyfikna på och ser fram emot.

  • Fors, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Brülde, Bengt
    Har vi det bättre på jobbet eller på fritiden?2017In: Larmar och gör sig till: SOM-undersökningen 2016 / [ed] Ulrika Andersson, Jonas Ohlsson, Henrik Oscarsson och Maria Oskarson, Göteborg: SOM-institutet, Göteborgs universitet , 2017, p. 211-222Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet undersöker vi hur det är ställt med välbefinnandet och meningsfullheten på arbetet och på fritiden, i dagens Sverige. Våra data pekar på att den del av svenska folket som förvärvsarbetar mår bättre på fritiden än på arbetet, medan upplevelsen av meningsfullhet snarare är starkare på jobbet än på fritiden. Någon fullständig förklaring till människors välbefinnande och meningsfullhet – på jobbet och på fritiden – kan vi inte ge, men våra begränsade analyser visar bland annat att företagare har högre välbefinnande och meningsfullhet på jobbet, medan höga inkomster framför allt är förknippade med högre välbefinnande och meningsfullhet på fritiden. Vi kan också se att individer som motionerar mycket på sin fritid upplever både högre välbefinnande och meningsfullhet på fritiden, men inte på arbetet. Avslutningsvis finner vi att fritiden tycks vara viktigare än jobbet för de som förvärvsarbetar: graden av välbefinnande och meningsfullhet på fritiden spelar en betydligt större roll för hur nöjda svenskarna är med sina liv som helhet, jämfört med hur mycket välbefinnande och meningsfullhet de upplever på arbetet.

  • Elofsson, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    The ability of a plug of Coltosol to resist coronal microleakage in endodontically treated teeth. An ex vivo study.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Materials commonly used in endondontic treatment lack the ability to prevent microleakage into the root canal system. The aim of this study was to evaluate if adding a plug of Coltosol can prevent coronal microleackage in endodontically treated teeth by in vitro dye penetration method.

    In part one in this study 33 single canal human teeth was decoronized, mechanically prepared and obturated with Gutta-percha and AH-plus sealant using the cold lateral condensing technique. Specimens where randomly divided into three groups with 10 specimens in each group. Two teeth served as positive and one as negative control. Group 1 only GP/sealant was used, no plug was placed in the orifice. Specimens in group 2 and 3 where prepared with a 1 mm respectively 3 mm depth coronal cavity and the orifice-cavities was filled with Coltosol. Dye penetration was measured after immersed 30 days.

    In part two, eight teeth was prepared and canals were instrumented and filled in the same procedure as in part one. A 3 mm depth coronal cavity was prepared in four specimens in the remaining four teeth a 3 mm depth apical cavity was prepared. The cavities were filled with Coltosol. Dye penetration was measured after immersed 45 days and 90 days.

    No difference in leakage was observed after immersed in 30 and 45 days. A significant difference in leakage was observed after immersed 90 days (p=0.018), Specimens with a plug of Coltosol showed less dye penetration compared to the ones with only Gutta-percha and sealer.

  • Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Wu, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    PCR Analysis as a Method of Microbiological Control in Endodontic Treatment Is there a Correlation to Healing? A pilot study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It is scientifically established that absence of viable bacteria in the root canal prior to root filling is an important factor for a successful outcome of endodontic treatment. Culturing technique is often used to confirm a root canal free from bacteria before obturation. This technique has some unfavorable limitations. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a molecular technique which can be used to analyze the endodontic microflora and enable faster analytical progress. It is however uncertain if PCR can be used to predict treatment outcome in endodontic treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether PCR as a method could be used to predict treatment outcome by bacterial sampling prior to root filling.

     

    Methods: During strict aseptic conditions, bacterial samples were taken in 24 single-rooted teeth on two occasions. The first samples were taken directly after access cavity was made, and the second samples were taken after the canals were treated and cleaned with antimicrobial substances, using sterile saline and paper points. The samples were transferred to fluid thioglycolate medium. Analyzes of all the samples were made with PCR-method and culturing technique. These results were correlated to healing seen in x-rays for each tooth.

     

    Results: No correlation between healing and bacterial DNA numbers prior to root filling analysis was found. Neither was a correlation found between the bacterial DNA numbers prior to treatment and bacterial numbers before root filling.

     

    Conclusions: The results indicate that PCR, as a method, cannot be used to predict the outcome of endodontic treatment.

  • Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Social status and life satisfaction in context: a comparison between Sweden and the USA2018In: International Journal of Wellbeing, ISSN 1179-8602, E-ISSN 1179-8602, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 110-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that social status is an important predictor of life satisfaction (LS). However, researchers have largely focused on the United States, which raises questions about the extent to which the cultural context moderates the relationship between social status and LS. In this paper, we argue that the dominant cultural orientations in society most likely influence the strength of the relationship between social status and LS. Cultural orientations emphasizing competition, achievement and assertiveness should increase the positive influence of social status on LS, while cultural emphases on cooperation, equality and humility instead weakens the effect of status. We therefore analyze the social status-LS relationship in two distinctly different cultural contexts, i.e., Sweden and the United States. Based on theories about national differences in cultural value orientations, we argue that social status should be of more importance in the US compared to in Sweden, since the dominant values and ideals emphasize hierarchy, mastery and masculinity, while the Swedish culture represents an opposite pole by emphasizing egalitarianism, harmony, and femininity. We formulate a number of hypotheses and use survey data to examine the extent to which both social status attainment and social status seeking are related to LS in both countries. The results show that socioeconomic status (income) and sociometric status (perceived respect and admiration in everyday life) have a stronger influence on LS in the US compared to in Sweden. Further, the findings show that social status seeking (low honesty-humility) has a positive relationship to LS in the US, but is negatively related in Sweden. The results also show that gender differences in the relationship between social status and LS are more pronounced in the US compared to in Sweden. We conclude that both the attainment and pursuit of social status are more important for LS in the American cultural context compared to in the Swedish, especially among men. These findings are in line with our expectations, based on the opposing cultural orientations in Sweden and the US. The study contributes to the literature on the relationship between social status and LS, but also to the more general literature on the moderating influence of culture on the predictors of LS.

