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  • Orrsveden, Victoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Den svenska insiderlagstiftningen - Ett komplext rättsområde under pågående förändring.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Kristiansson, Albin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Brännström, Karl
    Siffermassage - Earnings Management på svenska: En kvantitativ studie av 154 svenska börsnoterade bolag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en mängd forskning kring hur Earnings Management uppstår och hur incitament till Earnings Management kan uppkomma. Gemensamt för denna forskning är att företagsledningen försöker möta utomstående krav och förväntningar på företagets finansiella prestation. Dessa krav och förväntningar resulterar i incitament för företagsledningen att göra subjektiva bedömningar av intäkter, kostnader och periodiseringar för att på så sätt manipulera resultatet. För att kontrollera bokföringen och redovisningskvaliteten anlitas en revisor som kontrollerar, rådgör och hjälper företaget och dess intressenter att säkerställa att redovisningen är korrekt och ger ett tillräckligt underlag för att fatta ekonomiska beslut.

    EU har sedan sommaren 2016 en ny standard som kräver revisorsrotation var tionde år för alla företag registrerade i dess medlemsländer. Studier har gjorts i hur detta påverkar revisionskvaliteten hos företag i USA och övriga Europa, något som inte gjorts i samma utsträckning i Sverige. Den här studien ämnar att ge en bredare kunskapsbild i hur en sådan standard kan komma att påverka den ekonomiska redovisningen. Tidigare forskning visar att Earnings Management förekommer, även om forskningen koncentrerat sig på USA och de stora ekonomierna i Europa.

    Genom en kvalitativ studie av 154 företag med insamlad data för åren 2011-2015 har graden av Earnings Management undersökts genom att separera icke-diskretionära, godtyckliga, periodiseringar från totala periodiseringar. För att beräkna detta har The Modified Jones Model använts och förekomsten av Earnings Management undersöks under åren 2013-2015. Studiens resultat visar att Earnings Management förekommer i svenska börsnoterade bolag. Vidare visar studien att det förekommer skillnader i förekomst av Earnings Management beroende på vilket revisionsbolag som anlitats. Förslag till vidare forskning lämnas för att vidare undersöka hur införandet av den nya standarden i EU kan komma att påverka Earnings Management, redovisnings,- och revisionskvaliteten i Sverige. 

  • Viklund, William
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Jonsson, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Den disponibla inkomstens påverkan på bostadsrätters pris: En kvantitativ undersökning om vilka faktorer som påverkar det genomsnittliga priset per kvadratmeter på bostadsrätter i Umeå2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Prisutvecklingen på bostadsrätter i Umeå har stigit kraftigt de senaste åren vilket bland annat medfört att en allt högre belåning krävs av privatpersoner för att finansiera ettbostadsköp. Det genomsnittliga priset per kvadratmeter på en bostadsrätt i Umeå har stigit med mer än 800 % de senaste 20 åren. Vidare har de allt högre bostadspriserna bidragit till svårigheter för företag att rekrytera anställda då bostadsbristen varit ett faktum(BBC, 2016). Detta gav upphov till studiens syfte som är att undersöka vilka faktorer som ligger bakom denna positiva pristrend. Vidare är ändamålet att förmedla kunskap inom området och förhoppningsvis ett underlag för framtida eventuella bostadsrättsköp till läsaren.Som hjälp till att besvara vilka faktorer som påverkar prisutvecklingen på bostadsrätter i Umeå appliceras en kvantitativ undersökningsmetod. Det insamlade datamaterialet är baserad på mestadels sekundärdata från Statistiska Centralbyrån och ligger till grund för hela undersökningen. Vidare utgår studien ifrån den deduktiva forskningsansatsen vilket gav upphov till teorierna Utbud-och efterfrågan samt den Effektiva Marknadshypotesen. Dessa tillsammans med empirisk forskning låg till grund för både de faktorer och hypoteser som sedan testades genom statistisk prövning. De faktorer som valdesatt studeras i undersökningen var: Pris/m2(kr), Nybyggnationer av lägenheter(st), Disponibel inkomst(tkr), Skuldsättning av disponibel inkomst(%), Befolkningsökning(st), Reporänta(%).

    Utifrån ovanstående faktorer upprättades hypoteser som sedan besvarades genom en regressionsanalys där resultatetvisadeatt disponibel inkomst hade ett samband med det genomsnittliga priset per kvadratmeter. Resultatet visade fortsättningsvis att modellen lyckades förklara det genomsnittliga priset per kvadratmeter till 96,64 %. Studien fann stöd för följande hypotes:Disponibel inkomstharett positivt samband med pris/m2Den slutsats vi presenterat är att disponibel inkomstenligt vår modell är en faktor som påverkar prisutvecklingen på bostadsrätter i Umeå, vilket både talar för och mot tidigare forskning inom området. Det innebär även att denna faktor är betydande och viktig att ta hänsyn till vid framtida bostadsköp.

