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Donat-Vargas, C., Bergdahl, I. A., Tornevi, A., Wennberg, M., Sommar, J., Koponen, J., . . . Åkesson, A. (2019). Associations between repeated measure of plasma perfluoroalkyl substances and cardiometabolic risk factors. Environment International, 124, 58-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between repeated measure of plasma perfluoroalkyl substances and cardiometabolic risk factors
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2019 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 124, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent synthetic chemicals that may affect components of metabolic risk through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor but epidemiological data remain scarce and inconsistent.

Objective: To estimate associations between repeated measurements of the main PFAS in plasma and total cholesterol, triglycerides and hypertension among the control subjects from a population-based nested case-control study on diabetes type 2 in middle-aged women and men.

Methods: Participants (n = 187) were free of diabetes at both baseline and follow-up visits to the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, 10 years apart: during 1990 to 2003 (baseline) and 2001 to 2013 (follow-up). Participants left blood samples, completed questionnaires on diet and lifestyle factors, and underwent medical examinations, including measurement of blood pressure. PFAS and lipids were later determined in stored plasma samples. Associations for the repeated measurements were assessed using generalized estimating equations.

Results: Six PFAS exceeded the limit of quantitation. Repeated measures of PFAS in plasma, cardiometabolic risk factors and confounders, showed an average decrease of triglycerides from −0.16 mmol/l (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.33, 0.02 for PFOA) to −0.26 mmol/l (95% CI: −0.50, −0.08 for PFOS), when comparing the highest tertile of PFAS plasma levels with the lowest. Associations based on average PFAS measurements and follow-up triglycerides revealed similar inverse associations, although attenuated. The estimates for cholesterol and hypertension were inconsistent and with few exception non-significant.

Conclusions: This study found inverse associations between PFAS and triglycerides, but did not support any clear link with either cholesterol or hypertension.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Cardiometabolic risk factors, Environmental epidemiology, Hypertension, Lipids, Plasma perfluoroalkyl substances, Prospective assessment, Repeated measurements
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156228 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.007 (DOI)000457122700007 ()30639908 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059696116 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-0758Västerbotten County CouncilSwedish Research Council, 2017-00822
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Tornevi, A., Sommar, J., Rantakokko, P., Åkesson, A., Donat-Vargas, C., Kiviranta, H., . . . Bergdahl, I. A. (2019). Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants and type 2 diabetes - A population-based study with pre- and post- diagnostic plasma samples. Environmental Research, 174, 35-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants and type 2 diabetes - A population-based study with pre- and post- diagnostic plasma samples
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 174, p. 35-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but causality is uncertain.

OBJECTIVE: Within longitudinal population-based data from northern Sweden, we assessed how POPs associated with T2D prospectively and cross-sectionally, and further investigated factors related to individual changes in POP concentrations.

METHODS: For 129 case-controls pairs matched by age, sex and date of sampling, plasma concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB-118 and PCB-156), and non-dioxin like (NDL-PCB: PCB-74, -99, -138 -153, -170, -180, -183 and PCB-187) were analyzed twice (baseline and follow-up, 9-20 years apart). The cases received their T2D diagnose between baseline and follow-up. Prospective (using baseline data) and cross-sectional (using follow-up data) odds ratios (ORs) for T2D on lipid standardized POPs (HCB, p,p'-DDE, ∑DL-PCBs, ∑NDL-PCBs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipids. The influence of BMI, weight-change, and plasma lipids on longitudinal changes in POP concentrations were evaluated among non-diabetic individuals (n = 306).

RESULTS: POPs were associated with T2D in both the prospective and cross-sectional assessments. Of a standard deviation increase in POPs, prospective ORs ranged 1.42 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.06) for ∑NDL-PCBs to 1.55 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.38) for HCB (p < 0.05 only for HCB), and cross-sectional ORs ranged 1.62 (95% CI: 1.13; 2.32) for p,p'-DDE to 2.06 (95% CI: 1.29, 3.28) for ∑DL-PCBs (p < 0.05 for all POPs). In analyses of non-diabetic individuals, higher baseline BMI, decreased weight and decreased plasma lipid concentrations were associated with a slower decrease of POPs. Cases had, besides a higher BMI, reduced cholesterol and weight gain at follow-up compared to controls, which can explain the higher ORs in the cross-sectional assessments.