  • Ljung, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Behandlingsformer bland fysioterapeuter inom svensk sjukvård avseende rotatorcuffsrelaterad smärta hos idrottare: En enkät - och litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Shoulder pain is common among athletes and the most common cause of this is rotatorcuffrelated pain. The shoulder is a complex joint, both anatomically and kinematically. In the field of health care, one should work evidence-based and previous studies have been conducted in other countries to compare current practice in rotator cuff-related pain with current evidence. However, no such study has been conducted in Sweden.

    Problem statments:What types of treatment methods are used in rotator cuff-related pain among physiotherapists in Sweden?

    What does the current evidence look like in the treatment of rotator cuff-related pain?

    Methods:An electronic survey was designed, which included a patient case with a typical presentation of a patient with rotator cuff-related pain as a basis for respondents to base their answers. In addition, a literature study was also conducted to investigate current evidence.

    Results:Overall, physiotherapists based their treatment on counseling / education and exercise therapy. Other passive treatment methods were also found that physiotherapists would use as alternative treatments.

    Discussion:Swedish physiotherapists primarily use exercise therapy, which is based on current evidence. Passive treatment methods are often used despite evidence of its low effect on rotator cuff-related pain and low cost effectiveness.

  • Söderberg, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Effekter av Post Activation Potentiation inför explosiva träningspass inriktade på styrka och effektutveckling hos elitjuniorer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Power has been proven to be an important factor for sport performance, especially in sports where accelerations, decelerations, jumping or throwing are of great importance. Post activation potentiation (PAP) induced by heavy exercise has been reported as an acute and effective method in improving individuals’ power output. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PAP during warm up on strength and power among elite junior athletes.

    Methods; 12 elite junior athletes from Kuortane sports gymnasium, Finland, participated in this study. Participants were allocated in two groups (Intervention’s and Control group) in a counterbalanced order. All participants performed a 1RM bench press test and a power-velocity test pre and post a 6-weeks training period. During the training period performed Intervention’s group 2 sets of 3 reps benchpress at 90% of 1RM during the warm up of each strength training session, while Control group performed the same supplement at the end of the strength training sessions. 

    Results:Results didn’t show any significant increases in 1RM bench press for either the intervention’s group or the control group. There were no significant increases observed in the power velocity test in any of the test groups either. 35% 1RM (C= -9, I= +45, P=0,13), 45% 1RM (C= +10, I= +25, P=0,57), 55% 1RM (C= -25, I= +36, P=0,008), 65% 1RM (C= -1, I= +40, P=0,26) samt 75% 1RM (C= -18, I= +30, P=0,14). (Watt, mean value)

    Discussion:1RM and power velocity did not differ significantly neither between groups nor in the pre vs. post measurements. Intervention’s group showed a larger improvement in power-velocity on 55% of 1RM compared to the control group but the effect size was rather low and therefore no significant conclusions can be drawn. Statistics have clearly shown that larger testing groups or/and a longer training period are needed in order to test the PAP hypothesis.

  • Nekulova, Marta
    et al.
    Holcakova, Jitka
    Gu, Xiaolian
    Hrabal, Vaclav
    Galtsidis, Sotiris
    Orzol, Paulina
    Liu, Yajing
    Logotheti, Stella
    Zoumpourlis, Vassilis
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Coates, Philip J.
    Vojtesek, Borivoj
    Delta Np63 alpha expression induces loss of cell adhesion in triple-negative breast cancer cells2016In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 16, article id 782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: p63, a member of the p53 protein family, plays key roles in epithelial development and carcinogenesis. In breast cancer, p63 expression has been found predominantly in basal-A (epithelial-type) triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBC). To investigate the functional role of p63 in basal-A TNBC, we created MDA-MB-468 cell lines with inducible expression of the two major N-terminal p63 isoforms, TAp63 alpha and Delta Np63 alpha. Results: TAp63 alpha did not have significant effect on gene expression profile and cell phenotype, whilst the main effect of Delta Np63 alpha was reduction of cell adhesion. Gene expression profiling revealed genes involved in cell adhesion and migration whose expression relies on overexpression of Delta Np63 alpha. Reduced cell adhesion also led to decreased cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Similar data were obtained in another basal-A cell line, BT-20, but not in BT-549 basal-B (mesenchymal-like) TNBC cells. Conclusions: In basal-A TNBC cells, Delta Np63 alpha has much stronger effects on gene expression than TAp63 alpha. Although p63 is mentioned mostly in connection with breast cell differentiation and stem cell regulation, we showed that a major effect of p63 is regulation of cell adhesion, a process important in metastasis and invasion of tumour cells. That this effect is not seen in mesenchymal-type TNBC cells suggests lineage-dependent functions, mirroring the expression of Delta Np63 alpha in primary human breast cancers.

  • Hudson, Christine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Schmauch, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A place for culture? Building an Alternative House of Culture in the context of the 2014 European Capital of Culture in Umeå, Sweden2018In: Participations, ISSN 1749-8716, E-ISSN 1749-8716, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 170-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of Umeå2014 as European Capital of Culture (ECOC) where the ideal of the inclusive co-creation of culture formed a central part of the programme, we explore the rise, fall and aftermath of an alternative house of culture – Lokstallarna (the Engine Sheds). In its ECOC bid, Umeå stressed its strong alternative, grassroots tradition and ‘Do-It-Yourself’ culture. However, these groups increasingly questioned the inclusiveness of the participatory process around the development and implementation of the programme for the ECOC year. We study one of these alternative movements which occupied disused engine sheds with the aim of turning them into a house of culture ‘for all’ as a counter to the Umeå2014 programme. The focus is on the narrative of Lokstallarna and the creation of an alternative house of culture both from the point of view of those actively involved in its creation and in the local media coverage. We have collected a variety of empirical materials, both on and offline. We approach Lokstallarna as a form of place-based resistance where meanings of activism, culture and the city are negotiated and contested. The ECOC Year in Umeå opened up the opportunity to negotiate both culture and place.

