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  • Strid, Anna
    et al.
    Hallström, Elinor
    Hjorth, Therese
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Winkvist, Anna
    Huseinovic, Ena
    Climate impact from diet in relation to background and sociodemographic characteristics in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme2019In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 22, no 17, p. 3288-3297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics in a population-based cohort in northern Sweden.

    Design: A cross-sectional study within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Dietary data from a 64-item food frequency questionnaire collected during 1996–2016 were used. Energy-adjusted greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) for all participants, expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents/day and 4184 kJ (1000 kcal), were estimated using data from life cycle analyses. Differences in background and sociodemographic characteristics were examined between participants with low and high GHGE from diet, respectively. The variables evaluated were age, BMI, physical activity, marital status, level of education, smoking, and residence.

    Setting: Västerbotten county in northern Sweden.

    Participants: In total, 46 893 women and 45 766 men aged 29–65 years.

    Results: Differences in GHGE from diet were found across the majority of examined variables. The strongest associations were found between GHGE from diet and age, BMI, education, and residence (all P < 0·001), with the highest GHGE from diet found among women and men who were younger, had a higher BMI, higher educational level, and lived in urban areas.

    Conclusions: This study is one of the first to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics. The results show that climate impact from diet is associated with age, BMI, residence and educational level amongst men and women in Västerbotten, Sweden. These results define potential target populations where public health interventions addressing a move towards more climate-friendly food choices and reduced climate impact from diet could be most effective.

  • Nurmi, Maura
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. University of Helsinki.
    Understanding racism in Finland: A qualitative study on social workers’  interpretations of racism2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The thesis examines Finnish social workers’ understandings of racism. The research task is to view how professionals understand racism as a phenomenon, how they perceive social work’s role in relation to racialization and racism and how they understand the complex relationship between race and gender in the Nordic context. The data consists of two focus group interviews and three indepth interviews conducted with child welfare professionals. Qualitative content analysis is used as an analysis method. Anti-racist social work and intersectionality are presented as a theoretical framework in the thesis. Anti-racist social work is part of the tradition of anti-oppressive theory, where societal power structures are raised to the centre of attention. Race is understood as a socially constructed power hierarchy enabling privileged and oppressed positions. The concept of intersectionality refers to the similar nature of all power structures, where all forms of oppression are understood as mutually constructed. The findings suggest that racism is infrequently recognized in social work practices. The dominant approach in Finland emphasizes cultural competence, while the importance of anti-racism remains scarce. The gender equality discourse is especially strong in relation to immigration. Immigrant women are often portrayed as victims of their culture, and gendered violence is explained through culture. The thesis suggests that racism is rarely accounted as a cause when viewing problems in racialized families. Combining anti-racism and intersectionality while reinforcing critical reflection on social workers’ stance and privileges is proposed as a method for improving social work practice. 

  • Sichone, Tawonga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Social Workers on Child Protection, in Conflict with Community Norms and Values: A Case Study of a Community Based-Organisation in Malawi2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study focused on highlighting challenges faced by social workers in child protection, the similarities, and differences in child protection values between the two parties and how social workers are perceived. This was with the problem that social workers face difficulties or clashes with the local community and specifically on cultural and traditional elements, although some surprising factors emerged as the study progressed. The study was qualitative with purposive sampling and used individual interviews for social workers and group interviews for community members in data collection. In general, the study involved both deductive and inductive approaches of research. In terms of specific qualitative data analysis, it involved phenomenology. Theories used in the study are the systems theory, utilitarianism, cultural universalism, and relativism. The findings indicated that social workers face challenges including Lack of Adequate Resources; differences of how families raise children; blame on the Social Worker; priority  differences between culture, tradition and social work; spiritual and religious beliefs as a barrier; children and/or parents/guardians do not report due to shame and clients complained about procedures by social workers. It concluded that the major problem was the manner of approach and interaction between the community and social worker and that if the social workers follow cultural procedures and include community members more with the aid of adequate resources in some areas. In such, social work practice could be made better and this could pave a way for new related studies.

     

     

  • Söderström, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Niemi, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nilsson, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Medias avtryck i socialtjänstens arbete: En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares upplevelse av medierapportering om socialtjänsten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Media har en förmåga att nå ut och skapa reaktioner hos allmänheten, både positiva och negativa. Socialtjänstens beslutsfattande uppdrag tenderar att skapa starka känslor bland människor och stora rubriker i media. Baserat på medias inflytande över samhället syftar studien till att undersöka hur socialsekreterare kan uppleva medierapportering om socialtjänsten, samt hur de kan påverkas av denna. Studiens genomförande bestod av kvalitativa intervjuer med fem socialsekreterare yrkesverksamma inom socialtjänstens olika enheter vars klientel utgörs av barn, ungdomar och deras familjer. Valet av målgrupp baserades på vad tidigare forskning visat är ett omskrivet fält i media. Materialet analyserades sedan utifrån teoretiska perspektiv om professionen och medias makt. Resultatet visade att de intervjuade socialsekreterarna upplevde medierapportering som övervägande negativ, där socialtjänsten många gånger framställs göra ett antingen för litet eller för stort ingripande i människors liv. Intervjupersonerna saknade positiv rapportering i media om deras arbete, men menade att medias kritiska granskningar av myndigheter är viktiga för att maktmissbruk inte ska förekomma samt för att förändringar ska kunna ske. Medierapportering ansågs även ha en större påverkan i den professionella yrkesutövningen än för de intervjuade socialsekreterarna personligen, i form av bland annat klienters förutfattade meningar om socialtjänsten och socialsekreterare som profession. En av studiens övergripande slutsatser var att media besitter en stor makt att påverka hur människor ser på myndigheter, vilket därigenom kan ta sig uttryck i ett försvårat arbete för socialsekreterare. En ytterst central del var även den ambivalens som infunnit sig hos intervjupersonerna, bland annat avseende de positiva och negativa följder som kan komma av medierapportering.

  • Englund, Klara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Fredriksson Isaksson, Ebba
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Det har nog format mig som människa mer än vad jag tror": En kvalitativ intervjustudie om biologiska barns upplevelser av att växa upp med föräldrar som familjehem2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En placering sker för att ett barn är i behov av att låna en familj för att få en trygg uppväxt och i detta kan det finnas biologiska barn. Vad händer med dem? Tidigare forskning presenterar en brist på uppmärksamhet åt de biologiska barnen från både forskare och yrkesaktiva. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka biologiska barns upplevelser i att ha haft föräldrar som varit familjehem under deras uppväxt men även hur de ser på den egna kontakten med socialtjänsten. I en kvalitativ intervjustudie har vi sökt svar hos fem olika personer som idag är mellan 21-47 år men som under sin uppväxt hade föräldrar som var familjehem. Vi har genomfört semistrukturerade intervjuer och analyserat resultatet med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Studien bekräftar en brist av uppmärksamhet från socialtjänsten gentemot de biologiska barnen som den tidigare forskningen visat. Det framkommer även att intervjupersonerna har olika upplevelser men gemensamt har de tagit med sig positiva erfarenheter av detta. Resultatet av denna studie är att olika upplevelser kan ge samma erfarenhet.

