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  • Grim, Katarina
    et al.
    Tistad, Malin
    Schön, Ulla-Karin
    Rosenberg, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The Legitimacy of User Knowledge in Decision-Making Processes in Mental Health Care: An Analysis of Epistemic Injustice2019In: Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Mental Health, ISSN 2198-9834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experience-based knowledge of users is considered to provide vital input in shared decision making (SDM). However, mental health service users frequently express having negative experiences from meetings with providers, which are of an epistemic nature (e.g., being ignored or not regarded as credible). This study aimed to explore the barriers involved in legitimizing user knowledge in decision-making processes. Interview data from service users and providers were viewed from a theoretic framework of epistemic injustice. Abductive content analysis was conducted on data collected during a project to develop and implement SDM in mental health services. In describing obstacles to legitimize user knowledge, service users highlighted relational issues: being dependent, often dismissed and choosing to edit their testimonies. Service providers typically described workflow issues, users’ insufficient decision- making competence and users’ vulnerability to stress factors. The findings suggest that greater epistemic justice might be achieved by a SDM process in which the service user is engaged as a full partner in collaboration in various activities related to their care.

  • Oudin Åström, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Veber, Triin
    Martinsone, Žanna
    Kaļužnaja, Darja
    Indermitte, Ene
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
    Mortality Related to Cold Temperatures in Two Capitals of the Baltics: Tallinn and Riga2019In: Medicina (Kaunas), ISSN 1010-660X, E-ISSN 1648-9144, Vol. 55, no 8, article id 429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Despite global warming, the climate in Northern Europe is generally cold, and the large number of deaths due to non-optimal temperatures is likely due to cold temperatures. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association between cold temperatures and all-cause mortality, as well as cause-specific mortality, in Tallinn and Riga in North-Eastern Europe.

    Materials and Methods: We used daily information on deaths from state death registries and minimum temperatures from November to March over the period 1997-2015 in Tallinn and 2009-2015 in Riga. The relationship between the daily minimum temperature and mortality was investigated using the Poisson regression, combined with a distributed lag non-linear model considering lag times of up to 21 days.

    Results: We found significantly higher all-cause mortality owing to cold temperatures both in Tallinn (Relative Risk (RR) = 1.28, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.01-1.62) and in Riga (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.11-1.79). In addition, significantly increased mortality due to cold temperatures was observed in the 75+ age group (RR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.17-2.31) and in cardiovascular mortality (RR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.31-2.55) in Tallinn and in the under 75 age group in Riga (RR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.12-2.22). In this study, we found no statistically significant relationship between mortality due to respiratory or external causes and cold days. The cold-related attributable fraction (AF) was 7.4% (95% CI -3.7-17.5) in Tallinn and 8.3% (95% CI -0.5-16.3) in Riga. This indicates that a relatively large proportion of deaths in cold periods can be related to cold in North-Eastern Europe, where winters are relatively harsh.

  • Lee, Jae Young
    et al.
    Kim, Ho
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Armstrong, Ben
    Bell, Michelle L
    Sera, Francesco
    Lavigne, Eric
    Abrutzky, Rosana
    Tong, Shilu
    Coelho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio
    Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento
    Correa, Patricia Matus
    Ortega, Nicolas Valdes
    Kan, Haidong
    Garcia, Samuel Osorio
    Kyselý, Jan
    Urban, Aleš
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Indermitte, Ene
    Jaakkola, Jouni J K
    Ryti, Niilo R I
    Pascal, Mathilde
    Goodman, Patrick G
    Zeka, Ariana
    Michelozzi, Paola
    Scortichini, Matteo
    Hashizume, Masahiro
    Honda, Yasushi
    Hurtado, Magali
    Cruz, Julio
    Seposo, Xerxes
    Nunes, Baltazar
    Teixeira, João Paulo
    Tobias, Aurelio
    Íñiguez, Carmen
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Maria
    Ragettli, Martina S
    Guo, Yue-Liang Leon
    Chen, Bing-Yu
    Zanobetti, Antonella
    Schwartz, Joel
    Dang, Tran Ngoc
    Do Van, Dung
    Mayvaneh, Fetemeh
    Overcenco, Ala
    Li, Shanshan
    Guo, Yuming
    Predicted temperature-increase-induced global health burden and its regional variability2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 131, article id 105027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increase in the global health burden of temperature was projected for 459 locations in 28 countries worldwide under four representative concentration pathway scenarios until 2099. We determined that the amount of temperature increase for each 100 ppm increase in global CO2 concentrations is nearly constant, regardless of climate scenarios. The overall average temperature increase during 2010-2099 is largest in Canada (1.16 °C/100 ppm) and Finland (1.14 °C/100 ppm), while it is smallest in Ireland (0.62 °C/100 ppm) and Argentina (0.63 °C/100 ppm). In addition, for each 1 °C temperature increase, the amount of excess mortality is increased largely in tropical countries such as Vietnam (10.34%p/°C) and the Philippines (8.18%p/°C), while it is decreased in Ireland (-0.92%p/°C) and Australia (-0.32%p/°C). To understand the regional variability in temperature increase and mortality, we performed a regression-based modeling. We observed that the projected temperature increase is highly correlated with daily temperature range at the location and vulnerability to temperature increase is affected by health expenditure, and proportions of obese and elderly population.

  • Össbo, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Recurring Colonial Ignorance: A Genealogy of the Swedish Energy System2018In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 63-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter sketches a genealogy of the backbone of the Swedish energy system—hydroelectricity, starting with the recent state investigation on Water Activities and its version of history that stands in contrast to research showing the historical as well as present-day colonialism manifested in Swedish policy on hydropower development in Sápmi and the apparent exclusionary practice of only inviting certain stakeholders to participate in the investigation, none of whom represented Sami organisations or institutions. In order to trace the formation of this practice, a lineage is established through a study of the uncharted judicial and political impacts of an exemption act facilitating hydroelectric power extraction during the Second World War, an act that eventually became conventional law. After the war, Swedish hydropower expansion was mainly pursued in the northern parts of the country, which coincide with Sápmi—the traditional land of the Indigenous Sami people. Sweden’s environmental policies of today are focused on what is perceived as renewable and sustainable energy sources. While leaning heavily on hydropower, these policies rarely acknowledge the consequences of hydropower extraction in Sápmi. Nor are the traces of water rights left in the terrain recognised, traces that make possible a recurring colonial practice of ignorance among present-day Swedish decision makers.

  • Knospe, Yvonne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Schreibstrategietraining im Deutschunterricht: Textqualität und Schreibprozesse einiger schwedischer Lernender2019In: German as a Foreign Language, ISSN 1470-9570, E-ISSN 1470-9570, no 2, p. 20-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Vor dem Hintergrund einer mangelnden fremdsprachlichen Kompetenz in der Drittsprache bei Schülerinnen und Schülern in ganz Europa (European Commission 2012) wird in diesem Beitrag der Einsatz von Strategie- und Lernbewusstheit fördernden Methoden im Drittsprachenunterricht thematisiert. Die Entwicklung von Textqualität und Schreib-prozessen einiger schwedischer Lernender in der Drittsprache Deutsch und unter dem Einfluss eines Schreibstrategietrainings wird beschrieben. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine Verbesserung der Textqualität und geringe Veränderungen im Schreibverhalten, welche sich vor allem durch die abnehmende Nutzung von Online-Wörterbüchern und ein gesteigertes Vorkommen von Textrevisionen zeigten. 

  • Sofia, Björkman
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Ngwe Luckey, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Ett vegetariskt val2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns många faktorer som påverkar det vegetariska matvalet och syftet med uppsatsen är att synliggöra dessa faktorer. Varför väljer individen att äta en vegetarisk kost? För att identifiera orsakerna valdes en kvalitativ metod där sex semi-strukturerade intervjuer genomfördes. Analysmetoden som användes för att ta fram uppsatsens tre teman var tematisk analys. Uppsatsen bygger även på tidigare forskning inom området där en redogörelse för vad en vegetarisk kost är och vad som kan påverka individen i hennes matval. Vidare redogörs det för hur respondenternas definition av en vegetarisk kost ser ut. Studiens resultat visar på att både yttre och inre faktorer påverkade respondenterna i deras val av en vegetarisk kost. Resultatet diskuterades med teorin symbolisk interaktionism.

  • Granberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Edström, Jacob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Ta inte för dig mer än du orkar äta upp: En studie av arbetet för minskat matsvinn i kommunala skolkök2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate municipal production of food in school kitchens and the applied procedures used within them to minimize food waste. The background contains information about the growing academic interest in the subject of food waste. It also provides an overview of the scientific literature regarding waste reduction interventions and their efficacy and the earlier measures taken by the municipal regarding the subject. Two participating observations was performed on two schools in Umeå municipality. The ethnographic record of these observations was analyzed taxonomically where four domains and several subdomains were identified which were presented together with excerpts from the narrative. The result and discussion exemplify how the two schools were applying procedures in practice. During the time of this study the measuring of food waste was not performed in a homogenous manner which created difficulty in evaluating the efficiency of the applied procedures. Further research in the subject is recommended to identify which food waste reducing interventions observed are effective and can be transferred to other schools.

  • Westin, Ebba
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Wrannvik, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Gör du något för din tarmflora?: Människors medvetenhet om goda tarmbakterier2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Today, there is a lot of research about the relationship between intestinal flora and our health, however research about how informed consumers are is limited. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate peoples’ awareness regarding theintestinal flora and if they make active choices to improve their intestinal flora. Method A quantitative research method was used. Data were collected using a web-based survey that was spread across Facebook and the student platform Cambro. The study included people from 18 years of age and above. Data were analyzed by Chi-2 test and Mann-Whitney U test. Significance level was set to p < 0,05. Results The study involved 184 people. Most of the participants were women and more than half of the participants had a dietary background. Women and participants with a college degree had a higher level of awareness about the concept of probiotics. Participants with dietary background had a higher awareness of all terms related to intestinal flora. In total, 58% of the participants made active food choices to improve their intestinal flora. Older people made to a greater extent active food choices to improve their intestinal flora than younger persons. The most commonly used source of information about intestinal flora was critically reviewed web pages. Men and people without dietary background used to a greater extent non-critically reviewed web pages to find information. Conclusion The study shows that people generally have low awareness about intestinal flora and therefore need to develop their knowledge about this, where men and younger people in particular need to be focused on. The dietitian has an important role to increase the awareness of intestinal flora in the population by spreading knowledge and informing about appropriate sources of information.

  • Andersson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Henriksson Benhadj Djillali, Sabrina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    ATTITYDER & KUNSKAP OM KOST HOS KVINNLIGA FOTBOLLSSPELARE: Attitudes and Knowledge about diet in female soccerplayers2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Damfotbollsspelare bör ha kunskap och intresse för kost. Damfotbollsspelare intar ofta mindre energi än vad rekommendationerna säger och riskerar då att hamna i den kvinnliga idrottstriaden, som påverkar hälsa och prestation negativt. Kostens sammansättning och tiden för intag är av betydelse för spelaren. Syfte Vårt syfte är att undersöka attityder och kunskap till kost hos kvinnliga fotbollsspelare. Studien undersöker skillnader mellan fotbollsspelare på elitnivå respektive lägre nivå. Metod Studien bygger på en kvantitativ metod, där en webbenkät skickades till fotbollslag ur de högsta divisionerna. För analys av data användes SPSS 25 med Chi-2 samt Mann-Whitney T-test. Signifikansnivån sattes till p < 0.05. Excel användes för figurer. Resultat Totalt deltog 207 damfotbollsspelare. Dessa delades in i två grupper; ”Elitnivå”, vilken bestod av Damallsvenskan, Elitettan och Svenska spel F19 (n=111) samt ”lägre nivå” med, division 1-2 (n= 96). Det fanns en signifikant skillnad (p <0,001) mellan grupperna gällande attityder till kost i samband med träning, där fler spelare på elitnivå såg till att äta en större måltid både före och efter träning mellan grupperna. Mindre än hälften (48%) av spelarna på elitnivå och 33% av spelarna på lägre nivån åt enligt idrottens tallriksmodell (p=0,155). Båda grupperna (elit 69% och lägre nivå 69%) ansåg att de hade tillräcklig kostkunskap (p = 0,924), trots att majoriteten (Elit=81% och lägre nivå=76%) saknade kostutbildning (p=0,337). Över 60% av elitspelarna samt spelarna på lägre nivå skattade sitt behov av kunskap >3 på en skala från 1-5. Slutsats Trots att spelarna påstår sig ha tillräckligt med kunskap, är det få som rapporterar att de äter enligt kostrekommendationerna. Studien visar att attityderna och kunskapen inte var tillfredsställande. Det behövs därför vidare kostutbildning för spelare på alla nivåer.

  • Svedlund, Lovisa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Laszlo, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Konsumenters föreställningar kring ekologiskt vin2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har konsumenter blivit allt mer medvetna om miljön. Det är inte bara konsumenterna som har blivit medvetna, även företagen. Systembolaget är ett företag som ständigt jobbar med att utveckla ett ekologiskt sortiment då de vill att de skall passa alla. Syftet till detta arbete är att ta reda på varför konsumenter väljer att köpa eller avstå från att handla ekologiskt vin. Den metod som har använts är en kvalitativ metod med en enkätundersökning, detta för att se om studiens syfte instämmer på respondenternas tankar och åsikter. Resultatet visar på att Systembolaget under åren utökat sitt sortiment och de har påverkat konsumenterna att börja köpa mer ekologiskt vin.

  • Youhannaei, Rita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    ATT KOMMUNICERA KOSTRÅD TILL PERSONER MED INTERKULTURELL BAKGRUND: En kvalitativ analys av dietisters upplevelser av tolksamtal inom svensk sjukvård2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Sweden is a multicultural society. In meeting people with a foreign background where language might be an obstacle interpreters are needed. According to Swedish law, care should be on equal terms based on individual's needs. Dieticians can face challenges since sometimes there are shortcomings in communication during dietary treatment. This affects the treatment and can potentially lead to poorer quality of treatment and unequal care.

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to explore dieticians’ experiences of working with interpreters in Swedish health care.

    Method A qualitative method was applied for data collection. In total, five dieticians were interviewed in primary care in Uppsala, Umeå and Malmö. The interviews were conducted by telephone and were based on a semi-structured questionnaire. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed with qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach.

    Results Five categories were identified, Sense of uncertainty of information exchange, Challenges with interpreter conversations, Inadequate quality of interpreting assignments generates problems, Complementary tools for safer information exchange other than interpreter and Unequal health care. The biggest challenge was unqualified interpreters who didn´t meet satisfactory standards. A low sense of control of information exchange was therefore handled with complementary communications tools. The meetings were demanding in terms of time and energy. Conversations was influenced by cultural clashes in communication. The dietitians' ability to offer a safe and fair patient care were negatively affected due to these difficulties.

    Conclusion Interpreters are an important tool for communicating needs and offering patient-safe treatment in intercultural meetings. Lack of communication affects both dieticians, patients and society negatively in the form of ineffective treatment, bad patient security and unnecessary costs. Continued research is therefore important in order to create better communication opportunities and safer health care.