  • Ihalin, Riikka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry. Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Zhong, Deyu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry. Department of Periodontics, Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China.
    Karched, Maribasappa
    Chen, Casey
    Asikainen, Sirkka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Phosphorylcholine is located in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans fimbrial protein Flp 12018In: Medical Microbiology and Immmunology, ISSN 0300-8584, E-ISSN 1432-1831, Vol. 207, no 5-6, p. 329-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorylcholine (ChoP) is covalently incorporated into bacterial surface structures, contributing to host mimicry and promoting adhesion to surfaces. Our aims were to determine the frequency of ChoP display among Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strains, to clarify which surface structures bear ChoP, and whether ChoP-positivity relates to serum killing. The tested oral (N=67) and blood isolates (N=27) represented 6 serotypes. Mab TEPC-15 was used for immunoblotting of cell lysates and fractions and for immunofluorescence microscopy of cell surface-bound ChoP. The lysates were denatured with urea for hidden ChoP or treated with proteinase K to test whether it binds to a protein. Three ChoP-positive and two ChoP-negative strains were subjected to serum killing in the presence/absence of CRP and using Ig-depleted serum as complement source. Cell lysates and the first soluble cellular fraction revealed a<10kDa band in immunoblots. Among 94 strains, 27 were ChoP positive. No difference was found in the prevalence of ChoP-positive oral (21/67) and blood (6/27) strains. Immunofluorescence microscopy corresponded to the immunoblot results. Proteinase K abolished ChoP reactivity, whereas urea did not change the negative result. The TEPC-15-reactive protein was undetectable in flp1 mutant strain. The survival rate of serotype-b strains in serum was 100% irrespective of ChoP, but that of serotype-a was higher in ChoP-positive (85%) than ChoP-negative (71%) strains. The results suggest that a third of rough-colony strains harbor ChoP and that ChoP is attached to fimbrial subunit protein Flp1. It further seems that ChoP-positivity does not enhance but may reduce A. actinomycetemcomitans susceptibility to serum killing.

  • Moreno-Garcia, Jaime
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Department of Microbiology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jose Martin-Garcia, Francisco
    Ogawa, Minami
    Garcia-Martinez, Teresa
    Moreno, Juan
    Mauricio, Juan C.
    Bisson, Linda F.
    FLO1, FLO5 and FLO11 flocculation gene Expression impacts saccharomyces cerevisiae attachment to penicillium chrysogenum in a Co-immobilization technique2018In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 2586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reoccurring flaw of most yeast immobilization systems that limits the potential of the technique is leakage of the cells from the matrix. Leakage may be due to weakly adherent cells, deterioration of the matrix, or to new growth and loss of non-adherent daughter cells. Yeast biocapsules are a spontaneous, cost effective system of immobilization whereby Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are attached to the hyphae of Penicillium chrysogenum, creating hollow spheres that allow recovery and reutilization. This attachment is based on naturally occurring adherent properties of the yeast cell surface. We hypothesized that proteins associated with flocculation might play a role in adherence to fungal hyphae. To test this hypothesis, yeast strains with overexpressed and deleted flocculation genes (FLO1, FLO5, and FLO11) were evaluated for biocapsule formation to observe the impact of gene expression on biocapsule diameter, number, volume, dry mass, and percent immobilized versus non-immobilized cells. Overexpression of all three genes enhanced immobilization and resulted in larger diameter biocapsules. In particular, overexpression of FLO11 resulted in a five fold increase of absorbed cells versus the wild type isogenic strain. In addition, deletion of FLO1 and FLO11 significantly decreased the number of immobilized yeast cells compared to the wild type BY4742. These results confirm the role of natural adherent properties of yeast cells in attachment to fungal hyphae and offer the potential to create strongly adherent cells that will produce adherent progeny thereby reducing the potential for cell leakage from the matrix.

  • Lee, Hanna
    et al.
    Padhi, Emily
    Hasegawa, Yu
    Larke, Jules
    Parenti, Mariana
    Wang, Aidong
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lonnerdal, Bo
    Slupsky, Carolyn
    Compositional dynamics of the milk fat globule and its role in infant development2018In: Frontiers in Pediatrics, ISSN 2296-2360, Vol. 6, article id 313Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human milk is uniquely optimized for the needs of the developing infant. Its composition is complex and dynamic, driven primarily by maternal genetics, and to a lesser extent by diet and environment. One important component that is gaining attention is the milk fat globule (MFG). The MFG is composed of a triglyceride-rich core surrounded by a tri-layer membrane, also known as the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) that originates from mammary gland epithelia. The MFGM is enriched with glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol, and proteins, some of which are glycosylated, and are known to exert numerous biological roles. Mounting evidence suggests that the structure of the MFG and bioactive components of the MFGM may benefit the infant by aiding in the structural and functional maturation of the gut through the provision of essential nutrients and/or regulating various cellular events during infant growth and immune education. Further, antimicrobial peptides and surface carbohydrate moieties surrounding the MFG might have a pivotal role in shaping gut microbial populations, which in turn may promote protection against immune and inflammatory diseases early in life. This review seeks to: (1) understand the components of the MFG, as well as maternal factors including genetic and lifestyle factors that influence its characteristics; (2) examine the potential role of this milk component on the intestinal immune system; and (3) delineate the mechanistic roles of the MFG in infant intestinal maturation and establishment of the microbiota in the alimentary canal.

  • Kohler, Stefan
    et al.
    Annerstedt, Kristi Sidney
    Diwan, Vishal
    Lindholm, Lars H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Randive, Bharat
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health and Environment, R. D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India..
    Vora, Kranti
    De Costa, Ayesha
    Postpartum quality of life in Indian women after vaginal birth and cesarean section: a pilot study using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system2018In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 18, article id 427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There has been little evaluation of the postpartum quality of life (QOL) of women in India and its association with the mode of birth. This study piloted the use of the generic EQ-5D-5L questionnaire to assess postpartum QOL experienced by rural Indian women.

    Methods: A convenience sample of rural women who gave birth in a health facility in Gujarat or Madhya Pradesh was recruited into this pilot study. QOL was measured during three interviews within 30days of birth using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. Patient-level quality-adjusted life days (QALDs) were estimated. Multivariate regression was used to adjust for selected baseline characteristics.