DISCUSSION: The association between POPs and T2D was confirmed, but an indication that individuals body fat history might influence POP-T2D associations weakens the epidemiological support for a causal association. It also warrants studies based on other exposure metrics than biomonitoring. In addition, we note that a cross-sectional design overestimates the ORs if T2D cases have successfully intervened on weight and/or blood lipids, as changes in these factors cause changes in POPs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Biomonitoring, Longitudinal data, POPs, Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, Type 2 diabetes
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158688 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2019.04.017 (DOI)000470801100005 ()31029940 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-0758Swedish Research Council, VR 2017-00650
Available from: 2019-05-07 Created: 2019-05-07 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Wang, J., Pindus, M., Janson, C., Sigsgaard, T., Kim, J.-L., Holm, M., . . . Norbäck, D. (2019). Dampness, mould, onset and remission of adult respiratory symptoms, asthma and rhinitis. European Respiratory Journal, 53(5), Article ID 1801921.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dampness, mould, onset and remission of adult respiratory symptoms, asthma and rhinitis
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2019 (English)In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 53, no 5, article id 1801921Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

THE QUESTION ADDRESSED BY THE STUDY: Is dampness and indoor mould associated with onset and remission of respiratory symptoms, asthma and rhinitis among adults?

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Associations between dampness, mould and mould odour at home and at work and respiratory health were investigated in cohort of 11 506 adults from Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Estonia. They answered a questionnaire at baseline and ten years later, with questions on respiratory health, home and work environment.

RESULTS: Baseline water damage, floor dampness, mould and mould odour at home were associated with onset of respiratory symptoms and asthma (ORs from 1.23 to 2.24). Dampness at home during follow up was associated with onset of respiratory symptoms, asthma and rhinitis (ORs from 1.21 to 1.52). Dampness at work during follow up was associated with onset of respiratory symptoms, asthma and rhinitis (ORs from 1.31 to 1.50). Combined dampness at home and at work increased the risk of onset of respiratory symptoms and rhinitis. Dampness and mould at home and at work decreased remission of respiratory symptoms and rhinitis.

THE ANSWER TO THE QUESTION: Dampness and mould at home and at work can increase onset of respiratory symptoms, asthma and rhinitis, and decrease remission.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Respiratory Society, 2019
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157885 (URN)10.1183/13993003.01921-2018 (DOI)000470244000010 ()30880288 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Heart Lung FoundationForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareAFA Insurance, 467801100
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Lu, S. S., Stewart Williams, J. & Nilsson Sommar, J. (2019). Inequalities in early childhood mortality in Myanmar: Association between parents' socioeconomic status and early childhood mortality. Global Health Action, 12(1), Article ID 1603516.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inequalities in early childhood mortality in Myanmar: Association between parents' socioeconomic status and early childhood mortality
2019 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1603516Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Despite global achievements in reducing early childhood mortality, disparities remain. There have been empirical studies of inequalities conducted in low- and middle-income countries. However, there have been no epidemiological studies on socioeconomic inequalities and early childhood survival in Myanmar.

Objective: To estimate associations between two measures of parental socioeconomic status - household wealth and education - and age-specific early childhood mortality in Myanmar.

Methods: Using cross-sectional data obtained from the Myanmar Demographic Health Survey (2015-2016), univariate and multiple logistic regressions were performed to investigate associations between household wealth and highest attained parental education, and under-5, neonatal, post-neonatal and child mortality. Data for 10,081 children born to 5,932 married women (aged 15-49 years) 10 years prior to the survey, were analysed.

Results: Mortality during the first five years was associated with household wealth. In multiple logistic models, wealth was protective for post-neonatal mortality. After adjusting for individual proximate determinants, the odds of post-neonatal mortality in the richest households were 85% lower (95% CI: 50-96%) than in the poorest households. However, significant association was not found between wealth and neonatal mortality. Parental education was important for early childhood mortality; the highest benefit from parental education was for child mortality in the one- to five-year age bracket. After adjusting for proximate determinants, children with a higher educated parent had 95% (95% CI 77-99%) lower odds of death in this age group compared with children whose parents' highest educational attainment was at primary level. The association between parental education and neonatal mortality was not significant.