  • Carlsson, Felicia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Mohamed, Bile
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Arbetet med hemlöshet i Sverige: En kvalitativ studie kring ideella och kommunala verksamheters samverkan mot hemlöshet.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har som syfte undersöka hur representanter från socialtjänsten och ideella verksamheter upplever arbetet med hemlösa. Studien är utformad med en kvalitativ ansats där sex stycken semi-strukturerade intervjuer har genomförts varav en intervju genomfördes med två socialsekreterare samtidigt. De som har deltagit i studien är socialarbetare som i sitt arbete kommer i direkt klientkontakt med hemlösa och hemlöshet. Av de totalt sju studiedeltagarna så är tre stycken ideella aktörer och fyra stycken aktiva inom socialtjänsten. Studien visar på hur ideella verksamheter täcker de luckor som uppstår i arbetet mot hemlöshet, luckor som socialtjänsten på grund av sina utgångskriterier inte kommer åt. Studiedeltagarna redovisar i denna studie via sina intervjuer vilka olika insatser som finns och hur socialarbetare uppfattar arbetet kring det sociala problemet hemlöshet. Vart dom upplever att arbetet brister samt hur samverkan mellan ideella verksamheter och sociatjänsten kompletterar arbetet mot en minskad hemlöshet i framtiden. 

  • Johansson, Elias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Aviv, Richard I.
    Fox, Allan J.
    Atherosclerotic ICA stenosis coinciding with ICA asymmetry associated with Circle of Willis variations can mimic near-occlusion2019In: Neuroradiology, ISSN 0028-3940, E-ISSN 1432-1920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differentiating carotid near-occlusion (tight atherosclerotic stenosis causing distal artery size reduction) from conventional stenosis is the first step when grading carotid stenoses with NASCET method. The internal carotid artery (ICA) can be asymmetrically associated with Circle of Willis variations. When such ICA asymmetry coincides with stenosis, it may mimic near-occlusion. We studied ICA anatomical variant prevalence in 4042 consecutive CTA exams from all indications, 53 excluded due to carotid occlusion, 814 with any >= 50% steno-occlusive disease intra- or extracranially, 3228 without. Of the 3989 included cases, 568 (14%) had ICA asymmetry, of which 335 (59%) were from associated with Circle of Willis variations. Of 3228 patients without >= 50% stenosis or other steno-occlusive disease intra- and extracranially; 257 (8.0%) demonstrated ICA asymmetry associated with Circle of Willis variations, equally common among sexes and age unrelated and most frequently attributed to an ipsilateral A1 hypoplasia/aplasia, less often attributed to large contralateral posterior communicating artery. As ICA asymmetry associated with Circle of Willis variations are common, caution should be exercised diagnosing near-occlusion on asymmetry alone.

  • Inzunza, Miguel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    European police recruits' views on ideal personal characteristics of a police officer2019In: Policing & society, ISSN 1043-9463, E-ISSN 1477-2728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As societies are becoming more heterogeneous and complex, the role of the police is becoming more demanding. To fulfil this role, police officers need several widely recognised skills and personal qualities, but less is known about how they are valued by police recruits. Thus, we have examined views of police recruits in six European countries on three competencies or characteristics of known importance for police work: knowledge, leadership, and the ability to form good relations with citizens. We have also explored variations in views of recruits in different organisations and changes in their views during their training. For these purposes, we used survey data collected in the RECPOL project. Since the data were collected from different populations and at different times, the analysis is based on measurement invariance methodology, and one of the aims was to highlight the importance of rigorous appraisal of the quality and comparability of similar survey data using such methods. The results reveal both differences and similarities in views of recruits in the surveyed countries and changes during training. Police culture appears to be a significant factor, as more items in the applied instrument could be validly used in comparisons of recruits in organisations with similar police traditions. The results also showed interesting contrasts, e.g. new recruits in Sweden rated good relations with citizens more highly than recruits in organisations with a more military history, but this pattern changed during training, presumably due to influences of the recruitment process, training and culture within the organisations.

  • Bränberg, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Häggström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Moström, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Problembaserat lärande på en dag: en flygande start på konstruktionsuppgiften2019In: 7:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, Luleå, 27-28 november, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det kan vara svårt att uppnå det nationella målet som rör helhetssyn, och att analysera och utvärdera olika tekniska lösningar. I ett försök att uppnå detta har vi använt oss av endags-PBL som en introduktion till en konstruktionsuppgift. Införandet innebar en planeringsdag, genomförande av PBL-dagen samt utvärdering. PBL-dagen har genomförts under fyra år. Resultaten från utvärderingen visar att studenterna kommit längre i arbetet med att utforma och analyser sina tekniska lösningar än tidigare. Slutsatsen är att endags-PBL är en arbetsform som lämpar sig väl för ingengörsutbildningar.

  • Gu, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Aviv, Richard, I
    Fox, Allan J.
    Johansson, Elias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Symptomatic carotid near-occlusion causes a high risk of recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke2019In: Journal of Neurology, ISSN 0340-5354, E-ISSN 1432-1459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess the risk of recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic near-occlusion with and without full collapse.

    Methods: Included were consecutive patients eligible for revascularization, grouped into symptomatic conventional ≥ 50% carotid stenosis (n = 266), near-occlusion without full collapse (n = 57) and near-occlusion with full collapse (n = 42). The risk of preoperative recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke was analyzed, or, for cases not revascularized within 90 days, 90-day risk was analyzed.

    Results: The risk of a preoperative recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke or ipsilateral retinal artery occlusion was 15% (95% CI 9–20%) for conventional ≥ 50% stenosis, 22% (95% CI 6–38%) among near-occlusion without full collapse and 30% (95% CI 16–44%) among near-occlusion with full collapse (p = 0.01, log rank test). In multivariate analysis, near-occlusion with full collapse had a higher risk of recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke (adjusted HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3–5.3) and near-occlusion without full collapse tended to have a higher risk (adjusted HR 2.0, 95% CI 0.9–4.5) than conventional ≥ 50% stenosis. Only 24% of near-occlusion with full collapse underwent revascularization, common causes for abstaining were misdiagnosis as occlusion (31%), deemed surgically unfeasible (21%) and low perceived benefit (10%).

    Conclusions: Symptomatic carotid near-occlusion has a high short-term risk of recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke, especially near-occlusion with full collapse.

  • Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Use of in vitro fertilization-ethical issues2019In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is an ethical analysis based on both facts and values. In in vitro fertilization (IVF), there is an intricate interaction between rapid scientific development and changing societal values. In most countries, the ethical discussion is no longer on whether or not IVF in itself is ethically justifiable. Therefore, in this review, I discuss other ethical aspects that have emerged since IVF was first introduced, such as upper age limits, 'ownership' of gametes and embryos, IVF in single women and same-sex couples, preimplantatory genetic testing, social egg freezing, commercialization, public funding, and prioritization of IVF. Despite secularization, since religion still plays an important role in regulation and practices of IVF in many countries, positions on IVF among the world religions are summarized. Decision-making concerning IVF cannot be based only on clinical and economic considerations; these cannot be disentangled from ethical principles. Many concerns regarding the costs, effects, and safety of IVF subtly transcend into more complex questions about what it means to society to bear and give birth to children.