    Results: Forty-six women with cesarean section and 178 with vaginal birth from 17 public and private health facilities were studied. Postpartum QOL in both groups improved between interviews 1 and 3. Comparing between vaginal and cesarean births indicated that the vaginal birth group had a higher QOL (0-3 days postpartum: 0.28 vs. 0.57, 3-7 days postpartum: 0.59 vs. 0.81; P<0.001) and was more likely to report no or slight problems in 4 of 5 health dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, painordiscomfort; P0.04) during interviews 1 and 2. Postpartum QOL converged, but still differed between groups by the time of interview 3 (21-30 days postpartum: 0.85 vs. 0.93; P<0.001). While most women reported no problems by the end of the first postpartum month, the difference in the ability to perform usual activities persisted (P=0.001). In result, fewer QALDs were attained by women in the cesarean section group between day 1 and day 21 postpartum (13.1 vs. 16.6 QALDs; P<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that having had an episiotomy during vaginal birth was also associated with reduced QOL postpartum, but to a lesser extent than cesarean section. Similar results were obtained when adjusting for socioeconomic, pregnancy and birth characteristics, but postpartum QOL already ceased to be statistically different between groups before interview 3.

    Conclusions: Vaginal births, even with episiotomy, were associated with a higher postpartum QOL than cesarean births among the Indian women in our pilot study. Finding these expected results suggests that the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire is asuitable instrumentto assess postpartum QOL in Indian women.

  • Jones, Iwan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Yelhekar, Tushar D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Wiberg, Rebecca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Kingham, Paul J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Johansson, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Carlsson, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Development and validation of an in vitro model system to study peripheral sensory neuron development and injury2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 15961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to discriminate between diverse types of sensation is mediated by heterogeneous populations of peripheral sensory neurons. Human peripheral sensory neurons are inaccessible for research and efforts to study their development and disease have been hampered by the availability of relevant model systems. The in vitro differentiation of peripheral sensory neurons from human embryonic stem cells therefore provides an attractive alternative since an unlimited source of biological material can be generated for studies that specifically address development and injury. The work presented in this study describes the derivation of peripheral sensory neurons from human embryonic stem cells using small molecule inhibitors. The differentiated neurons express canonical- and modality-specific peripheral sensory neuron markers with subsets exhibiting functional properties of human nociceptive neurons that include tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium currents and repetitive action potentials. Moreover, the derived cells associate with human donor Schwann cells and can be used as a model system to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal death following peripheral nerve injury. The quick and efficient derivation of genetically diverse peripheral sensory neurons from human embryonic stem cells offers unlimited access to these specialised cell types and provides an invaluable in vitro model system for future studies.

  • Donev, Evgeniy
    et al.
    Gandla, Madhavi Latha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mellerowicz, Ewa J.
    Engineering non-cellulosic polysaccharides of wood for the biorefinery2018In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, article id 1537Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-cellulosic polysaccharides constitute approximately one third of usable woody biomass for human exploitation. In contrast to cellulose, these substances are composed of several different types of unit monosaccharides and their backbones are substituted by various groups. Their structural diversity and recent examples of their modification in transgenic plants and mutants suggest they can be targeted for improving wood-processing properties, thereby facilitating conversion of wood in a biorefinery setting. Critical knowledge on their structure-function relationship is slowly emerging, although our understanding of molecular interactions responsible for observed phenomena is still incomplete. This review: (1) provides an overview of structural features of major non-cellulosic polysaccharides of wood, (2) describes the fate of non-cellulosic polysaccharides during biorefinery processing, (3) shows how the non-cellulosic polysaccharides impact lignocellulose processing focused on yields of either sugars or polymers, and (4) discusses outlooks for the improvement of tree species for biorefinery by modifying the structure of non-cellulosic polysaccharides.

  • Zannini, Flavien
    et al.
    Roret, Thomas
    Przybyla-Toscano, Jonathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Université de Lorraine, Inra, IAM, F-54000 Nancy, France; flavien.zannini@univ-lorraine.fr (F.Z.); thomas.roret@sb-roscoff.fr (T.R.); przybylajonathan@orange.fr (J.P.-T.); tiphaine.dhalleine@univ-lorraine.fr (T.D.); nicolas.rouhier@univ-lorraine.fr (N.R.).
    Dhalleine, Tiphaine
    Rouhier, Nicolas
    Couturier, Jeremy
    Mitochondrial arabidopsis thaliana TRXo isoforms bind an iron-sulfur cluster and reduce NFU proteins In Vitro2018In: Antioxidants, ISSN 2076-3921, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In plants, the mitochondrial thioredoxin (TRX) system generally comprises only one or two isoforms belonging to the TRX h or o classes, being less well developed compared to the numerous isoforms found in chloroplasts. Unlike most other plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana possesses two TRXo isoforms whose physiological functions remain unclear. Here, we performed a structure-function analysis to unravel the respective properties of the duplicated TRXo1 and TRXo2 isoforms. Surprisingly, when expressed in Escherichia coli, both recombinant proteins existed in an apo-monomeric form and in a homodimeric iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-bridged form. In TRXo2, the [4Fe-4S] cluster is likely ligated in by the usual catalytic cysteines present in the conserved Trp-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys signature. Solving the three-dimensional structure of both TRXo apo-forms pointed to marked differences in the surface charge distribution, notably in some area usually participating to protein-protein interactions with partners. However, we could not detect a difference in their capacity to reduce nitrogen-fixation-subunit-U (NFU)-like proteins, NFU4 or NFU5, two proteins participating in the maturation of certain mitochondrial Fe-S proteins and previously isolated as putative TRXo1 partners. Altogether, these results suggest that a novel regulation mechanism may prevail for mitochondrial TRXs o, possibly existing as a redox-inactive Fe-S cluster-bound form that could be rapidly converted in a redox-active form upon cluster degradation in specific physiological conditions.

  • Wiklund-Engblom, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Digital relational competence: Sensitivity and responsivity to needs of distance and co-located students2018In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 188-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being relationally competent is an essential skill for teachers. This involves, for example, skills in social interaction, emotional communication, and human connection. Two key factors for relational competence are teachers’ sensitivity and responsivity to learner needs. In a distance-learning environment this can be a challenge because of the technical barriers, which often entail a lack of nonverbal cues that can guide teachers in social interactions and the orchestration of relations. In this study, nine semi-structured interviews capture the experiences of teachers in upper secondary school, in order to explore how they describe their own digital didactical design for distance courses and how they perceive that it supports students’ learning. In the qualitative content analysis of the interview data, the emphasis was placed on teachers’ digital relational competence with regard to their sensitivity and responsivity. These two factors are scrutinized in relation to six categories of student needs: emotional, cognitive-epistemic, metareflective, self-regulatory, social, and practical-logistic needs.