Conclusions: In Myanmar, household wealth and parental education are important for childhood survival before five years of age. This study identified nuanced age-related differences in associations. Health policy must take socioeconomic determinants into account in order to address unfair inequalities in early childhood mortality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Household wealth, parental education, neonatal mortality, post-neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159641 (URN)10.1080/16549716.2019.1603516 (DOI)000467824000001 ()31066344 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-03 Created: 2019-06-03 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
Shirdel, M., Bergdahl, I., Andersson, B. M., Wingfors, H., Sommar, J. & Liljelind, I. (2019). Passive personal air sampling of dust in a working environment: A pilot study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passive personal air sampling of dust in a working environment: A pilot study
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1545-9624, E-ISSN 1545-9632Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to make a preliminary evaluation of the University of North Carolina passive aerosol sampler (UNC sampler) for personal air sampling of particles. Nine personal air samplings of respirable fraction were conducted in an open-pit mine, with pairwise UNC samplers and a respirable cyclone mounted on the chest of workers. UNC samples were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and to some extent energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Respirable cyclone filter samples were weighed. Correlations and particle elemental compositions were described. Microscopic imaging of the collection surface showed that the particles were heterogeneously deposited across the surface of the UNC sampler. Collected particles were shaped as gravel particles and the resulting particle size distribution in air showed a peak at ca. 3 µm aerodynamic diameter, similarly to what has previously been reported from the same mine. The elemental composition indicated mineral origin. All correlations between the airborne mass concentrations from UNC samplers and respirable cyclones (Pearson = 0.54 and Spearman = 0.43) and between pairs of parallel UNC samplers (Pearson = 0.55 and Spearman = 0.67) were weak. The UNC sampler mass concentrations were approximately 30 times higher than those measured with the respirable cyclone. In conclusion, the UNC sampler, when used for personal sampling in a mine, provides a reasonable particle size distribution and the deposited particles appeared to be of mineral origin and not from textile or skin but the approximately 30-fold overestimation of mass concentrations when comparing with respirable cyclone sampling indicates that further improvements are necessary. Positioning of the sampler may be critical and moving the UNC sampler from the chest to e.g. the top of a helmet might be an improvement. Grounding of the sampler in order to avoid static electricity might also be useful. The UNC sampler should continue to be researched for personal sampling, as passive sampling might become a useful alternative to more laborious sampling techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Area factor, UNC passive aerosol sampler, mesh factor, mineral, occupational exposure, respirable cyclone
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162647 (URN)10.1080/15459624.2019.1648814 (DOI)31442106 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-26 Created: 2019-08-26 Last updated: 2019-09-02
Donat-Vargas, C., Bergdahl, I., Tornevi, A., Wennberg, M., Sommar, J., Kiviranta, H., . . . Akesson, A. (2019). Perfluoroalkyl substances and risk of type II diabetes: A prospective nested case-control study. Environment International, 123, 390-398
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluoroalkyl substances and risk of type II diabetes: A prospective nested case-control study
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2019 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 123, p. 390-398Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have drawn much attention due to bioaccumulation potential and their current omnipresence in human blood. We assessed whether plasma PFAS, suspected to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, were prospectively associated with clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk.

Methods: We established a nested case-control study within the Swedish prospective population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme cohort. Several PFAS were measured in plasma from a subset of 124 case-control pairs at baseline (during 1990–2003) and at 10-year follow-up. T2D cases were matched (1:1) according to gender, age and sample date with participants without T2D (controls).

Conditional logistic regressions were used to prospectively assess risk of T2D by baseline PFAS plasma concentrations. Associations between long-term PFAS plasma levels (mean of baseline and follow-up) and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B%) at follow-up were prospectively explored among 178 and 181 controls, respectively, by multivariable linear regressions.

Results: After adjusting for gender, age, sample year, diet and body mass index, the odds ratio of T2D for the sum of PFAS (Σ z-score PFAS) was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.20, 1.36), comparing third with first tertile; and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.00) per one standard deviation increment of sum of log-transformed PFAS. Among the controls, the adjusted β of HOMA2-IR and HOMA-B% for the sum of PFAS were −0.26 (95% CI: −0.52, −0.01) and −9.61 (95% CI: −22.60, 3.39) respectively comparing third with first tertile.