  • ETCHI, PRISCA ENOW
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    TARKPAH, SYLVIA FREEMAN
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    HOW HAS TECHNOLOGY INFLUENCED FINANCIAL REPORTING PROCESS IN ACCOUNTING FIRMS?: An analysis of two international audit firms in Liberia2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technology helps firms maintain data flow, track processes and maintain employee records. Technology makes it possible for firms to operate efficiently and effectively with minimal manpower and helps to reduce operating costs. Because of its ability to minimize errors and reduce human interventions, technology delivers instant financial reports with accuracy and reliability. Even though findings from the study revealed that the use of technology has a positive influence in financial reporting, system breakdown leads to data loss which has the propensity to hinder stakeholders from receiving timely financial reports. Moreover, findings reveal that audit firms are exposed to information security risk such as virus attacks and hacking of the system.The old way of financial reporting had changed completely in some parts of the world while in other parts it is gradually changing. But how technology is affecting financial reporting processes all over the world and in Liberia specifically. The aim of this thesis is to investigate and analyze the transformation technology has caused to the financial reporting processes. The research question that guided the study was: How has technology influenced financial reporting processes of two international auditing firms in Liberia?In this study, qualitative method and interpretive research approached were used which enable us to gain deeper insights to the research purpose and address our research questions. The primary data was generated from purposive sampling of six semi-structured interviews from preparers of financial reports ranging from managers to senior associate. These participants were used due to their experiences working with technology which enable us to gain an understanding of how technology has transformed financial reporting processes. Financial reporting and technology are widely researched, but in the context of Liberia there is scare literature of how technology has influenced financial reporting in audit firms. Therefore, this study focuses on the preparers of the financial reports of the two international audit firms in Liberia.The aim of this thesis is to investigate and analyze the transformation technology has caused to the financial reporting processes and to investigate how preparers are trained to keep up with the pace of technology. As such, our theoretical framework used was based on the various technology used globally, efficiency and effectiveness, competence and skills, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), ABC model, financial reporting characteristics and financial reporting qualities.The findings further suggest that technology affects the security of confidential information and quality of the financial information. First and foremost, technology affects a firm’s ability to communicate with stakeholders. In modern business environment, it is necessary for management to communicate to stakeholders quickly and clearly without hindrance.The contributions of this study cannot be overemphasized. The study contributed knowledge on the use of technology in financial reporting. The study serves as a guide to local audit firms, universities and government to include or improve the financial reporting process of institutions

  • Doyle, Siamsa M.
    et al.
    Rigal, Adeline
    Grones, Peter
    Karady, Michal
    Barange, Deepak Kumar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Majda, Mateusz
    Parizkova, Barbora
    Karampelias, Michael
    Zwiewka, Marta
    Pencik, Ales
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Ljung, Karin
    Novak, Ondrej
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Robert, Stephanie
    A role for the auxin precursor anthranilic acid in root gravitropism via regulation of PIN‐FORMED protein polarity and relocalisation in Arabidopsis2019In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 223, no 3, p. 1420-1432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution of auxin within plant tissues is of great importance for developmental plasticity, including root gravitropic growth. Auxin flow is directed by the subcellular polar distribution and dynamic relocalisation of auxin transporters such as the PIN‐FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers, which can be influenced by the main natural plant auxin indole‐3‐acetic acid (IAA). Anthranilic acid (AA) is an important early precursor of IAA and previously published studies with AA analogues have suggested that AA may also regulate PIN localisation.

    Using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model species, we studied an AA‐deficient mutant displaying agravitropic root growth, treated seedlings with AA and AA analogues and transformed lines to over‐produce AA while inhibiting its conversion to downstream IAA precursors.

    We showed that AA rescues root gravitropic growth in the AA‐deficient mutant at concentrations that do not rescue IAA levels. Overproduction of AA affects root gravitropism without affecting IAA levels. Treatments with, or deficiency in, AA result in defects in PIN polarity and gravistimulus‐induced PIN relocalisation in root cells.

    Our results revealed a previously unknown role for AA in the regulation of PIN subcellular localisation and dynamics involved in root gravitropism, which is independent of its better known role in IAA biosynthesis.

  • Jonsson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gömda sår: Barns utsatthet av fysiskt, psykiskt och/eller sexuellt våld i ett långtidsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, experiences and health situations are discussed after exposure to physical, mental and / or sexual violence as a child in a long-term perspective, i.e. how such vulnerability can be experienced in adulthood. The purpose is to investigate which health situations adults can experience as a result of vulnerability as a child. Today, children's exposure to a greater degree than ever before in the public debate, but there is a lack of evidence for how this type of vulnerability can be related to experiences of possible ill health as an adult. In the selection process, the question of possible interviewees was sent to Sweden's all county councils and municipalities.

     

    This study has a general qualitative approach and a phenomenological analysis model. Qualitative interviews were conducted with five adults who had been exposed to physical, mental and / or sexual violence in childhood. In addition, a caregiver was interviewed who met people who experienced this type of vulnerability at work.

     

    The result shows that the experience of the health situation in adulthood could look different after exposure of physical, mental and / or sexual violence. However, earlier vulnerability had a large impact on experience of impaired physical and mental health as an adult. The result also show on various designed strategies in the management of the earlier exposure to physical, mental and / or sexual violence, which can be related to two different types of coping strategies. It is hoped that this thesis will contribute to increased attention regarding the fact that children's exposure to physical, mental and / or sexual violence can live on in a longer-term perspective where it affects the child even in adulthood.

     

    The conclusions of this study are that the exposure to physical-psychological and / or sexual violence in childhood and adolescence may have an impact on perceived health in adulthood. Furthermore, the conclusions are that individuals can develop different coping strategies to be able to handle such vulnerability.

  • Rova, Agnes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hur styr den feministiska utrikespolitiken svenskt utvecklingssamarbete?: En kvalitativ studie av implementeringen inom Sidas verksamhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges feministiska utrikespolitik förde vid sin lansering 2014 med sig höga förväntningar, och för svenskt utvecklingssamarbete avser den att höja ambitionerna för jämställdhetsarbetet. Generella problem med implementeringen har dock identifierats i en studie två år efter lanseringen. Denna uppsats syftar till att analysera den feministiska utrikespolitikens styrning och implementering inom biståndsmyndigheten Sidas operativa verksamhet. Sida har en lång tradition av jämställdhetsarbete och antas därför ha goda förutsättningar för implementeringen. Den feministiska utrikespolitikens implementering är ett aktuellt och omdebatterat ämne inom biståndskretsar, men forskningsfältet är inte omfattande. Det analytiska ramverket för studien utgår från ett top-down perspektiv och inkluderar ett antal faktorer som kan påverka implementeringen. Ramverket har fungerat som ett verktyg för att analysera uppsatsens empiriska material. Slutsatserna för studien är dels att utformningen av den feministiska utrikespolitikens styrning riktad mot Sidas verksamhet påverkar implementeringen. Främst är det otydligheten i formuleringar och status för dokumenten men även styrningskedjans längd. Studien har vidare kommit fram till att inställningen hos de implementerande aktörerna är en faktor som inte tros ha försvårat implementeringen. Däremot kan en brist på resurser och tid samt en varierande förståelse bland anställda på Sida försvåra tillämpningen av den feministiska utrikespolitikens mål och metoder.

  • Farhang, Mehdy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Mukka, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Bergström, Ulrica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Svensson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Sayed-Noor, Arkan S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    The trend of radiological severity of hip fractures over a 30 years period: a cohort study2019In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite advances in operative techniques and preoperative care, proximal femur fractures (PFF) still represent a great public health problem. Displacement and fracture stability have been assumed as important determinants of treatment modality and outcome in such fractures. Purpose of this study was to determine whether the radiological severity of PFF fractures has increased over time.

    METHODS: In a cohort study, the plain radiographs of all patients with PFF aged over 50 years who were admitted to Umeå University Hospital in 1981/82, 2002 and 2012 were recruited to examine the types of fractures.

    RESULTS: The ratio of undisplaced to displaced femoral neck (FN) fractures was 30 to 70% in 1981/82, 28 to 72% in 2002 and 25 to 75% in 2012. The ratio of stable to unstable intertrochanteric (IT) fractures was 64 to 36% in 1981/82, 68 to 32% in 2002 and 75 to 25% in 2012. The ratio of simple to comminute subtrochanteric fractures was 35 to 65% in 1981/82, 16 to 84% in 2002 and 12 to 88% in 2012. In both FN and IT fractures we found no statistical difference among these 3 study periods, p = 0.67 and p = 0.40. In subtrochanteric fractures we saw a tendency towards more comminute subtrochanteric fractures (1981/82 to 2012), p = 0.09.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found no significant increment in the radiological severity of FN and IT over a 30 years' period. However, there was tendency towards an increase in comminute subtrochanteric fractures.

