umu.sePublications
12345 51 - 100 of 202
rss atomLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Macura, Biljana
    et al.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Airoldi, Laura
    Eriksson, Britas Klemens
    Rudstam, Lars
    Stottrup, Josianne G.
    Impact of structural habitat modifications in coastal temperate systems on fish recruitment: a systematic review2019In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Shallow nearshore marine ecosystems are changing at an increasing rate due to a range of human activities such as urbanisation and commercial development. As a result, an increasing number of structural modifications occur in coastal nursery and spawning habitats of fish. Concomitant to this increase, there have been declines in many coastal fish populations and changes in the composition of fish communities. As requested by Swedish stakeholders, this review aimed to synthesise scientific evidence of the impact on fish recruitment of structural modifications in temperate coastal areas.

    Methods: We searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature on such impacts in English, Dutch, Danish, Finnish, German, Swedish and Spanish. Searches were performed in bibliographic databases, specialist websites, bibliographies of review articles. We also contacted stakeholder to find relevant literature. Eligible studies included small- and large-scale field studies in marine systems and large lakes (> 10,000 km(2)) in temperate regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Included replicated comparisons of fish recruitment between altered and unaltered control areas, comparisons before and after an alteration, or both. Relevant outcomes (response variables) included measures of recruitment defined as abundance of juvenile fish in coastal habitats. All fish species were considered. Articles were screened for eligibility by title, abstract and full text. Eligible studies were critically appraised based on their external and internal validity. From each eligible study of sufficient validity, we extracted information on study design, measured outcomes, exposure, type of comparator, effect modifiers and study findings. Study findings were synthesised narratively.

    Results: We searched for eligible studies in 15 databases, 24 specialist websites, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of 11 review articles. The review finally included 37 studies that were eligible and of sufficient validity to be considered for final synthesis. Most studies (23 of 37) were from the Northern Hemisphere. Studies varied in design, spatial resolution, target fish species, and type of structural habitat change. This high level of variation did not allow for a quantitative synthesis and prevented us from drawing general conclusions on the impact of structures or structural modifications on fish recruitment. In this review we provide a narrative synthesis of the evidence base and classify eligible studies into six categories (based on type of exposure and comparator). The categories are as follows: the impacts on fish recruitment of: (1) artificial structures in coastal areas, (2) structures designed as fish attractors, (3) large scale urban sprawl, (4) 'novel' habitats, (5) habitat loss, and (6) restoration.

    Conclusions: This review revealed a very limited evidence base for how structural modifications and marine urban sprawl can affect fish recruitment. Thus, there is a substantial mismatch between stakeholder needs and research evidence. Further, the impact and ecological performance of artificial structures depend both on context and species. Clearly, there is a need for more research on the subject, especially on long-term consequences at larger spatial scales.

  • Abraha, Atakelti
    et al.
    Myléus, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Institute of Applied Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Kahsay, Asmelash
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health (IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effects of maternal and child HIV infection on health equity in Tigray Region, Ethiopia, and the implications for the health system: a case-control study2019In: AIDS Care, ISSN 0954-0121, E-ISSN 1360-0451, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Services that aim to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) can simultaneously reduce the overall impact of HIV infection in a population while also improving maternal and child health outcomes. By taking a health equity perspective, this retrospective case control study aimed to compare the health status of under-5 children born to HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Two hundred and thirteen HIV-positive women (cases), and 214 HIV-negative women (controls) participated through interviews regarding their oldest children. Of the children born to HIV-positive mothers, 24% had not been tested, and 17% of those who had been tested were HIV-positive themselves. Only 29% of the HIV-positive children were linked to an ART programme. Unexpectedly, exposed HIV-negative children had fewer reports of perceived poor health as compared to unexposed children. Over 90% of all the children, regardless of maternal HIV status, were breastfed and up-to-date with the recommended immunizations. The high rate of HIV infection among the babies of HIV-positive women along with their low rates of antiretroviral treatment raises serious concerns about the quality of outreach to pregnant women in Tigray Region, and of the follow-up for children who have been exposed to HIV via their mothers.

  • Byass, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nurturing Global Health Action through its first decade2019In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1569847Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Walker, Emily V.
    et al.
    Davis, Faith G.
    Shaw, Amanda
    Louchini, Rabia
    Shack, Lorrains
    Woods, Ryan
    Kruchko, Carol
    Spinelli, John
    Guiot, Marie-Christine
    Perry, James
    Melin, Beatrice S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill
    Turner, Donna
    King, MaryJane
    Hannah, Heather
    Bryant, Heather
    Malignant primary brain and other central nervous system tumors diagnosed in Canada from 2009 to 20132019In: Neuro-Oncology, ISSN 1522-8517, E-ISSN 1523-5866, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 360-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We present a national surveillance report on malignant primary brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors diagnosed in the Canadian population in 2009–2013.

    Methods: Patients were identified through the Canadian Cancer Registry, an administrative dataset that includes cancer incidence data from all provinces/territories in Canada. Tumor types were classified by site and histology using the definitions from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS). Incidence rates (IRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated per 100000 person-years (py) and age-standardized to the 2011 Canadian population for comparisons within Canada and to the 2000 United States population for comparisons with the US.

    Results: Overall, 12515 malignant brain and other CNS tumors were diagnosed in the Canadian population in 2009–2013 (IR: 8.71/100000 py; 95% CI: 8.56, 8.86); 7085 were among males (IR: 10.06/100000 py; 95% CI: 9.82, 10.29) and 5430 among females (IR: 7.41/100000 py; 95% CI: 7.22, 7.61). Of these, 12115 were classifiable according to histological subgroups defined by CBTRUS. The most common histology was glioblastoma (IR: 4.06/100000 py; 95% CI: 3.95, 4.16). Among those aged 0–19 years, 1130 malignant brain and CNS tumors were diagnosed in 2009–2013 (IR: 3.36/100000 py; 95% CI: 3.16, 3.56). The most common histology among the pediatric population was embryonal tumor (IR: 0.74/100000 py; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.84).

    Conclusions: These data represent an initial detailed report on the frequency and distribution of primary malignant brain and other CNS tumors diagnosed in the Canadian population in 2009–2013. The reported distributions of tumor diagnoses by sex and age reflected expected patterns based on the literature from similar populations. A report incorporating data on nonmalignant primary brain tumors is forthcoming.

  • Hitimana, Regis
    et al.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Mogren, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Nzayirambaho, Manasse
    Semasaka Sengoma, Jean Paul
    Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Incremental cost and health gains of the 2016 WHO antenatal care recommendations for Rwanda: results from expert elicitation2019In: Health Research Policy and Systems, ISSN 1478-4505, E-ISSN 1478-4505, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: High-quality evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is rarely available and relevant for health policy decisions in low-resource settings. In such situations, innovative approaches are needed to generate locally relevant evidence. This study aims to inform decision-making on antenatal care (ANC) recommendations in Rwanda by estimating the incremental cost-effectiveness of the recent (2016) WHO antenatal care recommendations compared to current practice in Rwanda.

    METHODS: Two health outcome scenarios (optimistic, pessimistic) in terms of expected maternal and perinatal mortality reduction were constructed using expert elicitation with gynaecologists/obstetricians currently practicing in Rwanda. Three costing scenarios were constructed from the societal perspective over a 1-year period. The two main inputs to the cost analyses were a Monte Carlo simulation of the distribution of ANC attendance for a hypothetical cohort of 373,679 women and unit cost estimation of the new recommendations using data from a recent primary costing study of current ANC practice in Rwanda. Results were reported in 2015 USD and compared with the 2015 Rwandan per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 697).

    RESULTS: Incremental health gains were estimated as 162,509 life-years saved (LYS) in the optimistic scenario and 65,366 LYS in the pessimistic scenario. Incremental cost ranged between $5.8 and $11 million (an increase of 42% and 79%, respectively, compared to current practice) across the costing scenarios. In the optimistic outcome scenario, incremental cost per LYS ranged between $36 (for low ANC attendance) and $67 (high ANC attendance), while in the pessimistic outcome scenario, it ranged between $90 (low ANC attendance) and $168 (high ANC attendance) per LYS. Incremental cost effectiveness was below the GDP-based thresholds in all six scenarios.

    DISCUSSION: Implementing the new WHO ANC recommendations in Rwanda would likely be very cost-effective; however, the additional resource requirements are substantial. This study demonstrates how expert elicitation combined with other data can provide an affordable source of locally relevant evidence for health policy decisions in low-resource settings.