Conclusions: This prospective nested case-control study yielded overall inverse associations between individual PFAS and risk of T2D, although mostly non-significant. Among participants without T2D, long-term PFAS exposure was prospectively associated with lower insulin resistance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Environmental contaminants, Plasma perfluoroalkyl substances, Environmental risk factors, Diabetes, Insulin resistance, Endocrine disruption, Environmental epidemiology, Nested case-control study, Prospective assessment
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155947 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2018.12.026 (DOI)000455532500044 ()30622063 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-0758Västerbotten County Council, 2017-00822Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-08Bibliographically approved
Nagel, G., Stafoggia, M., Pedersen, M., Andersen, Z. J., Galassi, C., Munkenast, J., . . . Weinmayr, G. (2018). Air pollution and incidence of cancers of the stomach and the upper aerodigestive tract in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). International Journal of Cancer, 143(7), 1632-1643
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Air pollution and incidence of cancers of the stomach and the upper aerodigestive tract in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 143, no 7, p. 1632-1643Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Air pollution has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. However, to date little is known about the relevance for cancersof the stomach and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). We investigated the association of long-term exposure to ambient airpollution with incidence of gastric and UADT cancer in 11 European cohorts. Air pollution exposure was assigned by land-useregression models for particulate matter (PM) below 10mm (PM10), below 2.5mm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10mm (PMcoarse),PM2.5absorbance and nitrogen oxides (NO2and NOX) as well as approximated by traffic indicators. Cox regression modelswith adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined withrandom effects meta-analyses. During average follow-up of 14.1 years of 305,551 individuals, 744 incident cases of gastriccancer and 933 of UADT cancer occurred. The hazard ratio for an increase of 5mg/m3of PM2.5was 1.38 (95% CI 0.99; 1.92)for gastric and 1.05 (95% CI 0.62; 1.77) for UADT cancers. No associations were found for any of the other exposures consid-ered. Adjustment for additional confounders and restriction to study participants with stable addresses did not influencemarkedly the effect estimate for PM2.5and gastric cancer. Higher estimated risks of gastric cancer associated with PM2.5wasfound in men (HR 1.98 [1.30; 3.01]) as compared to women (HR 0.85 [0.5; 1.45]). This large multicentre cohort study showsan association between long-term exposure to PM2.5and gastric cancer, but not UADT cancers, suggesting that air pollutionmay contribute to gastric cancer risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
ESCAPE, air pollution, epidemiology, gastric cancer, upper aerodigestive tract cancer
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147272 (URN)10.1002/ijc.31564 (DOI)000443392100009 ()29696642 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2018-11-05Bibliographically approved
Raza, W., Forsberg, B., Johansson, C. & Nilsson Sommar, J. (2018). Air pollution as a risk factor in health impact assessments of a travel mode shift towards cycling. Global Health Action, 11(1), Article ID 1429081.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Air pollution as a risk factor in health impact assessments of a travel mode shift towards cycling
2018 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1429081Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Promotion of active commuting provides substantial health and environmental benefits by influencing air pollution, physical activity, accidents, and noise. However, studies evaluating intervention and policies on a mode shift from motorized transport to cycling have estimated health impacts with varying validity and precision.

OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss the estimation of air pollution exposure and its impacts in health impact assessment studies of a shift in transport from cars to bicycles in order to guide future assessments.

METHODS: A systematic database search of PubMed was done primarily for articles published from January 2000 to May 2016 according to PRISMA guidelines.

RESULTS: We identified 18 studies of health impact assessment of change in transport mode. Most studies investigated future hypothetical scenarios of increased cycling. The impact on the general population was estimated using a comparative risk assessment approach in the majority of these studies, whereas some used previously published cost estimates. Air pollution exposure during cycling was estimated based on the ventilation rate, the pollutant concentration, and the trip duration. Most studies employed exposure-response functions from studies comparing background levels of fine particles between cities to estimate the health impacts of local traffic emissions. The effect of air pollution associated with increased cycling contributed small health benefits for the general population, and also only slightly increased risks associated with fine particle exposure among those who shifted to cycling. However, studies calculating health impacts based on exposure-response functions for ozone, black carbon or nitrogen oxides found larger effects attributed to changes in air pollution exposure.