  • Nyström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The Social Studies Subjects and Interdisciplinarity2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 3, p. 24-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the ways in which the term tvärvetenskaplig is conceptualized within the social studies subjects (geography, religious education, civics, and history) in Swedish upper secondary school. The term tvärvetenskaplig is generally translated as interdisciplinary. Through a comparative analysis of syllabi (ämnesplaner), subject didactic textbooks, and schoolbooks, existing descriptions of the term are identified. These descriptions are in turn analyzed using theoretical perspectives on interdisciplinarity. The article agrees with the viewpoint that interdisciplinarity is a form of progressive discourse. Moreover, the analysis employs Heinz Heckhausen’s typology of interdisciplinarity, which differentiates between indiscriminate, pseudo, auxiliary, composite, supplementary, and unifying interdisciplinarity. It is concluded that different subjects ascribe different understandings of interdisciplinarity to the concept of tvärvetenskaplighet.

  • Carlén, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Identifying Sources and Ecological Risks of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Polluted Fiber Enriched Sediments from the Bothnian Sea2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Kastenbom, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Falsen, Alexandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Larsson, Pernilla
    Sunnegårdh-Grönberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Davidson, Thomas
    Costs and health-related quality of life in relation to caries2019In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dental caries remains a common and expensive disease for both society and affected individuals. Furthermore, caries often affect individuals’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Health economic evaluations are needed to understand how to efficiently distribute dental care resources. This study aims to evaluate treatment costs and QALY weights for caries active and inactive adult individuals, and to test whether the generic instrument EQ-5D-5 L can distinguish differences in this population.

    Methods: A total of 1200 randomly selected individuals from dental clinics in Västerbotten County, Sweden, were invited to participate. Of these, 79 caries active and 179 caries inactive patients agreed to participate (response rate of 21.7%). Inclusion criteria were participants between 20 and 65 years old and same caries risk group categorization in two consecutive check-ups between 2014 and 2017.

    Results: Treatment costs showed to be twice as high in the caries active group compared to the caries inactive group and were three times higher in the caries active age group 20–29 compared to the caries inactive age group 20–29. Differences between the groups was found for number of intact teeth according to age groups. In the EQ-5D-5 L instrument, more problems relating to the dimension anxiety/depression was seen in the caries active group. QALY weights showed tendencies (non-significant) to be lower in the caries active group.

    Conclusions: These findings highlight the need for efficient treatments and prevention strategies as well as adequate money allocation within dentistry. However, further research is needed to assess appropriate instruments for health economic evaluations.

  • Östman, Sofi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Hristova, Ivanka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Environmental archaeological analysis of samples from Dronningens gate, Trondheim, Sør-Trøndelag2019Report (Other academic)
  • Östman, Sofi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Hristova, Ivanka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Miljöarkeologisk analys av prover från Gerdalsmon, ett område med boplatslämningar och fångstgropar. Raä 47:1 (L1935:5140), 113:1 (L1935:5299) och 246 (L1934:3281), Själevad socken, Örnsköldsviks kommun, Ångermanland2019Report (Other academic)
  • Östman, Sofi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Pollenlaboratoriet, Umeå.
    Pollenanalys av två gravhögar och makrofossilanalys av innehållet i ett kärl från en av högarna.: Projekt Halmstad-trafo, Rygge kommune, Østfold. ID48968-8, ID48968-92019Report (Other academic)
  • Hristova, Ivanka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Macrofossil analysis of the site Lyngdal kirkegård, Lyngdal kommune, ID 1572422019Report (Other academic)
  • Jarstad, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Department of Government, UppsalaUniversity, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Segall, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Grasping the empirical realities of peace in post-war northern Mitrovica2019In: Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal, ISSN 2380-2014, Vol. 4, no 2-3, p. 239-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While previous research has focused on the conflicts and division in Mitrovica, Kosovo, the present article explores how peace and conflict are intertwined in the post-war city by focusing on sites where communities live side by side in an otherwise segregated city. A key finding is that the most conflictual residential areas in northern Mitrovica also are places where what we call peace acts, peace issues and peace perceptions are found. Our research suggests that even in spaces in the city where a history of violence is entrenched, the situation can seldom be reduced to be seen only as purely conflictual; rather, these ‘hotspots’ often prove to be spaces where reproduction of peace – however quotidian – also occurs at the same time. This points us to the complexity of the realities of peace, where remnants of war and potential for a co-existing peace often overlap and are sometimes intrinsically intertwined.

  • Hristova, Ivanka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Macrofossil analysis of one sample from the site Raä Visingsö 217, Jönköping, Småland2019Report (Other academic)
  • Eriksson, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Meddelande av delbeslut i lantmäteriförrättning. En studie av delbeslut i lantmäteriförrättning i förhållande till förvaltningslagen och dess krav på rättssäkerhet.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Elgebrant Rekstad, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    Bilder av Bild: En studie om hur bildlärares ämnesföreställningar påverkar val av kursinnehåll vid kursplanering och likvärdigheten i utbildningen i gymnasieskolans bild- och formkurser.1919Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SammanfattningSom vikarierande bildlärare i gymnasieskolan har jag mött skiftande ämnesföreställningar och övertagit kursplaneringar med betydande skillnader både i kursinnehåll och i följ-samhet till Skolverkets centrala kursinnehåll. Utifrån dessa gjorda erfarenheter har syftet med denna studie varit att undersöka hur bildlärares ämnesföreställningar påverkar kursinnehåll och kursplanering och att därmed belysa frågan om hur bildämnet lever upp till Skolverkets syfte och mål och i förlängningen skollagens §9 om en likvärdig skola. Begrepp och teorier som har använts i studien har utgått ifrån Michael Foucault teorier om diskursers dominans och makt. Studiens metod har varit mixad där kvalitativa metoderna har använts för att hitta, förstå och formulera indikatorer för olika ämnesföreställningar i bildämnet och kvantitativa metoder för att analysera och söka samband mellan bildlärarnas ämnesföreställningar, val av kursinnehåll i kursplaneringar och Skolverkets centrala kursinnehåll. Studiens resultat har visat att bildlärare vars ämnesvärdering är intrinsikal och som delar Skolverkets ämnesföreställning gör val av kursinnehåll i sin kursplanering med stark koppling till både sin egen ämnesföreställning och Skolverkets centrala innehåll medan bildlärare vars ämnesvärdering är instrumentell och som inte delar Skolverkets ämnesföreställning antingen delvis eller helt frångår Skolverkets centrala kursinnehåll. Studien har visat tendenser på en olikvärdig bild- och formutbildning kopplat till bildlärares ämnesföreställning även om slutsatser om likvärdigheten i bild- och formutbildning i gymnasieskolan generellt inte låter sig göras, då underlaget i studien har varit för litet och inte tillräckligt representativt.