  • Bengs, Anette
    et al.
    Hägglund, Susanne
    Wiklund-Engblom, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Applying Experience Design to Facilitate Wellbeing and Social Inclusion of Older Adults2018In: IxD&A: Interaction Design and Architecture(s), ISSN 1826-9745, E-ISSN 2283-2998, no 36, p. 11-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current article addresses the issue of how to design for meaningful experiences of wellbeing and social inclusion, supported by information and communication technology, among older adults. This is done with regard to a background study conducted for the purpose of collecting end user needs in order to inform design choices. Our design approach is influenced by the theory of Experience Design, in which design should be aimed at creating specific experiences. These experiences are considered to derive from a limited number of fundamental human needs. The study is framed as design research using the methodology of user-centred design as a guide for the creative process. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with 25 older adults, identifying needs of autonomy, competence, relatedness, physical thriving, security, pleasure and stimulation. Design goals were set based on these needs and three interventions were designed and implemented accordingly.

  • Nygård Skalman, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Holst, Mikkel R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Larsson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lundmark, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Plasma membrane damage caused by listeriolysin O is not repaired through endocytosis of the membrane pore2018In: Biology Open, ISSN 2046-6390, Vol. 7, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endocytic mechanisms have been suggested to be important for plasma membrane repair in response to pore-forming toxins such as listeriolysin O (LLO), which form membrane pores that disrupt cellular homeostasis. Yet, little is known about the specific role of distinct endocytic machineries in this process. Here, we have addressed the importance of key endocytic pathways and developed reporter systems for real-time imaging of the endocytic response to LLO pore formation. We found that loss of clathrin-independent endocytic pathways negatively influenced the efficiency of membrane repair. However, we did not detect any increased activity of these pathways, or co-localisation with the toxin or markers of membrane repair, suggesting that they were not directly involved in removal of LLO pores from the plasma membrane. In fact, markers of clathrin-independent carriers (CLICs) were rapidly disassembled in the acute phase of membrane damage due to Ca2+ influx, followed by a reassembly about 2 min after pore formation. We propose that these endocytic mechanisms might influence membrane repair by regulating the plasma membrane composition and tension, but not via direct internalisation of LLO pores.

  • Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Estimating duration-distance relations in cycle commuting in the general population2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to estimate the duration-distance relation in cycle commuting in the general population since this enables analyses of the potential for various public health outcomes. Therefore, the aim is to estimate this relation in the Swedish adult population of 2015. For that purpose, the first step was to establishit for adult male and female cycle commuters in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Whether or not the slopes of these relations needed to be altered in order to make them representative of the general population was evaluated by comparing the levels of maximal oxygen uptake in samples of commuter cyclists and the population. The measure used was the maximal oxygen uptake divided by both the body weight and a cycle weight of 18.5 kg. The body weights in the population samples were adjusted to mirror relevant levels in 2015. Age adjustments for the duration-distance relations were calculated on the basis of the maximal oxygen uptake in the population samples aged 20-65 years. The duration-distance relations of the cycle commuters were downscaled by about 24-28% to mirror levels in the general population. The empirical formula for the distance (D, km) was based on duration (T, minutes) · speed (km/min) · a correction factor from cycle commuter to the general population · age adjustment (A, years). For the males in the general population the formula was: D = T · 20.76 km/h · 0.719 · (1.676-0.0147 · A). For females, the formula was: D = T · 16.14 km/h · 0.763 · (1.604-0.0129 · A). These formulas, combined with distributions of route distances between home and work in the population, enable realistic evaluations of the potential for different public health outcomes through cycle commuting.

  • Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Olsson Spjut, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    The transformation of the organic energy system: the Swedish perspective2019In: Historia Agraria, ISSN 1139-1472, E-ISSN 2340-3659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the historical conversion of the Swedish organic energy system into a mineral one. The main argument is that there was a dynamic interaction between the two systems during the Swedish industrialization process. For one, growth of the mineral energy system contributed to open previously inaccessible organic resources in the forests of northern Sweden. Secondly, the development of the pulp and paper industry contributed to the switch from charcoal to coke in the iron manufacturing industry. Thirdly, the development of hydropower, itself an organic source of energy, further contributed to the emergence of a mixed energy system. One can therefore perceive the Swedish transition from an organic to a mineral energy system as a shift from a traditional organic energy system to an industrialized one, that is, an organic energy system dependent on the technologies and organizational structures of the mineral energy system in order to function.

  • Nilsson, Nils Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Fotografiet och Museet: Fotografiet som museiföremål, kulturarv och levande berättelse2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats har varit att utforska fotografiet som museiföremål, kulturhistoriskt medium och arbetet med fotografier inom det kulturhistoriska rummet. Ämnet är avgränsat till den analoga bilden, dokumentärfotografi och fotografiet som kulturhistoriskt medium, aspekter som museer arbetar med. Uppsatsen bygger på tre frågeställningar:

    ❖ Vad för betydelse har fotografiet som kulturhistoriskt medium?

    ❖ Hur kan museiarbetare bearbeta kulturhistoriska fotografier, och kan musealiserade fotografier läsas på berättelser?

    ❖ Vad betyder dokumentärfotografin för museet? Det första huvudkapitlet presenterar en inblick i fotografiets kulturhistoria som museernas fotosamlingar återspeglar samt dess roll i människans kulturhistoria. Det andra huvudkapitlet utgör ett logiskt resonemang av fotografiet som ett kulturhistoriskt medium och lyfter fram hur bilder kan ”läsas”. Tredje huvudkapitlet består av resultatet från en empirisk undersökning inom vilken sju olika kulturarvsinstitutioner deltog, temat på undersökningen var synen på deras respektive fotografiska samlingar. Fjärde huvudkapitlet undersöker hur museiarbetare kan arbeta med de fotografiska samlingarna och bygga fotografiska berättelser med hjälp av grävarbete och studier samt hur museifotografer kan dokumentera nya kulturarv och försvinnande miljöer med sina kameror. Båda parter kan skapa kulturarv med hjälp av fotografier. Många museer har anställda dokumentärfotografer och deras arbete betyder mycket för det gemensamma kulturarvet.

    Uppsatsen avrundas med en avslutande diskussion där aspekter och tankar kring uppsatsen diskuteras och tankar ges på källmaterial.