  • Ekspong, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wågberg, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Stainless Steel as A Bi-Functional Electrocatalyst – A Top-Down Approach2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 13, article id 2128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a hydrogen economy to be viable, clean and economical hydrogen production methods are vital. Electrolysis of water is a promising hydrogen production technique with zero emissions, but suffer from relatively high production costs. In order to make electrolysis of water sustainable, abundant, and efficient materials has to replace expensive and scarce noble metals as electrocatalysts in the reaction cells. Herein, we study activated stainless steel as a bi-functional electrocatalyst for the full water splitting reaction by taking advantage of nickel and iron suppressed within the bulk. The final electrocatalyst consists of a stainless steel mesh with a modified surface of layered NiFe nanosheets. By using a top down approach, the nanosheets stay well anchored to the surface and maintain an excellent electrical connection to the bulk structure. At ambient temperature, the activated stainless steel electrodes produce 10 mA/cm(2) at a cell voltage of 1.78 V and display an onset for water splitting at 1.68 V in 1M KOH, which is close to benchmarking nanosized catalysts. Furthermore, we use a scalable activation method using no externally added electrocatalyst, which could be a practical and cheap alternative to traditionally catalyst-coated electrodes.

  • Sawalha, Sami
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Stenfors, Nikolai
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Lundback, Bo
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    The impact of comorbidities on mortality among men and women with COPD: report from the OLIN COPD study2019In: THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN RESPIRATORY DISEASE, ISSN 1753-4658, Vol. 13, article id 1753466619860058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Comorbidities probably contribute to the increased mortality observed among subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but sex differences in the prognostic impact of comorbidities have rarely been evaluated in population-based studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of common comorbidities, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and anxiety/depression (A/D), on mortality among men and women with and without airway obstruction in a population-based study. Methods: All subjects with airway obstruction [forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/(forced) vital capacity ((F)VC) <0.70, n = 993] were, together with age- and sex-matched referents, identified after examinations of population-based cohorts in 2002-2004. Spirometric groups: normal lung function (NLF) and COPD (post-bronchodilator FEV1/(F)VC <0.70) and additionally, LLN-COPD (FEV1/(F)VC <lower limit of normal). Mortality data was collected until December 2015. Results: In COPD, the prevalence of CVD and DM was higher in men, whereas the prevalence of A/D was higher in women. The cumulative mortality was significantly higher in COPD than NLF, and higher in men than women in both groups. Among women with COPD, CVD and A/D but not DM increased the risk of death independent of age, body mass index, smoking habits, and disease severity, whereas among men DM and A/D but not CVD increased the risk for death. When the LLN criterion was applied, the pattern was similar. Conclusion: There were sex-dependent differences regarding the impact of comorbidities on prognosis in COPD. Even though the prevalence of CVD was higher in men, the impact of CVD on mortality was higher in women, and despite higher prevalence of A/D in women, the impact on mortality was similar in both sexes. The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.

  • Sorensen, Julie
    et al.
    Johansson, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jerdén, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Dalton, James
    Sheikh, Henna
    Jenkins, Paul
    May, John
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Health-Care Administrator Perspectives on Prevention Guidelines and Healthy Lifestyle Counseling in a Primary Care Setting in New York State2019In: HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH AND MANAGERIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, ISSN 2333-3928, Vol. 6, article id UNSP 2333392819862122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The incidence of chronic disease and treatment costs have been steadily increasing in the United States over the past few decades. Primary prevention and healthy lifestyle counseling have been identified as important strategies for reducing health-care costs and chronic disease prevalence. This article seeks to examine decision-makers' experiences and self-perceived roles in guideline and lifestyle counseling implementation in a primary care setting in the United States. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with administrators at a health-care network in Upstate New York and with state-level administrators, such as insurers. Decision-makers were asked to discuss prevention guidelines and healthy lifestyle counseling, as well as how they support implementation of these initiatives. Interviews were analyzed using a thematic analysis framework and relevant sections of text were sorted using a priori codes. Results: Interviews identified numerous barriers to guideline implementation. These included the complexity and profusion of guidelines, the highly politicized nature of health-care provision, and resistance from providers who sometimes prefer to make decisions autonomously. Barriers to supporting prevention counseling included relatively time-limited patient encounters, the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for counseling, lack of patient resources, and regulatory complexities. Conclusions: Our research indicates that administrators and administrative structures face barriers to supporting prevention activities such as guideline implementation and healthy lifestyle counseling in primary care settings. They also identified several solutions for addressing existing primary prevention barriers, such as relying on nurses to provide healthy lifestyle support to patients. This article provides an important assessment of institutional readiness to support primary prevention efforts.

  • Uhrbom, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skillnader i teorier angående skäl för handling: Scanlon och Korsgaard2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Larsson, Kim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Animalism, det tänkande djuret och personers ursprung2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The debate on personal identity in philosophy is about what makes a person at one point intime the same person as a person at another point in time. Animalism is a point of view whichhas it that being the same human animal is what makes a person at one point in time the sameperson as a person at another point in time. Animalism makes the claim that a person isnumerically identical to a human animal. The two most prominent arguments in favor ofanimalism is the thinking animal argument and the animal ancestry argument. Thinkinganimal argument says that there is a thinking human animal where you are, but you are theonly thinking being where you are. therefore you are a human animal. Animal ancestryargument says that you are a product of evolution and that only living organisms are productsof evolution. Therefore you are a living organism, a human animal. In this thesis these twoarguments, as well as multiple objections against them, were evaluated. It was argued thatarguments about persons being numerically identical to thinking parts and to organs mightpose a threat to the thinking animal argument and the animal ancestry argument, but that thearguments supporting animalism should not be discarded.Abstrakt

  • Robles, Renard Tatsuya
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Humility in Interpersonal Relationships2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to establish a conception of humility which can be of use in nurturing interpersonal relationships of intrinsic value. The conception of humility asserted herein is a doxastic one that demands that an individual make an as-accurate-as-possible estimation of her knowledge, merits, and accomplishments in relation to others, in relation to the totality of knowledge, merits, and accomplishments, both actual and possible, of humankind, and in relation to an ideal. This paper asserts that humility consists of both a cognitive and an attitudinal component. The necessary cognitive component is an acknowledgment of the presence of great unknowable mysteries at play in every situation and every interaction between persons, which is further specified as the acknowledgment of the unknowability of the inner lives and consciousnesses of others. It is asserted that the attitudinal component of humility must result from the cognitive component and consists in keeping this acknowledgment consciously in mind in interactions in personal relationships and adopting actions and responses to others which are congruent with this acknowledgement. The conception of humility advocated in this paper takes points from the traditional Jewish conception of humility as presented by Daniel M. Nelson, a later account as formulated by the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber as well the more recent accounts of humility asserted by André Comte-Sponville, Julia Driver, G. Alex Sinha, J.L.A Garcia and Aaron Ben-Ze’ev.

  • Mäkinen, Malena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Namn och referens: Evans’ och Dickies kausalteorier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about proper names and reference. Its purpose is to compare Gareth Evans’causal theory with Imogen Dickie’s theory of fixing reference. After an introduction, I willexamine how the theories deal with a speaker’s introduction into a proper-name-usingpractise, that objects can change their names and that an object can have an unclear reference.Evans claims that a proper name gets its reference to an object via a group of producers andthen it is used in a proper-name-using practise in the community. The producers guarantee thereference of the name to the object, because they can identify the object known as NN. Agroup of consumers picks up the name-using practise from the producers, with the intention torefer to the object as NN. As long as the object is the dominant source of the speaker’sthoughts, these thoughts have the object as their referent.Dickie shows that Evans’ theory has difficulties in explaining certain examples and proposesan improved theory. She defines the principle of reference and justification which, combinedwith the mind’s need to represent, gives a framework for reference-fixing. Dickie identifiesthree groups of name-users and shows that they fix their reference in different ways. Theproducers by demonstration, the parasitic consumers to whoever the rest of the group istalking about, and the participating consumers by a careful uptake from testimony streamsthat converge on the object. As long as this uptake is governed by the object, the body ofbeliefs is about the object, thus fixing reference.I argue that Dickie’s theory is an improvement, although there are some problems that need tobe resolved.

