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  • Surowiec, Izabella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Orikiiriza, Judy
    Lindquist, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Bonde, Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Magambo, Jimmy
    Muhinda, Charles
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Normark, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    The oxylipin and endocannabidome responses in acute phase Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children2017In: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 16, 358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Oxylipins and endocannabinoids are low molecular weight bioactive lipids that are crucial for initiation and resolution of inflammation during microbial infections. Metabolic complications in malaria are recognized contributors to severe and fatal malaria, but the impact of malaria infection on the production of small lipid derived signalling molecules is unknown. Knowledge of immunoregulatory patterns of these molecules in malaria is of great value for better understanding of the disease and improvement of treatment regimes, since the action of these classes of molecules is directly connected to the inflammatory response of the organism.

    Methods: Detection of oxylipins and endocannabinoids from plasma samples from forty children with uncomplicated and severe malaria as well as twenty controls was done after solid phase extraction followed by chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The stable isotope dilution method was used for compound quantification. Data analysis was done with multivariate (principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA (R)) and univariate approaches (receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, t tests, correlation analysis).

    Results: Forty different oxylipin and thirteen endocannabinoid metabolites were detected in the studied samples, with one oxylipin (thromboxane B2, TXB2) in significantly lower levels and four endocannabinoids (OEA, PEA, DEA and EPEA) at significantly higher levels in infected individuals as compared to controls according to t test analysis with Bonferroni correction. Three oxylipins (13-HODE, 9-HODE and 13-oxo-ODE) were higher in severe compared to uncomplicated malaria cases according to the results from multivariate analysis. Observed changes in oxylipin levels can be connected to activation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) metabolic pathways in malaria infected individuals compared to controls, and related to increased levels of all linoleic acid oxylipins in severe patients compared to uncomplicated ones. The endocannabinoids were extremely responsive to malaria infection with majority of this class of molecules found at higher levels in infected individuals compared to controls.

    Conclusions: It was possible to detect oxylipin and endocannabinoid molecules that can be potential biomarkers for differentiation between malaria infected individuals and controls and between different classes of malaria. Metabolic pathways that could be targeted towards an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of malaria were also pinpointed.

  • Vikström, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Elitidrottares syn på framtiden: En kvalitativ studie om gymnasietjejer som elitsatsar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Girls choose to drop out of sports in a higher rate than men. According to some researchers there are several factors that affects their decisions to drop out or continue with their sport. The purpose with this study is to increase knowledge about young female athletes and how they look at their future in elite sports, also how the girls experience their elite efforts, and what they find important in it. The study examines what is required for young female elite athletes to continue their elite efforts and what factors affect how the girls look at their future. In this study, a qualitative survey in the form of semi-structured interviews has been conducted. The selection consisted of six girls from the sports soccer, ice hockey and taekwondo. The result showed that the athletes consider having fun and to develop to be the most important in sport. Factors that made the athletes continue their elite efforts was right conditions and their sport clubs. The factors that determines how athletes look at their future were their goals and dreams, as well as motivation. The conclusion of this study was that the conditions can be different between team athletes and individual athletes. The individual athletes in this study seemed more satisfied with their situation than the team athletes.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-26 13:00 Betula, byggnad 6M NUS (målpunkt L), Umeå
    Strömvall, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Extratumoral effects of highly aggressive prostate cancer2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer in Sweden. Most patients have slow growing tumors that will not cause them any harm within their lifetime, but some have aggressive tumors and will die from their disease. The ability of current clinical practice to predict tumor behavior and disease outcome is limited leading to both over- and undertreatment of PC patients. The men who die from their disease are those that develop metastases. It is therefore of great value to find better and more sensitive prognostic techniques, so that metastatic spread can be detected (or predicted) at an early time point, and so that appropriate treatment can be offered to each subgroup of patients. The aim of this thesis was to investigate if, and by what means, highly aggressive prostate tumors influence extratumoral tissues such as the non-malignant parts of the prostate and regional lymph nodes (LN), and also if any of our findings could be of prognostic importance. Gene- and protein expression analysis were the main methods used to address these questions. Our research group has previously introduced the expression Tumor Instructed (Indicating) Normal Tissue (TINT), and we use the term TINT-changes when referring to alterations in non-malignant tissue due to the growth of a tumor nearby or elsewhere in the body. In the Dunning rat PC-model we found that MatLyLu (MLL)-tumors, having a high metastatic ability, caused pre-metastatic TINT-changes that differ from those caused by AT1-tumors who have low metastatic ability. Prostate-TINT surrounding MLL-tumors had elevated immune cell infiltration, and gene ontology enrichment analysis suggested that biological functions promoting tumor growth and metastasis were activated in MLL- while inhibited in AT1-prostate-TINT. In the regional LNs we found signs of impaired antigen presentation, and decreased quantity of T cells in the MLL-model. One of the downregulated genes in the MLL-LNs was Siglec1 (also known as Cd169), expressed by LN resident macrophages that are important for antigen presentation. When examining metastasis-free LN tissue from PC patients we found CD169 expression to be a prognostic factor for PC-specific survival, and reduced expression was linked to an increased risk of PC-specific death. Some of our findings in prostate- and LN-TINT could be seen already when the tumors were very small suggesting that differences in TINT-changes between tumors with different metastatic capability can be detected early in tumor progression. However, before coming of use in the clinic more research is needed to better define a suitable panel of prognostic TINT-factors as well as the right time window of when to use them.

  • Nielsen, Ingeborg E.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Axel C.
    Lindgren, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Nyström, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nordin, Erik Z.
    Sadiktsis, Ioannis
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nojgaard, Jacob K.
    Pagels, Joakim
    Time-resolved analysis of particle emissions from residential biomass combustion: Emissions of refractory black carbon, PAHs and organic tracers2017In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 165, 179-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-resolved particle emissions from a conventional wood stove were investigated with aerosol mass spectrometry to provide links between combustion conditions, emission factors, mixing state of refractory black carbon and implications for organic tracer methods. The addition of a new batch of fuel results in low temperature pyrolysis as the fuel heats up, resulting in strong, short-lived, variable emission peaks of organic aerosol-containing markers of anhydrous sugars, such as levoglucosan (fragment at m/z 60). Flaming combustion results in emissions dominated by refractory black carbon co-emitted with minor fractions of organic aerosol and markers of anhydrous sugars. Full cycle emissions are an external mixture of larger organic aerosol-dominated and smaller thinly coated refractory black carbon particles. A very high burn rate results in increased full cycle mass emission factors of 66, 2.7, 2.8 and 1.3 for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon, total organic aerosol and m/z 60, respectively, compared to nominal burn rate. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are primarily associated with refractory black carbon-containing particles. We hypothesize that at very high burn rates, the central parts of the combustion zone become air starved, leading to a locally reduced combustion temperature that reduces the conversion rates from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to refractory black carbon. This facilitates a strong increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions. At nominal burn rates, full cycle emissions based on m/z 60 correlate well with organic aerosol, refractory black carbon and particulate matter. However, at higher burn rates, m/z 60 does not correlate with increased emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon and organic aerosol in the flaming phase. The new knowledge can be used to advance source apportionment studies, reduce emissions of genotoxic compounds and model the climate impacts of refractory black carbon, such as absorption enhancement by lensing. 

  • Spang, Christoph
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Dr. Alfen Orthopaedic Spine Center, Würzburg, Germany.
    Renström, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. Pure Sports Medicine Clinic, London, UK ; ISEH, UCLH, London, UK.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Marked expression of TNF receptors in human peritendinous tissues including in nerve fascicles with axonal damage: Studies on tendinopathy and tennis elbow2017In: Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions - JMNI, ISSN 1108-7161, Vol. 17, no 3, 226-236 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The peritendinous connective tissues can have importance in chronic tendon pain. Recently cytokine TNF-alpha has been suggested to be involved in tendinopathic processes. It is not known how TNF-alpha and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 are expressed in peritendinous tissues.

    Methods: The objective for this study was to immunohistochemically evaluate the expression patterns of these in the peritendinous tissue located between the plantaris and Achilles tendons and the one located superficially to the extensor origin at the elbow region for patients with tendinopathy/tennis elbow.

    Results: The nerve fascicles were of two types, one type being homogenously stained for the nerve markers beta III-tubulin and neurofilament and the other showing deficits for these suggesting features of axonal damage. Much more distinct TNFR1/TNFR2 immunoreactions were seen for the latter nerve fascicles. TNFR1 was seen in axons, TNFR2 mainly in Schwann cells. TNFR1 and particularly TNFR2 were seen in walls of parts of blood vessels. The dispersed cells showed frequently TNFR1 and TNFR2 immunoreactivity.

    Discussion: These findings suggest that TNF-alpha can be related to degenerative events but also attempts for healing concerning the nerve structures. The marked expression of the TNF-alpha system in the peritendinous tissue suggests an impact of TNF-alpha in tendinopathy/tennis elbow.

  • Sundqvist, Max
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Climate justice: three roads towards a sustainable future2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this I will explore the ethical challenge of global climate change by analysing three accounts of how responsibility for climate change should be distributed. I explore why it is valuable to view climate change as part of a bigger ethical problem of resources, distribution and global justice. Furthermore, I will argue that a road towards change by a cosmo political theory of justice is the most reasonable option. The theme of my argumentation is that the challenge of global climate change should be understood as a problem between human beings, not between states, or via schemes for distribution or rigid systematic solutions. Many theories of justice fail to do so with challenging and potentially dangerous consequences.

  • Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.
    et al.
    Houle, Brian
    Collinson, Mark A.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gomez-Olive, Francesc Xavier
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Clark, Samuel J.
    Socioeconomic differences in mortality in the antiretroviral therapy era in Agincourt, rural South Africa, 2001-13: a population surveillance analysis2017In: The Lancet Global Health, ISSN 2352-3026, E-ISSN 2214-109X, Vol. 5, no 9, E924-E935 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Understanding the effects of socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes is important to implement specific preventive actions. We assessed socioeconomic disparities in mortality indicators in a rural South African population over the period 2001-13.

    Methods We used data from 21 villages of the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). We calculated the probabilities of death from birth to age 5 years and from age 15 to 60 years, life expectancy at birth, and cause-specific and age-specific mortality by sex (not in children <5 years), time period, and socioeconomic status (household wealth) quintile for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, other communicable diseases (excluding HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes, non-communicable diseases, and injury. We also quantified differences with relative risk ratios and relative and slope indices of inequality.

    Findings Between 2001 and 2013, 10 414 deaths were registered over 1 058 538 person-years of follow-up, meaning the overall crude mortality was 9.8 deaths per 1000 person-years. We found significant socioecomonic status gradients for mortality and life expectancy at birth, with outcomes improving with increasing socioeconomic status. An inverse relation was seen for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis mortality and socioeconomic status that persisted from 2001 to 2013. Deaths from non-communicable diseases increased over time in both sexes, and injury was an important cause of death in men and boys. Neither of these causes of death, however, showed consistent significant associations with household socioeconomic status.

    Interpretation The poorest people in the population continue to bear a high burden of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis mortality, despite free antiretroviral therapy being made available from public health facilities. Associations between socioeconomic status and increasing burden of mortality from non-communicable diseases is likely to become prominent. Integrated strategies are needed to improve access to and uptake of HIV testing, care, and treatment, and management of non-communicable diseases in the poorest populations.

  • Henström, Maria
    et al.
    Hadizadeh, Fatemeh
    Beyder, Arthur
    Bonfiglio, Ferdinando
    Zheng, Tenghao
    Assadi, Ghazaleh
    Rafter, Joseph
    Bujanda, Luis
    Agreus, Lars
    Andreasson, Anna
    Dlugosz, Aldona
    Lindberg, Greger
    Schmidt, Peter T.
    Karling, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Talley, Nicholas J.
    Simren, Magnus
    Walter, Susanna
    Wouters, Mira
    Farrugia, Gianrico
    D'Amato, Mauro
    TRPM8 polymorphisms associated with increased risk of IBS-C and IBS-M2017In: Gut, ISSN 0017-5749, E-ISSN 1468-3288, Vol. 66, no 9, 1725-1727 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Johansson, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Reproduktiva rättigheter i en överbefolkad värld: En moralfilosofisk överblick av situationen, problemen och de potentiella lösningarna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine the relation between reproductive rights and overpopulation. The main research question is whether the increase of the population size can affect the moral aspects of the reproductive rights. Relying on, and building upon arguments already developed by a number of philosophers, I show that although some restrictions might be justified, these restrictions cannot completely rule out the basic right to reproduction.

    Based on this, I then proceed with an overview of the possible solutions. In the subsequent discussion, a one-child-per-couple philosophy stands out as the best option. This would be morally justified according to the initial statements, as well as the most effective alternative when it comes to initiating a significant population decline. The one-child-per-couple philosophy is then contested by several problems that could theoretically arise, but none of these problems are, according to my discussion, strong enough to dispute the positive aspects of the theory. The conclusion of this essay is that we, as a species, have a moral obligation to limit our numbers and that we ought to start acting accordingly.

  • Danielsson, Joseph
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Tid och relativitet: Utmaningen från den Speciella relativitetsteorin för Presentism2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats tar upp två filosofers argumentation kring konflikten mellan Presentism och denspeciella relativitetsteorin: D. H. Mellor och Theodore Sider. Utifrån detta ges ett försvar avPresentism i ljuset av speciella relativitetsteorin och Mellor´s och Sider´s argument. Försvaretgår ut på att visa att denna konflikt inte innebär inkompatibilitet. Möjligheten att försvaraPresentism genom att påpeka olika tolkningar av speciella relativitetsteorin som empirisktlikvärdiga ges.

  • Lidström, Shona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    High off her love - LOVE IS A DRUG: A comparative study of the use of love and sadness metaphors and their meaning in country and rap song lyrics2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper researches the use of conceptual metaphors in rap and country song lyrics. It looks specifically at conceptual metaphors for the concepts of LOVE and SADNESS, focusing on what source domains are proposed in each genre, what similarities there are in source domains between the genres and the style of language found in the linguistic expressions in the two genres. Song lists and lyrics were obtained from internet sites and then, using the Metaphor Identification Procedure (MIP), linguistic expressions were identified which were then subjected to a qualitative analysis. Those relating to SADNESS and LOVE were grouped according to proposed source domains for comparison. The results show that there are similarities, and some differences in the source domains identified within the genres and that they have a wide variety of sub-domains. Concrete concepts common to both genres do not exhibit the same mapping of correspondences to the target domains. There is no discernible difference in the style of language used in the linguistic expressions of the two genres. Nevertheless, the rap expressions tend to be more in the present, dynamic and at times sexually provocative whereas in country expressions they tend to be more reflective, virtuous and at times, depressing.

  • Argårds, Susann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Intensivundervisning i matematik och dess förutsättningar: Lärare och elevers tankar under och efter avslutad intensivundervisning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie redogörs för lärares och elevers tankar om intensivundervisning. För att undersöka detta har insamlat material för analys varit intervjuer med lärare och elever, för- och eftertester med eleverna, observationer, loggböcker, inspelningar från lärarnas träffar med eleverna men också inspelningar från mina träffar med lärarna. Det som lagts störst vikt på i denna studie är lärarnas funderingar runt arbetet med intensivundervisningen och vilka förutsättningar de anser att det finns för att genomföra intensivundervisningen. Det som framgår i resultatet är att lärarna ser positivt på arbetet med eleverna i en ”en till en” situation men att skolan behöver se över förutsättningarna för att genomföra intensivundervisning. Lärarna påtalar i studien att det ofta är svårt att få till tiden när man skall träffa eleven enskilt. Även det faktum att det inte på skolan finns specifika matematikklassrum försvårar arbetet med elever i matematiksvårigheter både i klassrum och grupprum.

  • Röring, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energieffektivisering av en universitetsbyggnad genom att begränsa studenternas access2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag består sektorn för bostäder och service för 40% av den totala energianvändningen i Sverige, där effektivisering av byggnaders energianvändning är en viktig process i utvecklingen mot förbättrad energiprestanda. Energieffektivisering är ett högaktuellt ämne och för att främja utvecklingen finns det uppsatta energipolitiska mål.

    Syftet med projektet var att studera den årliga energianvändningen i humanisthuset på campusområdet i Umeå och undersöka hur mycket energi som kan sparas genom att begränsa studenternas tillträde till studieytor under kvällar och helger.

    Akademiska Hus är ett av Sveriges största fastighetsbolag som förvaltar universitets- och högskolefastigheter belägna från Luleå i norr till Malmö i söder. Fastighetsbolaget är statligt ägt och känner därför ett särskilt ansvar att ligga i framkant gällande hållbar energikonsumtion. Energieffektiviseringsåtgärder och klimatoptimering är därför något som satsas mycket på vilket har lett till att de idag är ledande i frågan. Humanisthuset är beläget på Umeå universitet och har förutom lektionssalar och grupprum, fem öppna studieytor som undersöktes närmare i studien.

    Byggnadens årliga energibehov beräknades i två olika fall med simuleringsprogrammet IDA ICE. I första fallet antogs studenterna ha access till samtliga studieytor och i det andra fallet begränsades studenternas access till enbart två ytor. I de avstängda ytorna kunde belysning och ventilation minskas, till fördel för en energibesparing. Vid en jämförelse mellan de två fallen så beräknades det hur mycket energi som sparades årligen.

    Första fallet, i rapporten kallad referenssimuleringen, visade på att ventilationsaggregaten är mycket energieffektiva och att den största energiåtgången är i form av uppvärmning. Den specifika energianvändningen i byggnaden beräknades till 55,90 kWh/m2, 4,99 kWh/m2 och 12,11 kWh/m2 för energibärarna fjärrvärme, fjärrkyla och elektricitet. Jämförelsen mellan fallen visade att energianvändningen minskade med 10049 kWh per år, där minskad belysning var den största faktorn till besparingen. I procentuella termer minskade den totala energiförbrukningen med 0,7 procent.

  • Andersson, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Our body body as an expressive tool2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Humans were made to move. Many hours in front of a screen leads to stiff bodies and a diminished bodily awareness. The aim of this project was to explore how technology can serve to increase our body awareness and adapt to our physical conditions in everyday life with focus on office spaces.

    The study is explorative with a user-centered approach and a focus on embodied prototyping, where the user is a subject of design. Data was collected with recordings, interviews, and workshops. Reflexion-on-action, prototyping and iterations lead to the final outcome.

    The final concept is a wearable that encourage people to move and stretch out more often and spontaneously throughout the day. It does so by vibration patterns along your spine and shoulders.

    The idea of this concepts is to make people move often and regularly during the day; to react spontaneously to a reminder from the body, mediated by the vibrations. The system is thought to be self-awarding; if it feels good to stretch out, to extend the arms, to move – then you will want to do it again.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-03 10:15 S Hörsal A, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå
    Åberg, Kajsa G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    "Anyone could do that": Nordic perspectives on competence in tourism2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In academic reasoning, as well as policy rhethoric, much attention has been drawn to the low thresholds to employment and entrepreneurship in tourism. The purpose of this thesis is to go beyond the simplified images and examine the educational characteristics of the tourism workforce in a way that includes both a geographical and work task related aspect. By employing a sequential mix of methods, two perspectives on competence in tourism are presented. First, the actual presence of formal education within the workforce is mapped and discussed based on descriptive analyses of register data. Thereafter, thematic analyses of interviews are used to allow for a discussion on underlying reasoning of recruitment. The theoretical point of departure is that the workforce is a crucial input factor of the production process in labour intense service sectors such as tourism. However, the access to a suitable workforce differs between destinations. It is therefore imperative to scrutinize its characteristics in order to set relevant strategies for development, as well as education.

    The thesis contains four individual papers and an introductory section. The first two papers are based on register data on the Swedish national workforce in the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. The results show that the general level of formal education is not exceptionally low in tourism and that it is rather linked to geography than occupational sector. There was also confirmed to be a mismatch between tourism-specific education and work in tourism. In the second part of the thesis, focus is turned to the managerial segment within destination development. The geographical scope includes the northern region of Sweden and one case study area each in Norway and Finland. The empirical material shows that tourism-specific education was not prioritized when recruiting for destination management.

    The empirical findings are brought together in the concluding discussion of the thesis. It is there suggested that reasoning on the educational characteristics of the tourism workforce needs to  include the diversity of local preconditions and needs relating to geography and work tasks.            

  • Thunmarker, Josefine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Hållbart byggande genom standardiserad miljöledning2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environment and sustainability issues constitute a large part of what society must consider. For construction companies, these issues have a major impact on the business. Partly due to extensive legislation but also as a result of the community becoming more environmentally conscious. In Sweden, the building sector accounts for a large part of greenhouse gas emissions and for a large part of total energy use. In order to handle the issues related to the environment, companies and organizations use environmental management systems. However, the question is whether there is any gain in using such systems and if there are motives to try to certify them, for example, according to ISO 14001 or EMAS. It is also possible to use environmental certification of buildings according to different systems. Common to these systems is that energy aspects have a large part in the rating base for the building. Based on this, it is possible to ask if there is a difference between the projected values and the measured values for a building and what deviations can be derived. The work is based on a literature study and a small case study . Based on the literature, it can be seen that there are advantages in the use of environmental management systems and in certifying the systems according to a given standard. An area that appears to be particularly beneficial from the routines that come from an environmental management system is waste management. Because it is cheaper for the construction company to ship a well-sorted waste than a mixed one. The case study shows that there was a difference between calculated and measured values for energy use. It is difficult to determine how much deviation can be accepted, but it is very important to derive from where the deviations originate. Especially to see if they can do something about them, but also to learn and avoid similar problems in the future. 

  • Varik, Vallo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Nooruse 1, 50411, Tartu, Estonia.
    Oliveira, Sofia Raquel Alves
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Nooruse 1, 50411, Tartu, Estonia.
    Tenson, Tanel
    HPLC-based quantification of bacterial housekeeping nucleotides and alarmone messengers ppGpp and pppGpp2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 11022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we describe an HPLC-based method to quantify bacterial housekeeping nucleotides and the signaling messengers ppGpp and pppGpp. We have replicated and tested several previously reported HPLC-based approaches and assembled a method that can process 50 samples in three days, thus making kinetically resolved experiments feasible. The method combines cell harvesting by rapid filtration, followed by acid extraction, freeze-drying with chromatographic separation. We use a combination of C18 IPRP-HPLC (GMP unresolved and co-migrating with IMP; GDP and GTP; AMP, ADP and ATP; CTP; UTP) and SAX-HPLC in isocratic mode (ppGpp and pppGpp) with UV detection. The approach is applicable to bacteria without the requirement of metabolic labelling with 32P-labelled radioactive precursors. We applied our method to quantify nucleotide pools in Escherichia coli BW25113 K12-strain both throughout the growth curve and during acute stringent response induced by mupirocin. While ppGpp and pppGpp levels vary drastically (40-and >= 8-fold, respectively) these changes are decoupled from the quotients of the housekeeping pool and guanosine and adenosine housekeeping nucleotides: NTP/NDP/NMP ratio remains stable at 6/1/0.3 during both normal batch culture growth and upon acute amino acid starvation.

  • Alghadir, A. H.
    et al.
    Anwer, S.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Al-Eisa, E. S.
    Effect of quadriceps and hamstrings muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men2017In: Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions - JMNI, ISSN 1108-7161, Vol. 17, no 3, 176-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present study compared the effect of quadriceps and hamstring muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men.

    Methods: Thirty healthy young men (18-30 years) participated in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups (n=10 each): quadriceps cooling (QC), hamstring cooling (HC), or control group (no cooling). Participants in the QC and HC groups received 20 minutes of cooling using a cold pack (gel pack), placed on the anterior thigh (from the apex of the patella to the mid-thigh) and the posterior thigh (from the base of the popliteal fossa to the mid-thigh), respectively. Balance score including unilateral stance was measured at baseline and immediately after the application of the cold pack.

    Results: No significant difference in the balance score was noted in any group after the application of the cold pack (p>0.05). Similarly, no significant differences in post-test balance score were noted among the three groups (p>0.05).

    Conclusions: Cooling of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles has no immediate effect on standing balance in healthy young men. However, longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the long-term effects of cooling these muscles on standing balance.

  • Niemiec, Maria J.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology - Hans Knöll Institute (HKI), Jena, Germany; Center for Sepsis Control and Care (CSCC), Jena, Germany.
    Grumaz, Christian
    Ermert, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Division of Medical Protein Chemistry, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Desel, Christiane
    Shankar, Madhu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Lopes, José Pedro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Mills, Ian G.
    Stevens, Philip
    Sohn, Kai
    Urban, Constantin F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Dual transcriptome of the immediate neutrophil and Candida albicans interplay2017In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 18, 696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neutrophils are traditionally considered transcriptionally inactive. Compared to other immune cells, little is known about their transcriptional profile during interaction with pathogens. Methods: We analyzed the meta-transcriptome of the neutrophil-Candida albicans interplay and the transcriptome of C. albicans challenged with neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) by RNA-Seq, considering yeast and hypha individually in each approach. Results: The neutrophil response to C. albicans yeast and hyphae was dominated by a morphotype-independent core response. However, 11 % of all differentially expressed genes were regulated in a specific manner when neutrophils encountered the hyphal form of C. albicans. While involving genes for transcriptional regulators, receptors, and cytokines, the neutrophil core response lacked typical antimicrobial effectors genes. Genes of the NOD-like receptor pathway, including NLRP3, were enriched. Neutrophil-and NET-provoked responses in C. albicans differed. At the same time, the Candida transcriptome upon neutrophil encounter and upon NET challenge included genes from various metabolic processes and indicate a mutual role of the regulators Tup1p, Efg1p, Hap43p, and Cap1p. Upon challenge with neutrophils and NETs, the overall Candida response was partially morphotype-specific. Yet again, actual oppositional regulation in yeasts and hyphae was only detected for the arginine metabolism in neutrophil-infecting C. albicans. Conclusions: Taken together, our study provides a comprehensive and quantitative transcript profile of the neutrophil-C. albicans interaction. By considering the two major appearances of both, neutrophils and C. albicans, our study reveals yet undescribed insights into this medically relevant encounter. Hence, our findings will facilitate future research and potentially inspire novel therapy developments.

  • Engberg, Isak
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Segerstedt, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Waller, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Fatigue in the general population-associations to age, sex, socioeconomic status, physical activity, sitting time and self-rated health: the northern Sweden MONICA study 20142017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fatigue is widespread in the population and a common complaint in primary care. Little is known about prevalence of fatigue in the population and its predictors. We aimed to describe the pattern of fatigue in the general population and to explore the associations with age, sex, socioeconomic status, self-reported physical activity, sitting time and self-rated health.

    Methods: One thousand, five hundred and fifty-seven out of 2500 invited subjects in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study 2014, aged 25-74 years, filled out the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), consisting of four subscales: General fatigue (GF), Physical fatigue (PF), Reduced activity (RA) and Mental fatigue (MF). Questions regarding age, sex, socioeconomic status, physical activity, sitting time and self-rated health were also included.

    Results: Higher age correlated significantly with lower fatigue scores for the GF and MF subscales. Women had higher fatigue scores than men on all subscales (p < 0.05). Among men, higher socioeconomic status was related to lower fatigue for the GF, PF and RA subscales (age adjusted p < 0.05). Among women, higher socioeconomic status was related to lower fatigue for the PF and MF subscales (age adjusted p < 0.05). Higher physical activity was connected to lower levels of fatigue for all subscales (age and sex adjusted p < 0.001) except for MF. Longer time spent sitting was also related to more fatigue on all subscales (age and sex adjusted p < 0.005) except for MF. Better self-rated health was strongly associated with lower fatigue for all subscales (age and sex adjusted p < 0.001).

    Conclusion: Older, highly educated, physically active men, with little sedentary behavior are generally the least fatigued. Self-rated health is strongly related to fatigue. Interventions increasing physical exercise and reducing sedentary behavior may be important to help patients with fatigue and should be investigated in prospective studies.

  • Monsen, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå university hospital.
    Ryden, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    A new concept and a comprehensive evaluation of SYSMEX UF-1000i flow cytometer to identify culture-negative urine specimens in patients with UTI2017In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 36, no 9, 1691-1703 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in men and urine culture is gold standard for diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of culture-negative specimens, any method that identifies such specimens is of interest. The aim was to evaluate a new screening concept for flow cytometry analysis (FCA). The outcomes were evaluated against urine culture, uropathogen species and three conventional screening methods. A prospective, consecutive study examined 1,312 urine specimens, collected during January and February 2012. The specimens were analyzed using the Sysmex UF1000i FCA. Based on the FCA data culture negative specimens were identified in a new model by use of linear discriminant analysis (FCA-LDA). In total 1,312 patients were included. In- and outpatients represented 19.6% and 79.4%, respectively; 68.3% of the specimens originated from women. Of the 610 culture-positive specimens, Escherichia coli represented 64%, enterococci 8% and Klebsiella spp. 7%. Screening with FCA-LDA at 95% sensitivity identified 42% (552/1312) as culture negative specimens when UTI was defined according to European guidelines. The proposed screening method was either superior or similar in comparison to the three conventional screening methods. In conclusion, the proposed/suggested and new FCA-LDA screening method was superior or similar to three conventional screening methods. We recommend the proposed screening method to be used in clinic to exclude culture negative specimens, to reduce workload, costs and the turnaround time. In addition, the FCA data may add information that enhance handling and support diagnosis of patients with suspected UTI pending urine culture.

  • Campeau, Audrey
    et al.
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Schiff, Sherry
    Venkiteswaran, Jason J.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Multiple sources and sinks of dissolved inorganic carbon across Swedish streams, refocusing the lens of stable C isotopes2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 9158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that stream dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fluxes play a central role in the global C cycle, yet the sources of stream DIC remain to a large extent unresolved. Here, we explore large-scale patterns in δ13C-DIC from streams across Sweden to separate and further quantify the sources and sinks of stream DIC. We found that stream DIC is governed by a variety of sources and sinks including biogenic and geogenic sources, CO2 evasion, as well as in-stream processes. Although soil respiration was the main source of DIC across all streams, a geogenic DIC influence was identified in the northernmost region. All streams were affected by various degrees of atmospheric CO2 evasion, but residual variance in δ13C-DIC also indicated a significant influence of in-stream metabolism and anaerobic processes. Due to those multiple sources and sinks, we emphasize that simply quantifying aquatic DIC fluxes will not be sufficient to characterise their role in the global C cycle.

  • Marincevic-Zuniga, Yanara
    et al.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Nilsson, Sara
    Raine, Amanda
    Nystedt, Sara
    Lindqvist, Carl Marten
    Berglund, Eva C.
    Abrahamsson, Jonas
    Cavelier, Lucia
    Forestier, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Heyman, Mats
    Lonnerholm, Gudmar
    Nordlund, Jessica
    Syvanen, Ann-Christine
    Transcriptome sequencing in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies fusion genes associated with distinct DNA methylation profiles2017In: Journal of Hematology & Oncology, ISSN 1756-8722, E-ISSN 1756-8722, Vol. 10, 148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Structural chromosomal rearrangements that lead to expressed fusion genes are a hallmark of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of 134 primary ALL patient samples to comprehensively detect fusion transcripts.

    Methods: We combined fusion gene detection with genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, gene expression profiling, and targeted sequencing to determine molecular signatures of emerging ALL subtypes.

    Results: We identified 64 unique fusion events distributed among 80 individual patients, of which over 50% have not previously been reported in ALL. Although the majority of the fusion genes were found only in a single patient, we identified several recurrent fusion gene families defined by promiscuous fusion gene partners, such as ETV6, RUNX1, PAX5, and ZNF384, or recurrent fusion genes, such as DUX4-IGH. Our data show that patients harboring these fusion genes displayed characteristic genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression signatures in addition to distinct patterns in single nucleotide variants and recurrent copy number alterations.

    Conclusion: Our study delineates the fusion gene landscape in pediatric ALL, including both known and novel fusion genes, and highlights fusion gene families with shared molecular etiologies, which may provide additional information for prognosis and therapeutic options in the future.

  • Zhang, Bo
    et al.
    Holmlund, Mattias
    Lorrain, Severine
    Norberg, Mikael
    Bakó, László
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Fankhauser, Christian
    Nilsson, Ove
    BLADE-ON-PETIOLE proteins act in an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to regulate PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 abundance2017In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 6, e26759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both light and temperature have dramatic effects on plant development. Phytochrome photoreceptors regulate plant responses to the environment in large part by controlling the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) transcription factors. However, the molecular determinants of this essential signaling mechanism still remain largely unknown. Here, we present evidence that the BLADE-ON-PETIOLE (BOP) genes, which have previously been shown to control leaf and flower development in Arabidopsis, are involved in controlling the abundance of PIF4. Genetic analysis shows that BOP2 promotes photo-morphogenesis and modulates thermomorphogenesis by suppressing PIF4 activity, through a reduction in PIF4 protein level. In red-light-grown seedlings PIF4 ubiquitination was reduced in the bop2 mutant. Moreover, we found that BOP proteins physically interact with both PIF4 and CULLIN3A and that a CULLIN3-BOP2 complex ubiquitinates PIF4 in vitro. This shows that BOP proteins act as substrate adaptors in a CUL3BOP1/BOP2 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, targeting PIF4 proteins for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation.

  • Johansson, Cornelia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Navigating between pressures andaccountabilities: Local civil society organization's approaches and challenges to link-ing relief, rehabilitation, and development in Malawi2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world and suffers from recurring disasters but no ongoing conflicts. Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) working there must therefore take relief, rehabilitation, and development into account as shifting between these stages is the reality of the rights-holders. What approaches that should be used while doing this is unique in each context. The aid structure is however clearly divided between those working with relief and those working with development, and even though the conceptual development suggest that the aid structure should join there has been no change towards this. At the same time Result Based Management (RBM) as a principle for aid effectiveness has been heavily criticized for focusing on short term results, among others.

    This qualitative study has contributed to closing two research gaps; in identifying that Disaster Risk Reduction, Human Rights Based Approach, economic empowerment, and sustainable relief interventions are the approaches that CSOs in Malawi tend to focus on when working close to a community where there is a need to link relief, rehabilitation, and development (LRRD); and in identifying that not only can the pressure from a divided aid structure be blamed for the challenges facing CSOs implementing LRRD approaches, but RBM is also a contributing part. This results in CSOs being torn between accountability issues towards donors and staying legitimate towards rights-holders and that because of these challenges they cannot live up to their potential and provide the most effective aid.

  • Morgan, Ruth A.
    et al.
    Beck, Katharina R.
    Nixon, Mark
    Homer, Natalie Z. M.
    Crawford, Andrew A.
    Melchers, Diana
    Houtman, René
    Meijer, Onno C.
    Stomby, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Anderson, Anna J.
    Upreti, Rita
    Stimson, Roland H.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Michoel, Tom
    Cohain, Ariella
    Ruusalepp, Arno
    Schadt, Eric E.
    Björkegren, Johan L. M.
    Andrew, Ruth
    Kenyon, Christopher J.
    Hadoke, Patrick W. F.
    Odermatt, Alex
    Keen, John A.
    Walker, Brian R.
    Carbonyl reductase 1 catalyzes 20 beta-reduction of glucocorticoids, modulating receptor activation and metabolic complications of obesity2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 10633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbonyl Reductase 1 (CBR1) is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic enzyme important in exogenous drug metabolism but the physiological function of which is unknown. Here, we describe a role for CBR1 in metabolism of glucocorticoids. CBR1 catalyzes the NADPH-dependent production of 20 beta-dihydrocortisol (20 beta-DHF) from cortisol. CBR1 provides the major route of cortisol metabolism in horses and is up-regulated in adipose tissue in obesity in horses, humans and mice. We demonstrate that 20 beta-DHF is a weak endogenous agonist of the human glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Pharmacological inhibition of CBR1 in diet-induced obesity in mice results in more marked glucose intolerance with evidence for enhanced hepatic GR signaling. These findings suggest that CBR1 generating 20 beta-dihydrocortisol is a novel pathway modulating GR activation and providing enzymatic protection against excessive GR activation in obesity.

  • Koivisto, Tomi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Odén, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    En tränares väg till framgång: En kvalitativ studie om tränare och deras kompetenskrav2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the need for financial resources and competent leaders is high in the modern sports industry, the demands on these leaders are also growing. With few means it is expected that good results will be achieved. In order to compete at the international level, higher demands will be placed on coaches and leaders in all sports in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to develop an elite development plan for trainer in wrestling with the specific purpose of identifying the characteristics a successful trainer should possess and what efforts are needed to develop the Swedish wrestling movement. In the study, four national team coaches and four national team wrestlers participated, four of which were men and four were women. The answers received have largely been about the coach's ability to listen to his adept and to respond to their opinions. It also emerged that cohesion in the training group is a key factor for success. Furthermore, the lack of financial resources was considered a major obstacle to the development of sport. As a conclusion, it can be seen that the visibility of wrestling in Sweden is not great, which indirectly affects the conditions that both coaches and practitioners have to work in their sports.

  • Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Batty, G. David
    Kawachi, Ichiro
    Jokela, Markus
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Dragano, Nico
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Kumari, Meena
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Frescati Hagv€ag 16 A, 114 19 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Salo, Paula
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Theorell, Töres
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerholm, Peter
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Hamer, Mark
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Tabak, Adam G.
    Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation: a multi-cohort study2017In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 38, no 34, 2621-2628 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working long hours (>= 55 per week) and those working standard 35-40 h/week. Methods and results In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium, the study population was 85 494 working men and women (mean age 43.4 years) with no recorded atrial fibrillation. Working hours were assessed at study baseline (1991-2004). Mean follow-up for incident atrial fibrillation was 10 years and cases were defined using data on electrocardiograms, hospital records, drug reimbursement registers, and death certificates. We identified 1061 new cases of atrial fibrillation (10-year cumulative incidence 12.4 per 1000). After adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status, individuals working long hours had a 1.4-fold increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with those working standard hours (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI= 1.13-1.80, P= 0.003). There was no significant heterogeneity between the cohort-specific effect estimates (I-2= 0%, P = 0.66) and the finding remained after excluding participants with coronary heart disease or stroke at baseline or during the follow-up (N= 2006, hazard ratio= 1.36, 95% CI= 1.05-1.76, P = 0.0180). Adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as obesity, risky alcohol use and high blood pressure, had little impact on this association. Conclusion Individuals who worked long hours were more likely to develop atrial fibrillation than those working standard hours.

  • Skalleberg, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Malmgren, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Jag vill inte känna mig sämre än jag redan gör: En litteraturstudie om varför personer med självskadebeteende tvekar till att söka hjälp2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    History: Deliberate self-harm is a hard to define phenomena that is hard to deal with because it is often done in secret and with a great feeling of shame and guilt. These patients are hard to treat due to the sensitive nature of the subject and that is why there is a large number of unreported cases. There is a clear correlation between deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts. In order to facilitate help seeking in people who self-harm we need to find out why this group of people don’t seek help in the first place so that further suicide attempts are prevented.

     

    Aim: The aim is to describe the hesitation to why people who self-harm does not seek help.

     

    Method: This study is a qualitative literature review of 8 articles. The data was analyzed inspired by content analysis. The databases used were CINAHL, PubMed and PsycINFO.

     

    Results: 5 categories were identified: “Really, what’s the point?”, “Some people look at you like you are some kind of monster”, “I don’t know what to do or where to turn”, “I hurt myself severely on purpose today and now I feel bad about it” and “As long as it’s under my control I’m fine”.

     

    Conclusion: When people who self-harm seek professional help are met with a poor attitude by staff, their fear of being judged is confirmed and their sense of shame and guilt increases. A negative experience when seeking help may lead to a reluctance for future help-seeking. An unclear process on how to seek help is an obstacle for people trying to receive treatment.

  • Chereji, Razvan V.
    et al.
    Bharatula, Vasudha
    Elfving, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Blomberg, Jeanette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Larsson, Miriam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Morozov, Alexandre V.
    Broach, James R.
    Björklund, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mediator binds to boundaries of chromosomal interaction domains and to proteins involved in DNA looping, RNA metabolism, chromatin remodeling, and actin assembly2017In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 45, no 15, 8806-8821 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mediator is a multi-unit molecular complex that plays a key role in transferring signals from transcriptional regulators to RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes. We have combined biochemical purification of the Sac-charomyces cerevisiae Mediator from chromatin with chromatin immunoprecipitation in order to reveal Mediator occupancy on DNA genome-wide, and to identify proteins interacting specifically with Mediator on the chromatin template. Tandem mass spectrometry of proteins in immunoprecipitates of mediator complexes revealed specific interactions between Mediator and the RSC, Arp2/Arp3, CPF, CF 1A and Lsm complexes in chromatin. These factors are primarily involved in chromatin remodeling, actin assembly, mRNA 3'-end processing, gene looping and mRNA decay, but they have also been shown to enter the nucleus and participate in Pol II transcription. Moreover, we have found that Mediator, in addition to binding Pol II promoters, occupies chromosomal interacting domain (CID) boundaries and that Mediator in chromatin associates with proteins that have been shown to interact with CID boundaries, such as Sth1, Ssu72 and histone H4. This suggests that Mediator plays a significant role in higher-order genome organization.

  • Skogeby, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Resolution Improvements and Physical Modelling of a Straw Tracker: The NA62 Experiment at CERN2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lab measurements and Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for the evaluation of the Straw-type detectors used in the NA62 experiment at CERN. In addition, analyses of experiment data was used in corrections to improve the reconstruction of particle tracks, ultimately leading to improved resolution of the detector system as a whole. 97.7 percent of the Straws were aligned to within 30 microns, quantified as the deviation from zero of the mean of the inherent residual distribution of each Straw. A drift time dependence on where along the Straw the particle ionized have been corrected for; before the correction the dependence was as big as 6 ns. A radius-drift time relation based on the leading edge timing distribution has been deduced and implemented. Upon implementation artifacts from the piecewise fits used became evident. An alternative approach using residuals has been put forward.

  • Bosson, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Liljegren, Carolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Klagomål i offentlighetens ljus: En kvalitativ studie om hur företag arbetar med service recovery via sociala medier2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala mediers framväxt och ökade användning av såväl företag som privatpersoner har ändrat förutsättningarna för bland annat interaktion, kommunikation och relationsskapande. Företag har även i allt större utsträckning börjat inse fördelarna med att använda sociala medier som en kanal för klagomål. Således innebär detta att sociala medier möjliggör för kunder att enkelt uttrycka sitt missnöje i en ny kanal. Klagomålshanteringen har i och med detta blivit offentlig och med tanke på dess transparens ställer detta krav på företag att hantera klagomål synliga för allmänheten, vilket kan inbegripa såväl utmaningar som möjligheter. Vidare är en förutsättning för att företag ska kunna hantera klagomål är att de har effektiva service recovery-processer.

    Det har identifierats ett forskningsgap där strategier för service recovery som är anpassade eller modifierade för kontexten sociala medier anses vara bristande. Service recovery för att hantera klagomål via traditionella kanaler anses därmed inte vara anpassade för företag som verkar på sociala medier. Således ligger det i intresse för denna studie att närmare identifiera hur processen att arbeta med service recovery via sociala medier ser ut i olika företag.

    Denna studie har för avsikt att besvara problemformuleringen; Hur arbetar företag med service recovery via sociala medier?

    Teoriavsnittet innefattar en redogörelse av identifierade teorier som finns på området. Två service recovery-strategier (Hart et al., 1990; Bell & Zemke, 1987) presenteras kort för att sedan redogöra för Miller et al’s. (2000) ramverk för service recovery. Detta ramverk är utgångspunkt för denna studie och därmed görs en mer ingående redogörelse för delar av ramverket som är väsentliga för att besvara studiens syfte.

    Studiens resultat utifrån semi-strukturerade intervjuer påvisar att det är tre faktorer som företag bör prioritera i service recovery-processen på sociala medier; kundens känsla, ett personligt bemötande samt understödja arbetet med service recovery med hjälp av verktyg. Företag bör därmed utveckla service recovery-processer som fokuserar på att förstå kundens känsla, detta för att visa förståelse för kunden samt att lägga vikt vid känslan i bemötandet. Vidare inbegriper personligt bemötande bland annat att anpassa tonen efter kunden. Det är även nödvändigt med interna samarbeten och verktyg i form av stödsystem för att personalen som bemöter klagomål på sociala medier ska kunna arbeta effektivt.

    Slutligen bidrar studien med en reviderad modell för service recovery på sociala medier som har skapats i enlighet med studiens syfte och resultat. Denna modell kan förse ledningen på företag med rekommendationer samt vägledning i hur de kan utforma sina service recovery- processer på sociala medier. 

  • Mahiti, Gladys Reuben
    et al.
    Department of Development Studies, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mbekenga, Columba K.
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, Agakhan University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Kiwara, Angwara Dennis
    Department of Development Studies, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Perceptions about the cultural practices of male partners during postpartum care in rural Tanzania: a qualitative study2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, no 1, 1361184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Men play an important role in maternal health. The postpartum period is a critical stage, yet there is a scarcity of research that explores men's involvement during this stage.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to explore male partners' perceptions of the cultural practices during postpartum care in rural Tanzania.

    Methods: Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted with 93 men, with an age range of 19-65 years, in August 2013. The study was conducted in the Kongwa District, located in the Dodoma region in central Tanzania. Qualitative data were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis.

    Results: Four categories emerged, namely: 'Men as providers and, occasionally, care takers', 'Men as decision makers', 'Diverse perceptions of sexual abstinence' and 'Barriers for men in using/accompanying partners to use reproductive and child healthcare services'. The crosscategory theme 'Men during postpartum: remaining powerful but excluded' refers to how men are in a powerful position above women in different aspects of life. Elderly women played an important role in caring for postpartum mothers and their newborns, but men were the ones making the final decision about where to seek care. Traditional practices isolated men from their partners for a certain period, and enforced sexual abstinence for the women during the postpartum period. However, cultural norms permitted men to engage in extramarital relations. Reproductive and child healthcare services were perceived by men as not welcoming the male partners, and local gender norms discouraged men from accompanying their partners to seek services.

    Conclusions: In this study, we found that men perceived their role during the postpartum period as financial providers, decision makers and, occasionally, care givers. Men also held diverse perceptions with regard to sexual abstinence and felt excluded from participating in maternal healthcare services.

  • Lopez, Ignacio
    et al.
    Tournillon, Anne-Sophie
    Martins, Rodrigo Prado
    Karakostis, Konstantinos
    Malbert-Colas, Laurence
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. Équipe Labellisée Ligue Contre le Cancer, Université Paris 7, INSERM UMR 1162 ‘Génomique Fonctionnelle des Tumeurs Solides’, Paris, France ; RECAMO, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.
    p53-mediated suppression of BiP triggers BIK-induced apoptosis during prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress2017In: Cell Death and Differentiation, ISSN 1350-9047, E-ISSN 1476-5403, Vol. 24, no 10, 1717-1729 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physiological and pathological conditions that affect the folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provoke ER stress and trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR aims to either restore the balance between newly synthesized and misfolded proteins or if the damage is severe, to trigger cell death. However, the molecular events underlying the switch between repair and cell death are not well understood. The ER-resident chaperone BiP governs the UPR by sensing misfolded proteins and thereby releasing and activating the three mediators of the UPR: PERK, IRE1 and ATF6. PERK promotes G2 cell cycle arrest and cellular repair by inducing the alternative translated p53 isoform p53.N40 (p53/47), which activates 14-3-3 sigma via suppression of p21(CDKN1A). Here we show that prolonged ER stress promotes apoptosis via a p53-dependent inhibition of BiP expression. This leads to the release of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only BIK from BiP and activation of apoptosis. Suppression of bip mRNA translation is mediated via the specific binding of p53 to the first 346-nt of the bip mRNA and via a p53 trans-suppression domain located within the first seven N-terminal amino acids of p53 Delta N40. This work shows how p53 targets BiP to promote apoptosis during severe ER stress and further illustrates how regulation of mRNA translation has a key role in p53-mediated regulation of gene expression during the UPR.

  • Lehto, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Varför frigörelse för djuren?: En jämförande analys mellan Lewis Gompertz och Peter Singers djuretiska tänkande2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines differences and similarities in how two animal ethicists living in different times have argued for a liberation of the animals, the basis for the study is Lewis Gompertz Moral Inquiries: On the Situation of Man and of Brutes (1824) and Peter Singers Animal Liberation (1975). The analysis has been conducted with a historical perspective where close reading and contextualization have been used to further understand both the sources and the authors. The investigation is limited to four themes: animal's ability to experience, to kill animals, using animals and products of animals, and finally the idea of equality.

    The study concludes that there are significant similarities between the arguments Gompertz and Singer use, and that their ideas are rooted in a view of equality where the ability to suffer and have needs should be fundamental for our moral caring towards other creatures. A significant difference between the authors is their relationship to reason, where Gompertz highlights the animals' ability to reason as a cause to treat them well while Singer dismisses the idea that such abilities are of any interest for our moral considerations. The study also points out that the differences in the authors' conclusions and arguments can be understood on the basis of the scientific and intellectual context they operate in, where Gompertz can be described as an enlightenment philosopher with a strong belief in the developable reason within creatures, while the modern-day philosopher Singer rather sees reason as excluding, not only of animals but also of human beings. For animals to be liberated from man's oppression, both writers argue that it is necessary for man to eat a vegetarian diet.

  • Milan, Manuela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, E. Mach Foundation-Istituto Agrario di San Michele all’Adige, S. Michele All’Adige, Trento, Italy.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tolotti, Monica
    Szeroczynska, Krystyna
    Effects of long term nutrient and climate variability on subfossil Cladocera in a deep, subalpine lake (Lake Garda, northern Italy)2017In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 58, no 3, 335-351 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Albeit subfossil Cladocera remains are considered as a reliable proxy for tracking historical lake development, they have been scarcely studied in large subalpine lakes south of the Alps. In this study, subfossil Cladocera remains from Lake Garda in northern Italy were analyzed to track the lake's environmental changes since the Middle Ages. One core was retrieved from the largest sub-basin of Lake Garda (Brenzone, 350 m deep) and two cores were retrieved from the profundal and littoral zone of the smaller lake sub-basin (Bardolino, 80 and 40 m deep, respectively). The species distribution of Cladocera remains in recent sediment layers was similar to that observed in contemporary water samples. The deepest sections of the three cores were characterized by species sensitive to water temperature, which suggest a key role of major climatic events in driving the lake response during the late Holocene. The most evident change in Cladocera assemblages in the studied cores was observed during the 1960s, when planktonic taxa such as Daphnia spp. and Bosmina spp. became dominant at the expense of littoral taxa. Despite the highly coherent general pattern of subfossil Cladocera, the cores showed a set of minor differences, which were attributed to different morphological and hydrological features of the two basins forming Lake Garda. Multivariate analysis revealed a clear relation of Cladocera to climate variability during periods of low lake nutrient levels (i.e. before the 1960s). This provides additional information on past ecological responses of Lake Garda, as contrast previous data from subfossil diatom and pigment analyses did not fully capture effects of climate change during the same period. Since the 1960s shifts in assemblage composition of Cladocera and diatoms were highly coherent, in response to nutrient increase and the following, less pronounced, decrease in nutrient concentrations. During the last five decades, the response of the Cladocera to climate variability appeared to be masked by nutrient change. This work points up the potential of the multi-proxy approach for disentangling the multifaceted biological responses to multiple environmental stressors in large and deep lakes.

  • Söderstedt, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    A Ground for Moral Standing2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of moral standing applies to those who are of a direct moral concern, i.e. we have a reason to directly include those with a moral standing in our moral deliberation- they matter for themselves. How one accounts for the concept in question is controversial and thus there are several different accounts that one can consult when pondering what content the concept ought to have. This paper investigates the plausibility of some of the most influential accounts of moral standing, concluding that they, as they stand alone, are insufficient. Instead an alternative account of moral standing with a kantian foundation is offered, an account which is heavily based on Christine Korsgaard’s notion of final goods, with moral standing understood as a comparative concept as its distinguishing component.

  • Hedtjärn, Jonathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vad som sägs och inte sägs med metaforer: Ett försvar av relevansteorins redogörelse för metaforer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Wettström, Rune
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kan vi tro på kvalia?: En granskning av Amy Kinds underkännande av transparenstesen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis Amy Kind’s argument for qualia realism is scrutinized. In the paper from 2008, “How to Believe in Qualia”, she claims that the transparency thesis pose a threat to qualia realism. A major part of this thesis therefore deals with investigating her refutation of the transparency thesis. The thesis gives her some, but not fully, conclusive support and consequently gives some support for qualia realism. The thesis also sets out other arguments against the transparency thesis, arguments which however pose a threat to qualia realism.

  • Petersson, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Droger och etiska perspektiv på individen: En genomgång av argument och ett förslag på en kompromiss2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The question of drug policy is a controversial and much debated issue in the political sphere. It is my view that any judicial policy has to be based in an ethical idea about the individual, and that the connection and analysis between ethical perspectives on the individual and the enforcing of laws with regards to the actions of individuals has to be a well-established one. In this paper I will start from the assumption that this is not the case when it comes to drug laws, and I will therefore review two popular ethical theories about the individual, and then argue that philosophical liberalism, rather than communitarianism, is the superior ethical theory because of the inherent problems of relativism within communitarianism. I will then review some common arguments for and against the prohibition of drugs, to see how well they will fare, in terms of being compatible with philosophical liberalism. I will then return to communitarianism to look at its most valuable critique of the liberal position, to then offer a compromise position between the two theories that is fully compatible with philosophical liberalism, but that also takes into account the most valuable objection from communitarianism. It is my hope that the solution I offer will be grounded in ethical theories about the individual, and in fact, manages to be based in philosophical liberalism while also incorporating the strongest objection from the communitarianist position, thereby taking the strengths offered by both theories into account.

  • Eriksson, Ann-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mening i livet - vem bryr sig?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ölund, Zandalee
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Prästernas hållning till de kyrkliga reglerna under senmedeltiden.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • G.Eriksson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    NIR-spektroskopi i arkeologisk kontext: En tvärvetenskaplig studie av neolitikum och bronsålder i Västerbottens skogs och förfjällsområde2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. The goal of this case study is to further the understanding of the social and economic structure, such as trade routes and/or prehistoric man’s movement, during prehistory in the inland of Västerbotten, Sweden. This is achieved by studying the sets of lithic tools found in six archaeological sites (RAÄ 977:1 Vilhelmina, RAÄ 553:1 Vilhelmina, RAÄ 132:1 Vilhelmina, RAÄ 519:1 Vilhelmina, RAÄ 399:1 Vilhelmina och RAÄ 129:1 Åsele) using NIR-spectroscopic (Near InfraRed-spectroscopy), statistical and archaeological methods. By using PCA-models (Principal Component Analysis-models) and the classification method SIMCA (Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogies) on NIR-spectroscopic data collected over the course of this study, it was possible to show signs that prehistoric man in the studied area, might have deposited quartzite materials, not naturally occurring at the RAÄ 519:1 Vilhelmina, Sweden, site. Four geographic areas (the vicinity of the sea Vojm, the North and South part of the sea Malgomaj and the vicinity of the Southwest part of the Ångerman river in the studied area) could also be shown to display distinct patterns in the PCA-models, related to the use of particular combinations of quartzites. These findings lead to the conclusion that prehistoric man in this area, typically used locally available materials for toolmaking. Furthermore, this study resulted in a large NIR-spectroscopic dataset from the archaeological sites that makes up the main material for this study, that may be beneficial to future NIR-spectroscopic studies in archaeology and/or further studies of NIR-spectroscopy applied to lithic materials.

  • Eriksson, Love
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bergartsredskap i Västerbottens län: En sammanställning och studie om bergartsyxor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the often-overlooked stone axes in northern Sweden, a subject which in scientific texts has been touched upon but never been in focus. To fill this knowledge gap the stone axes of Västerbotten county have been summarised and analysed in combination with other stone tools such as clubs and chisels with the aim to expand the basic knowledge of stone tools found in Västerbotten.

  • Surowiec, Izabella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik
    Sartorius Stedim Data Analytics AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Torell, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Idborg, Helena
    Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Per-Johan
    Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Sartorius Stedim Data Analytics AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Multivariate strategy for the sample selection and integration of multi-batch data in metabolomics2017In: Metabolomics, ISSN 1573-3882, E-ISSN 1573-3890, Vol. 13, no 10, 114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Availability of large cohorts of samples with related metadata provides scientists with extensive material for studies. At the same time, recent development of modern high-throughput 'omics' technologies, including metabolomics, has resulted in the potential for analysis of large sample sizes. Representative subset selection becomes critical for selection of samples from bigger cohorts and their division into analytical batches. This especially holds true when relative quantification of compound levels is used.

    Objectives We present a multivariate strategy for representative sample selection and integration of results from multi-batch experiments in metabolomics.

    Methods Multivariate characterization was applied for design of experiment based sample selection and subsequent subdivision into four analytical batches which were analyzed on different days by metabolomics profiling using gas-chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). For each batch OPLS-DA (R) was used and its p(corr) vectors were averaged to obtain combined metabolic profile. Jackknifed standard errors were used to calculate confidence intervals for each metabolite in the average p(corr) profile.

    Results A combined, representative metabolic profile describing differences between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and controls was obtained and used for elucidation of metabolic pathways that could be disturbed in SLE.

    Conclusion Design of experiment based representative sample selection ensured diversity and minimized bias that could be introduced at this step. Combined metabolic profile enabled unified analysis and interpretation.

  • Ulfsparre, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kommunal skolbiblioteksutveckling i professionell samverkan: En praktisk diskursanalys med fallstudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker skolbibliotekens förutsättningar på kommunal nivå genom att använda sig av flera teoretiska och metodologiska angreppssätt. Särskilt central är frågan om varför relativt få elever har tillgång till skolbibliotek, trots att deras rätt till detta har varit lagstadgad sedan 2011.

    Uppsatsen vilar dels på en kulturanalys och dels på en fallstudie av ett projektarbete i Kiruna kommun där målet var att ta fram en skolbiblioteksmodell för samverkan mellan det kommunala biblioteket och skolan. Kulturanalysens kärna utgörs av en diskursanalys av skolbibliotekens kontext och villkor utifrån tre aktörer som är centrala i arbetet med skolbiblioteksutveckling på kommunal nivå: Skolan; Biblioteket; Kommunpolitiken. Fallstudien syftar till att ta vara på den kunskapsutveckling och det teoretiska arbetet utfördes i samband med projektarbetet, samt att utgöra en konkret bas för en vidare analys av skolbibliotekens villkor. Uppsatsens grundantagande är att även om diskursiva skillnader och strider kan vara till fördel för en verksamhets utveckling måste det finnas tillräckliga kontaktytor aktörerna emellan för att en verksamhet alls ska vara möjlig. Utifrån detta undersöks hinder och möjligheter för att detta ska ske.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar uppsatsen på att skolbibliotekens utveckling är beroende av en komplicerad dynamik. En skolbiblioteksutveckling av det slag som förespråkas av bibliotekssfären – i enlighet med enligt skolans värden ”beprövad erfarenhet och vetenskaplig grund” – innebär ur skolans perspektiv en omfattande omställning i förhållande till nuvarande föreställningar om skolbibliotekets verksamhet. Tillsammans med ekonomiska faktorer påverkar därför organisationskulturella faktorer och förkunskaper förutsättningarna för skolbibliotekens utveckling. Det finns därför behov av breda fortbildningsinsatser gentemot skolan, tvärvetenskaplig forskning om skolbibliotek samt motsvarande inslag i lärarutbildningen.

    Det går även att se ett behov av att biblioteksfältet ytterligare etablerar sig som profession. Slutligen är det av vikt att förr snarare än senare upprätta ramar för evidensbaserad och integrerad skolbiblioteksverksamhet där skol- och biblioteksprofessionerna kan mötas i praktiskt samarbete – snarare än att låta skolbiblioteksdiskursen fastna i logistik, isolerade (till skillnad från integrerade) biblioteksinsatser eller ett sökande efter konsensus i resonemang om den ideala innebörden i begreppet ”skolbibliotek”.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-20 09:00 Aulan, Umeå
    Stecksén, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Stroke thrombolysis on equal terms?: implementation and ADL outcome2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke thrombolysis is a method for restoring cerebral blood flow after ischemic stroke, with high priority in the Swedish national guidelines. implementation of stroke thrombolysis in Swedish routine stroke care has shown marked differences between demographic groups, hospital types, and regions. The general aim of this thesis were to examine the implementation of ischemic stroke thrombolysis in Swedish routine stroke care with an equity perspective; to gain more insight into the factors that influence implementation, how the treatment has reached patient groups, and differences in long-term outcomes between women and men. Analysis of data from research interviews with clinicians working within stroke care displayed that the facilitators of and barriers to the implementation of stroke thrombolysis could broadly be categorized into those related to individuals, to social interactions and context, and to organizational and resource issues. Key facilitating factors expressed in interviews were work pride and motivation, good leadership, involvement of all staff members in the implementation process, and quality assurance. Major barriers concerned lack of competence and experience, outdated attitudes regarding stroke management, counterproductive power structures, lack of continuity, and insufficient human resources. National quality register data displayed that stroke thrombolysis treatment expanded to reach more patients with mild deficits. Groups with higher education were more likely to receive treatment, compared to groups with lower educational level. These education group differences have, however, decreased over time in relative terms, but not in absolute terms. Further, there were considerable between-hospitals differences in treatment rates for patients with milder deficits, associated with hospital’s overall stroke thrombolysis rates. Moreover, larger non-university hospitals displayed treatment rate differences between educational groups that were not attributable to patient characteristics. Among thrombolysis-treated women and men, that was independent in ADL before their stroke and survived the first year post-stroke, women experienced higher probability to be dependent in ADL at both 3 and 12 months post-stroke, compared to men. This difference remained significant despite comprehensive adjustments for individual characteristics, symptom severity, and acute effects from stroke thrombolysis.

    This thesis displays that clinicians face barriers and facilitators at several levels, suggesting implementation interventions could be targeted towards both the individual-, the social interactions and context-, and also the organisation and available resources level. Assurance of clinicians’ individual competence, peer support, and clinical leadership seem to be important areas to intervene. Stroke thrombolysis rates have expanded over time, and an increase in stroke thrombolysis delivery to patients with mild stroke symptoms has contributed to this increase. However, it seems considerable differences between hospitals inhibit equity of care delivery. Further, socioeconomically disadvantaged groups receive less often stroke thrombolysis. Type of hospital seems to play a role, yet the reasons for this difference are not fully understood. This thesis also display that stroke thrombolysis-treated women that survive 1 year after stroke, appears to face higher risk for dependency in ADL, compared to men.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-20 13:00 N430, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå
    Åberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Biomass conversion through syngas-based biorefineries: thermochemical process integration opportunities2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The replacement of fossil resources through renewable alternatives is one way to mitigate global climate change. Biomass is the only renewable source of carbon available for replacing oil as a refining feedstock. Therefore, it needs to be utilized not just as a fuel but for both biochemical and thermochemical conversion through biorefining. Optimizing and combining various conversion processes using a system perspective to maximize the valorization, biomass usage, and environmental benefits is of importance. This thesis work has evaluated the integration opportunities for various thermochemical conversion processes within a biorefinery system.

    The aim for all evaluated concepts were syngas production through gasification or reforming. Two potential residue streams from an existing biorefinery were evaluated as gasification feedstocks, thereby combining biochemical and thermochemical conversion. Torrefaction as a biomass pretreatment for gasification end-use was evaluated based on improved feedstock characteristics, process benefits, and integration aspects. A system concept, “Bio2Fuels”, was suggested and evaluated for low-temperature slow pyrolysis as a way to achieve simultaneous biomass refinement and transport driven CO2 negativity.

    Syngas was identified as a very suitable intermediate product for residue streams from biochemical conversion. Resulting syngas composition and quality showed hydrolysis residue as suitable gasification feedstock, providing some adjustments in the feedstock preparation. Gasification combined with torrefaction pretreatment demonstrated reduced syngas tar content. The co-gasification of biogas and wood in a FBG was successfully demonstrated with increased syngas H2/CO ratio compared to wood gasification, however high temperatures (≥1000°C) were required for efficient CH4 conversion. The demonstrated improved feedstock characteristics for torrefied biomass may facilitate gasification of biomass residue feedstocks in a biorefinery. Also, integration of a torrefaction unit on-site at the biorefinery or off-site with other industries could make use of excess low-value heat for the drying step with improved overall thermal efficiency. The Bio2Fuels concept provides a new application for slow pyrolysis. The experimental evaluation demonstrated significant hydrogen and carbon separation, and no significant volatilization of ash-forming elements (S and Cl excluded)  in low-temperature (<400°C) pyrolysis. The initial reforming test showed high syngas CH4 content, indicating the need for catalytic reforming.

    The collective results from the present work indicate that the application of thermochemical conversion processes into a biorefinery system, making use of by-products from biochemical conversion and biomass residues as feedstocks, has significant potential for energy integration, increased product output, and climate change mitigation.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-20 09:00 Sal 135, By 9A, Umeå
    Diderichsen, Saima
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    It's just a job: a new generation of physicians dealing with career and work ideals2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today, women constitute about half of medical students. However, women are still underrepresented in prestigious specialties such as surgery. Some suggest that this could be explained by women being more oriented towards work-life balance.

    Aim: The overall aim of this dissertation was to explore aspects of gender in work-life priorities, career plans, clinical experiences and negotiations of professional ideals among medical students and newly graduated doctors, all in a Swedish setting.

    Method: We based the analysis on data from two different sources: an extensive questionnaire exploring gender and career plans among medical students (paper I-III) and interviews with newly graduated doctors (study IV).

    In paper I, four classes of first- and final-year medical (N=507, response rate 85%) answered an open-ended question about their future life, 60% were women. We conducted a mixed methods design where we analyzed the answers qualitatively to create categories that could be analyzed quantitatively in the second stage.

    In paper II, five classes of final-year medical students  were included (N = 372, response rate 89%), and 58% were women. We studied their specialty preference and how they rated the impact that the motivational factors had for their choice. In order to evaluate the independent impact of each motivational factor for specialty preference, we used logistic regression.

    In paper III, final-year medical students answered two open-ended questions: “Can you recall an event that made you interested of working with a certain specialty?” and “Can you recall an event that made you uninterested of working with a certain specialty?”. The response rate was 62% (N = 250),  and 58% were women. The analysis was similar to paper I, but here we focused on the qualitative results.

    In paper IV, thematic interviews were conducted in 2014 and 2015. We made a purposeful sampling of 15 junior doctors, including nine women and six men from eight different hospitals. Data collection and analysis was inspired by constructivist grounded theory methodology.

    Results: When looking at the work-life priorities of medical students and junior doctors it is clear that both men and women want more to life than work in their ideal future. The junior doctors renounced fully devoted and loyal ideal and presented a self-narrative where family and leisure was important to cope and stay empathic throughout their professional lives.

    The specialty preferences and the highly rated motives for choosing them were relatively gender neutral. However, the gender neutrality came to an end when the final-year medical students described clinical experiences that affected their specialty preference. Women were more often deterred by workplace cultures, whereas men were more often deterred by knowledge area, suggesting that it is a male privilege to choose a specialty according to interest.

    Among the newly graduated doctors, another male privilege seemed to be that men were able to pass more swiftly as real doctors, whereas the women experienced more dissonance between their self-understanding and being perceived as more junior and self-doubting.

    Conclusions: The career plans and work-life priorities of doctors-to-be were relatively gender neutral. Both female and male doctors, intended to balance work not only with a family but also with leisure. This challenges the health care system to establish more adaptive and flexible work conditions.

    Gender segregation in specialty choice is not the result of gender-dichotomized specialty preferences starting in medical school. This calls for a re-evaluation of the understanding where gender is seen as a mere background characteristic, priming women and men for different specialties. 

  • Klarbring, Anders
    et al.
    Torstenfelt, Bo
    Hansbo, Peter
    Larson, Mats G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Optimal design of fibre reinforced membrane structures2017In: Structural and multidisciplinary optimization (Print), ISSN 1615-147X, E-ISSN 1615-1488, Vol. 56, no 4, 781-789 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A design problem of finding an optimally stiff membrane structure by selecting one-dimensional fiber reinforcements is formulated and solved. The membrane model is derived in a novel manner from a particular three-dimensional linear elastic orthotropic model by appropriate assumptions. The design problem is given in the form of two minimization statements. After finite element discretization, the separate treatment of each of the two statements follows from classical results and methods of structural optimization: the stiffest orientation of reinforcing fibers coincides with principal stresses and the separate selection of density of fibers is a convex problem that can be solved by optimality criteria iterations. Numerical solutions are shown for two particular configurations. The first for a statically determined structure and the second for a statically undetermined one. The latter shows related but non-unique solutions.