  • Eriksson, Berne
    et al.
    Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Internal Medicine, Central County Hospital of Halmstad, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Ekerljung, Linda
    Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg , Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Malin
    Department of Care Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pattern of Cardiovascular Comorbidity in COPD in a Country with Low-smoking Prevalence: Results from Two-population-based Cohorts from Sweden2018In: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1541-2555, E-ISSN 1541-2563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common comorbidities in COPD, due to common risk factors such as smoking. The prevalence of current smokers in Sweden has decreased over four decades to around 10%. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, distribution and associations of cardiovascular comorbidities in COPD by disease severity in two large areas of Sweden, both with low-smoking prevalence. Data from clinical examinations in 2009-2012, including spirometry and structured interview, from two large-scale population studies, the West Sweden Asthma Study (WSAS) and the OLIN Studies in Northern Sweden, were pooled. COPD was defined using post-bronchodilator spirometry according to the fixed ratio FEV1/FVC <0.70 and the lower limit of normal (LLN5th percentile) of the ratio of FEV1/FVC. Of the 1839 subjects included, 8.7% and 5.7% had COPD according to the fixed ratio and the LLN criterion. Medication for heart disease or hypertension among those with moderate-to-severe COPD was more common than among those without COPD (fixed ratio definition of COPD: 51% vs. 23%, p < 0.001; LLN definition: 42% vs. 24%, p = 0.002). After adjusting for known risk factors for COPD, including smoking, age, socio-economic status, and occupational exposure for gas, dust and fumes, only heart failure remained significantly, and independently, associated with COPD, irrespective of the definitions of COPD. Though a major decrease in smoking prevalence, the pattern of cardiovascular comorbidities in COPD still remains similar with previously performed studies in Sweden and in other Westernized countries as well.

  • Rodríguez, Juanjo
    et al.
    Gallampois, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Timonen, Sari
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sinkko, Hanna
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Berglund, Åsa M. M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rowe, Owen
    Effects of Organic Pollutants on Bacterial Communities Under Future Climate Change Scenarios2018In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 2926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal ecosystems are highly dynamic and can be strongly influenced by climate change, anthropogenic activities (e.g. pollution) and a combination of the two pressures. As a result of climate change, the northern hemisphere is predicted to undergo an increased precipitation regime, leading in turn to higher terrestrial runoff and increased river inflow. This increased runoff will transfer terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM) and anthropogenic contaminants to coastal waters. Such changes can directly influence the resident biology, particularly at the base of the food web, and can influence the partitioning of contaminants and thus their potential impact on the food web. Bacteria have been shown to respond to high tDOM concentration and organic pollutants loads, and could represent the entry of some pollutants into coastal food webs. We carried out a mesocosm experiment to determine the effects of: 1) increased tDOM concentration, 2) organic pollutant exposure, and 3) the combined effect of these two factors, on pelagic bacterial communities. This study showed significant responses in bacterial community composition under the three environmental perturbations tested. The addition of tDOM increased bacterial activity and diversity, while the addition of organic pollutants led to an overall reduction of these parameters, particularly under concurrent elevated tDOM concentration. Furthermore, we identified 33 bacterial taxa contributing to the significant differences observed in community composition, as well as 35 bacterial taxa which responded differently to extended exposure to organic pollutants. These findings point to the potential impact of organic pollutants under future climate change conditions on the basal coastal ecosystem, as well as to the potential utility of natural bacterial communities as efficient indicators of environmental disturbance.

  • Rolf, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Skogsmo Aspgren, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Gymnasieelevers inställning till vegetarisk mat i skolan.: En kvantitativ enkätstudie.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Att förändra vårt nuvarande jordbruk till ett växtbaserat system skulle kunna leda till stora förbättringar för miljön, en hälsosammare och hållbarare framtid. För att minska köttkonsumtionen och införa mer vegetariskt i samhället krävs olika strategier som till exempel mer vegetarisk mat i skolan. Vissa skolor i Sverige har planer på att införa mer vegetariskt men de upplever ett motstånd hos vissa elever och föräldrar. Utbildning inom kost är en viktig faktor för att människor ska vilja göra en förändring och för att möjligtvis minska motståndet mot den vegetariska kosten. 

    Syfte: Studiens syfte var att undersöka gymnasieelevers inställning till den vegetariska maten i skolan. 

    Metod: En kvantitativ studie genomfördes med en webbenkät. Studien gjordes på 174 gymnasieelever runt om i Sverige. Data analyserades via Excel och SPSS genom icke-parametriska tester. De tester som användes var Chi2-test, Spearmans korrelationstest och Mann-Whitney U-test med 25:e-75:e percentilen som spridningsmått och median som centralmått. Den signifikansnivån som användes var p <0,005.

    Resultat: Skillnad ses mellan könen kring inställning till servering av vegetarisk mat i skolan. En del elever känner sig påtvingade en vegetarisk kost i skolan men skulle kunna tänka sig att äta mer om det fanns fler alternativ. Flickor anser även att vegetarisk kost är mer hälsosam än pojkarna. Samtidigt som många elever tänker på hur maten produceras är det inte en av de sakerna som påverkar deras lunchval mest i skolan.

    Slutsats: Gymnasieelever idag har en relativt god inställning till vegetarisk kost i skolan men det finns många förbättringsmöjligheter framförallt när det kommer till smak och utseende. Mer information skulle behövas för att få eleverna mer intresserade av den vegetariska kosten. 

  • Nilsson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Enberg, Tina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Skolsköterskans tankar om individanpassning.: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om önskekost i skolan.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund En kommun i mellansverige tillhandahåller önskekost på skolorna, enalternativ kost som kan förskrivas av skolsköterskor och individanpassas utifrån elevensbehov. Från kommunens sida såg man ett behov av att kartlägga rutinerna kring denna.Vi blev därför ombedda att leda studien i syfte att utforska eventuellt behov avförändring kring kosten.Syfte Att utforska skolsköterskors tankar och känslor kring sitt arbete med önskekost.Metod Kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med sex stycken av kommunensskolsköterskor med hjälp av en semistrukturerad intervjuguide. Intervjuerna spelades inmed en diktafon, därefter transkriberades datan ordagrant innan den analyserades medkvalitativ innehållsanalys.Resultat Kunskaperna om kost skiljde sig åt hos skolsköterskorna och det saknades enenhetlig bild över hur arbetet med önskekost såg ut på skolorna. Arbetet med vilka somfick önskekost, hur förskrivningen gick till, kulturskillnader mellan skolorna, nulägetsamt önskvärt läge var frågor som lyftes. Skolsköterskorna önskade behålla ansvaretöver önskekost. De såg också gärna en förändring av namnet. Fokus låg på attförskrivning skedde för att elever skulle uppnå skolmålen. Önskekost förskrevs intemed anledning av att eleven inte tyckte om någonting.Slutsats Önskekost förskrevs på grund av olika svårigheter med maten, men riktlinjerför när förskrivning skulle ske var oklara. Arbetet försvårades också av krav utifrån frånkommun, föräldar, lärare och elever. Det är viktigt att arbeta fram tydliga riktlinjer förvilka elever som ska beviljas önskekost och hur ordinationen ska följas upp.