  • Loos, Leonard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Hur smart är AI?: En undersökning av möjligheten av intelligenta maskiner2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The reemergence of artificial intelligence during the last 30 years has introduced severalforms of weak AI to our everyday lives, be it in our smartphones or how the weather ispredicted. Modern approaches to AI, using methods like neural networks and machinelearning, also feel confident about creating strong AI, intelligence that is human-like orsuperior to humans. In this thesis, I discover the philosophical premises of artificialintelligence, how the research program views the mind and what implications this has for theform of intelligence that is being constructed. Furthermore, I derive at several criteria thatneed to be met to qualify a system as intelligent. To cover this rather wide field, the works ofHubert Dreyfus, an early commentator on AI, and David Chalmers, one of the most widelyread philosophers of mind, are interrogated about their views on human intelligence and howsuch a theory relates to the possibility of intelligent machines.Key

  • Liljegren, Lovisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Hermeneutiska orättvisor och ansvar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hermeneutical injustice is the injustice of having some part of ones social experiences unintelligibledue to a hermeneutical gap in the collective hermeneutical resources. Consequently, a subject suffersan objective difficulty in either 1) understanding his/her social experiences and/or 2) communicatinghis/her social experiences. Fricker argues that it is a structural phenomenon with no individual perpetrator.Hence, the question of responsibility does not arise. Medina, on the other hand, argues thatresponsibility does arise though it may be limited. In this paper my aim is to examine Medinas andFrickers position in order to evaluate the larger question of responsibility in relation to hermeneuticalinjustice. I argue, with Woomers notion of uptake failure, that Medina gives a wider definition of hermeneuticalinjustice than Frickers original definition. Furthermore I discuss their partially differentviews of responsibility. I argue that individuals can be held responsible for contributing to hermeneuticalmarginalization. They therefore bear some kind of responsibility for creating the possibility forhermeneutical injustices. With Goetzes distinction between the cognitive and communicative harm ofhermeneutical injustice I further argue that individuals can be held responsible in relation to the communicativeharm of the injustice, but not the cognitive. I therefore in some aspects agree with bothMedina and Fricker.

  • Larsen, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Is Time an Illusion?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to see whether our idea of time might be an illusion, and inorder to find out, I look both at what modern philosophy says about the concept of time aswell as what modern physics says. I want to see if there is consensus between the two fields inorder to find a unified definition of time; and using this definition I want to see whether timemight be an illusion. As it turns out, time is an elusive concept that is difficult to define, andeven though most, if not all, researchers in both philosophy and physics agree that time exists,there is little else they agree on when it comes to explaining what time in fact is. Inphilosophy, there is also disagreement within the field and the discussion centers on time asquality, while physics focus on time as quantity – used to measure the world around us. Giventhe different accounts of time, it seems that each of us are left to make up our own mindsabout how to define it. Whether or not time is an illusion depends on how time is defined.And until there is a clear definition of time it also becomes impossible to say for certainwhether time is an illusion.

  • Jardstam, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The Stranger’s Case: Refugees and Moral Rights2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using the events in Sweden in the autumn of 2015 as a practical example, this paper examines the question of whether there are circumstances when it is morally permissible for rich, democratic states to close their borders to asylum-seekers. To lay a common ground, the author starts by looking at the right of asylum-seekers, who a refugee is, and what obligations a host country have towards them. Thus, after looking at general human rights, and how they apply to the right to seek asylum, the author turns to the question of who a refugee is, and the difference between refugees according to the 1951 Geneva Convention, and people who are in need of subsidiary protection, before choosing to use UNHCR’s wider definition of a refugee. While acknowledging that refugees have specific rights that other persons in need of protection do not, all asylum-seekers are entitled to not be sent back to a place of danger (which is the principle of non-refoulement). Though both groups are entitled to stay on in the country, the temporary status for those in need of subsidiary protection raises some questions about integration and their standing in society and therefore the question of membership rights is discussed before the author returns to the events in Sweden in 2015 and argues that there are circumstances when it is morally acceptable for a country to close its borders to refugees, but that there are limitations when this can be done and for how long. Finally, it is argued that a system that prevents countries from having to – or choosing to – close their borders to refugees is needed. The author discusses whether the grounds for such a system could be found in the work that UNHCR does, and if the DAC agreement can be used as a model for fair distribution.

  • Henningsson, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The role of identification for the motivational force of moral judgments2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What is the relationship between judging something as good and being motivated to acton this judgment? Motivational internalism is the thesis that there is a necessaryconnection between moral judgments and motivation. Externalists typically believe that ajudgment-independent desire is needed for the moral judgment to be motivating. Tobridge the gap between internalism and externalism, a few philosophers have appealed totheories of identification-based moral judgments. This implies that although moraljudgments may not be necessarily motivating in general, it could be possible to define acertain kind of identification-based moral judgment that is necessarily motivating. HereinI will examine the role identification plays for moral motivation. I will first analyse anargument that uses an identification-incompatible moral judgment to show thatinternalism is false. I will argue that this argument is unconvincing and that identificationdoes not preclude identification-incompatible moral judgments from being motivating.The identification-based argument hence does not support that internalism is false.Second, I will argue that identification can provide the motivational force needed to makecertain identity-based moral judgments necessarily motivating. This identification-basedaccount does however, I will argue, not support internalism. Despite presenting a kind ofmoral judgment that is necessarily motivating, it is an externalist account of theconnection between moral judgments and motivation since a judgment-independentdesire is a necessary source of its motivational force.

  • Galatius, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Det fria skolvalets legitimitet: En filosofisk analys om autonomins egenvärde, paternalistiska interventioner och rättviseteoretiska principer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The name of this essay is The legitimacy of the free choice of school – a philosophical studyabout the value of autonomy in the context of paternalistic interventions and principles ofjustice. The aim of this essay is to examine how the free choice of school can be legitimizedthrough perspectives regarding principles of justice. The results show that the free choice ofschool can be legitimized from several different standpoints such as the intrisic value ofautonomy, the negative concept of freedom and the rights based perspective of equality.Further, the free choice of school can also be legitimized from an epistemic viewpoint aswell as through theories about fair processes and compensatory efforts. My ambition withthis study is to broaden the discourse surrounding the topic. A discussion based on ideas andprinciples is a valuable complement to the more common debate about outcome regardingthe free choice of school.

  • Bergqvist Karlsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Om fenomenell kunskap och Förmågehypotesen: Information eller förmåga – vad lär vi oss när vi får en ny upplevelse?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Physicalism concerning the phenomenal consciousness; the view that it is entirely physical,stands in contrast with various versions of dualism, which claims that consciousness isirreducibly non-physical.Frank Jackson has presented the so-called knowledge argument against physicalism. Becausewe do learn something new upon having a new experience, and because this something cannotbe learned any other way than to have the experience, the knowledge argument concludes thatthere are non-physical facts about the world. Hence, physicalism is false.The Ability Hypothesis is a response to the knowledge argument presented by David Lewis andLaurence Nemirow. They argue that what we learn upon having a new experience is nothingbut a set of abilities. Hence, the conclusion of the knowledge argument that there are nonphysicalfacts about the world, is false.The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the Ability Hypothesis constitutes a viabledefense for physicalism against the knowledge argument. To accomplish this, I evaluate fiveobjections that have been raised against the Ability Hypothesis and the answers to thesepresented by Nemirow. I will argue that two of these objections point to problems with theAbility Hypothesis which cannot be solved, and I therefore conclude that the Ability Hypothesisis unable to defend physicalism against Jacksons knowledge argument

  • Marberg, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Karling, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Söderberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Anan, Intissar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Wixner, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms are more common in liver transplanted transthyretin amyloidosis patients than in healthy controls and in patients transplanted for end-stage liver disease2019In: Amyloid: Journal of Protein Folding Disorders, ISSN 1350-6129, E-ISSN 1744-2818, Vol. 26, p. 47-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2019-09-06 09:00 A103, Byggnad 6A, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå
    Håglin, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Vitamin A regulated neuronal regeneration and homeostasis2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The olfactory epithelium is a dynamic tissue maintained by continuous neurogenesis throughout life. Upon injury, neurons and other olfactory cell types are regenerated through proliferation of horizontal stem cells. Some genes that regulate vitamin A metabolism are spatially expressed in the olfactory epithelium. Retinoic acid is a vitamin A derivate, a key regulator of proliferation and stem cell activity. Retinoic acid is generated and inactivated by enzymes with opposing expression patterns which create local variations in retinoic acid levels in the olfactory epithelium. The overall aim of this thesis is to elucidate functional relationships between retinoic acid metabolism and the regulation of temporal and spatial features of normal tissue homeostasis and regeneration of neurons within the olfactory epithelium.