  • Sirili, Nathanael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Development Studies, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Frumence, Gasto
    Kiwara, Angwara
    Mwangu, Mughwira
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    "Doctors ready to be posted are jobless on the street…" the deployment process and shortage of doctors in Tanzania.2019In: Human Resources for Health, ISSN 1478-4491, E-ISSN 1478-4491, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization advocates that health workforce development is a continuum of three stages of entry, available workforce and exit. However, many studies have focused on addressing the shortage of numbers and the retention of doctors in rural and remote areas. The latter has left the contribution of the entry stage in particularly the deployment process on the shortage of health workforce less understood. This study therefore explored the experiences of medical doctors (MDs) on the deployment process after the internship period in Tanzania's health sector.

    METHODS: A qualitative case study that adopted chain referral sampling was used to conduct 20 key informant interviews with MDs who graduated between 2003 and 2009 from two Medical Universities in Tanzania between February and April 2016. These MDs were working in hospitals at different levels and Medical Universities in eight regions and five geo-political zones in the country. Information gathered was analysed using a qualitative content analysis approach.

    RESULTS: Experiences on the deployment process fall into three categories. First, "uncertainties around the first appointment" attributed to lack of effective strategies for identification of the pool of available MDs, indecision and limited vacancies for employment in the public sector and private sector and non-transparent and lengthy bureaucratic procedures in offering government employment. Second, "failure to respect individuals' preferences of work location" which were based on the influence of family ties, fear of the unknown rural environment among urbanized MDs and concern for career prospects. Third, "feelings of insecurity about being placed at a regional and district level" partly due to local government authorities being unprepared to receive and accommodate MDs and territorial protectionism among assistant medical officers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Experiences of MDs on the deployment process in Tanzania reveal many challenges that need to be addressed for the deployment to contribute better in availability of equitably distributed health workforce in the country. Short-term, mid-term and long-term strategies are needed to address these challenges. These strategies should focus on linking of the internship with the first appointment, work place preferences, defining and supporting career paths to health workers working under the local government authorities, improving the working relationships and team building at the work places and fostering rural attachment to medical students during medical training.

  • Gonsalves, Allison J.
    et al.
    Faculty of Education, McGill University, Canada.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    “It’s not my dream, actually”: students’ identity work across figured worlds of construction engineering in Sweden2019In: International Journal for STEM education, E-ISSN 2196-7822, Vol. 6, no 13, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research in engineering education has pointed to the need for new engineers to develop a broader skillsetwith an emphasis on “softer” social skills. However, there remains strong tensions in the identity work that engineersmust engage in to balance the technical demands of the discipline with the new emphasis on heterogeneous skills(Faulkner, Social Studies of Science 37:331–356, 2007). This study explores how three unconventional students experiencethese tensions in the final year of their construction engineering program, and as they move in and out of workplacefield experiences.Results: Using a figured worlds framework (Holland et al., Identity and agency in cultural worlds, 1998), we explore thedominant subject positions for students in construction engineering classroom and workplaces in a 3-year Swedishengineering program. Results demonstrate that dominant subject positions for construction engineers can troublestudents’ identity work as they move across classroom and workplace settings.Conclusions: This study expands our knowledge of the complexity of students’ identity work across classroom andworkplace settings. The emergence of classroom and workplace masculinities that shape the dominant subject positionsavailable to students are shown to trouble the identity work that students engage in as they move across these learningspaces. We examine students’ identity strategies that contribute to their persistence through the field. Finally, we discussimplications for teaching and research in light of students’ movements across these educational contexts.

  • Public defence: 2019-05-17 12:30 N420, Umeå
    Sidenvall, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Lösa problem: om elevers förutsättningar att lösa problem och hur lärare kan stödja processen2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In mathematics education, there is generally too much emphasis on rote learning and superficial reasoning. If learning is mostly done by rote and imitation, important mathematical competencies such as problem-solving, reasoning, and conceptual understanding are not developed. Previous research has shown that students who work with problems (i.e. constructs a new solution method to a task), to a greater extent increase their mathematical understanding than students who only solve routine tasks.

    The aim of the thesis was to further understand why teaching is dominated by rote learning and imitation of procedures and investigate how opportunities for students to solve tasks through problem-solving could be improved. This was done through the following studies. (1) Investigating the relation between types of solution strategy required, used, and the rate of correct task solutions in students’ textbook task-solving. (2) Studying the relationship between students’ beliefs and choice of solution strategy when working on problems. (3) Conducting a textbook analysis of mathematics textbooks from 12 countries, to determine the proportions of tasks that could be solved by mimicking available templates and of tasks where a solution had to be constructed without guidance from the textbook. (4) Conducting a literature review in order to characterize teaching designs intended to enhance students to develop mathematical understanding through problem solving and reasoning. (5) Conducting an intervention study were a teacher guide, structured in line with central tenets of formative assessment, was developed, tested, and evaluated in real classroom settings. The teacher guide was designed to support teachers in their support of students’ in their problem-solving process. Studies I, II and V were conducted in Swedish upper secondary school settings. 

    The students’ opportunities to solve tasks through problem-solving were limited: by the low proportion of problems among the easier tasks in the textbooks; by the students' choice of using imitative solution strategies; and by the guidance of solution methods that students received from other students and their teachers. The students’ opportunities were also limited by the students' beliefs of mathematics and the fact that a solution method of problem tasks was not always within reach for the students, based on the students' knowledge. In order to improve students’ opportunities, teachers should allow students to work with more problems in a learning environment that lets students engage in problem-solving and support students' work on problems by adapting their support to students' difficulties. The results also give implications for the construction and use of textbooks and how the use of the teacher guide could be part of teachers’ professional development and a tool that teacher students may meet within their education.

  • Critchley, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Trovärdighet - ett privilegium? Om bevisvärderingen av intellektuellt funktionsnedsatta kvinnors muntliga utsaga i våldtäktsmål.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Carlsson, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Barnets bästa i vårdnadsmål - är juridiken tillräcklig? Utifrån ett barnperspektiv och med en diskussion om huruvida terapeutisk juridik borde tillämpas som ett komplement.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Byberg, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Egendomsskyddet vid fastighetsbildning - En analys av proportionalitetsprincipens genomslag vid bildandet av vedbrandsgårdar.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Berggren, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Disappearing island states and human rights. Preservation of statehood and human rights in times of climate change.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Larsson, Olle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Kågström, Rasmus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    CROSSCHECKING ELLER MISSHANDEL?: En kritisk diskursanalys av kvällstidningars framställande av brott på ishockeyplanen.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ice hockey is seen as a rough sport. Sometimes situations tend to become too violent and

    players now and then get suspended for their acts on the ice. In very unusual cases the legal

    system has been forced to step in and prosecute players for situations on the ice. This is the

    case with Jakob Lilja. The purpose of this essay is therefore to seek answers on how two

    Swedish tabloids have framed Lilja and how the news coverage has changed during this time.

    The theory used in the study makes it possible to highlight how Lilja has been framed in the

    tabloids and it also gives the study the opportunity to further explain how Lilja has been

    portrayed. The scientific method used in this study has been a critical discourse analysis to be

    able to study the 43 articles included in the analysis in a qualitative manner. The study shows

    that the news coverage from the case has changed during the course of the time. The early

    coverage shows the framing of Lilja as an ice hockey player while the latter coverage more

    frame him as a criminal. But there are differences. The different tabloids have framed the case

    in different ways and the study shows that one of them has framed Lilja more than the other.

  • Kristofersson, Amanda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Flink, Elina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Att kommunicera en kommunikatör: Vad är en strategisk kommunikatör och vad förväntas av yrkesrollen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine what competencies are expected from a strategiccommunicator 2019, as well as how education and the work field is cooperating.Expectations on competencies regarding the strategic communication profession and thecooperation between education and work field is analyzed based upon empirical data. Thedata is conducted from a combined quantitative and qualitative online-survey withstudents at the strategic communication at Umeå University (N = 45), and semi-structuredqualitative interview with associate professor at the program for strategic communicationat Umeå University and a selection of employees from six different companies within theprivate sector. Two different Likert-scales is used for measuring collaboration andcompetencies in the online-survey. Strategic communication theory and complexity theoryare used for discussion of the analyzed data. The results show that students find the levelof collaboration between education and work field to be low (mean score falls under 3 outof 7 for all the variables). However, the majority have been in touch with companieswithin strategic communication (68 percent). Education and work field show a low levelof cooperation, but both parts want to increase the collaboration. The only competencythat is mentioned by all three parties is to be creative. Generally, for all three parties, thereis a focus on subjective characteristics rather than technical and practical ability andcompetence. There is a natural development of a higher demand on communicativeorganizations and strategic communicators must therefore practice communication in itscomplexity and leave the transmission model in order to move toward aprofessionalization. The variety of competencies required can be explained fromcomplexity theory that the strategic communicator benefits from being complex andflexible to meet the demands from a complex society. Thus, the conclusion is that theresults show a need for an increased level of communication between education and workfield.