CONCLUSION: A large discrepancy between studies was observed due to different health impact assessment approaches, different assumptions for calculation of inhaled dose and different selection of dose-response functions. This kind of assessments would improve from more holistic approaches using more specific exposure-response functions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Active commuting, mode shift, emission factors, population exposure, commuters’ exposure, exposure response function, comparative risk assessment
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144660 (URN)10.1080/16549716.2018.1429081 (DOI)000424246900001 ()29400262 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Shirdel, M., Sommar, J. N., Andersson, B. M., Bergdahl, I. A., Wingfors, H. & Liljelind, I. E. (2018). Choosing the number of images and image position when analysing the UNC Passive Aerosol Sampler for occupational exposure assessment. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 15(11), 767-772
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Choosing the number of images and image position when analysing the UNC Passive Aerosol Sampler for occupational exposure assessment
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1545-9624, E-ISSN 1545-9632, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 767-772Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The University of North Carolina passive aerosol sampler (UNC sampler) could be an alternative when measuring occupational dust exposure, but the time required for microscopic imaging of the sampler needs to be reduced to make it more attractive. The aims of this study were to 1) characterise the effect on precision when reducing imaging, in order to shorten analysis time and 2) assess if the position of the images makes a difference. Eighty-eight samplers were deployed in different locations of an open pit mine. Sixty images were captured for each UNC sampler, covering 51% of its collection surface, using scanning electron microscopy. Bootstrapped samples were generated with different image combinations, to assess the within-sampler coefficient of variation (CVws) for different numbers of images. In addition, the particle concentration relative to the distance from the centre of the sampler was studied. Reducing the number of images collected from the UNC sampler led to up to 8.3% CVws for ten images when calculating respirable fraction. As the overall CV has previously been assessed to 36%, the additional contribution becomes minimal, increasing the overall CV to 37%. The mean concentrations of the images were modestly related to distance from the centre of the sampler. The CVws changed from 8.26% to 8.13% for ten images when applying rules for the image collection based on distance. Thus, the benefit of these rules on the precision is small and the images can therefore be chosen at random. In conclusion, reducing the number of images analysed from 60 to 10, corresponding to a reduction of the imaged sampling area from 51% to 8.5%, results in a negligible loss in precision for respirable fraction dust measurements in occupational environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Dust particles, PM10, PM2.5, occupational hygienist, passive sampling, respirable fraction
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152114 (URN)10.1080/15459624.2018.1508875 (DOI)000451621900002 ()30111275 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Schantz, P., Wahlgren, L., Salier Eriksson, J., Nilsson Sommar, J. & Rosdahl, H. (2018). Estimating duration-distance relations in cycle commuting in the general population. PLoS ONE, 13(11), Article ID e0207573.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating duration-distance relations in cycle commuting in the general population
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is important to estimate the duration-distance relation in cycle commuting in the general population since this enables analyses of the potential for various public health outcomes. Therefore, the aim is to estimate this relation in the Swedish adult population of 2015. For that purpose, the first step was to establishit for adult male and female cycle commuters in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Whether or not the slopes of these relations needed to be altered in order to make them representative of the general population was evaluated by comparing the levels of maximal oxygen uptake in samples of commuter cyclists and the population. The measure used was the maximal oxygen uptake divided by both the body weight and a cycle weight of 18.5 kg. The body weights in the population samples were adjusted to mirror relevant levels in 2015. Age adjustments for the duration-distance relations were calculated on the basis of the maximal oxygen uptake in the population samples aged 20-65 years. The duration-distance relations of the cycle commuters were downscaled by about 24-28% to mirror levels in the general population. The empirical formula for the distance (D, km) was based on duration (T, minutes) · speed (km/min) · a correction factor from cycle commuter to the general population · age adjustment (A, years). For the males in the general population the formula was: D = T · 20.76 km/h · 0.719 · (1.676-0.0147 · A). For females, the formula was: D = T · 16.14 km/h · 0.763 · (1.604-0.0129 · A). These formulas, combined with distributions of route distances between home and work in the population, enable realistic evaluations of the potential for different public health outcomes through cycle commuting.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153803 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0207573 (DOI)000450420900042 ()30444927 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056699840 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
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