    I have studied the association between the activity-dependent retinoic acid inactivating enzyme CYP26B1 and neurogenesis.  During doubled stimulation by odorants and air flow the level of CYP26B1 was further induced in olfactory sensory neurons and proliferation of progenitor/stem cells was increased. In the absence of stimuli, CYP26B1 expression was reduced and proliferation decreased. Stimuli-independent transgenic over-expression of CYP26B1 resul-ted in increased proliferation, which was compared to acute intranasal admini-stration of retinoic acid that reduced the number of proliferating cells.

    The region of the olfactory epithelium with low CYP26B1 and high levels of retinoic acid synthesizing enzymes had the greatest level of proliferation and regenerated efficiently after chemical induced injury. Furthermore, neurons in this region differentiated surprisingly fast. In the region with high CYP26B1 and low levels of retinoic acid synthesizing enzymes the proliferation rate was low and the regeneration after injury was incomplete. Together these results indicate that retinoic acid within the olfactory epithelial stem cell niche regulates local differences in functional neuronal diversity, neurogenesis, and generative capacity of olfactory epithelial progenitor/stem cells.

    My research has revealed that ageing as well as constitutive transgenic over-expression of CYP26B1 activated dormant horizontal basal stem cells in the olfactory epithelium in an injury like manner. Continuous stem cell activation by constitutive CYP26B1 expression, repeated injuries or old age results in the appearance of epithelial patches devoid of normal olfactory epithelial cells, containing metaplastic respiratory cells. The respiratory patches either contained ciliated cells or a previously unidentified columnar secretory cell type.  Moreover, we investigated whether increased proliferation of stem cells affected their regenerative potential over time. Repeated injury-repair cycles maximized the number of stem cell division, which decreased their potential to regenerate olfactory epithelial cells. Together these results indicate a premature exhaustion of the stem cell niche upon reduced levels of retinoic acid, repeated injury induced regeneration, and ageing.

  • Nagre, Gaurang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Audi Uno: A symbiotic car2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    When we paint a nebulous future of tomorrow based on the research dictated by the available resources, we see a marathon run for the future that instigates new opportunities for the automotive industry with additive manufacturing. Cars of today are a product of subtractive manufacturing; but in future 3D printing would empower us to define a novel architecture that provokes the construction of the interior, exterior and the powertrain in one piece allowing us to celebrate the marriage between all three key components. Project UNO, meaning - ‘one’, exhibits this new architecture through a semi-autonomous concept that exaggerates the feeling of sportiness with a suspended cabin. In the autonomous mode the cabin moves around in the boundary of the exterior to enhance the g-forces by thrusting the cabin forward while accelerating, backward while braking and tilting while cornering. Therefore, the sporty nature of the design can be celebrated actively in both modes.

    Inspiration and Method

    The process was cut up into two palpable routes. The former dealt with a system level approach where the present cardinal building blocks of automotive manufacturing were rearranged with the new cues derived from additive manufacturing techniques to render a new system level solution. The later was aimed at advocating a tangible solution that best delineated this idea. Ten radical themes were generated that helped showcase the marriage between the three key components - exterior, interior and powertrain. The final theme was inspired by the analogy of an egg where the yolk moves freely within the egg white. This metaphor was then applied to the cabin experience in the autonomous mode. The occupant in the manual driven mode can cherish the full potential of the car to procure a sporty experience outside the city. While in the city, the autonomous mode seizes control and instigates the movement of the cabin within the perimeter of the exterior to amplify the g-forces by thrusting the cabin forward while accelerating, backwards while braking and tilting it while cornering.

    Result

    Concept UNO celebrates the marriage between the exterior, the interior and the powertrain that best encapsulates the process of additive manufacturing where cars would be grown and not assembled. The interior tub is reposed inside the exterior shell with the aid of six mechanical joints and is not adhered to the floor of the car. The gap around the cabin exaggerates the feel of a floating island that can shift freely. The cabin is composed of smart glass which renders opaque when an electric current is passed through it and turns transparent when the car is parked gravitating people to yield a glimpse of the interior. The bottom of the cabin is reflected by the gloss finish of the chassis unit that amplifies the floating feeling. A warm white was used to grant the concept a more puristic look while making it seem warm and friendly. The idea was then showcased through a 1:4 scale model printed in one piece using a Selective Laser Sintering (SLM) technique.

  • Norlund Shaswar, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Wedin, Åsa
    Language learning strategies and teaching practices in adult L2 education: The case of Swedish for Immigrants2019In: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 17-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the use and co-construction of language learning strategies (LLS) in second language education for adults with short previous education. In a case study, we explore how LLS are used and co-constructed by one student and one teacher. The data for the article was created in an action research programme comprising two Swedish for Immigrants (SFI) schools, and the methodology used was classroom observation based in linguistic ethnography. In accordance with Griffiths (2013, p. 15) LLS are defined as “activities consciously chosen by learners for the purpose of regulating their own language learning”. For the analysis of LLS, Oxford’s (1990) taxonomy was chosen. In the chosen case the teacher and student co-constructed direct and indirect strategies. In their co-construction, they sometimes seemed to work together, both using a strategy initiated by one of them, and sometimes appeared to have opposite goals, so that the teacher-initiated strategies turned out as complicated for the student, while the student-initiated strategies were counteracted by the teacher. Some of the LLS promoted by the teacher that were difficult for the student seemed to demand literacy skills that he had not yet developed. This underlines the importance of adapting teaching to the language and literacy competences of the individual learner. It also highlights the importance of further research on LLS with this group of students in order to find strategies that work in the process of developing functional literacy skills.

  • Nordlinder, Charlie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Skruvmönster för samverkansbjälklag bestående av LVL och I-balk2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Masonite Beams is a company that produces I-beams. They are also working on developing a building system for industrial production of building components. A part of their building system is a composite floor, consisting of LVL and I-beams. At the moment they are working with a new type of joint between floor and wall, where the connection between floor and wall will be solved by a protrusion of the LVL being placed of a hanger mounted on the wall. The aim for this project was to find a screw pattern where the resistance of the protrusion is enough to handle the support reaction that can occure.

    A screw pattern that would be capable to manage the support reaction was derived by practical tests, done in Masonite Beams lab. When a screw pattern with a capacity high enough for the support reactions had been found, 5 samples of the same screw pattern were tested to be able to calculate a characteristic resistance. During the testing the performance of the included components were also evaluated. The support reaction that floor potentially could be exposed to was calculated to 6,25 kN, a value lower than the resistance, that was calculated to 7,27 kN.

  • Rydberg, Linn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Larsson Stjerna, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Återintegrering av gatubarn i familj i Nepal: En kvalitativ studie om socialarbetarens roll i återintegreringen av gatubarn och motstånd under återintegreringsprocessen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka socialarbetarens roll i återintegreringsprocessen i familj av pojkar som lever på gatan i Nepal samt de motstånd socialarbetaren kan möta under återintegreringen av barnen. Sex socialarbetare vid organisationen Voice of Children i Nepal har medverkat i kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer vilka ligger som grund för studiens resultat. I studien har två teorier använts för att analysera materialet, vilka är Family-Centered Practice och KAIMeR. Dessa har använts för att på ett djupare sätt förstå det arbetssätt och de hinder som socialarbetaren möter i arbetet med gatubarnen. Resultatet visar att socialarbetarens roll är att identifiera problem, finna lösningar samt stödja och motivera barn och familj. Relationen presenteras som den mest avgörande faktorn i förändringsarbetet samt ett individuellt bemötande och långsiktighet. När det kommer till motstånd beskriver socialarbetarna familjen som det primära problemet, ofta kopplat till bristande engagemang och ansvarskänsla, där missbrukande föräldrar, styvföräldrar och föräldrar med barn som har en funktionsnedsättning beskrivs som mer krävande fall. När det gäller motstånd av barnen är det ofta kopplat till grupptryck som att de flyr från organisationen för att vara med vänner som fortfarande är aktiva på gatan. Att kombinera arbetet mellan samhälls- och individnivå kan tänkas förhindra att barn hamnar på gatan på grund av problem på samhällsnivå, samtidigt som det hjälper gatubarnen att lösa problem på ett personligt plan. Detta gäller inte minst funktionsnedsatta barn, där det behövs mer kunskap och förståelse för att öka möjligheterna för nya, givande arbetssätt. 