  • Edlund, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. 9306174948.
    Blomqvist, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    PR, PÅVERKAN & PROMILLE: En kvalitativ och kritisk diskursiv jämförelseanalys av hur kommersiella och ideella organisationer konstruerar PR-kampanjer på sociala medier.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to examine the Public Relation strategies in four PR-campaigns. The objects of the study were two commercial organisations, Carlsberg and Smirnoff, and two non-governmental organisations, Addict Aide and IQ, with alcohol as the pervading subject. The study intended to compare similarities and differences, persuasion tactics and discourse themes. To accomplish the object of the study the theoretical framework of James E. Grunigs Four models of Public Relations was used. Alongside Grunig’s theory, Relationship management theory was applied to understand social media's role as a strategy in the four campaigns. The method used was a qualitative content analysis combined with a semiotic image analysis, and a critical discourse analysis. The results showed that communication that's is based in two-way communication has the biggest chance of success. The results also showed that social media plays an important part as a strategy in organizations strategic communication and Public Relations endeavors. Both in reaching the target audience, but also in maintaining beneficial relationships between the organization and its audience. The essay’s conclusions were that the audience participation has become an important strategic part in the Public Relation field with the emergence of two-way communication. As well as the fact that cultural and social practices plays an important part in the construct of organizations PR-strategies.

  • Berglund, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Framtidsfullmakter - hjälpande eller stjälpande? Förhållandet till andra typer av ställföreträdarskap och möjlig problematik.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Kejerhag, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nordgren, Shanelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Lokalmedias rapportering - ett famlande i blindo efter publiken som tyst ger sig av?: En studie om publikens och redaktionernas syn på den lokala medierapporteringen i Västerbotten och relationen mellan publik och redaktion.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis, “Local news - a fumbling in darkness after an audience that leavesquietly”, is to investigate how the local news media in Västerbotten decides what to reportabout, and what to leave out and why. It also investigates what the audience think about thenews they are being served. It looks at the relationship between the audience and the localnews media. Four different local media companies are being examined, two of them arepublic service media, the Swedish Television and the Swedish Radio. The other two arenewspapers and private owned media companies, Västerbottens-kuriren and VästerbottensFolkblad. The theories that are being used in this thesis is gatekeeping, agenda setting, localjournalism, click journalism, journalists ideal and audience studies such as uses andgratification. The methods that are used are a quantitative survey and semi-structuredinterviews. The survey is directed to audience to get a sense of what news they want and howthey look at their relationship with local news media companies. The purpose of theinterviews is to get a view of how the media companies are producing news, and how theyexperience their relationship with their audience. The study has shown that the audiencedoesn't always know what they want the news media to report about. One overall themethough was that the audience wished for more local news. The media companies have theambition to produce local news and cover the whole county but fails due to the lack ofresources. The media needs a more active audience to increase the support both in trust, butalso for their economy. Here both the media companies and the audience has a responsibilityin the question.

  • Gedankien Niemi, Hadassa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Forsberg, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Att bygga jämställt: En studie om rekryteringskommunikation mot kvinnor i en mansdominerad bransch2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for labour force in the European building industry has increased in recent years due to the constant migrations and the need to provide housing, schools and hospitals to accommodate this growing population. Due to this scenario and to governmental policies that were created to supply this need, Swedish building companies want to recruit more female employees in particular. The purpose of this case study is to investigate whether, and if so how, the building company NCC uses its external communication to strategically attract more women to the industry.

    Our research was of a qualitative nature. We analysed, with the help of a Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis approach, recruitment materials and job advertisements published on the company’s homepage, in order to demonstrate how men and women are represented in NCC’s recruitment communication and in which way the company communicates specifically to women. We have also analysed which aspects of the company’s recruitment communication were appealing to women, through focus group interviews made with female engineering students. As theoretical ground for this case study we have chosen previous research and literature in the fields of organizational communication, employer branding, decoding in communication processes, gender studies, stereotyping and gender aware recruitment.

    The findings in this study show that both men and women are represented in NCC’s recruitment communication, but that a bigger focus is placed on the visual representation of women.  NCC strategically aims at attracting women both in the way female workers are visually portrayed on the homepage but even in the wording found in the company’s recruitment texts and job advertisements. This targeted communication does not reach its full potential in terms of attractiveness to women though, perhaps due to the rather cosmetic visual representation of the company’s work environment, as well as the lack of personal connection that is made between the portrayed employees and the potential job candidates.

  • Backlund, Benjamin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    “The government is watching – don’t step on their toes”: An investigation of the press freedom and the working conditions for journalists in Tanzania2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to reports from Reporters sans frontiers and Freedom House, the freedom of the press has declined during the recent years in the sub-Saharan country Tanzania. Using the human rights reports as an entry point, this study set out to investigate the working conditions for journalists in the capital de facto of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam. An important aim was to dig deeper and show the local and culturally specific conditions. The study supports that the press freedom, as well as the working conditions have declined during the last years for the journalists in Dar es Salaam. However, the study also shows that the new laws and government measures, described by the human rights reports as reducing the press freedom, is not considered by every journalist to be negative. The challenges differ among the corps of journalists, as their values of journalism differs. The greatest denominator among the informants was the high-degree of journalistic interventionism, directed at helping the society. In some cases, this took form as a practice of development journalism. The strong connections to the local community, the country and the religious affiliations are thought to contribute to these values. For journalists in private media, the press freedom was found to be the most acute problem, while for journalists in state-owned media it was economic issues. The press freedom was connected to the perceived job autonomy, and senior journalists and journalists working for international media were found to be more autonomous. Self-censorship was used by many in the private media sector as a tool to avoid both bureaucratic harassment from government, as well as violent repercussions. The main challenges included new restricting laws, economic issues which lead to the practice of brown envelopes, the parliament being located in Dodoma, gender-issues, scared sources and the advancement of social media. Theories and earlier research evolving from the values of journalism and journalism in Africa were used as tools to understand and compare with. The results are based on fieldwork conducted during a period of two months in the beginning of 2019, with qualitative interviews held with journalists in the city of Dar es Salaam.

  • Nord Koskela, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Svensson, Theres
    Internpodden: En multimodal analys av tre podcasts avsedda för medarbetare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research conducted in ‘The Internal podcast’ aims to answer how podcast could be used for internal communication in organizations and what its weakness and strength is. The study has gathered theories such as storytelling, affordance and sensemaking and combined them into a unique framework for this study. Based on multimodal analysis we have studied three podcasts content and content design to help answer the questions of the study. The three podcasts: Kackellackan, Fast forward and Radio Samhall all have their coworkers as the primary target group. From these podcasts the study analyzed at a total of 60 episodes (20 from each podcast). The results showed that all three podcasts have different content design that suggests multiple possibilities for organizations to form the content for their own needs. Because of its intimate and close character, it also suggests a usefulness for sensemaking in organizational changes. But one of the weaknesses that the result pointed at is the lack of interaction between producer and listener, because one key part in empowerment is the possibility for feedback.  

  • Stanaway, Jeffrey D.
    et al.
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172018In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, no 10159, p. 1923-1994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk–outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improved methods, new risks and risk–outcome pairs, and new data on risk exposure levels and risk–outcome associations.

    Methods: We used the CRA framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017. This study included 476 risk–outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from 46 749 randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We explored the relationship between development and risk exposure by modelling the relationship between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and risk-weighted exposure prevalence and estimated expected levels of exposure and risk-attributable burden by SDI. Finally, we explored temporal changes in risk-attributable DALYs by decomposing those changes into six main component drivers of change as follows: (1) population growth; (2) changes in population age structures; (3) changes in exposure to environmental and occupational risks; (4) changes in exposure to behavioural risks; (5) changes in exposure to metabolic risks; and (6) changes due to all other factors, approximated as the risk-deleted death and DALY rates, where the risk-deleted rate is the rate that would be observed had we reduced the exposure levels to the TMREL for all risk factors included in GBD 2017.