     

  • Eriksson, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    EXPONERING AV LÅGFREKVENTA MAGNETFÄLT I VARDAGEN2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of magnetic fields has increased significantly during the last hundred years due to technology development and increased consumption of electricity. Sweden follows recommended maximum values from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), which are to prevent acute effects and are generally not exceeded in the environment. For long-term effects, such as increased cancer risk, today's knowledge is not sufficient to establish any limit values. The study aims to determine the variation of daily exposure of low-frequency magnetic fields in individuals with different occupations and living environments. Measurements of low-frequency magnetic fields were performed with an EMDEX-meter to get a 24-hour magnetic field exposure for ten test subjects. Measurement with an SMPS-meter was performed to measure magnetic fields at some common objects in the home environment that emit low frequency magnetic fields. The average value for exposure of low-frequency magnetic fields for 24-hours varied between 0.03–0.10 µT, exposure in the home environment varied between 0.00–0.17 µT, working environment varied between 0.02–0.27 µT, night environment varied between 0.00–0.09 µT. The daily mean values from the measurements are at what can be regarded as a normal exposure 0.01–0.20 µT. The average value that was picked up from home-, joband night-environment can be considered as normal exposure level. Based on the increased presence of electronics and magnetic fields and the lack of knowledge in the research on health effects, it may be interesting to discuss the introduction of further new technology, limit values, safety and supervision.

  • Wang, Jianfeng
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Zhou, Zhiyong
    Department of Statistics, Zhejiang University City College, China.
    Yu, Jun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Error bounds of block sparse signal recovery based on q-ratio block constrained minimal singular values2019In: EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, ISSN 1687-6172, E-ISSN 1687-6180, Vol. 57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce the q-ratio block constrained minimal singular values (BCMSV) as a new measure of measurement matrix in compressive sensing of block sparse/compressive signals and present an algorithm for computing this new measure. Both the mixed ℓ2/ℓq and the mixed ℓ2/ℓ1 norms of the reconstruction errors for stable and robust recovery using block basis pursuit (BBP), the block Dantzig selector (BDS), and the group lasso in terms of the q-ratio BCMSV are investigated. We establish a sufficient condition based on the q-ratio block sparsity for the exact recovery from the noise-free BBP and developed a convex-concave procedure to solve the corresponding non-convex problem in the condition. Furthermore, we prove that for sub-Gaussian random matrices, the q-ratio BCMSV is bounded away from zero with high probability when the number of measurements is reasonably large. Numerical experiments are implemented to illustrate the theoretical results. In addition, we demonstrate that the q-ratio BCMSV-based error bounds are tighter than the block-restricted isotropic constant-based bounds.

  • Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sense of self among persons with advanced dementia2019In: Alzheimer's Disease / [ed] Thomas Wisniewski, Codon Publications , 2019, p. 205-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: As humans, we have a sense of self, and at best, we are proud of ourabilities and feel respected by other persons. Persons with dementia have beenregarded losing their self. Quantitative research has shown that this is true, whilequalitative research has shown that parts of self are severely affected while otherparts remain even among persons with advanced dementia. These persons sometimeskeep feeling "still the same" as before getting dementia. Their memory deficitshelp as does support from other persons. The theory of three aspects of self bythe psychologists Rom Harré and Steven Sabat are presented, that is, the feelingthat we are, who we are, and who we are together with other persons. Based onempirical research, suggestions will be given about how by promoting experiencesof at-homeness, dignity, and being oneself related to others we can helppersons with advanced dementia experience themselves as valuable persons

  • Baxter, Rebecca
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Björk, Sabine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Lood, Qarin
    Department of Health and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Centre for Ageing and Health – AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    lluminating Meanings of Thriving for Persons Living in Nursing Homes2019In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives: Thriving has been described as a multidimensional concept that can be used to explore place-related well-being; however, there has been limited research into the meaning of thriving in aged care. This study aimed to illuminate meanings of thriving as narrated by persons living in nursing homes.

    Research Design and Methods: Narrative interviews were conducted with 21 persons residing in a rural Australian nursing home. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and interpreted using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach.

    Results: Meanings of thriving could be understood as: Striving toward acceptance of being in a nursing home while maintaining a positive outlook; Feeling supported and cared for while maintaining a sense of independence; Balancing opportunities for solitude and company while living with others; and, Feeling a sense of home while residing in an institutional environment. The meanings of thriving, as presented through the interpretive lens of Gaston Bachelard’s “Poetics of Space,” encompassed having access to literal, metaphorical, and symbolic doors, as well as having the freedom to open, close, and use these doors however the person wishes.

    Discussion: Exploring meanings of thriving in nursing homes could contribute towards understanding and implementing positive life-world constructs in research and practice. These findings could be used to inform and enhance person-centered care practices by maximizing opportunities for persons residing in nursing homes to have options and choices, and the agency to make decisions where possible, in relation to their everyday care and living environment.

  • Campbell, Ian A.
    et al.
    Lundow, Per-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Hyperscaling Violation in Ising Spin Glasses2019In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 21, no 10, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to the standard scaling rules relating critical exponents at second order transitions, hyperscaling rules involve the dimension of the model. It is well known that in canonical Ising models hyperscaling rules are modified above the upper critical dimension. It was shown by M. Schwartz in 1991 that hyperscaling can also break down in Ising systems with quenched random interactions; Random Field Ising models, which are in this class, have been intensively studied. Here, numerical Ising Spin Glass data relating the scaling of the normalized Binder cumulant to that of the reduced correlation length are presented for dimensions 3, 4, 5, and 7. Hyperscaling is clearly violated in dimensions 3 and 4, as well as above the upper critical dimension D=6. Estimates are obtained for the "violation of hyperscaling exponent" values in the various models.

  • Bjornestad, Elin Eb
    et al.
    Kirurgisk serviceklinikk, Klinikkoverlege, Helse Bergen HF, Norway.
    Haney, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    An obstetric anaesthetist: A key to successful conversion of epidural analgesia to surgical anaesthesia for caesarean delivery?2019In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Burwall, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Tvärkraft i betongbalkar med hänsyn till stora hål2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is often required to make holes in load-bearing structures for various reasons. Such reasons could be to make room for installations, entries or windows. Holes can lead to major changes in how forces act in the construction and involve substantial reductions in bearing capacity. This must be taken into account when dimensioning and there are methods for this.

    The purpose of this project was to present the required steps to perform the dimensioning of concrete beams affected by large holes. This was done by establishing a step by step instruction that describes the calculation process. To illustrate the dimensioning method and give a better understanding of the information that is presented in this report, the theory was applied in an example.

    The result of the project consists of a dimensioning instruction that was developed on the basis of existing data. The result also includes an example that was solved using the developed instruction. The dimensioning instruction describes an appropriate calculation procedure for dimensioning concrete beams with large holes. The example goes through the dimensioning of reinforcements to enable force transmission in a concrete beam with a door opening.

    After completed work, it is concluded that the developed dimensioning instruction and the example, fulfill the purpose of presenting and illustrating a dimensioning method for concrete beams affected by large holes. However, whether the dimensioning method that is presented is the most optimal is debatable.