  • Chivungu, Vimbai
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Beneath the Surface: An Examination of Masculinity and Femininity in Dennis Lehane's Mystic River2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On the surface, Dennis Lehane’s novel Mystic River appears quite fascinated and occupied with macho ideals and ideas of heroism, vengeance, vigilantism, violence, and blind loyalty. The novel might even be said to paint a picture of a world ultimately ruled and controlled by men, who are expected to set the terms and encouraged to take charge. This points to an overt message stating that attributes such as strength, cold practicality, efficiency, action, decisiveness, and rationality – all stereo-typically masculine values – ultimately pay off and are rewarded. However, such an initial analysis may be meaningfully countered, overturned, and distrusted. Making use of feminist deconstruction, this essay argues that Mystic River’s superficial praise of stereotypical gender ideals is in fact undermined by tensions and contradictions beneath the surface of the text. This undermining in turn serves to criticize binary hierarchies at the very core of patriarchal ideology.

  • Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Warsaw School of Economics.
    Barclay, Kieron
    Kolk, Martin
    The effect of number of siblings on adult mortality: evidence from Swedish registers for cohorts born between 1938 and 19722017In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 71, no 1, 43-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic research has paid much attention to the impact of childhood conditions on adult mortality. We focus on one of the key aspects of early life conditions, sibling group size, and examine the causal effect of growing up in a large family on mortality. While previous studies have focused on low- or middle-income countries, we examine whether growing up in a large family is a disadvantage in Sweden, a context where most parents have adequate resources, which are complemented by a generous welfare state. We used Swedish register data and frailty models, examining all-cause and cause-specific mortality between the ages of 40 and 74 for the 1938–72 cohorts, and also a quasi-experimental approach that exploited multiple births as a source of exogenous variation in the number of siblings. Overall our results do not indicate that growing up in a large family has a detrimental effect on longevity in Sweden.

  • Bergdahl, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine.
    Hyperparatyreoidism vid njursjukdom1973Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Åsten, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Umgänge för barnets bästa. En undersökning av umgängesreglerna och deras tillämpning.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Kotka, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Assisterad befruktning för ensamstående kvinnor - Barnets bästa eller en vuxens intresse att bli förälder?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lettevall, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Våldsutsatta kvinnor och ideala brottsoffer: om kvinnors brottsofferstatus i samband med våld i nära relationer.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Arnstedt, Felix
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Egenanställningsföretag - Framtidens arbetsmarknad under dagens förutsättningar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Grijseels, Dorieke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    The effect of colour use on the quality of websites2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The design of a website is important for the success of a company. Colours play an important part in websites. The goal of this thesis is to find out how the use of colour in websites relates to the quality of websites. Different aspects are studied. First it was found that the harmony of a colour palette only weakly correlates with the quality of a website. This correlation increases when only darker colour palettes are used. Next a method was proposed to extract the colour palette from a website. This novel method takes the saliency of the pixels in a website into account. Lastly, the palettes extracted using this method were utilized to propose a model to explain the relation between colour use and quality of websites. Sixty-one different features were tested using three different methods of feature selection. The accuracy achieved in the best model was low. Future work is suggested to improve on this, which should focus on identifying more relevant features and training the model using a better database.

  • Feldman, Adina L
    et al.
    Griffin, Simon J
    Ahern, Amy L
    Long, Grainne H
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Impact of weight maintenance and loss on diabetes risk and burden: a population-based study in 33,184 participants2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Weight loss in individuals at high risk of diabetes is an effective prevention method and a major component of the currently prevailing diabetes prevention strategies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the public health potential for diabetes prevention of weight maintenance or moderate weight loss on a population level in an observational cohort with repeated measurements of weight and diabetes status.

    METHODS: Height, weight and diabetes status were objectively measured at baseline and 10 year follow-up in a population-based cohort of 33,184 participants aged 30-60 years between 1990 and 2013 in Västerbotten County, Sweden. The association between risk of incident diabetes and change in BMI or relative weight was modelled using multivariate logistic regression. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were used to assess population impact of shift in weight.

    RESULTS: Mean (SD) BMI at baseline was 25.0 (3.6) kg/m(2). Increase in relative weight between baseline and follow-up was linearly associated with incident diabetes risk, odds ratio (OR) 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.06) per 1% change in weight. Compared to weight maintenance (±1.0 kg/m(2)), weight gain of > +1.0 kg/m(2) was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes, OR 1.52 (95% CI 1.32, 1.74), representing a PAF of 21.9% (95% CI 15.8, 27.6%). For moderate weight loss (-1.0 to -2.0 kg/m(2)) the OR was 0.72 (95% CI 0.52, 0.99).

    CONCLUSIONS: Weight maintenance in adulthood is strongly associated with reduced incident diabetes risk and there is considerable potential for diabetes prevention in promoting this as a whole population strategy.

  • Lindgren, Victoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Dispositionsrätt till båt. Förmånsbeskattning av fåmansföretagare - När gällande rätt, rättstillämpning och skatterättsliga rättssäkerhetsprinciper kolliderar.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Okou, Melinda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Vårdnadsöverflyttningar i svensk rätt - En utredning om barnets bästa vid mål om vårdnadsöverflyttning till familjehemsföräldrar.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Brinck, Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    36§ avtalslagen i ljuset av internationella principsamlingar.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Loeb, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Vonnegut's duty-dance with death-theme and structure in Slaughterhouse-five1979Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of Vonnegut’s didactic purpose of writing on the treatment of theme  and structure in Slaughterhouse-Five is investigated in this study. The following  elements of structure are studied: point of view, the treatment of time, characterization,  the use of other sources, and imagery. These are constantly related to  the novel’s themes, such as war, cruelty, death, time, innocence, survival, free  will, fantasy and regeneration. Since Vonnegut himself survived the Dresden  bombings during World War Two, his novel is very personal, which is particularly  reflected in his point-of-view technique, the subject of Chapter One. Vonnegut creates  double narrators in Slaughterhouse-Five : a personal one, including authorial  intrusions, and an impersonal one. This division is a direct reflection of the  dichotomy between reality and fantasy that prevails in the novel.  In Chapter Two, Vonnegut’s treatment of time is demonstrated to be a process of  spatialization. Structurally, this means a fragmented narrative split into several  time levels that chiefly form what the author calls his ”telegraphic schizophrenic"  style. Thematically, the protagonist comes "unstuck" in time, thus succeeding in  confronting an absurd world and finally transcending death.  Vonnegut uses the depiction of character mainly to express ideas and to reinforce  themes, since he regards his characters as "bugs in amber," involuntarily stuck,  excepting their capacity for fantasy. To facilitate the reader’s recognition of  these sketchy characters, Vonnegut has equipped them with marks of recognition,  often repeated, and names that provide clues to their personalities. All characters  are shown to be isolated and lonely, except on Tralfamadore where a dream woi;ld  exists.  In the fourth chapter, Vonnegut’s use of other sources is examined. His carefully  chosen quotations fall into two groups: first, historical sources that verify facts,  such as the Dresden catastrophy; second, fictional sources that stimulate the human  imagination, which turns out to be the protagonist's means of survival.  Finally, imagery in Slaughterhouse-Five, studied in Chapter Five, is found to be  used for enrichment of a style otherwise characterized by great economy. Much of  the imagery strikes a humorous tone. A simple, quotidian vocabulary is developed.  War imagery is used to deglorify war. Animal imagery is invoked to ridicule and to  show man’s true place in the universe. Several oxymora further reinforce the incongruity  prevailing in the Vonnegutian world. The negative effect of imagery is  also found in symbols pertaining to Billy’s life situation. As a contrast, however,  there are also positive symbols emphasizing nature’s annual cycle of rebirth signifying  hope and regeneration.  Many of the stylistic elements studied reveal that Vonnegut has chosen thematic and  structural solutions that make his novel accessible to a large reading audience.  The fragmented, at times circular, structure of Slaughterhouse-Five is indeed a  "dance with death." In a thematic sense, death is the writer’s own muse that he  must dutifully dance with in order to create his work of art. Slaughterhouse-Five  is not only Vonnegut’s account of his own war experience but also a statement on  the human condition.  

  • Sheikhi, Tina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Utsatta barns rättsliga skydd för grundskoleutbildning i Indien - En fältstudie i Uttar Pradesh och West Bengal.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lindén, Eleonore
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Utsatta barns rättsliga skydd för grundskoleutbildning i Indien - En fältstudie i Uttar Pradesh och West Bengal.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sjöberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Hjältén, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    "Sådär kan man ju inte göra!": En studie om pedagogers uppfattning av arbetet med konflikthantering i förskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies syfte var att undersöka hur aktiva pedagoger i förskoleverksamheten beskriver att de arbetar med och uppfattar konflikthantering mellan barn och barn samt mellan barn och pedagoger. Vi undersökte detta genom en kvalitativ intervjustudie där fyra pedagoger från ett mindre samhälle intervjuades. I våra frågeställningar utgick vi ifrån fyra nyckelord. Det vill säga hur konflikter uppstår, dess påverkan på verksamheten, hur de kan förebyggas samt hur de kan hanteras. Det var viktigt för oss att utgå ifrån alla dessa frågor eftersom vi ansåg att dessa gav en sammanfattad bild av konflikternas betydelse. Resultaten av intervjuerna tydde på att trots att det finns många metoder för konflikthantering är det många gånger mer givande att arbeta förebyggande. Trots detta påvisades genom studiens gång att det även fanns positiva aspekter av konflikter för den sociala kompetensen. Den viktigaste av dessa var kommunikationens betydelse samt betydelsen av närvarande, engagerade och empatiska pedagoger.

  • Johansson, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Industrialisering och Aktiebolag.: En komparativ studie av aktiebolagsetablering i tre län under 1800-talets andra hälft.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats i ekonomisk historia handlar om den omdaning som industrialiseringen innebar för företagens ägandestruktur, och undersöker en av de mer betydande organisatoriska innovationerna under perioden nämligen aktiebolaget. Industrialiseringen som en sammanhängande process med genomgripande förändringar över hela landet problematiseras, med ett regionalt perspektiv på aktiebolagsetableringar i tre olika län. De studerade länen är Östergötland, Västernorrland och Kronoberg under perioden då den första svenska aktiebolagslagen var gällande från 1849-1895. Det uppsatsen kommer fram till är att det fanns olika förutsättningar i de olika länen, och deras grad av industrialisering skiljde sig åt sett till antalet aktiebolag i varje län. Detta regionala perspektiv påvisar att det fanns geografiska skillnader för hur industrialiseringsförloppet tog sig uttryck i Sverige.

  • Koudriavtseva, Antonina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tidsperspektiv, mindfulness och stress:: en korrelationsstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the potential link between time perspective, mindfulness and perceived stress. About 60 students made an online survey involving the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire, and the Perceived Stress Scale. The analyses involved simple correlations, multiple linear regression analysis and path analysis. In line with the hypotheses, the results indicated statistically significant correlations between mindfulness, a measure of Balanced Time Perspective (BTP) and perceived stress, as well as an indirect effect of mindfulness on stress levels through Future Negative time perspective, which is linked with Past Negative and Present Fatalistic. These results provide insight into new theories about the relationship between mindfulness, BTP and stress.

  • Coello, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "Jag tror att den här är en av de bästa arbetsplatser som jag har varit på": En kvalitativ studie kring arbetskonsulenters upplevelse av sitt arbete.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hjälmarö, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceived meaningfulness in life: a matter of what makes life meaningful2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The existential psychology’s concern with the feeling of meaningfulness in life forms the basis for the present study aiming to investigate the relationship between perceived meaningfulness, and search for meaningfulness in life, and level of conformity.  An online survey was distributed to employees at a university in Sweden, and included two questionnaires; the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) and the Concern for Appropriateness (CFA) questionnaire. One hundred and two respondents completed the survey. CFA was found to significantly correlate with MLQ-Presence (r = -.456 p = <.001) and MLQ-Search (r = .307 p = .002). The present study found that the feeling of present meaningfulness was significantly lower among those who cared more about fitting into others´ norms concerning how to behave.

  • Janonius, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wahlström, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guidelines for the validation of the Child Dissociative Checklist in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study’s aim was to explore face, content, concurrent validity and psychometric properties of the Swedish Child Dissociative Checklist (CDC) as well as and to provide guidelines towards validation. The CDC is used in Sweden when dissociation is highly probable, and validation could motivate wider use. Qualitative data was gathered from psychologists-in-training (N = 4) clinical psychologists (N = 5) and parents (N = 23) through a focus group, interviews and questionnaires, respectively. Quantitative data using the CDC and items from the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) was obtained from parents. Results suggest good face, content and convergent validity. Factor analysis provides suggestions for future investigations into quantitative validation. Guidelines when validating is revising certain items, investigating the possibility of developing two versions of the CDC, utilizing an adequate sample size as well as assessment with a clinical group.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-10 13:00 KBC-huset, sal KB.E3.01, Umeå
    Fong, Gloria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Influence of neuromodulators and mechanical loading on pathological cell and tissue characteristics in tendinosis2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tendinosis is a painful chronic, degenerative condition characterized by objective changes in the tissue structure of a tendon. Hallmark features in tendinosis tendons include increased number of cells (hypercellularity), extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and disorganized collagen. The progression of these pathological changes seen in tendinosis is neither well characterized nor fully understood.

    Studies have suggested that there are biochemical and mechanical elements involved in tendinosis. From a biochemical perspective, studies have shown that the tendon cells, tenocytes, produce a number of neuronal signal substances/neuromodulators, such as substance P (SP) and acetylcholine (ACh), traditionally thought to be confined to the nervous system. Furthermore, it has been shown that the expression of these neuromodulators is elevated in tendinosis tendons as compared to normal healthy tendons. Interestingly, studies on other tissue types have revealed that both SP and ACh can induce tissue changes seen in tendinosis, such as hypercellularity and collagen disorganization. From a mechanical angle, it has been suggested that overload of tendons, including extensive strain on the primary tendon cells (tenocytes), causes the degenerative processes associated with tendinosis. In vivo studies have shown that in overloaded tendons, the presence of neuromodulators is elevated, not least SP, which also precedes the development of the tissue changes seen in tendinosis. This further supports the importance of combining biochemical factors and mechanical factors in the pathogenesis of tendinosis.

    Hypotheses: In this thesis project, we hypothesize: 1) that neuromodulators, such as SP and ACh when stimulating their preferred receptors, the neurokinin 1 (NK-1 R) and muscarinic receptors (mAChRs), respectively, can cause increased tenocyte proliferation; 2) that the effects of SP and ACh on tenocyte proliferation converge mechanistically via a shared signalling pathway; 3) that mechanical loading of tenocytes results in increased production of SP by the tenocytes; and 4) that SP enhances collagen remodelling by tenocytes via NK-1 R.

    Model system: In vitro studies offer insight into the function of healthy tendon matrix and the etiology of tendinopathy. Using a cell culture model of human primary tendon cells, highly controlled experiments were performed in this thesis project to study a subset of biological and mechanical parameters that are implicated in tendinosis. The FlexCell® Tension System was used to study the influence of mechanical loading on tenocytes. As well, a collagen gel contraction assay was used to examine the intrinsic ability of tenocytes to reorganise type I collagen matrices under the influence of the neuromodulator SP.

    Results: The studies showed that exogenous administration of SP and ACh results in increased tenocyte proliferation that is mediated via activation of the ERK1/2 mitogenic pathway when the preferred receptors of SP and ACh, the NK-1 R and mAChRs, respectively, are stimulated. Furthermore, the studies resulted in the novel finding that SP and ACh both converge mechanistically via transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and that a negative feedback mechanism is present in which TGF-β1 downregulates the expression of mAChRs and NK-1 R. The studies also showed that SP can increase collagen remodelling and upregulate expression of genes related to tendinosis. Finally, it was established that tenocytes are mechanoresponsive by showing that cyclic mechanical loading increases the expression of SP by human tenocytes.

    Conclusions: This thesis work concludes that stimulation of NK-1 R and mAChRs results in proliferation of human tenocytes, which both involve the ERK1/2 signalling pathway. It also shows that SP and ACh converge mechanistically via TGF-β1 in their contribution to tenocyte proliferation. The role of hypercellularity in tendinosis tissue is unknown. Possibly, it has different roles at different stages of the disease. The findings also show that SP increases collagen remodelling, suggesting that increased SP not only results in hypercellularity but also contributes to the collagen morphology in tendinosis.

  • Hansson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Optimering i organisk syntes: betingelser, system, syntesvägar1990Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with different optimization problems encountered in organic synthesis. The use of response surface, sequential simplex and PLS techniques, for simultanious optimization of yield and suppression of side reactions is investigated. This is illustrated by an example of enamine synthesis, were a side reaction was a serious problem. The problem of efficient screening to find suitable catalysts and solvents in new reactions is also investigated. Here, the use of principal properties as selection criterion, is demonstrated with a new process for the silylation of a,ß-unsaturated ketones. The extension of the new method to bis silylation of 1,2- and 1,3-diketones is demonstrated. The total synthesis of (±)-geosmin is investigated by an approach aimed to reduce the number of necessary steps involved. The suggested strategy, is to find compatible solvents through several transformations in the sequence to accomplish one-pot multistep reactions. In this context an improved method for the preparation of 1,10-dimethyl-l(9)-octalone-2 was established. Comparison with previously reported total syntheses of (±)-geosmin was done. 

  • Ericsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Åström, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Treåringarna försvinner!: -En kvalitativ studie om hur revisorsassistenter upplever sin arbetsglädje.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Akpan, Joyce
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    The Prevalence of Potentially Inappropriate Drug Prescription among Elderly Patients Registered in Balder Clinic in Åmål, Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Mossing, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology.
    Seasonal variations in general activity, behaviour and cutaneous glandular structures in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.)1980Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The locomotor activity of the reindeer is separated into a diurnal and a nocturnal phase which, in turn, consists of a  number of short-term activity bursts. The onset and termination  of diurnal and nocturnal activity are largely in synchrony  with sunrise and sunset. Since the diurnal phase is  longer, total activity is dependent on the photoperiod. Total  activity as well as the number of activity bursts is greater  in Jùne with continuous daylight than in December with 6  hours daylight. In winter, reindeer spent less time feeding  but more time ruminating and resting *than in summer. Synchronization  between individuals was also greatest in winter. It  is concluded that the described changes in the activity  pattern are due to an endogenous component and that this component  further controls food consumption and energy balance  of the reindeer.  Seasonal variations in behavioural patterns are described.  Several specific rutting behavioürs, sexual and agonostic,  emerge in the male during the prerut and persist until after  the rut. The preorbital gland is enlarged and secretory activity  is evident. The rut is cha'tabterized by the sudden appearance  of an odour in the breath of mature males followed a few  later by a strong odour in the urine. These odours persist for  a short time during the most intense period of rut. The amount  of androgen rizes sharply and reaches peak concentrations in  late September - early October, decreasing thereafter. The  described behavioural cues occur with a certain constancy in  time in concecutive seasons.  A quantification of the amounts of secretory epithelia in preorbital,  interdigital, caudal and tarsal glands reveals that  only the preorbital gland is subjected to any seasonal and  sexual variation. The apocrine epithelium in this gland is  most developed in mature males during the rutting season and  seems to be dependent upon the presence of an elevated androgen  concentration. The tarsal gland is the least developed  gland while the interdigital and caudal glands are more welldeveloped  and structurally complex. Scattered apocrine glands  are only developed on the legs, the ventral body, oral angle  and in the rump patch.

  • Hellström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine.
    Granule-containing cells of rat carotid body and their biogenic amines: an electron microscopic and biochemical study1975Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Eriksson, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine.
    Cardiac involvement in familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy1984Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (FAP) is a neuropathic form of heredofamilial systemic amyloidosis. Clusters of patients have been reported predominantly from Portugal, Japan and Sweden. The present study examines the involvement of the heart in individuals with the Swedish variety of FAP. During long-term ECG recording in 16 patients, a high frequency of disturbances of sinus node function and atrioventricular conduction were observed. Long-term ECG may help considerably in the evaluation of symptoms attributable to disturbances of heart rhythm in FAP. A retrospective survey of 20 patients with FAP treated with a pacemaker showed that the indication for pacing was advanced atrioventricular block (12 cases), dysfunction of the sinus node (5 cases), and atrial fibrillation with a slow ventricular response (3 cases). All patients experienced the effective relief of symptoms attributable to a slow ventricular rate. The long-term prognosis, however, seemed unaffected by this treatment. Histopathological examination of the sinoatrial (9 cases) and atrioventricular (6 cases) parts of the conduction system showed marked amyloid infiltration in all cases, which may explain the high occurrence of disturbances of cardiac rhythm and conduction. Twelve patients were examined by two-dimensional echocardiography and changes of varying degrees, such as highly refractile myocardial echoes (12 cases) and thickened ventricular walls (8 cases) and valves (7 cases), could be observed. Technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy of the same patients revealed abnormal myocardial uptake of the isotope only in four. Echocardiography thus seems to be superior to scintigraphy for non-invasive detection of cardiac involvement in FAP. Myocardial samples from regions producing highly refractile myocardial echoes were obtained at in vitro échocardiographie examination of hearts from FAP autopsy cases. Histological examination showed that the highly refractile echoes corresponded to more or less sharply delineated nodules, containing amyloid and collagen in various amounts. 

  • Fares, Perla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    "Lost in translation". En empirisk studie av rätten till tolk i det svenska brottmålsförfarandet.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ekinge, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Crowdfunding i ett mervärdesskatteperspektiv. Krav på direkt koppling och elektroniska plattformars eventuella undantag från mervärdesskatt.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hajdarevic, Amir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Tredjepartsägande inom den europeiska fotbollen. Om FIFA:s reglering och EU-rätten.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Tapani, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    #Näthat. En jämförelse av det straff- och civilrättsliga förfarandet ur ett brottsoffersperspektiv.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Soro Fernandez, Sabina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Bristande reglering av ackordsbestämmelserna i LFR - Fyra förändringsförslag för fler lyckade företagsrekonstruktioner.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sjöström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Barn utan hem - Barn som vräks av allmännyttiga bostadsbolag.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Strand, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Vårdnad, boende och umgänge vid skyddade personuppgifter. Barnets rätt till båda föräldrar mot en förälders rätt till trygghet och säkerhet.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Bramell, Axel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Differences in the relationship of heart rate and blood lactate values between running on track versus inclined treadmill: Improving laboratory testing to accurately prescribe exercise intensities2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the generalisability of the heart rate-blood lactate relationship determined in laboratory testing in comparison to running over ground. This plays a crucial role to prescribe exercise intensity from laboratory results. Ten well trained runners performed a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) pre-test and an incremental submaximal test performed at a two degrees inclined treadmill and a running track. Statistical analysis included student’s t-test of heart rate at interpolated blood lactate levels and comparison of second order polynomial regression lines. VO2max was 60,4 ± 6 ml/kg/min for men and 56,3 ± 4,3 ml/kg/min for women. There was no significant difference in heart rate at interpolated blood lactate of 3 and 4 mmol/L. There was no significant difference between heart rate values at any running velocity. A significant difference between blood lactate values was observed 14km/h (p=0,04). When considering blood lactate values up to 6mmol/L, heart rate-blood lactate relationships were similar. In conclusion, lactate threshold testing on treadmill through incremental test protocols on a two degrees incline gives similar heart rate- blood lactate relationship as running over ground and may be used to prescribe intensity in training performed over ground. 

  • Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Biophysical aspects of permeation and diffusion of water in frog eggs1974Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Eriksson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Effekt och upplevelse av intensiv avkodningsträning: Analfabeter med annat förstaspråk än svenska2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    This intervention study examines effects on the decoding ability by one-to-one tutoring with adult illiterate second language learners of Swedish, in comparison to ordinary classroom education. In addition, the study aims to examine the participants’ experience of the intervention. Four illiterate pupils from SFI, Swedish language education for adult immigrants, were pretested and matched two by two. One of each pair participated in the intervention (30 minutes, four times a week during six weeks). The other two attended the ordinary classroom activities. Pre- and posttests showed that the test group managed to read more words per minute, improved their knowledge of Swedish graphemes and their reading fluency compared to the control group. The intervention even enabled one participant to reach the alphabetic stage in decoding, which the matched control person did not do. The experience of the one-to-one tutoring was mostly positive, and the illiterates were grateful for the intensive training.

  • Lyxell, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Jag vill sitta still: En studie om hur pedagoger bemöter och anpassar sin undervisning för elever med koncentrationssvårigheter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this study is to illustrate how two teachers working in different environments treat and make adaptations for pupils with concentration difficulties. By using observations and interviews , the teachers’ perceptions of positive and well functioning adaptations have been  clarified.  The results show that the way teachers treat the pupils play a crucial role for a succesful result. The study also shows that teachers by using small means can make many valuable adaptations in the physical learning environment. Many of the good examples that are mentioned aret o a large extent supported by research.  The education kan be performed and adapted in many diferent ways, but there is no certain right or wrong. The education can not be formed in the same way för all pupils, because every single pupil needs adaptations with regards to their specific needs. It is of importance that further research is made in this field because no proof of the main cause of ADHD/concentrations difficulties  have been found.  

  • Lidström, Annica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Att skriva sig till läsning: -En metod för alla?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In this study, the main purpose is to review the teachers' statements regarding the link between the method WTR (Writing to Read) and inclusion of pupils with special needs. The research questions regarding this review are: - What factors in the WTR method do the teachers experience can affect the inclusion of children with special needs in a positive way? And - What factors in WTR method work do the teachers experience can affect the inclusion of children with special needs in a negative way? Five teachers from three different schools were interviewed. The following eight factors appeared positive for the inclusion of pupils with special needs: teachers’ expectations, social interaction, context close to the pupils, digital literacy, inclusion in the long term, working without the pen, to have success, and the teacher's time. The study also shows four factors that negatively affect the inclusion of pupils with special needs: to be slowed down by classmates, unstructured lessons, writing without a pencil, and technology malfunctions. In conclusion, all the teachers in the study felt that the method works for pupils with special needs, and can be called an inclusive method.

  • Öberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Språket är allt!: En kvalitativ studie om lärares samt specialpedagogers stödinsatser för elever i åk 4-6 med läs- och skrivsvårigheter.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to find out what measures and methods teachers and special educators use to strengthen students with reading and writing difficulties in everyday teaching. The survey highlights how teachers and special educators look at reading and writing skills and, in the theoretical background, what earlier researchers say. The study is based on qualitative analysis of interviews. The survey consists of two teachers and three special education teachers active in three different schools.

        The result shows a great convergence of the concept of reading and writing difficulties among both teachers and special education teachers. The study also shows that both teachers and special educators agree that they are experiencing deficiencies in students' ability to read and write and this affects whatever topic the student is taught in. The respondents in the study claim that the causes of the difficulties were due to biological, social and educational factors.  Views on what constitute favorable methods are similar among both teachers and special education teachers, and generally it has been found that all respondents strive to adapt the daily teaching for all pupils' needs and abilities. In order to strengthen student's reading and writing they receive intensive training in reading periods, customized texts, adjusted text amount and compensatory aids in everyday teaching. Another important factor that emerged from the study was the time factor. It is an important prerequisite to take action and think long term for the students with reading and writing disabilities.

  • Ödman, Pella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Fingerfemman: Vilken eventuell nytta har elever och lärare av att problemlösningsprocessen delas upp i tydliga steg?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förmågan att lösa problem har stor betydelse både för att fatta välgrundade beslut i vardagen och för ett livslångt lärande. Viktiga aspekter för framgångsrik problemlösning är förmågan att planera, övervaka och modifiera samt utvärdera sin lösning. Alla elever gör inte detta av sig själva, och forskare menar att särskilt elever i inlärningssvårigheter har nytta av undervisning om lärandestrategier. Studien syftar till att undersöka vilken nytta elever och lärare har av att problemlösningsprocessen delas in i tydliga steg. Därför introduceras i två klasser i årskurs 1 en lösningsrutin kallad fingerfemman med fem moment att följa i arbetet med textuppgifter i matematik. Hur dessa elevers problemlösningsförmåga påverkas då fingerfemman används i processen, samt elevers och lärares upplevelser av att använda fingerfemman, har i studien undersökts genom observationer, intervjuer och analys av insamlade elevlösningar. För att även ta reda på om elever på längre sikt har nytta av att känna till och kunna använda fingerfemman, har intervjuer genomförts med elever och lärare även i årskurs 3 och 5. Resultatet visar att elever i större utsträckning planerar, övervakar och utvärderar sin lösning då de följer fingerfemmans steg. Lärarna upplever att de får mer tid att hjälpa de elever som är i behov av extra stöd i matematik, då fler elever blir mer självständiga i problemlösningsprocessen med hjälp av fingerfemman. Fingerfemman verkar kunna fungera som lärandestrategi och i viss mån bidra till att utveckla elevers självreglerade lärande - åtminstone inom problemlösning.

  • Lundkvist, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Att reglera sitt lärande kan väl alla?: En aktionsstudie med en elev i matematiksvårigheter på en vuxenutbildning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På vuxenutbildningen förväntar sig lärarna att eleverna ska kunna reglera sitt lärande genom att sätta upp rimliga mål, planera hur målen ska nås och genomföra planen. Detta kallas självreglerat lärande (SRL) och är viktigt inom så väl studier som arbetslivet. Det finns däremot elever inom vuxenutbildningen som inte har fått möjligheten att utveckla SRL och därför var syftet med denna studie att studera hur SRL kan utvecklas hos en elev i matematiksvårigheter. Aktionsforskning var metoden för att uppnå detta syfte där aktionen bestod av tolv enskilda lektioner. På dessa lektioner använde läraren olika strategier kopplat till både SRL, motivation och feedback med intentionen att bedöma vilka effekter dessa strategier fick för elevens SRL användes observationer och intervjuer. Strategierna var till exempel enskilda lektioner, tydliggör lärandemål, nivåanpassa uppgifter, introducera en problemlösningsmall och använda självskattningsmatriser, olika former av självbedömning samt feedback. Detta resulterade bland annat i att eleven började reflektera mer över sitt eget lärande samt förändrade synen på inlärning.

  • Dietmann, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Matematik i förskoleklass – hur gör vi?: En fallstudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nya direktiv och riktlinjer är på gång för förskoleklassverksamheten. Syftet med denna studie är dels att beskriva matematiken i förskoleklass vilka matematiska aktiviteter, spontana och styrda, eleverna får möta och engagera sig i under en vecka. Syftet var också att genom intervjuer med främst förskoleklasslärare utforska vilka möjligheter, hinder och utmaningar som finns för förskoleklasslärarna när de ska bedriva matematikaktiviteter och arbeta förebyggande i matematik för att undvika att elever får matematiksvårigheter. För att uppnå detta genomfördes en fallstudie på en skola med tre förskoleklasser. En veckas observation i en av förskoleklasserna genomfördes, intervjuer med alla förskoleklasslärare verksamma på skolan samt en fritidsledare och två förskollärare på två förskolor som låg nära skolan.

    Undersökningen visar att eleverna i förskoleklass under en vecka möter och engagerar sig i flera olika matematiska aktiviteter, både spontana och styrda. I studien framkom det en enighet hos förskoleklasslärarna att ett hinder är att huvudman inte har satsat på fortbildning i matematik för förskoleklasslärarna, samt att informationen brister från huvudman till förskoleklasslärarna om nya direktiv och riktlinjer som rör förskoleklass. Det framkommer i studien att det finns flera möjligheter att bedriva matematik och arbeta förebyggande då nästan alla har förskolutbildning och skolan har bra material och miljö inomhus och utomhus. Det är en möjlighet för det förebyggande arbetet i matematik att specialläraren arbetar i förskoleklass och att det finns tre personal kopplade till varje klass under skoltid. En samstämmighet hos förskoleklasslärarna är att tre utmaningar framöver är att utveckla den röda tråden i matematik från förskoleklass till åk 6, bristen på planeringstid samt hur man på bästa sätt kan tillgodogöra sig varandras erfarenhet och kompetens i kollegiet.

  • Lindqvist, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Bruxism hos barn1974Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Halvares, Agnes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Sexuella övergrepp mot barn över nätet. Hur skyddar den svenska straffrätten barn?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Nylander, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vikström, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kommunikation – till vilket syfte?: Lärares erfarenheter och tankar kring kommunikation inom träningsskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens avsikt är att undersöka hur lärare inom grundsärskolan inriktning träningsskolan definierar kommunikation samt hur lärarna arbetar med kommunikation i klassrummet. Lärarna anser även att det finns en del möjligheter och hinder i arbetet med kommunikation. Med hjälp av att genomföra intervjuer kan vi få stor insikt i hur lärare tänker och arbetar med kommunikation med eleverna. För att tolka lärarnas historia har vi valt sociokulturella perspektivet som teoretisk utgångspunkt och analyserat utifrån Janice Lights (1988) aspekter gällande kommunikativ kompetens. Definitionen av kommunikation är omfattande vilket studien visar, kommunikation är allt ifrån reaktioner till talat språk. Studien visar att lärare arbetar på olika sätt för att eleverna ska utveckla sin kommunikation, då lärarna upplever att eleverna är individer med olika förutsättningar och behov av kommunikation. Alla lärare upplever både möjligheter och hinder i undervisning av kommunikation. Det lärarna i studien upplever gör kommunikation möjlig och som samtidigt kan hindra eleverna är; individanpassning, AKK, elevkännedom, många vuxna, egenskaper hos läraren, omsorg, klassammansättning och kunskap. En slutssats av studien visar att med hjälp av kommunikationshjälpmedel begränsas elevernas möjlighet till att skapa och upprätta relationer.