    Findings: In 2017, 34·1 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 33·3–35·0) deaths and 1·21 billion (1·14–1·28) DALYs were attributable to GBD risk factors. Globally, 61·0% (59·6–62·4) of deaths and 48·3% (46·3–50·2) of DALYs were attributed to the GBD 2017 risk factors. When ranked by risk-attributable DALYs, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) was the leading risk factor, accounting for 10·4 million (9·39–11·5) deaths and 218 million (198–237) DALYs, followed by smoking (7·10 million [6·83–7·37] deaths and 182 million [173–193] DALYs), high fasting plasma glucose (6·53 million [5·23–8·23] deaths and 171 million [144–201] DALYs), high body-mass index (BMI; 4·72 million [2·99–6·70] deaths and 148 million [98·6–202] DALYs), and short gestation for birthweight (1·43 million [1·36–1·51] deaths and 139 million [131–147] DALYs). In total, risk-attributable DALYs declined by 4·9% (3·3–6·5) between 2007 and 2017. In the absence of demographic changes (ie, population growth and ageing), changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs would have led to a 23·5% decline in DALYs during that period. Conversely, in the absence of changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs, demographic changes would have led to an 18·6% increase in DALYs during that period. The ratios of observed risk exposure levels to exposure levels expected based on SDI (O/E ratios) increased globally for unsafe drinking water and household air pollution between 1990 and 2017. This result suggests that development is occurring more rapidly than are changes in the underlying risk structure in a population. Conversely, nearly universal declines in O/E ratios for smoking and alcohol use indicate that, for a given SDI, exposure to these risks is declining. In 2017, the leading Level 4 risk factor for age-standardised DALY rates was high SBP in four super-regions: central Europe, eastern Europe, and central Asia; north Africa and Middle East; south Asia; and southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania. The leading risk factor in the high-income super-region was smoking, in Latin America and Caribbean was high BMI, and in sub-Saharan Africa was unsafe sex. O/E ratios for unsafe sex in sub-Saharan Africa were notably high, and those for alcohol use in north Africa and the Middle East were notably low.

    Interpretation: By quantifying levels and trends in exposures to risk factors and the resulting disease burden, this assessment offers insight into where past policy and programme efforts might have been successful and highlights current priorities for public health action. Decreases in behavioural, environmental, and occupational risks have largely offset the effects of population growth and ageing, in relation to trends in absolute burden. Conversely, the combination of increasing metabolic risks and population ageing will probably continue to drive the increasing trends in non-communicable diseases at the global level, which presents both a public health challenge and opportunity. We see considerable spatiotemporal heterogeneity in levels of risk exposure and risk-attributable burden. Although levels of development underlie some of this heterogeneity, O/E ratios show risks for which countries are overperforming or underperforming relative to their level of development. As such, these ratios provide a benchmarking tool to help to focus local decision making. Our findings reinforce the importance of both risk exposure monitoring and epidemiological research to assess causal connections between risks and health outcomes, and they highlight the usefulness of the GBD study in synthesising data to draw comprehensive and robust conclusions that help to inform good policy and strategic health planning.

  • Klingberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Mehlig, Kirsten
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Occupational stress is associated with major long-term weight gain in a Swedish population-based cohort2019In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 569-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Occupational stress and obesity are both increasing in prevalence, but prospective findings relating these conditions are inconsistent. We investigated if baseline as well as prolonged exposure to high job demands and low decision latitude were associated with major weight gain (≥ 10% of baseline weight) in 3872 Swedish women and men examined three times over 20 years in the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Program.

    Methods: Anthropometry was measured and participants completed questionnaires on job strain, diet, and other lifestyle factors. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for confounders.

    Results: Adjusting for age, baseline low decision latitude was associated with major weight gain over 10- and 20-year OR (95% CI) 1.16 (1.00–1.33) and 1.29 (1.13–1.47), respectively (both sexes combined). After adjustment for diet quality and other confounders, the effect over 20 years remained 1.30 (1.13–1.50). Sex modified the effect of prolonged exposure to high job demands over at least 10 years (interaction p = 0.02), showing that high job demands was a risk factor of major weight gain over 20 years in women [1.54 (1.14–2.07)], but not in men [0.87 (0.63–1.19)]. Neither diet nor other lifestyle factors explained these associations.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, low decision latitude predicted major weight gain in women and men. In women, the results suggest an additional contribution to major weight gain from high job demands.

  • Durig, Wiebke
    et al.
    Tröger, Rikard
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rybacka, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fischer, Stellan
    Wiberg, Karin
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Development of a suspect screening prioritization tool for organic compounds in water and biota2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 222, p. 904-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A customizable in silico tool (SusTool) for generating high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) suspect screening lists, specifically designed for the detection of hazardous organic compounds in various environmental compartments, was created. A database consisting of similar to 32 000 environmentally relevant organic compounds was constructed, including data on their physicochemical properties, environmental fate characteristics, and endocrine disruption potential, along with emissions and quantity indices. Welldefined customized suspect lists were generated by systematic ranking using a scoring and weighting procedure. For demonstration purposes, three suspect screening lists were created, one for water (SLWater) and two for biota covering less (SLBiota Kow<5 ) or more hydrophobic chemicals (SLBiota Kow>3). Scrutiny of overlaps between compounds within these lists and the SusDat database (20 suspect lists comprising similar to 58 000 compounds compiled by the Norman network) showed that approximately half of the compounds in the three suspect lists were also listed in one of the SusDat database lists. This indicates that SusTool is able to include highly relevant emerging pollutants, but also captures other compounds of potential concern that have been less well studied or not yet investigated. Overall, our in silico prioritization approach enables systematic creation of suspect screening lists and provides new opportunities for suspect screening for environmentally relevant compounds. 

  • Bengtsson, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    En förbättrad tillgång till elektronisk bevisning - en analys av förslaget till förordningen om en europeisk utlämnandeorder för elektroniska bevis.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Cavanagh, Jorunn Pauline
    et al.
    Pain, Maria
    Askarian, Fatemeh
    Bruun, Jack-Ansgar
    Urbarova, Ilona
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Schrnidt, Frank
    Johannessen, Mona
    Comparative exoproteome profiling of an invasive and a commensal Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolate2019In: Journal of Proteomics, ISSN 1874-3919, E-ISSN 1876-7737, Vol. 197, p. 106-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a skin commensal emerging as an opportunistic pathogen. Nosocomial isolates of S. haemolyticus are the most antibiotic resistant members of the coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), but information about other S. haemolyticus virulence factors is scarce. Bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs) are one mediator of virulence by enabling secretion and long distance delivery of bacterial effector molecules while protecting the cargo from proteolytic degradation from the environment. We wanted to determine if the MV protein cargo of S. haemolyticus is strain specific and enriched in certain MV associated proteins compared to the totalsecretome.

    The present study shows that both clinical and commensal S. haemolyticus isolates produce membrane vesicles. The MV cargo of both strains was enriched in proteins involved in adhesion and acquisition of iron. The MV cargo of the clinical strain was further enriched in antimicrobial resistance proteins.

    Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD010389.

    Biological significance: Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus haemolyticus are usually multidrug resistant, their main virulence factor is formation of biofilms, both factors leading to infections that are difficult to treat. We show that both clinical and commensal S. haemolyticusisolates produce membrane vesicles. Identification of staphylococcal membrane vesicles can potentially be used in novel approaches to combat staphylococcal infections, such as development of vaccines.

  • Carstam, Louise
    et al.
    Smits, Anja
    Milos, Peter
    Corell, Alba
    Henriksson, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Bartek, Jiri, Jr.
    Jakola, Asgeir Store
    Neurosurgical patterns of care for diffuse low-grade gliomas in Sweden between 2005 and 20152019In: Neuro-Oncology Practice, ISSN 2054-2577, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the last decade, increasing evidence has evolved for early and maximal safe resection of diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGGs) regarding survival. However, changes in clinical practice are known to occur slowly and we do not know if the scientific evidence has yet resulted in changes in neurosurgical patterns of care.

    Methods: The Swedish Brain Tumor Registry was used to identify all patients with a first-time histopathological diagnosis of LGG between 2005 and 2015. For analysis of surgical treatment patterns, we subdivided assessed time periods into 2005-2008, 2009-2012, and 2013-2015. Population-based data on patient and disease characteristics, surgical management, and outcomes were extracted.