  • Nilsson, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Gender Performativity and Motherhood in Coraline1980Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Coraline by Neil Gaiman has several characters who in many ways break gender norms. The main protagonist of the novel, Coraline, acts more in accordance with masculine gender norms, and the mother figures are mothers who do not fully conform to the traditional mother role. The purpose of this study is to look at how Coraline and the mother figures perform their gender, and in which ways this breaks with or aligns with traditional gender norms. The analytical approach is based on Judith Butler’s theory of gender performativity, and on masculine and feminine gender schemas defined by John Stephens. For the analysis of motherhood, gender performativity has also been used, and works by Adrienne Rich and Einat Natalie Palkovich. This study shows that the protagonists challenge traditional gender role norms of masculinity and femininity, whereof motherhood is part. The study also shows that there is a lack of female role models for the young protagonist, and that acting according to masculine gender norms is desirable and necessary in the novel. But for the mothers, breaking gender norms is undesirable, dangerous, and even punished. A conclusion of the study is that even though Coraline appears to be a feminist novel, the underlying message is not entirely so.

  • Demiroglu, Osman Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Saarinen, Jarkko
    Oulun yliopisto, Oulu, Finland; University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    The last resort?: Ski tourism and climate change in Arctic Sweden2019In: Journal of Tourism Futures, ISSN 2055-5911, E-ISSN 2055-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the external and internal factors that support or challenge a possible transformation of Arctic Sweden into a major ski destination under a changing climate. Design/methodology/approach – The paper questions future availability of the physical and the human factors that foster ski tourism development in Arctic Sweden and suggests a comparative case study in relation to the already existing large resort-based ski destinations in Arctic Finland. Findings – Preliminary documentary analysis shows that the governmental and the industrial discourses over the past decade have acknowledged a competitive edge for Sweden and its northernmost regions in particular and may even propose a structural shift for ski tourism in the near future agenda. The visualisations based on natural snow projections presented in this paper confirm this comparative advantage but other technical and socioeconomic development factors are further discussed, in relation to Arctic Finland. Research limitations/implications – Future research agenda is suggested to cover, first, assessment of natural and technical snow reliability of existing and all potential ski areas in Sweden and within its competitive set extending to all the Nordics and the Alps, then, incorporation of adaptive capacities of the suppliers but especially the likely substitution tendencies of the consumers, and finally, evaluation of the overall situation in terms of the regional development needs. Social implications – It is apparent that land use conflicts will arise in case of large ski resort-based destination development in Arctic Sweden, especially around the environmentally protected areas, which are not only already important attractions for nature-based tourism but also traditional livelihoods for the Sami. Originality/value – This is the first paper to discuss a potential regional and structural shift of ski tourism in Sweden.

  • Åkerman, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Objektive Lesbarkeitsuntersuchungen oder sinnlose Formeln?: Eine Untersuchung von drei Methoden fürs Entscheiden der Lesbarkeit, appliziert auf zwei literarische Werke2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete undersöks två etablerade och en experimentell metod för bestämmande av läsbarheten hos texter. Metoderna undersöks genom att de appliceras på två litterära verk: Atemschaukel av Herta Müller och Berühre mich. Nicht. av Laura Kneidl. Metoderna som undersöks är läsbarhetsformeln Flesch-Reading-Ease (meningslängd och ordlängd) och ordfrekvens (hur vanliga orden är). Dessa båda läsbarhetsundersökningar är väletablerade och har använts flitigt. I detta arbete testas även en ny möjlig läsbarhetsfaktor: Upprepningar av ord, där upprepningar av innehållsord räknas. Resultaten av analyserna enligt de olika metoderna sammanställs och jämförs för att besvara två frågor:

    1. Vilket verk förefaller mest lättläst enligt de två etablerade läsbarhetsundersökningarna?

    2. Samvarierar mängden upprepningar med resultaten från de andra två läsbarhetsundersökningarna?

    Resultaten ger en något splittrad bild: Atemschaukel är enligt Flesch-Reading-Ease det mest lättlästa verket, medan ordfrekvensen visar på motsatt förhållande: Berühre mich. Nicht. har de genomsnittligt vanligare orden. Huruvida upprepning av ord har ett samband med läsbarheten är svårt att avgöra baserat enbart på resultaten i denna undersökning. Användandet av språkliga stilfaktorer för eventuellt att läsbarhetstest inte lämpar sig för undersökning av skönlitterära texter. 

  • Kou, Wen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Gabrielsson, Klas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Borhani, Adrian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Carlborg, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Molin Thorén, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    The effect of artificial aging on high translucent zirconia2019In: Biomaterial Investigations in Dentistry, ISSN 2641-5275, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zirconia is known for its high strength but lacking translucency. Recently, a new type of high translucent zirconia, 5 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (5Y-PSZ), with a larger fraction of cubic zirconia phase has become commercially available. However, the resistance to aging of these commercially available zirconia materials is not yet fully established.

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of artificial aging on surface roughness, transparency, phase transformation and biaxial flexural strength of two 5Y-PSZ products, DD cubeX2 and Prettau Anterior.

    Materials and methods: The artificial aging was performed in an autoclave under 2 bars of pressure at 134 °C for 10 hours, which is estimated to correspond to 30–40 years in vivo. Artificial aging for 10 hours had no significant effect on surface roughness, transparency, or phase transformation for either of the tested materials.

    Results: DD cubeX2 had higher mean flexural strength than Prettau Anterior both before and after artificial aging for 10 hours (p < .05). DD cubeX2 showed, however, a significant reduction in flexural strength after artificial aging (p < .05), whereas Prettau Anterior showed a slight increase in flexural strength after artificial aging but not at a significant level.

    Conclusion: Within the limitation of the present study, both DD cubeX2 and Prettau Anterior seems to be relatively resistant to aging. However, a wider range of measured flexural strength indicated that Prettau Anterior probably is a less stable material than DD cubeX2, which also means that the flexural strength of DD cubeX2 could be more predictable.

  • Zhang, Xiaoying
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Contrast improvement of few-cycle pulses2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The intense few-cycle laser pulses play an important role in the investigations of laser-plasma interaction. However, one of the biggest challenges in their generation is the reduction of temporal intensity contrast by introducing undesired pre-pulses and a long pedestal. Two techniques were investigated in this work to improve the contrast. First, the crossed-polarized wave (XPW) generation was optimized to get clean pulse. The conditions for XPW were optimized including crystal thickness and maximal background pressure in the vacuum cell. Second, the method of elliptical polarization rotation (EPR) in a gas-filled hollow-core fiber (HCF) was implemented to produce both broadened and cleaned pulse, since its setup is much simpler. For the tested EPR-based nonlinear filter, the spectral smoothening and broadening were obtained. The contrast of cleaned pulse was characterized providing 2 order of magnitude contrast enhancement, while it had a high average power of 80 mW. The EPR-based nonlinear filter is a promising simplified technique in the development of intense few-cycle lasers.

  • Wu, Xiuyu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Optimization of Intense Attosecond XUV Pulses2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To observe electron dynamics in molecules and atoms which takes place on the attosecond timescale, single isolated attosecond pulses are required utilized in performing pump–probe experiments.