  • Roukachi, Farah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ”Om du tar av dig slöjan, så kanske du får jobbet.” - En kvalitativ studie av kvinnors erfarenheter av och föreställningar om arbetsmarknaden, i relation till att bära slöja.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to highlight women's experiences of and beliefs about the labour market, in relation to wearing the veil. It´s based on a qualitative study of semi-structured interviews with thirteen university students of women wearing hijab and illustrate how their reflections of discrimination affect educational choices. It also describes what treatment the women wearing hijab has experienced in previous contact with the labor market and when the veil has been actualized in different work situations.

    The result is described in three themes:  “wearing hijab”, “education and profession” and “work life”. It displays how the women highlight their experiences of discrimination towards their hijab and states that there is discrimination in social and public contexts, as well as in the Swedish labor market. Furthermore, the women tell how difficult it is for the hijab wearing woman to be considered as her own individual, instead, she is defined by the hijab and met with prejudiced values and reactions. The results were analyzed with theories as postcolonial feminism, orientalism, and different forms of discrimination, stigmatization and exclusion.

    During the job search, the respondents in this study tells that they need to over emphasize their skills because they constantly feel that they need to disprove prejudices about an imagine incompetence. Especially after the European Court of Justice ruled (2017-03-14) that entitles the employers to deny women wearing hijab at the workplace. Additionally, the negative attitude is not always visible but hidden outward and towards the periphery of society. This study clarifies how they are treated in society and highlights the limits of their opportunities in the labor market because of prejudice about the hijab. The results are related to previous studies and are discussed in relation to the dominant image of the veil in the West.

  • Schumann, Barbara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lindvall, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    ClimRef project – Resilient public health in the context of large-scale, drought-related migration in East Africa: Knowledge status and knowledge needs: Ethiopia country report2018Report (Other academic)
  • Schumann, Barbara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lindvall, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    ClimRef project – Resilient public health in the context of large-scale, drought-related migration in East Africa: Knowledge status and knowledge needs: Kenya country report2018Report (Other academic)
  • Schumann, Barbara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lindvall, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    ClimRef project – Resilient public health in the context of large-scale, drought-related migration in East Africa: Knowledge status and knowledge needs: Somalia country report2018Report (Other academic)
  • Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    A study of the use of digital technology and its conditions with a view to understanding what 'adequate digital competence’ may mean in a national policy initiative2019In: Educational studies (Dorchester-on-Thames), ISSN 0305-5698, E-ISSN 1465-3400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, adequate digital competence has been put in the spotlight due to the Swedish 2017 national strategy for the digitalisation of the K-12 school system. Based on both policy and practice, the aim is to explore teachers’ enacted digital competence in three upper secondary schools in Sweden and thereby provide an empirical account of what the notion ‘adequate’ means in practice. The data consists of interviews with teachers and classroom observations. At an aggregated analytical level, the results are presented as four narrative sub-case descriptions. It is concluded that teachers’ adequate digital competence is flexible in meaning, determined by local contextual conditions and enacted in activities and decisions that are based on the teachers’ own value frameworks. The understanding of ‘adequate’ in this study does not appear to be clarified in the formulations used in the national strategy.

  • Jacobson, Trolle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Segerberg, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    A Machine Learning-Based Statistical Analysis of Predictors for Spinal Cord Stimulation Success2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) is a treatment for lumbar back pain and despitethe proven effcacy of the technology, there is a lack of knowledge in how the treatment outcome varies between different patients groups. Furthermore, since the method is costly, in the sense of material, surgery and follow-up time, a more accurate patient targeting would decrease healthcare costs.

    Within recent years, Real World Data (RWD) has become a vital source of information to describe the effects of medical treatments. The complexity, however, calls for new, innovative methods using a larger set of useful features to explain the outcome of SCS treatments. This study has employed machine learning algorithms, e.g., Random Forest Classier (RFC) boosting algorithms to finally compare the result with the baseline; Logistic regression (LR).

    The results retrieved was that RFC tend to classify successful and unsuccessful patients better while logistic regression was unstable regarding unbalanced data. In order to interpret the insights of the models, we also proposed a Soft Accuracy Measurement (SAM) method to explain how RFC and LR differ.

    Some factors have shown to impact the success of SCS. These factors were age, income, pain experience time and educational level. Many of these variables could also be supported by earlier studies on factors of success from lumbar spine surgery.

  • Parkell, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Thurin, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Varför stanna kvar inom brottning?: En kvantitativ studie om att behålla ungdomar i svenska brottningsklubbar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish wrestling faces an issue, in that participation seems to decrease after the age of 9. The main purpose of this study is to examine factors that motivate, gives joy and supports adolescents to continue wrestling, with the aim of providing insights that can be useful when striving to retain participant numbers among young wrestlers. The study employs a quantitative method, using a survey to collect empirical data from active wrestlers aged 13-16. The survey yielded 82 responses, which were analyzed through the use of SPSS. The results indicate that friendship, a sense of community, and a desire to perform well during practice sessions and competitions are the most prominent factors listed by the respondents of the study. Furthermore, the study did not find any big differences in the results depending on age or gender. Recommendations for future research include studying wrestlers who are no longer active and investigating whether there is a relationship between their decision to quit and a lack of the produced factors identified within this thesis

  • Bergström, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Persson, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Mogren, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Psychosocial and behavioural characteristics in women with pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain 12 years postpartum2019In: Vol. 27, no 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is insufficient evidence regarding psychosocial factors and its long-term association with persistent pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain. The overall aim of this study was to investigate women with persistent pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain 12 years postpartum based on psychosocial and behavioural characteristics using the Swedish version of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI-S) classification system.

    Material and methods

    This is a cross-sectional study based on a previous cohort. Data collection took place through a questionnaire. A total of 295 women from the initial cohort (n = 639) responded to the questionnaire giving a response rate of 47.3%. To determine the relative risk (RR) of reporting pain 12 years postpartum, a robust modified Poisson regression was used. This is the first study using the MPI-S as a predictive variable on women with persistent pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain.

    Results

    The MPI-S classification procedure was carried out on a total of n = 226 women, where 53 women were classified as interpersonally distressed (ID), 82 as dysfunctional (DYS), and 91 as adaptive copers (AC). Women in the ID and DYS subgroups had a relative risk (RR) of reporting persistent pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain 12 years postpartum that was more than twice as high compared to the AC subgroup (95% confidence interval (CI) in parenthesis): RR 2.57 (CI 1.76 - 3.75), p<0.0001 and RR 2.23 (CI 1.53 - 3.25), p<0.0001 respectively. Women in the DYS subgroup had more than 5 times increased risk of reporting sick leave the past 12 months compared to the AC subgroup (RR 5.44; CI 1.70 - 17.38, p=0.004).

    Conclusions

    The present study demonstrates that it is possible to classify women with persistent pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain 12 years postpartum into relevant clinical subgroups based on psychosocial and behavioural characteristics using the MPI-S questionnaire.

  • Norberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rydlöv Sundberg, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    "För att jag är ung och tjej": En normkritisk analys av styrelser i fotbollsföreningar i Umeå2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Sports Confederation (Riksidrottsförbundet) is a powerful organization of opinion within the service of Swedish sport, continually clarifying the responsibilities that sport assumes and the positive values that the popular movement represents. However, gender equality seems to be a difficult task to solve. In fact, Riksidrottsförbundet aim for that both genders should have the same amount of power to form the sport and to have equal opportunity to exercise and be leaders in sport. Additionally,both genders should have the same amount of influence in boards. This is something that’s not reached when the majority of all board members are still men. This leads to that several of the sport clubs must work to recruit more women. Swedish football have since 2019 created the project called “Plus 10 000”which strives to bring in more female leaders and coaches by 2022. Riksidrottsförbundet have a projectcalled “Strategi 2025” where one of the goals is that none of the genders should be represented with less than 40 %. The purpose of this study was to find out the gender equality in boards of football clubs in Umeå and what role the woman in those boards had. It was studied what 40 % means in practice for the equality in the boards and why the boards that had 40 % women succeeded with the recruitment and integration. Through interviews with people in boards of football clubs, the study showed how norms and performances control recruitment. The result showed that the members of boards were unaware of these norms and how they made the recruitment of women more difficult. The clubs were open to bringin more women, especially young women, but in most cases the masculine norm were invisible and made men choose men. The conclusion of the study is that women are not the problem, instead it’s the masculine norm and culture that create limitations. Awareness of the norm and culture must be established but also the process of recruitment must change in order to improve gender equality within the boards

  • Edin, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hedström, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    SM-veckans arv: En studie om hur idrottsföreningar påverkats av att arrangera idrottsevenemanget SM-veckan i Sundsvall 20152019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SM-veckan is a Swedish sports event that gathers minor sports to host their national championships during the same week at the same place. In focus during this study was six Swedish sports clubs in three different sports who were hosts of their respective sports national championship at the event SM-veckan in Sundsvall during the summer of 2015. The aim with this study was to add knowledge about how a sports event impact the hosting sports clubs by investigating the legacy SM-veckan left for the hosting clubs. Qualitative data was gathered through interviews with the six hosting sports clubs, a project leader and a competition leader for one of the sports. The sports clubs got to answer questions about how they were impacted by the event, but also about their goals and expectations of hosting the event. The results show that the sports clubs had very few goals and very low expectations to get something out of hosting the event. The clubs had experienced a small economic impact but did also believe that they had made a statement proving themselves as good hosts. In general the result showed that the event have had very little impact on the hosting sports clubs. One of the clubs had a clear objective to achieve a timing equipment through the event which they also managed to do. This study’s conclusion is that hosts must set up clear goals for why they host an event to be able to leverage and get something out of the event

  • Andersson, Jakob
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ögren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Den roliga idrotten: Vad gör barnidrott kul - enligt barnen själva?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common reason for engaging in sport activities is because it’s fun and enjoyable. But what is it that makes a certain activity fun and enjoyable? The answer isn’t so obvious and may be different depending on who is answering it. This study aimed to increase the knowledge regarding what is fun about sports. More specifically, to examine youth sports and children engaging in youth sports. Therefore, a questionnaire containing 20 different statements were distributed to children who were asked to estimate in which degree these statements contributed to making their sport fun. Furthermore, this study wanted to compare the ratings of these statements between teams and individual sports. The study included 39 children who were active in teams and 32 children who participated in individual sport activities with a total mean age of 11,72. The results showed that intrinsic factors were most important and that trying your best was the highest rated statement. On the other hand, winning had the lowest overall rating. The tests also showed that children who engage in team sports values being with friends in a higher extent than those who are active in individual sports. The conclusion of this study was that children found intrinsic factors to be most important when it comes to having fun. Some of the most important factors were trying your best and learning new things. Extrinsic factors such as winning and competing against others didn’t contribute as much to having fun. Significant differences were found between the groups when it comes to being with friends, winning and having a crowd cheering for you

  • Public defence: 2019-09-12 13:00 KBE301, KBC-huset
    Theens, Frithjof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Does language matter?: sources of inequivalence and demand of reading ability of mathematics tasks in different languages2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Practicing mathematics is not possible without the use of language. To communicate mathematical content, not only words in natural language are used but also non-verbal forms of communication such as mathematical symbols, graphs, and diagrams. All these forms of communication can be seen as part of the language used when doing mathematics. When mathematics tasks are used to assess mathematical competence, it is important to know how language can affect students’ possibility to solve the task. In this thesis, two different but related aspects of the relation between language and mathematics tasks are investigated. The first aspect concerns linguistic features of written mathematics task that can make the task more difficult to read and/or to solve. These features may result in unnecessary and unwanted reading demands, that is, the task then partially assesses students’ reading ability instead of their mathematical ability. The second aspect concerns differences between different language versions of mathematics tasks used in multilanguage assessments. These differences may cause inequivalence between the language versions, that is, the task may be more difficult to solve for students of one language group than students of another. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate some of the effects that language can have on written mathematics tasks, in particular, on the validity of mathematics assessments. The thesis focuses on unnecessary reading demands and inequivalence in multilanguage assessments. The data in this thesis are obtained from tasks of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012. The task texts and the student results on these tasks are analyzed quantitatively to identify the occurrence and possible sources of unnecessary reading demands and inequivalence. Think-aloud-protocols and task-based interviews of students who had worked with some of the tasks, serve to qualitatively identify possible sources of reading demands and inequivalence, respectively.

    The results showed both unnecessary reading demands and inequivalence in some of the tasks. Some linguistic features were identified as possible sources of these reading demands, while others were not related to them. For example, sentence length was not related to reading demands of tasks in Swedish, whereas sentence structure was identified as a possible source of unnecessary reading demands. Some linguistic differences between different language versions of mathematics tasks were also identified as possible sources of inequivalence, and in addition there were curricular differences that were such potential sources. The findings of this thesis have implications for designing mathematics tasks both in one language and in multilingual settings. They may help to ensure validity of mathematics assessments, but also to make mathematics texts easier to understand for students in general.

  • Public defence: 2019-08-29 13:15 S205h, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå
    Annelin, Alice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Audit teams and audit quality: a sustainable development goal perspective2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates the influence of audit teams on audit quality and produces a conceptual analysis through the perspective of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) framework (United Nations, 2017). Four articles study four different audit team factors, namely audit team hierarchical structures, team stress, team psychological distances and team equality. The conceptual analysis approach has been chosen to address the increasing demand for a better understanding of the accounting research role in sustainable development (Bebbington & Unerman, 2018), which drove the research problem focus in each article. This dissertation summarises the work that has been conducted in the four studies and also makes propositions for an SDG perspective on the work and for future research based on their findings.

    A unique set of data has been collected that contains information about auditors who have worked on the same engagements in the same team. The data has been collected by interviews and questionnaire surveys conducted in a field study, which have provided information that can be analysed using a qualitative and quantitative approach. The data has also included proprietary information about audit team client characteristics from a Big 4 audit firm. More specifically, this research has contributed to audit team, audit quality and the role of accounting in the achievement of the UN’s SDGs by answering several research questions. Results find that hierarchical power and status as well as trust play a role in audit team structure; audit team stress triggers and consequences include 1) team planning, competence, autonomy, 2) team changes, coordination and leadership, communication and cooperation and team support, and 3) team stress cognition, physical and affective forms; and, audit team psychological distances and equality has a relation to team behaviour. Findings can contribute to an understanding of equality and well-being in audit teams and therefore to the audit team’s achievement of the UN’s SDGs.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-06 13:15 Aula Anatomica (Bio.A.206), Biologihuset, Umeå
    Krzywda, Jakub
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    May the power be with you: managing power-performance tradeoffs in cloud data centers2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall goal of the work presented in this thesis was to find ways of managing power-performance tradeoffs in cloud data centers. To this end, the relationships between the power consumption of data center servers and the performance of applications hosted in data centers are analyzed, models that capture these relationships are developed, and controllers to optimize the use of data center infrastructures are proposed.

    The studies were motivated by the massive power consumption of modern data centers, which is a matter of significant financial and environmental concern. Various strategies for improving the power efficiency of data centers have been proposed, including server consolidation, server throttling, and power budgeting. However, no matter what strategy is used to enhance data center power efficiency, substantial reductions in the power consumption of data center servers can easily degrade the performance of hosted applications, causing customer dissatisfaction. It is therefore crucial for data center operators to understand and control power-performance tradeoffs.

    The research methods used in this work include experiments on real testbeds, the application of statistical methods to create power-performance models, development of various optimization techniques to improve the power efficiency of servers, and simulations to evaluate the proposed solutions at scale.

    This thesis makes multiple contributions. First, it introduces taxonomies for various aspects of data center configuration, events, management actions, and monitored metrics. We discuss the relationships between these elements and support our analysis with results from a set of testbed experiments. We demonstrate limitations on the usefulness of various data center management actions for controlling power consumption, including Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling (DVFS) and Running Average Power Limit (RAPL). We also demonstrate similar limitations on common measures for controlling application performance, including variation of operating system scheduling parameters, CPU pinning, and horizontal and vertical scaling. Finally, we propose a set of power budgeting controllers that act at the application, server, and cluster levels to minimize performance degradation while enforcing power limits.

    The results and analysis presented in this thesis can be used by data center operators to improve the power-efficiency of servers and reduce overall operational costs while minimizing performance degradation. All of the software generated during this work, including controller source code, virtual machine images, scripts, and simulators, has been open-sourced.