    Results: A total of 548 patients with diffuse World Health Organization grade II gliomas were identified: 142 diagnosed during 2005-2008, 244 during 2009-2012, and 162 during 2013-2015. Resection as opposed to biopsy was performed in 64.3% during 2005-2008, 74.2% during 2009-2012, and 74.1% during 2013-2015 (P = .08). There was no difference among the 3 periods regarding overall survival (P= .11). However, post hoc analysis of data from the 4 (out of 6) centers that covered all 3 time periods demonstrated a resection rate of 64.3% during 2005-2008, 77.4% during 2009-2012, and 75.4% during 2013-2015 (P = .02) and longer survival of patients diagnosed 2009 and onward (P = .04).

    Conclusion: In this nationwide, population-based study we observed a shift over time in favor of LGG resection. Further, a positive correlation between the more active surgical strategy and longer survival is shown, although no causality can be claimed because of possible confounding factors.

  • Lindberg, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lundgren, Anna Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Positioning the ageing subject: Articulations of choice in Swedish and UK health and social care2019In: Policy Studies, ISSN 0144-2872, E-ISSN 1470-1006, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What happens when similar measures are being introduced in different national contexts? This article studies the ways in which patient choice has been articulated in public and official reports on health care in the two contexts of Sweden and the UK, whose welfare systems are typically comprehended as different. Specific interest is directed towards the construction of patient positions, and policy documents are analyzed using discourse theory. The results show many similarities between the national contexts; choice is primarily articulated with individuality, autonomy, consumption, and responsibility, as well as with support from state agencies, and patient choice is relentlessly normalized as the way forward. But there are also important differences that reveal that the presuppositions differ, for example, when pinpointing the stakeholders of patient choice reforms and how the different policies work to take the well-known edges off of patient choice ideology.

  • Adjeiwaah, Mary
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Bylund, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Lundman, Josef A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Söderström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Zackrisson, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Jonsson, Joakim H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Garpebring, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Nyholm, Tufve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Dosimetric Impact of MRI Distortions: A Study on Head and Neck Cancers2019In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, ISSN 0360-3016, E-ISSN 1879-355X, Vol. 103, no 4, p. 994-1003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) geometric distortions on head and neck radiation therapy treatment planning (RTP) for an MRI-only RTP. We also assessed the potential benefits of patient-specific shimming to reduce the magnitude of MR distortions for a 3-T scanner.

    Methods and Materials: Using an in-house Matlab algorithm, shimming within entire imaging volumes and user-defined regions of interest were simulated. We deformed 21 patient computed tomography (CT) images with MR distortion fields (gradient nonlinearity and patient-induced susceptibility effects) to create distorted CT (dCT) images using bandwidths of 122 and 488 Hz/mm at 3 T. Field parameters from volumetric modulated arc therapy plans initially optimized on dCT data sets were transferred to CT data to compute a new plan. Both plans were compared to determine the impact of distortions on dose distributions.

    Results: Shimming across entire patient volumes decreased the percentage of voxels with distortions of more than 2 mm from 15.4% to 2.0%. Using the user-defined region of interest (ROI) shimming strategy, (here the Planning target volume (PTV) was the chosen ROI volume) led to increased geometric for volumes outside the PTV, as such voxels within the spinal cord with geometric shifts above 2 mm increased from 11.5% to 32.3%. The worst phantom-measured residual system distortions after 3-dimensional gradient nonlinearity correction within a radial distance of 200 mm from the isocenter was 2.17 mm. For all patients, voxels with distortion shifts of more than 2 mm resulting from patient-induced susceptibility effects were 15.4% and 0.0% using bandwidths of 122 Hz/mm and 488 Hz/mm at 3 T. Dose differences between dCT and CT treatment plans in D-50 at the planning target volume were 0.4% +/- 0.6% and 0.3% +/- 0.5% at 122 and 488 Hz/mm, respectively.

    Conclusions: The overall effect of MRI geometric distortions on data used for RTP was minimal. Shimming over entire imaging volumes decreased distortions, but user-defined subvolume shimming introduced significant errors in nearby organs and should probably be avoided.

  • Waara, Linnéa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Elevers motivation till ämnet naturkunskap: Skillnader mellan yrkesförberedande och högskoleförberedande gymnasieprogram2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningar har visat att många gymnasieelever känner sig omotiverade till sina studier – speciellt elever på yrkesförberedande program, och det är de gymnasiegemensamma ämnena som dessa elever har lägst motivation till. Denna studie har med hjälp av en enkät tagit reda på om det är någon skillnad i motivation till det gymnasiegemensamma ämnet naturkunskap mellan klasser som läser högskoleförberedande program och yrkesförberedande program. Enkäten bestod av påståenden rörande elevernas upplevda förmåga, ämnets lärovärde och lärandemiljön. Efter enkätstudien genomfördes kvalitativa intervjuer med klassernas två naturkunskapslärare för att ta reda på deras åsikter om resultatet. Enkätstudien visade att eleverna generellt sett var motiverade till ämnet naturkunskap, då de hade svarat övervägande positivt på enkäten. Elever på högskoleförberedande program var något mer positiva än elever på yrkesförberedande program i kategorierna ”upplevd förmåga” och ”ämnets lärovärde”. Svarssammanställningen för hela enkäten uppvisade inga generella könsskillnader. Båda de intervjuade lärarna menade att yrkeselevernas något mer negativa inställning till sin förmåga kunde förklaras med att de har haft det jobbigt i grundskolan därmed har med sig en mer negativ självbild när de går över till gymnasiet. De nämnde också att man kan försöka anpassa ämnet till det eleverna är intresserade av och vill lära sig mer av för att öka deras motivation. Det betyder dock nödvändigtvis inte att ämnet ska kopplas mer till deras framtida yrke.

  • Alexandersson, Maria
    et al.
    Wang, Eugen Yuhui
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy. Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Kungsgatan 41, 631 88 Eskilstuna, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Box 593, 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.
    A small difference in recovery between total knee arthroplasty with and without tourniquet use the first 3 months after surgery: a randomized controlled study2019In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 1035-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: When a tourniquet is used during surgery on the extremities, the pressure applied to the muscles, nerves and blood vessels can cause neuromuscular damage that contributes to postoperative weakness. The hypothesis was that the rehabilitation-related results would be improved if total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is performed without the use of a tourniquet.

    Methods: 81 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee who underwent TKA surgery were randomized to surgery with or without tourniquet. Active flexion and extension of the knee, pain by visual analog scale (VAS), swelling by knee circumference, quadriceps function by straight leg raise, and timed up and go (TUG) test results were measured before and up to 3 months after surgery.

    Results: ANCOVA revealed no between-groups effect for flexion of the knee at day 3 postsurgery. Compared with the tourniquet group, the nontourniquet group experienced elevated pain at 24 h, with a mean difference of 16.6 mm, p = 0.005. The effect on mobility (TUG test) at 3 months was better in the nontourniquet group, with a mean difference of -1.1 s, p = 0.029.

    Conclusions: The hypothesis that the rehabilitation-related results would be improved without a tourniquet is not supported by the results. When the results in this study for surgery performed with and without tourniquet are compared, no clear benefit for either procedure was observed, as the more pain exhibited by the nontourniquet group was only evident for a short period and the improved mobility in this group was not at a clinically relevant level.

    Level of evidence: Inconsistent results, Level II.

  • Irazoki, Oihane
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Hernandez, Sara B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Peptidoglycan Muropeptides: Release, Perception, and Functions as Signaling Molecules2019In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, article id 500Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential molecule for the survival of bacteria, and thus, its biosynthesis and remodeling have always been in the spotlight when it comes to the development of antibiotics. The peptidoglycan polymer provides a protective function in bacteria, but at the same time is continuously subjected to editing activities that in some cases lead to the release of peptidoglycan fragments (i.e., muropeptides) to the environment. Several soluble muropeptides have been reported to work as signaling molecules. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms involved in muropeptide release (PG breakdown and PG recycling) and describe the known PG-receptor proteins responsible for PG sensing. Furthermore, we overview the role of muropeptides as signaling molecules, focusing on the microbial responses and their functions in the host beyond their immunostimulatory activity.