    The Light Wave Synthesizer 20 generates intense sub-5 fs pulses with a peak power of 16 TW and a broad spectrum. This offers a chance of generating isolated attosecond pulses via high harmonic generation (HHG) in gas medium. In this project, the variation of cutoff energy of HHG with different intensities of the driving laser was investigated. In addition, an isolated attosecond pulse with an Fourier-limited pulse duration of 188 as is produced with a selection of 15 eV around the cutoff region. Moreover, one optimization method refer to GDD scan was illustrated to optimize the HHG cutoff and continuum.

  • Wu, Xiuyu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Generation and characterization of intense attosecond XUV pulses2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic dynamics in molecules and atoms takes place on the attosecond timescale. For the observation of such processes, measurement techniques with attosecond resolution are needed. High-harmonic generation (HHG) in gas medium provides an ultrashort light source on the attosecond timescale for observing, understanding and controlling light-induced process on this scale with the necessary time resolution. To be able to use these attosecond pulses to measure electron dynamics, they have to be characterized. For this characterization, the XUV spectrum is extremely important. The XUV spectrum not only contains the information about the photon energies of the pulses, but also temporal information such as the difference between a single isolated attosecond pulse or an attosecond pulse train.

    The Light Wave Synthesizer 20 generates intense femtosecond pulses with a peak power of 16 TW and a spectrum spanning over the region from 580 to 1000 nm. This allow one to generate attosecond pulses based on HHG in gas medium with 100 eV photon energy and up to 20 nJ pulse energy.

    The generated attosecond pulses can be observed with a photodiode to measure the energy, an XUV CCD used as a profiler and an XUV flat-field spectrometer. The detector of the flat-field spectrometer is an XUV CCD which records the diffracted beam from a grating. Hence, a certain pixel of the camera shows the intensity for a certain range of photon energies. However, the calibration from pixel to energy is not always fixed due to e.g. the alignment of the spectrometer. This pixel to photon energy calibration can be done either by using the harmonic peaks in the XUV spectra or theoretical analyses of the spectrometer structure. In this thesis, both methods are investigated and the results are in good agreement. Due to the analytical calibration has a lower error and faster to do, future measurements can be evaluated with the analytical method.

  • Gu, Xiaolian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Boldrup, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Coates, Philip J.
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Regional Centre for Applied Molecular Oncology (RECAMO), Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic; Institute of Molecular Genetics, University Paris 7, St. Louis Hospital, Paris, France .
    Wang, Lixiao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Wilms, Torben
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Norberg-Spaak, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Sgaramella, Nicola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    High immune cytolytic activity in tumor-free tongue tissue confers better prognosis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue2019In: The journal of pathology. Clinical research, ISSN 2056-4538, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 240-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immune cells and cytolytic activity within the tumor microenvironment are being intensively studied. Through transcriptome profiling, immune cell enumeration using the xCell tool and cytolytic activity quantification according to granzyme A (GZMA) and perforin (PRF1) mRNA levels, we investigated immunoreactivity in tumor and/or tumor‐free tongue tissue samples from 31 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue and 14 healthy individuals (control tongue tissues). We found significantly altered immune cell compositions (p < 0.001) and elevated cytolytic activity (p < 0.001) in tumor compared to tumor‐free samples, and altered infiltration of a subset of immune cells (e.g. CD8+ T cells, p < 0.01) as well as increased cytolytic activity (p < 0.001) in tumor‐free compared to control samples. Controlling for patient age at diagnosis and tumor stage, Cox regression analysis showed that high cytolytic activity in tumor‐free samples associated with improved disease‐free survival (hazard ratio= 4.20, 95% CI = 1.09–16.20, p = 0.037). However, the degree of cytolytic activity in tumor samples did not provide prognostic information. Taken together, our results show the presence of cancer‐related immune responses in clinically tumor‐free tongue in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. Measuring cytolytic activity in tumor‐free tongue samples contralateral to tumor might thus be an effective approach to predict clinical outcome.

  • Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    What Can an Understanding of the Changing Small-Scale Forest Owner Contribute to Rural Studies?: The Swedish Case2019In: Small-scale Forestry, ISSN 1873-7617, E-ISSN 1873-7854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the centuries, Swedish rural areas have been formed in close interaction with their inhabitants and different and various uses. Based on studies, particularly of "new forest owners" in Sweden, this article illustrates how an understanding of forest and forest ownership can highlight the dynamic and shifting role of rural areas: as both rural and urban, based on both forest property and second-home ownership. It also illustrates that rural areas are not only post-productive but also continuously over time production areas, in addition to many other use patterns, and that rural areas can be areas of forest-related industrial and services growth, and thus rural growth. The article also illustrates that forest areas in Sweden, but also more broadly Fennoscandia, can be seen as areas with different habitation patterns and linkages between nature and population than what has often been described in broader rural literature.

  • Blomstedt, Yulia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Research Unit Medicine-Geriatric Clinic, Skellefteå County Hospital, SE-931 86 Skellefteå, Sweden..
    Lönnberg, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Flawed conclusions on the Vasterbotten Intervention Program by San Sebastian et .al2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An evaluation of Vasterbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) was recently conducted by San Sebastian et al. (BMC Public Health 19:202, 2019). Evaluation of health care interventions of this kind require 1) an understanding of both the design and the nature of the intervention, 2) correct definition of the target population, and 3) careful choice of the appropriate evaluation method. In this correspondence, we review the approach used by San Sebastian et al. as relates to these three criteria. Within this framework, we suggest important explanations for why the conclusions drawn by these authors contradict a large body of research on the effectiveness of the VIP.

  • Alhouayek, Mireille
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience. Bioanalysis and Pharmacology of Bioactive Lipids Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Boldrup, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Fowler, Christopher J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Altered mRNA Expression of Genes Involved in Endocannabinoid Signalling in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue2019In: Cancer Investigation, ISSN 0735-7907, E-ISSN 1532-4192, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 327-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT). Here we have investigated, at the mRNA level, expression of genes coding for the components of the eCB system in tumour and non-malignant samples from SCCOT patients. Expression of NAPEPLD and PLA2G4E, coding for eCB anabolic enzymes, was higher in the tumour tissue than in non-malignant tissue. Among genes coding for eCB catabolic enzymes, expression of MGLL was lower in tumour tissue while PTGS2 was increased. It is concluded that the eCB system may be dysfunctional in SCCOT.

  • Klewer, Laura
    et al.
    Wu, Yao-Wen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Light-Induced Dimerization Approaches to Control Cellular Processes2019In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 25, p. 12452-12463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-inducible approaches provide a means to control biological systems with spatial and temporal resolution that is unmatched by traditional genetic perturbations. Recent developments of optogenetic and chemo-optogenetic systems for induced proximity in cells facilitate rapid and reversible manipulation of highly dynamic cellular processes and have become valuable tools in diverse biological applications. New expansions of the toolbox facilitate control of signal transduction, genome editing, "painting" patterns of active molecules onto cellular membranes, and light-induced cell cycle control. A combination of light- and chemically induced dimerization approaches have also seen interesting progress. Herein, an overview of optogenetic systems and emerging chemo-optogenetic systems is provided, and recent applications in tackling complex biological problems are discussed.

  • Sparrman, Tobias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Svenningsson, Leo
    Sahlin-Sjovold, Karin
    Nordstierna, Lars
    Westman, Gunnar
    Bernin, Diana
    A revised solid-state NMR method to assess the crystallinity of cellulose2019In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, no 17, p. 8993-9003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystallinity of cellulose has a strong impact on various material properties. Over the years, many methods have become available to estimate the crystallinity. The purpose of this work was to revise existing NMR-based methods and to introduce a complementary NMR method related to the C-13 T-1 relaxation time. The C-13 T-1 differs by an order of magnitude for amorphous and crystalline polymers among them cellulose. We have utilized the signal boost of H-1-C-13 cross polarization and the difference in C-13 T-1 as a filter to calculate the degree of crystallinity. The evaluation of the method is based on the difference in peak integrals, which is fed into a simple equation. The method was applied to five cellulosic samples of different nature and compared the obtained degree of crystallinity with the degree estimated from deconvoluted X-ray scattering patterns. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to give a basic understanding on the origin of CP enhancement in order to validate various proposed NMR methods. With the recent progress of NMR equipment, the presented method can be automatized and applied to a series of samples using a sample changer.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-18 13:00 E04, Umeå
    Mallikarjuna, Pramod
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Umeå university.
    The role of transforming growth factor‐β signaling and hypoxia‐inducible factors in renal cell carcinoma2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the cancer of the kidneys; about 1100 patients with RCC are diagnosed in Sweden each year. RCC can be classified into several subtypes, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is most common accounting to about 70% of all RCCs, and also the most lethal; papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) accounts to about 10%‐15%, while chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) accounts to about 5% of all RCCs. There is a need to study the distinguishing features of RCC subtypes to design treatment. Von Hippel‐Lindau tumor suppressor gene (VHL) is often inactivated in ccRCC, unlike in pRCC or chRCC. Transforming growth factor‐β (TGF‐β) is a cytokine involved in various biological processes such as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, andepithelial‐mesenchymal transition. TGF‐β exerts its functions through canonical (Smad‐dependent) and non‐canonical (Smadindependent) signaling pathways. In the first study, we have shown that both canonical and non‐canonical TGF‐β signaling pathways are associated with ccRCC tumor progression. VHL is known to have a dampening effect on TGF‐β signaling in RCC. However, the effects of pVHL status on the TGF‐β signaling pathway in ccRCC and non-ccRCC has not yet been studied in detail. In the second study, we have investigated the effects of the TGF‐β signaling pathway in the presence or absence of pVHL in ccRCC and non‐ccRCC. We show that, in ccRCC, VHL has an inhibiting effect exclusively on canonical TGF‐β signaling, and has no effect on non‐canonical TGF‐β signaling via ALK5‐ICD. In non‐ccRCC, TGF‐β signaling did not have an effect on tumor progression. Further, we demonstrate that VHL, through its ubiquitin ligases activity ubiquitinates ALK5 in a K48 dependent manner and subjects it to proteasomal degradation. During the normoxic conditions, VHL is implicated in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of Hypoxia‐inducible factors (HIFs). In hypoxic conditions or when the loss of VHL occurs, HIFs accumulates in the cytoplasm and enters the nucleus to initiate angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression. In the third study, we have explored a potential synergistic cross‐talk between TGF‐β signaling and hypoxia in ccRCC. We demonstrate a correlation between TGF‐β signaling components and HIF‐1α/2α in ccRCC. We have also shown that TGF‐β signaling enhances the expression of HIF‐1α/2α and their target genes even under normoxic conditions, dependent on the kinase activity of ALK5 and dictated by the status of VHL. We present novel data that the synergistic crosstalk between hypoxia and TGF‐β is orchestrated through interactions between ALK5 and HIF‐1α/2α. HIF‐3α is only limited studied, compared with HIF‐1α and HIF‐2α. In the fourth study, we have analyzed the roles of HIF‐3α in ccRCC and pRCC and show that HIF‐3α is associated with advanced stage and metastasized tumors. We also found that HIF‐3α is associated with TRAF6, a crucial component of non‐canonical TGF‐β signaling.

  • Blom, Joacim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Larsson, Desireé
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Förändringar i och samband mellan objektivt mätt fysisk aktivitet och kroppssammansättning hos äldre under en femårsperiod: En populationsbaserad kohortstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Andersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Johansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Assessing individual needs in Swedish elderly home care services: care managers’ argumentation in relation to the needs of migrant customers2019In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to analyse and problematize care managers’ argumentation of individual needs when assessing migrant customers within Swedish public elderly home care services. According to legislation, need for assistance should always be assessed individually. In recent decades of service decline, standardization of needs has been part of the distribution of elderly care services. Simultaneously, the stratum of older people has become more diverse, which means that a wider spectrum of needs is presented to the care managers. Ten interviews with care managers were analysed with a focus on their arguments regarding the care needs of elderly people with migrant backgrounds seeking assistance. The theoretical conceptions of the two perspectives of care and services were used to analyse the understanding of care managers’ arguments. Our analysis shows that the service perspective with assistance and support that are standardized for Swedes is poorly suited to people born outside Sweden and socialized into other expectations of family and society. The meaning of individual needs was imprecise and contradictory when confronted with diverse cultural codes. When general standards were used in the arguments by referring to regulations and local guidelines, immigrants’ individual needs were not prioritized. Our analysis suggests that the tension between national standards, local guidelines and individual needs has to be discussed further, where theoretical tools related to care and services may be useful in guiding care managers’ professional arguments of individual needs and cultural sensitivity in the needs assessment.

  • Friman, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utveckling av oljetestrigg för Compactmotorer2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bosch Rexroth in Mellansel, Sweden, delivers complete hydraulic systems for applications that require low speed and high torque. The hydraulic motor, which is a radial piston engine with cam ring, is developed and produced at the factory in Mellansel. At the factory, there is a large hydraulic laboratory for testing the engines. The increasing customer demands for hydraulic fluids that are environmentally friendly and fire-resistant, have led to the need to investigate how different hydraulic fluids affect the Hägglunds motor in terms of tribology. However, due to the large volume of oil required in typical test facilities and the time it takes to clean all components, such studies would be time consuming and costly. The company therefore wants to be able to evaluate different types of oils in an efficient way that does not require the current test oil riggs to be emptied and cleaned after each run.

    After an initial project planning period, a literature study on tribology was conducted to get a perception of what is happening to the surfaces in motion and how to apply this knowledge to the Hägglunds motor. The literature study also included examining existing tests for evaluating oils that are on the market and examining, whether these tests are applicable to Hägglunds motors.

    There are a number of standardized tests that assess individual tribological characteristics for different surface contacts. It is possible that a set of standardized tests that together may simulate a Hägglunds motor. However, the complexity of the different tribological contact surfaces in such an engine has led to the conclusion that only a complete motor gives satisfactory results. Two test concepts were developed, one based on the smallest available motor model, CAb10-8 (Concept 1) and another based on the smallest model from the best-selling motor family, CA 50-20 (Concept 2). With these motors selected, calculations were made on power losses and sizing of pumps, electric motors and coolers for possible oil rigs for testing.

    The results of this thesis are two concepts that will serve as a basis for deciding on the further development of an oil rig. The work did not include the purchase of components or experimental testing of concepts, due to the limited time frame for the project.

    What needs to be further investigated is how important it is to be able to perform high power tests. If this is not necessary, it may be possible that Concept 2, with some speed limitation on the engine, is feasible with the same amount of oil as in Concept 1.

  • Brunoni, Federica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden; Present address: Laboratory of Growth Regulators, Faculty of Science, Palacký University & Institute of Experimental Botany, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Šlechtitelů 27, 78371 Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Collani, Silvio
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Simura, Jan
    Schmid, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Bellini, Catherine
    Ljung, Karin
    A bacterial assay for rapid screening of IAA catabolic enzymes2019In: Plant Methods, ISSN 1746-4811, E-ISSN 1746-4811, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Plants rely on concentration gradients of the native auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), to modulate plant growth and development. Both metabolic and transport processes participate in the dynamic regulation of IAA homeostasis. Free IAA levels can be reduced by inactivation mechanisms, such as conjugation and degradation. IAA can be conjugated via ester linkage to glucose, or via amide linkage to amino acids, and degraded via oxidation. Members of the UDP glucosyl transferase (UGT) family catalyze the conversion of IAA to indole-3-acetyl-1-glucosyl ester (IAGlc); by contrast, IAA is irreversibly converted to indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid (IAAsp) and indole-3-acetyl glutamic acid (IAGlu) by Group II of the GRETCHEN HAGEN3 (GH3) family of acyl amido synthetases. Dioxygenase for auxin oxidation (DAO) irreversibly oxidizes IAA to oxindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) and, in turn, oxIAA can be further glucosylated to oxindole-3-acetyl-1-glucosyl ester (oxIAGlc) by UGTs. These metabolic pathways have been identified based on mutant analyses, in vitro activity measurements, and in planta feeding assays. In vitro assays for studying protein activity are based on producing Arabidopsis enzymes in a recombinant form in bacteria or yeast followed by recombinant protein purification. However, the need to extract and purify the recombinant proteins represents a major obstacle when performing in vitro assays.

    Results: In this work we report a rapid, reproducible and cheap method to screen the enzymatic activity of recombinant proteins that are known to inactivate IAA. The enzymatic reactions are carried out directly in bacteria that produce the recombinant protein. The enzymatic products can be measured by direct injection of a small supernatant fraction from the bacterial culture on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem spectrometry (UHPLC–ESI-MS/MS). Experimental procedures were optimized for testing the activity of different classes of IAA-modifying enzymes without the need to purify recombinant protein.

    Conclusions: This new method represents an alternative to existing in vitro assays. It can be applied to the analysis of IAA metabolites that are produced upon supplementation of substrate to engineered bacterial cultures and can be used for a rapid screening of orthologous candidate genes from non-model species.

  • Abdulla, Maysaa
    et al.
    Hollander, Peter
    Pandzic, Tatjana
    Mansouri, Larry
    Ednersson, Susanne Bram
    Andersson, Per-Ola
    Hultdin, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Fors, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Erlanson, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Degerman, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Petersen, Helga Munch
    Asmar, Fazila
    Gronbaek, Kirsten
    Enblad, Gunilla
    Cavelier, Lucia
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Amini, Rose-Marie
    Cell-of-origin determined by both gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry is the strongest predictor of survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma2019In: American Journal of Hematology, ISSN 0361-8609, E-ISSN 1096-8652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tumor cells in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are considered to originate from germinal center derived B-cells (GCB) or activated B-cells (ABC). Gene expression profiling (GEP) is preferably used to determine the cell of origin (COO). However, GEP is not widely applied in clinical practice and consequently, several algorithms based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) have been developed. Our aim was to evaluate the concordance of COO assignment between the Lymph2Cx GEP assay and the IHC-based Hans algorithm, to decide which model is the best survival predictor. Both GEP and IHC were performed in 359 homogenously treated Swedish and Danish DLBCL patients, in a retrospective multicenter cohort. The overall concordance between GEP and IHC algorithm was 72%; GEP classified 85% of cases assigned as GCB by IHC, as GCB, while 58% classified as non-GCB by IHC, were categorized as ABC by GEP. There were significant survival differences (overall survival and progression-free survival) if cases were classified by GEP, whereas if cases were categorized by IHC only progression-free survival differed significantly. Importantly, patients assigned as non-GCB/ABC both by IHC and GEP had the worst prognosis, which was also significant in multivariate analyses. Double expression of MYC and BCL2 was more common in ABC cases and was associated with a dismal outcome. In conclusion, to determine COO both by IHC and GEP is the strongest outcome predictor to identify DLBCL patients with the worst outcome.

  • Pallin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Ett vägledande fält: En kvalitativ studie om unga vuxnas internetanvändning i studie- och karriärval2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study is focused on young adult students’ experiences and perspectives of using websites for career information and guidance, and how that may impact their horizon of action in career decisions. Collection of data were made through interviews with college students from different faculties of Umeå University. All interviews were transcribed and compiled into various themes which were analysed with the perspectives of Digital literacy, Careership theory and the Chaos theory of careers. The result emergence the importance of students approaches on web-based information and their capacity of using it in their benefit. According to the student’s digital usage, which is categorized into simple and more advanced processes, perceives that digital literacy and personal characteristics may affect their use of career websites. The study concludes that internet is one of many social fields that influence the horizon of action and that the role of career websites depends on individual approaches and attitudes to several fields. For the work of career practitioners this study contributes with an insight about possibilities and risks that may come with student’s digital usage in career purpose. Therefore, this study also shows the requiring of further research in the area of career guidance and internet.

  • Marklund, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Formativ bedömning: En kvalitativ studie om lärarnas erfarenheter och användning av formativ bedömning i grundskolans tidigare år2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Formativ bedömning är en metod som handlar om att synliggöra lärandet hos elever för att som lärare sedan kunna modifiera sin undervisning utifrån elevernas aktuella kunskapsläge och därmed hjälpa eleverna att föra sitt lärande framåt.

    I den här studien undersöks en kommunal satsning med att införa formativ bedömning i skolan genom fortbildning av lärare i grundskolans tidigare år. Syftet med denna studie är att bidra med förståelse om lärares arbete med formativ bedömning i grundskolans tidigare år samt att ta reda på om den aktuella kommunens satsning lett till någon förändring av lärarnas tillvägagångssätt i undervisningen.

    Erfarenheter från sex verksamma lärare i grundskolans tidigare år har belysts med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer. Dessa har analyserats utifrån teoridriven tematisk innehållsanalys och det har bland annat visat att de tillfrågade lärarna upplever att tid är en utmaning i arbetet med formativ bedömning.

    Framtida forskning om lärares erfarenheter i grundskolans äldre år vore en intressant jämförelse för att se vad de har för upplevelser av att arbeta med formativ bedömning med ett äldre elevunderlag för att utveckla lärprocessen framåt. Det vore även intressant att undersöka om det är lärarnas kunskaper om formativ bedömning eller elevernas ålder och mognad som styr valet av nyckelstrategier.