  • Johansson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Watts, Hannah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Påverkas inflammation av kolhydrat- och proteinintag?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Gustafsson, Nils
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Levring Jäghagen, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Long-term skill improvement among general dental practitioners after a short training programme in diagnosing calcified carotid artery atheromas on panoramic radiographs2018In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To study general dental practitioners (GDPs) ability to detect calcified carotid artery atheromas (CCAAs) in panoramic radiographs (PRs) and if their diagnostic accuracy in long term is improved after a short training programme.

    METHODS: Fourteen GDPs had their diagnostic accuracy regarding CCAA in PR assessed at baseline, 2 weeks and 1 year after training. Comparison was made with a reference standard based on consensus results from two experienced oral and maxillofacial radiologists. At each session, 100 radiographs were assessed individually by the GDPs. After the baseline assessment, the GDPs participated in a 2-hour training programme comprising a lecture and diagnostic training by calibration. The GDPs results before and after training were compared, as well as between follow-up sessions.

    RESULTS: A significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy was observed with increased sensitivity (from 41.8% to 55.7%, P = 0.02) without a significant decrease in specificity (from 87.2% to 86.7%, P = 0.87). The Kappa values also increased (from 0.66 to 0.71, P = 0.04). At 1-year follow-up, the improvement compared to baseline remained significant. There were no significant changes between the 2-week and 1-year follow-up assessment.

    CONCLUSION: A short training programme can significantly and sustainable improve GDPs diagnostic accuracy regarding CCAA.

  • Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Challenging the Universality of Achievement Goal Models: a Comparison of Two Culturally Distinct Countries2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achievement goal theory is one of the most widespread motivation models within education research. Strong empirical support exists for the trichotomous model, comprising mastery-approach, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. However, research also indicate problems with model transferability between contexts. In this study, based on questionnaire data from 4201 students, we use confirmatory factor analysis to compare the factor structures of students’ achievement goals in two culturally distinct countries. Factor structures for Grades 5–11 within the two countries were also compared. Results show that the separation between performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals differs between the two countries, and that this difference is consistent over the grades. Hence, results indicate that the model is not freely transferable between countries. The results are discussed in relation to differences in national culture and other proposed explanations such as age, perceived competence, and questionnaire characteristics.

  • Jonsson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Towards semantic language processing2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall goal of the field of natural language processing is to facilitate the communication between humans and computers, and to help humans with natural language problems such as translation. In this thesis, we focus on semantic language processing. Modelling semantics – the meaning of natural language – requires both a structure to hold the semantic information and a device that can enforce rules on the structure to ensure well-formed semantics while not being too computationally heavy. The devices used in natural language processing are preferably weighted to allow for comparison of the alternative semantic interpretations outputted by a device.

    The structure employed here is the abstract meaning representation (AMR). We show that AMRs representing well-formed semantics can be generated while leaving out AMRs that are not semantically well-formed. For this purpose, we use a type of graph grammar called contextual hyperedge replacement grammar (CHRG). Moreover, we argue that a more well-known subclass of CHRG – the hyperedge replacement grammar (HRG) – is not powerful enough for AMR generation. This is due to the limitation of HRG when it comes to handling co-references, which in its turn depends on the fact that HRGs only generate graphs of bounded treewidth.

    Furthermore, we also address the N best problem, which is as follows: Given a weighted device, return the N best (here: smallest-weighted, or more intuitively, smallest-errored) structures. Our goal is to solve the N best problem for devices capable of expressing sophisticated forms of semantic representations such as CHRGs. Here, however, we merely take a first step consisting in developing methods for solving the N best problem for weighted tree automata and some types of weighted acyclic hypergraphs.

  • Nikitina, Daria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Post-socialist urban planning: Local needs in the City of Murmansk, Russia2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urban research is aware of being culturally embedded, and inability to break free from history in some cases may explain why the change goes in a particular direction. After more than 70 years of centrally planned community and isolation, present urban structures in Russia stand as arenas for the system transitions. The political and socio-economic changes of the last decades had an impact on urban structures and relations between the different levels of planning. The municipalities are now assumed to be independent in terms of decision-making and local priorities, urban programs and civic engagement procedures. While the degree of success in urban development varies between the different Russian cities, the paper studies the local planning functions as well neighborhood governance and puts the results into the soviet planning context. By using in-depth interviews, the data has been collected providing a knowledgebase of the subject across the study area. The results show both various gaps of transformation (e.g. insufficient legislature, lack of local initiative and federal guidance, marginalized master plan, poor neighborhood governance) and path-dependent system (normativism, unsuccessful civic engagement, lack of communication between different institutions, companies and publics). The discussion argues that at the national scale the issue lies in the uncompleted socio-cultural transformation, which creates a quasi-existent planning system at the local level.   

  • Nordling, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Modigare mörtar: En beteendestudie av oxazepams påverkan på vild mört2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Berggren, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ficedula hypoleuca hemoglobin levels in lead contaminated areas.: Is bird health affected by invertebrate community composition and abundance?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mining is a widespread industrial activity that in many cases, via mining wastes, leads to altered concentrations of metals in close vicinity to the mining activities. Metals in mining waste can have high toxicity and may persist in environments for long time periods. The presence of metals, such as lead (Pb), is known to contaminate and cause damage to nearby organisms and ecosystems. Birds are at risk of metal contamination and, since they are predators high up in the food chain, may face accumulation of metal in tissue over time, via consumption of contaminated prey. Small passerine species, such as the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), are suitable for studying metal contamination as they are ubiqutious, and high up in the food chain. Pied flycatchers feed exclusively on invertebrates, making the abundance, quality, and potential contamination of invertebrates interesting to study with regard to the health of the birds. Studies have shown that hemoglobin (Hb) levels in young pied flycatchers are reduced by high background levels of Pb.  This may be linked to prey availability and quality, as invertebrates are known to alter their composition, and contain higher Pb concentrations in Pb contaminated areas. Here, I investigated how invertebrate abundance and community composition, and pied flycatcher Hb concentrations (i.e. health), in reference and Pb contaminated areas, were related to each other. Invertebrate traps were set and sampled twice during the summer of 2018 to provide invertebrate data to the study. Bird Hb levels was acquired by taking blood samples from nearly fledged chicks in birdhouses placed in the different areas. I found a potential trend towards higher Hb levels in reference areas (p=0.110), suggesting that bird health is reduced by the presence of Pb, but this could not be explained by differences in invertebrate community composition or abundance (p>0.05). Hence, based on this study, high Pb concentrations in the soil does not directly, or indirectly via potential impacts on the prey community composition, influence the health of pied flycatchers.

  • Eriksson, Lukas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC): Differences in reactivity amongst water sources to boreal streams in Sweden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to aquatic environments is well established in the scientific community. In boreal landscapes, small streams receive water from headwater lakes, mires, and discrete flow paths that drain riparian soils. The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of these discrete riparian inputs (DRIPs) as sources of DOC and to explore whether quantity and quality of DOC from DRIPs differs from other sources in the landscape, including groundwaters that are not as hydrologically connected to streams. To do this, I collected water from already established riparian groundwater wells installed at the Krycklan Catchment Study (KCS) in northern Sweden, as well as from an adjacent lake, stream, and mire. Microbial activity (respiration) was analyzed in 24-hour laboratory incubations using a metabolically active dye, resazurin (Raz) which in the presence of aerobic respiration transforms into resorufin (Rru). Rru is easily measured in the lab, and its production can serve as a proxy for rates of microbial respiration. DOC concentration was also measured at each location, along with specific absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) and the absorbance ratio (254/365 nm) as indices of DOC quality. The results show a large variation in DOC concentration among potential water sources to the stream. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation (R2=0.96) between Rru production and DOC concentration among these sources, but no significant difference (p=0.067) in median Rru production between DRIPs and non-DRIPs. Overall, these results highlight important spatial variability in DOC from different water sources in the landscape, which likely have important consequences for patterns of microbial respiration in streams.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-19 09:00 Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå
    Hitimana, Regis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Health economic evaluation for evidence-informed decisions in low-resource settings: the case of Antenatal care policy in Rwanda2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The general aim of this thesis is to contribute to the use of health economic evidence for informed health care decisions in low-resource settings, using antenatal care (ANC) policy in Rwanda as a case study. Despite impressive and sustained progress over the last 15 years, Rwanda’s maternal mortality ratio is still among the highest in the world. Persistent gaps in health care during pregnancy make ANC a good candidate among interventions that can, if improved, contribute to better health and well-being of mothers and newborns in Rwanda.

    Methods: Data used in this thesis were gathered from primary and secondary data collections. The primary data sources included a cross-sectional household survey (N=922) and a health facility survey (N=6) conducted in Kigali city and the Northern Province, as well as expert elicitation with Rwandan specialists (N=8). Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for women during the first-year post-partum was measured using the EQ-5D-3L instrument. The association between HRQoL and adequacy of ANC utilization and socioeconomic and demographic predictors was tested through bivariate and linear regression analyses (Paper I). The costs of current ANC practices in Rwanda for both the health sector and households were estimated through analysis of primary data (Paper II). Incremental cost associated with the implementation of the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) ANC recommendations compared to current practice in Rwanda was estimated through simulation of attendance and adaptation of the unit cost estimates (Paper III). Incremental health outcomes of the 2016 WHO ANC recommendations were estimated as life-years saved from perinatal and maternal mortality reduction obtained from the expert elicitation (Paper III). Lastly, a systematic review of the evidence base for the cost and cost-effectiveness of routine ultrasound during pregnancy was conducted (Paper IV). The review included 606 studies published between January 1999 and April 2018 and retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane database.

    Results: Sixty one percent of women had not adequately attended ANC according to the Rwandan guidelines during their last pregnancy; either attending late or fewer than four times. Adequate utilization of ANC was significantly associated with better HRQoL after delivery measured using EQ-VAS, as were good social support and household wealth. The most prevalent health problems were anxiety or depression and pain or discomfort. The first ANC visit accounted for about half the societal cost of ANC, which was $44 per woman (2015 USD) in public/faith-based facilities and $160 in the surveyed private facility. Implementing the 2016 WHO recommendations in Rwanda would have an incremental national annual cost between $5.8 million and $11 million across different attendance scenarios. The estimated reduction in perinatal mortality would be between 22.5% and 55%, while maternal mortality reduction would range from 7% to 52.5%. Out of six combinations of attendance and health outcome scenarios, four were below the GDP-based cost-effectiveness threshold. Out of the 606 studies on cost and cost-effectiveness of ultrasound during pregnancy retrieved from the databases, only nine reached the data extraction stage. Routine ultrasound screening was reported to be a cost-effective intervention for screening pregnant women for cervical length, for vasa previa, and congenital heart disease, and cost-saving when used for screening for fetal malformations.

    Conclusions: The use of health economic evidence in decision making for low-income countries should be promoted. It is currently among the least used types of evidence, yet there is a huge potential of gaining many QALYs given persistent and avoidable morbidity and mortality. In this thesis, ANC policy in Rwanda was used as a case to contribute to evidence informed decision-making using health economic evaluation methods. Low-income countries, particularly those that that still have a high burden of maternal and perinatal mortality should consider implementing the 2016 WHO ANC recommendations.

  • Östman, Sofi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Vilardi, Stefano
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Miljöarkeologisk analys av prover från långhus, en båtgrav och andra anläggningar inom projekt Eg Sykehus, Kristiansand kommune, Vest-Agder ID233602018Report (Other academic)
  • Eriksson, Samuel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Markkemiska undersökningar av avrättningsplatser i Gävleborgs län2018Report (Other academic)