  • Fröjd, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Measuring the information content of Riksbank meeting minutes2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the amount of information available on the internet has increased sharply in the last years, methods for measuring and comparing text-based information is gaining popularity on financial markets. Text mining and natural language processing has become an important tool for classifying large collections of texts or documents. One field of applications is topic modelling of the minutes from central banks' monetary policy meetings, which tend to be about topics such as"inflation", "economic growth" and "rates". The central bank of Sweden is the Riksbank, which hold 6 annual monetary policy meetings where the members of the Executive Board decide on the new repo rate. Two weeks later, the minutes of the meeting is published and information regarding the future monetary policy is given to the market in the form of text. This information has before release been unknown to the market, thus having the potential to be market-sensitive. Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), an algorithm used for uncovering latent topics in documents, the topics in the meeting minutes should be possible to identify and quantify. In this project, 8 topics were found regarding, among other, inflation, rates, household debt and economic development.

    An important factor in analysis of central bank communication is the underlying tone in the discussions. It is common to classify central bankers as hawkish or dovish. Hawkish members of the board tend to favour tightening monetary policy and rate hikes, while more dovish members advocate a more expansive monetary policy and rate cuts. Thus, analysing the tone of the minutes can give an indication of future moves of the monetary policy rate.

    The purpose of this project is to provide a fast method for analysing the minutes from the Riksbank monetary policy meetings. The project is divided into two parts. First, a LDA model was trained to identify the topics in the minutes, which was then used to compare the content of two consecutive meeting minutes. Next, the sentiment was measured as a degree of hawkishness or dovishness. This was done by categorising each sentence in terms of their content, and then counting words with hawkish or dovish sentiment. The resulting net score gives larger values to more hawkish minutes and was shown to follow the repo rate path well. At the time of the release of the minutes, the new repo rate is already known, but the net score does gives an indication of the stance of the board.

  • Adebiyi, Abdulafeez
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA.
    Valiev, Damir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Center for Combustion Energy, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of the Ministry of Education of China, Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
    Akkerman, V’yacheslav
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA.
    Effect of surface friction on ultrafast flame acceleration in obstructed cylindrical pipes2019In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 035249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bychkov model of ultrafast flame acceleration in obstructed tubes [Valiev et al., “Flame Acceleration in Channels with Obstacles in the Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition,” Combust. Flame 157, 1012 (2010)] employed a number of simplifying assumptions, including those of free-slip and adiabatic surfaces of the obstacles and of the tube wall. In the present work, the influence of free-slip/non-slip surface conditions on the flame dynamics in a cylindrical tube of radius R, involving an array of parallel, tightly-spaced obstacles of size αR, is scrutinized by means of the computational simulations of the axisymmetric fully-compressible gasdynamics and combustion equations with an Arrhenius chemical kinetics. Specifically, non-slip and free-slip surfaces are compared for the blockage ratio, α, and the spacing between the obstacles, ΔZ, in the ranges 1/3 ≤ α ≤ 2/3 and 0.25 ≤ ΔZ/R ≤ 2.0, respectively. 

    For these parameters, an impact of surface friction on flameacceleration is shown to be minor, only 1-4%, slightly facilitating acceleration in a tube with ΔZ/R = 0.5 and moderating acceleration in thecase of ΔZ/R = 0.25. Given the fact that the physical boundary conditions are non-slip as far as the continuum assumption is valid, the presentwork thereby justifies the Bychkov model, employing the free-slip conditions, and makes its wider applicable to the practical reality. Whilethis result can be anticipated and explained by a fact that flame propagation is mainly driven by its spreading in the unobstructed portion ofan obstructed tube (i.e. far from the tube wall), the situation is, however, qualitatively different from that in the unobstructed tubes, wheresurface friction modifies the flame dynamics conceptually.

  • Johansson, My
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    HBTQ på bibliotek - de anställdas ansvar och motivation: en analys av hur bibliotek hanterar hbtq-kompetens2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of rainbow flags and rainbow shelves, shelves with LGBTQ literature, makes one wonder if it is a sign of a seemingly ubiquitus LGBTQ-knowledge among librarians at public libraries. My thesis is a theme-based analysis using knowledge management as theory with the aim to capture how libraries mangage their LGBTQ-knowledge and why they do it in these certain ways. After categorizing the data according to the SECI-model I found that a certain way of managing knowledge is used in excess by the librarians I interviewed. The SECI-model describes it as ´socialisation´ which means to use tacit knowledge and creating new tacit knowledge. In my analysis of why that is the case it becomes apparent that the managing of LGBTQ-knowledge is a responsibility taken by individual librarians with interest in the LGBTQ-question. With what seems to be insufficient support by the management it is up to the individuals to manage LGBTQ-knowledge through ´socialization´ which is a fast and effective way of transferring knowledge.

  • Jansson, Cissi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sambanden mellan individers förmåga att läsa, förvärva, förstå och använda hälsoinformation och deras informationsbeteenden: – i relation till den egna hälsan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förmågan att läsa, förvärva, förstå och använda hälsoinformation utgör konceptet Health literacy, på svenska hälsolitteracitet. Dessa förmågor blir av allt större vikt i ett intensivt informationssamhälle. Ökade krav ställs på förmågan att kunna välja, värdera och använda sig av information i sitt dagliga liv, hälso- och sjukvården är inget undantag. Hälsolitteracitet är en förutsättning för att kunna göra hälsomedvetna val och ta välgrundade beslut i relation till hälsan. Syftet med denna studie är att öka kunskapen om individers Hälsoinformationsbeteenden i relation till egenskattad nivå av hälsolitteracitet och i relation till sociodemografiska bakgrundsfaktorer och subjektiv hälsa, i en svensk kontext. Studiens resultat visar att samband finns mellan koncepten hälsolitteracitet och olika Hälsoinformationsbeteenden. Högre Funktionell hälsolitteracitet är förknippad med lägre frekvens av fem av sex Hälsoinformationsbeteenden. Högre Kommunikativ och kritisk hälsolitteracitet är förknippad med en högre frekvens av Hälsoinformationsbeteenden och då främst med aktiva hälsoinformationsbeteenden. Den huvudsakliga slutsatsen av studien är att nivå av hälsolitteracitet har betydelse för i vilken grad en individ ägnar sig åt ett visst Hälsoinformationsbeteende.

    Praktiska implikationer: Insikter om Hälsolitteracitet och dess betydelse för Hälsoinformationsbeteenden kan vara användbara för informationsspecialister och bibliotekarier, såväl som för hälso- och sjukvården samt andra som arbetar med hälsoinformation.

  • Sato-Hashimoto, Miho
    et al.
    Nozu, Tomomi
    Toriba, Riho
    Horikoshi, Ayano
    Akaike, Miho
    Kawamoto, Kyoko
    Hirose, Ayaka
    Hayashi, Yuriko
    Nagai, Hiromi
    Shimizu, Wakana
    Saiki, Ayaka
    Ishikawa, Tatsuya
    Elhanbly, Ruwaida
    Kotani, Takenori
    Murata, Yoji
    Saito, Yasuyuki
    Naruse, Masae
    Shibasaki, Koji
    Oldenborg, Per-Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Jung, Steffen
    Matozaki, Takashi
    Fukazawa, Yugo
    Ohnishi, Hiroshi
    Microglial SIRP alpha regulates the emergence of CD11c(+) microglia and demyelination damage in white matter2019In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 8, article id e42025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A characteristic subset of microglia expressing CD11c appears in response to brain damage. However, the functional role of CD11c(+) microglia, as well as the mechanism of its induction, are poorly understood. Here we report that the genetic ablation of signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP alpha), a membrane protein, induced the emergence of CD11c(+) microglia in the brain white matter. Mice lacking CD47, a physiological ligand of SIRP alpha, and microglia-specific SIRP alpha-knockout mice exhibited the same phenotype, suggesting that an interaction between microglial SIRP alpha and CD47 on neighbouring cells suppressed the emergence of CD11c(+) microglia. A lack of SIRP alpha did not cause detectable damage to the white matter, but resulted in the increased expression of genes whose expression is characteristic of the repair phase after demyelination. In addition, cuprizone-induced demyelination was alleviated by the microglia-specific ablation of SIRP alpha. Thus, microglial SIRP alpha suppresses the induction of CD11c(+) microglia that have the potential to accelerate the repair of damaged white matter.

  • Karlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Cirenajwis, Helena
    Ericson-Lindquist, Kajsa
    Brunnström, Hans
    Reuterswärd, Christel
    Jönsson, Mats
    Ortiz-Villalon, Cristian
    Hussein, Aziz
    Bergman, Bengt
    Vikström, Anders
    Monsef, Nastaran
    Branden, Eva
    Koyi, Hirsh
    de Petris, Luigi
    Micke, Patrick
    Patthey, Annika
    Behndig, Annelie F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Planck, Maria
    Staaf, Johan
    A combined gene expression tool for parallel histological prediction and gene fusion detection in non-small cell lung cancer2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 5207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate histological classification and identification of fusion genes represent two cornerstones of clinical diagnostics in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we present a NanoString gene expression platform and a novel platform-independent, single sample predictor (SSP) of NSCLC histology for combined, simultaneous, histological classification and fusion gene detection in minimal formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue. The SSP was developed in 68 NSCLC tumors of adenocarcinoma (AC), squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) histology, based on NanoString expression of 11 (CHGA, SYP, CD56, SFTPG, NAPSA, TTF-1, TP73L, KRT6A, KRT5, KRT40, KRT16) relevant genes for IHC-based NSCLC histology classification. The SSP was combined with a gene fusion detection module (analyzing ALK, RET, ROS1, MET, NRG1, and NTRK1) into a multicomponent NanoString assay. The histological SSP was validated in six cohorts varying in size (n = 11-199), tissue origin (early or advanced disease), histological composition (including undifferentiated cancer), and gene expression platform. Fusion gene detection revealed five EML4-ALK fusions, four KIF5B-RET fusions, two CD74-NRG1 fusion and three MET exon 14 skipping events among 131 tested cases. The histological SSP was successfully trained and tested in the development cohort (mean AUC = 0.96 in iterated test sets). The SSP proved successful in predicting histology of NSCLC tumors of well-defined subgroups and difficult undifferentiated morphology irrespective of gene expression data platform. Discrepancies between gene expression prediction and histologic diagnosis included cases with mixed histologies, true large cell carcinomas, or poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas with mucin expression. In summary, we present a proof-of-concept multicomponent assay for parallel histological classification and multiplexed fusion gene detection in archival tissue, including a novel platform-independent histological SSP classifier. The assay and SSP could serve as a promising complement in the routine evaluation of diagnostic lung cancer biopsies.

  • Zou, Ding
    et al.
    Wennman, Heini
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Grote, Ludger
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Torén, Kjell
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    Hedner, Jan
    Insomnia and cardiorespiratory fitness in a middle-aged population: the SCAPIS pilot study2019In: Sleep and Breathing, ISSN 1520-9512, E-ISSN 1522-1709, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe relationship between insomnia and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, has not been extensively studied. We aimed to assess the independent association between insomnia and CRF in a population-based cohort of subjects aged 50 to 64years.MethodsSubjects participating in the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImaging Study (SCAPIS) pilot cohort (n=603, men 47.9%) underwent a submaximal cycle ergometer test for estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max). Data on physical activity and sedentary time were collected via waist-worn accelerometers. An insomnia severity index score 10 was used to define insomnia.ResultsInsomnia was identified in 31.8% of the population. The VO(2)max was significantly lower in insomnia subjects compared with the non-insomnia group (31.26.3 vs. 32.4 +/- 6.5ml*kg(-1)*min(-1), p=0.028). There was no difference in objectively assessed physical activity or time spent sedentary between the groups. In a multivariate generalized linear model adjusting for confounders, an independent association between insomnia status and lower VO(2)max was found in men, but not in women (=-1.15 [95% CI -2.23--0.06] and -0.09 [-1.09-0.92], p=0.038 and 0.866, respectively).Conclusionsp id=ParWe found a modest, but significant, association between insomnia and lower CRF in middle-aged men, but not in women. Our results suggest that insomnia may link to cardiovascular disease via reduced CRF. Insomnia may require a specific focus in the context of health campaigns addressing CRF.

  • Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Bäcklund, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Sundström, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Portable Sensors Add Reliable Kinematic Measures to the Assessment of Upper Extremity Function2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 5, article id 1241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ordinal scales with low resolution are used to assess arm function in clinic. These scales may be improved by adding objective kinematic measures. The aim was to analyze within-subject, inter-rater and overall reliability (i.e., including within-subject and inter-rater reliability) and check the system's validity of kinematic measures from inertial sensors for two such protocols on one person. Twenty healthy volunteers repeatedly performed two tasks, finger-to-nose and drinking, during two test sessions with two different raters. Five inertial sensors, on the forearms, upper arms and xiphoid process were used. Comparisons against an optical camera system evaluated the measurement validity. Cycle time, range of motion (ROM) in shoulder and elbow were calculated. Bland-Altman plots and linear mixed models including the generalizability (G) coefficient evaluated the reliability of the measures. Within-subject reliability was good to excellent in both tests (G = 0.80-0.97) and may serve as a baseline when assessing upper extremities in future patient groups. Overall reliability was acceptable to excellent (G = 0.77-0.94) for all parameters except elbow axial rotation in finger-to-nose task and both elbow axial rotation and flexion/extension in drinking task, mainly due to poor inter-rater reliability in these parameters. The low to good reliability for elbow ROM probably relates to high within-subject variability. The sensors provided good to excellent measures of cycle time and shoulder ROM in non-disabled individuals and thus have the potential to improve today's assessment of arm function.

  • D'Odorico, Paolo
    et al.
    Carr, Joel A.
    Davis, Kyle F.
    Dell'Angelo, Jampel
    Seekell, David A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Food Inequality, Injustice, and Rights2019In: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 180-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As humanity continues to grow in size, questions related to human rights and the existing unequal distribution of food resources have taken on greater urgency. Is inequality in food access unjust or a regrettable consequence of the geographic distribution of biophysical resources? To what extent are there obligations to redress inequalities in access to food? We draw from a human rights perspective to identify obligations associated with access to food and develop a quantitative framework to evaluate the fulfillment of the human right to food. We discuss the capacity of socioeconomic development to reduce inequalities in per capita food availability with respect to the distribution of biophysical resources among countries. Although, at the country level, international trade shows the capacity to reduce human rights deficits by increasing food availability in countries with limited food production, whether it actually improves the fulfillment of the right to food will depend on within-country inequality.

  • Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Apers, Silke
    Kovacs, Adrienne H.
    Luyckx, Koen
    Thomet, Corina
    Budts, Werner
    Enomoto, Junko
    Sluman, Maayke A.
    Wang, Jou-Kou
    Jackson, Jamie L.
    Khairy, Paul
    Cook, Stephen C.
    Alday, Luis
    Eriksen, Katrine
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Berghammer, Malin
    Rempel, Gwen
    Menahem, Samuel
    Caruana, Maryanne
    Tomlin, Martha
    Soufi, Alexandra
    Fernandes, Susan M.
    White, Kamila
    Callus, Edward
    Kutty, Shelby
    Moons, Philip
    Geographical variation and predictors of physical activity level in adults with congenital heart disease2019In: IJC Heart & Vasculature, ISSN 2352-9067, Vol. 22, p. 20-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity is important to maintain and promote health. This is of particular interest in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) where acquired heart disease should be prevented. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a minimum of 2.5 h/week of physical activity exceeding 3 metabolic equivalents(METS) to achieve positive health effects. It is unknown whether physical activity levels (PAL) in adult CHD patients differ by country of origin.

    Methods: 3896 adults with CHD recruited from 15 countries over 5 continents completed self-reported instruments, including the Health Behaviour Scale (HBS-CHD), within the APPROACH-IS project. For each patient, we calculated whether WHO recommendations were achieved or not. Associated factors were investigated using Generalized Linear Mixed Models.

    Results: On average, 31% reached the WHO recommendations but with a great variation between geographical areas (India: 10%–Norway: 53%). Predictors for physical activity level in line with the WHO recommendations, with country of residence as random effect, were male sex (OR 1.78, 95%CI 1.52–2.08), NYHA-class I (OR 3.10, 95%CI 1.71–5.62) and less complex disease (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.16–1.83). In contrast, older age (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.96–0.98), lower educational level (OR 0.41, 95%CI 0.26–0.64) and being unemployed (OR 0.57, 95%CI 0.42–0.77) were negatively associated with reaching WHO recommendations.

    Conclusions: A significant proportion of patients with CHD did not reach the WHO physical activity recommendations. There was a large variation in physical activity level by country of origin. Based on identified predictors, vulnerable patients may be identified and offered specific behavioral interventions.

  • Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Thilen, Ulf
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Adults with congenital heart disease overestimate their physical activity level2019In: IJC Heart & Vasculature, ISSN 2352-9067, Vol. 22, p. 13-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity reduces the risk of acquired cardiovascular disease, which is of great importance in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). There are diverging data whether physical activity level (PAL) differs between patients with CHD and controls. Furthermore, it is unknown if PAL can be reliably assessed in patients with CHD using self-reported instruments.

    Methods: Seventy-five patients with CHD (mean age 37.5 ± 15.5 years, women n = 29 [38.7%]) and 42 age and sex matched controls completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and carried the activity monitor Actiheart over 4 days. Time spent at ≥3 METS ≥21.4 min/day, i.e. reaching the WHO recommendation for PAL to promote health, was used as the outcome measure. Data on PAL obtained from IPAQ were compared with Actiheart.

    Results: The proportion of individuals reaching target PAL according to IPAQ was similar in patients with CHD and controls (70.7%vs.76.2%, p = 0.52) as well as between patients with simple and complex lesions. There was an overall difference between IPAQ and Actiheart in detecting recommended PAL (72.6%vs.51.3%, p b 0.001). In a subgroup analysis, this difference was also detected in patients but was borderline for controls. The negative predictive value for IPAQ in detecting insufficient PAL was higher in patients than in controls (73%vs.40%).

    Conclusions: The proportion of persons reaching sufficient PAL to promote health was similar in patients and controls. The self-reported instrument overestimated PAL in relation to objective measurements. However, with a high negative predictive value, IPAQ is a potentially useful tool for detecting patients with insufficient PAL.

  • Xu, Chao-Qun
    et al.
    Liu, Hui
    Zhou, Shan-Shan
    Zhang, Dong-Xu
    Zhao, Wei
    Wang, Sihai
    Chen, Fu
    Sun, Yan-Qiang
    Nie, Shuai
    Jia, Kai-Hua
    Jiao, Si-Qian
    Zhang, Ren-Gang
    Yun, Quan-Zheng
    Guan, Wenbin
    Wang, Xuewen
    Gao, Qiong
    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.
    Maghuly, Fatemeh
    Porth, Ilga
    Van de Peer, Yves
    Wang, Xiao-Ru
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, School of Nature Conservation, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China.
    Ma, Yongpeng
    Mao, Jian-Feng
    Genome sequence of Malania oleifera, a tree with great value for nervonic acid production2019In: GigaScience, ISSN 2047-217X, E-ISSN 2047-217X, Vol. 8, no 2, article id giy164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Malania oleifera, a member of the Olacaceae family, is an IUCN red listed tree, endemic and restricted to the Karst region of southwest China. This tree's seed is valued for its high content of precious fatty acids (especially nervonic acid). However, studies on its genetic makeup and fatty acid biogenesis are severely hampered by a lack of molecular and genetic tools. Findings We generated 51 Gb and 135Gb of raw DNA sequences, using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time and 10x Genomics sequencing, respectively. A final genome assembly, with a scaffold N50 size of 4.65 Mb and a total length of 1.51Gb, was obtained by primary assembly based on PacBio long reads plus scaffolding with 10x Genomics reads. Identified repeats constituted approximate to 82% of the genome, and 24,064 protein-coding genes were predicted with high support. The genome has low heterozygosity and shows no evidence for recent whole genome duplication. Metabolic pathway genes relating to the accumulation of long-chain fatty acid were identified and studied in detail. Conclusions Here, we provide the first genome assembly and gene annotation for M. oleifera. The availability of these resources will be of great importance for conservation biology and for the functional genomics of nervonic acid biosynthesis.

  • Berthelsen, Isabell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Astma och Kol -Inhalationsteknik: Vad är de vanligaste felen och skulle fördjupad rådgivning på svenska apotek uppskattas av kunderna?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Public defence: 2019-05-10 09:00 Grupprum 2 Obstetrik och gynekologi,, Umeå
    Nüssler, Emil Karl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Surgical quality control of minimally invasive procedures, fast-track surgery and implant technology in gynaecological surgery in Sweden2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally as well as in Sweden, efforts for improvement in gynaecological surgery in recent decades have mainly focused on three new treatment concepts:

    (1) Use of minimally invasive procedures: since there is an interdependency between the extent of surgical trauma and the risk for adverse outcome, increased use of supposedly atraumatic endoscopic procedures has revolutionized several aspects of surgical care

    (2) A multimodal approach to eliminate harmful procedures in the peri-operative process based on evidence-based principles

    (3) Introduction of implants to support damaged tissue with synthetic mesh in incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse patients.

    Research question 1: Is introduction of a minimally invasive operation enough per se or is the measured improvement mediated by elimination of harmful procedures in the perioperative process?

    Findings: Our study (Paper I) indicates that by applying a multimodal intervention programme for the pre- and postoperative care of patients undergoing supravaginal hysterectomy, the surgical procedure per se is of less importance than generally considered. Patient-related parameters such as length of postoperative hospital stay, number of days at home with need of painkillers, number of days before return to normal activities, and patient satisfaction did not differ between patients undergoing the laparoscopic procedure and patients undergoing abdominal supravaginal hysterectomy. When evaluating a new and presumably improved operative procedure against an established standard procedure, it is mandatory and of fundamental importance that the two methods are aligned in terms of perioperative care provided.

    Research question 2: Under which circumstances can it be assumed that a new surgical procedure showing promising efficacy in one setting can be reproduced with similar results in a different clinical setting (Paper I)?

    Findings: The operating surgeons concluded that, in their hands and under local conditions, laparoscopic technique for supravaginal hysterectomy was not superior to traditional open hysterectomy and stopped using laparoscopic technique. It seems necessary, prior to routine use, to monitor, using scientific tools, whether the advantages described in the literature are achievable under local conditions.

    Research question 3: Do expected advantages of implants outweigh the unwanted effects and complications caused by implants in operations for recurrent cystocele (Paper II)?

    Findings: Mesh has better durability but more (minor) complications. It is not possible to determine whether mesh is "generally better" than native tissue operation. Some may focus on the improved durability, others on the increased risks. The surgeon must make a risk assessment for each individual case. The patient must be sufficiently informed to understand the risks and make a personal, informed decision whether she wants an augmentation by implant. Essential for this process is a clear, comprehensible picture of both desired and unwanted effects of the planned surgery. In this context, studies like ours might be of use.

  • Maliki, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Kunskapskällor för svenska läkare kring generiskt utbyte2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ljanova, Zareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Hva er farmasøytenes erfaringer ved salg av reseptfrie legemidler i Norge?: What are pharmacists´experiences with sale of non-prescription drugs in Norway?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Otten, Volker T C
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Mukka, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Nilsson, Kjell G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Crnalic, Sead
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Kärrholm, Johan
    Uncemented cups with and without screw holes in primary THA: a Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register study with 22,725 hips2019In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose - Uncemented cups in total hip arthroplasty (THA) are often augmented with additional screws to enhance their primary stability. We investigated whether there is a difference in the risk for revision between cups with screw holes and cups without screw holes. Patients and methods - We analyzed the risk for cup revision of uncemented cups registered in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register (SHAR) between 2000 and 2017 with respe ct to the presence of screw holes. Only patients with primary osteoarthritis (OA) were included. 22,725 cups, including 12,354 without screw holes and 10,371 with screw holes, were evaluated. Revision rates at 2 and 10 years after the primary operation were analyzed. Results - At a median follow-up time of 3.4 years (0-18), 459 cup revisions were reported. The main reasons for cup revision during the whole observation time were infection, 52% of all cup revisions, and dislocation, 26% of all cup revisions. The survival rate with cup revision due to aseptic loosening as endpoint was 99.9% (95% CI 99.8-99.9) at 2 years for both cups with and cups without screw holes, and the survival rates at 10 years were 99.5% (CI 99.3-99.7) and 99.1% (CI 98.6-99.5), respectively. Cups without screw holes showed a decreased risk of revision due to any reason at both 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.6, CI 0.5-0.8) and 10 years (HR 0.7, CI 0.5-0.9). Interpretation - We found a very low revision rate for aseptic loosening with modern, uncemented cup designs. Cups with screw holes had an increased risk of revision due to any reason in patients with primary OA.

  • Rosenberg, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    SPINRAZA: -En socialfarmaceutisk studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sebaa, Nadia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Betydande faktorer vid val av antikoagulationsbehandling för patienter med förmaksflimmer: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med hälso-och sjukvårdspersonal om synen på användning av NOAK eller warfarin.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis