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Scarpa, S., Lundgren, L., Modeste-James, A. & John-Langba, J. (2024). Immigrant background, incarceration history and recidivism among adults assessed for illicit substance use severity: findings from a Swedish registry study. International journal of drug policy, 128, Article ID 104432.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Immigrant background, incarceration history and recidivism among adults assessed for illicit substance use severity: findings from a Swedish registry study
2024 (engelsk)Inngår i: International journal of drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 128, artikkel-id 104432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In Sweden, as in other countries, individuals with immigrant backgrounds are disproportionately represented within the incarcerated population. This study examined the association between immigrant background and future incarceration for individuals assessed for illicit substance use severity, while considering their prior incarceration history.

Methods: Using data from Swedish Addiction Severity Index (ASI) assessments linked to register data from Statistics Sweden, we employed Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB) regression models to analyse differences in incarceration histories within five years before and after ASI assessments based on immigrant backgrounds. Additionally, Cox proportional-hazard models were used to assess the likelihood of post-assessment incarceration among these groups.

Results: Immigrant background was positively associated with pre- and post-assessment incarceration. First- and second-generation immigrants from the Global South had longer periods of incarceration in the five years before assessments compared to native Swedes. Post-assessment, first-generation immigrants showed longer periods of incarceration. Survival analyses supported these findings, indicating a higher risk of prolonged post-assessment incarceration among all immigrant groups, particularly first-generation immigrants from the Global South.

Conclusion: Among individuals assessed for illicit drug use within Swedish municipalities, those with immigrant backgrounds faced higher incarceration risks, even after controlling for substance use severity and prior incarceration. Tailored interventions and support systems are vital to prevent re-entry into the criminal justice system. Timely actions can break re-offending cycles, redirecting paths away from reoffending and towards legal reintegration, thereby reducing incarceration and recidivism rates.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2024
Emneord
Illegal substance use, Immigrant background, Incarceration, Recidivism, Sweden
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
sociologi; socialmedicin; psykiatri
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-223813 (URN)10.1016/j.drugpo.2024.104432 (DOI)38669771 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85191009114 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016–07213
Tilgjengelig fra: 2024-04-26 Laget: 2024-04-26 Sist oppdatert: 2024-05-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Lindner, S. R., Scarpa, S., McCarty, D. & Lundgren, L. (2023). Addiction severity and re-employment in Sweden among adults with risky alcohol and drug use. Journal of Substance Use and Addiction Treatment
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Addiction severity and re-employment in Sweden among adults with risky alcohol and drug use
2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Substance Use and Addiction Treatment, ISSN 2949-8767Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) In press
Abstract [en]

Background: The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) assesses respondents' biopsychosocial problems in seven addiction-related domains (mental health, family and social relations, employment, alcohol use, drug use, physical health, and legal problems). This study examined the association between the seven ASI composite scores and re-employment in a sample of Swedish adults screened for risky alcohol and drug use who were without employment at assessment.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of employment outcomes among 6502 unemployed adults living in Sweden who completed an ASI assessment for risky alcohol and drug use. The study linked ASI scores to annual tax register data. The primary outcome was employment, defined as having earnings above an administrative threshold. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the association between time to re-employment and ASI composite scores, controlling for demographic characteristics.

Results: Approximately three in ten individuals in the sample regained employment within five years. ASI composite scores suggested widespread biopsychosocial problems. Re-employment was associated with lower ASI composite scores for mental health (estimate: 0.775, 95 % confidence interval: 0.629–0.956), employment (estimate: 0.669, confidence interval: 0.532–0.841), drug use (estimate: 0.628, confidence interval: 0.428–0.924), and health (estimate: 0.798, confidence interval: 0.699–0.912).

Conclusions: This study suggests that several ASI domains may provide information on the complex factors (i.e., mental health, health, drug use) associated with long-term unemployment for people with risky substance use.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2023
Emneord
Addiction severity index, Substance use disorders, Unemployment
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
sociologi; folkhälsa
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215253 (URN)10.1016/j.josat.2023.209178 (DOI)
Forskningsfinansiär
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07213
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-10-12 Laget: 2023-10-12 Sist oppdatert: 2023-10-19
Scarpa, S., Grahn, R. & Lundgren, L. (2023). Compulsory care of individuals with severe substance use disorders and alcohol- and drug-related mortality: a Swedish registry study. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14, Article ID 1106509.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Compulsory care of individuals with severe substance use disorders and alcohol- and drug-related mortality: a Swedish registry study
2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 1106509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: This study used 17 year of Swedish registry data (2003–2019) for 25,125 adults assessed for their severity of substance use to identify the baseline factors predicting the risk of being court-ordered into compulsory care and examine the association between admission to compulsory care and mortality risks due to alcohol- or drug-related causes.

Methods and materials: Addiction Severity Index (ASI) assessment data were linked to register data on demographic characteristics, compulsory care, and alcohol- and drug-related mortality. Cox regression models were used to identify baseline factors predictive of post-assessment admission to compulsory care in the 5 years post-substance use assessment. Discrete-time random-effect logistic regression models were used to examine the association between compulsory care duration and alcohol or drug-related mortality risks. Propensity score matching was used for validation.

Results: The first models identified that younger age, female gender, and ASI composite scores for drug use, mental health and employment were significantly associated with the risk of placement in compulsory care for drugs other than alcohol. Female gender and ASI composite scores for alcohol, drug use and employment were significantly associated with compulsory care treatment for alcohol use. The second models showed that older individuals and men were more likely to die due to alcohol-related causes, while younger individuals and men were more likely to die due to drug-related causes. Length of stay in compulsory care institutions significantly increased the likelihood of dying due to substance use-related causes. Propensity scores analyses confirmed the results.

Conclusion: In Sweden, a significant concern is the higher likelihood of women and young individuals to be court-ordered to compulsory care. Although compulsory care is often advocated as a life-saving intervention, our findings do not provide strong support for this claim. On the contrary, our findings show that admission to compulsory care is associated with a higher risk of substance use-related mortality. Factors such as compulsory care often not including any medical or psychological therapy, together with relapse and overdose after discharge, may be possible contributing factors to these findings.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Emneord
compulsory care, addiction treatment, alcohol-related mortality, drugs other than alcohol-related mortality, Addiction Severity Index
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-203400 (URN)10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1106509 (DOI)000919995700001 ()36741106 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147213135 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016–07213
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-01-18 Laget: 2023-01-18 Sist oppdatert: 2024-01-17bibliografisk kontrollert
Scarpa, S., Grahn, R., Nyström, S., Sandlund, M. & Lundgren, L. (2023). Hur fungerade kursen Effektiv Planering av Insatser/EPI: Baslinje- och uppföljningsresultat. Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, 100(5), 655-665
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Hur fungerade kursen Effektiv Planering av Insatser/EPI: Baslinje- och uppföljningsresultat
Vise andre…
2023 (svensk)Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 100, nr 5, s. 655-665Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Denna kvantitativa studie utvärderar kunskapsförändringar hos deltagare i EPI universitetskursen. Majoriteten av deltagarna var socialsekreterare inom miss-bruksområdet. Kursen resulterade i betydande förbättringar av deltagarnas kunskap, särskilt vad gäller insats- och vårdkontinuitetsmodeller samt använd-ning av motivationshöjande intervjutekniker. Kunskapen om äldre personer med beroendeproblem och fördelarna med ASI-uppföljningar för socialarbe-tare och klienter förbättrades också.

Abstract [en]

This quantitative study assesses knowledge improvement among partici-pants of the EPI university course. The majority were social workers in sub-stance abuse. The course led to significant enhancements in participants’ knowledge, particularly concerning intervention and care continuity and the use of motivational interview techniques. Knowledge about older individuals with substance dependencies and benefits of ASI follow-up interviews for social workers and clients also improved.

Emneord
Pre-post design, Educational intervention, Social work, Addiction
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
socialmedicin
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-217749 (URN)
Forskningsfinansiär
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2019-01453
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-12-12 Laget: 2023-12-12 Sist oppdatert: 2023-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert
Scarpa, S., Castles, S. & Schierup, C.-U. (2021). Migration and new ethnic minorities (2ed.). In: Daniel Béland; Kimberly J. Morgan; Herbert Obinger; Christopher Pierson (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of the welfare state: (pp. 380-396). London: Oxford University Press
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Migration and new ethnic minorities
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: The Oxford handbook of the welfare state / [ed] Daniel Béland; Kimberly J. Morgan; Herbert Obinger; Christopher Pierson, London: Oxford University Press, 2021, 2, s. 380-396Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Until recently, comparative social policy research remained strongly influenced by methodological nationalism (i.e. an approach equating social boundaries with state boundaries) and has rarely considered immigration-driven changes in welfare states. Yet, over the past decades, immigrant populations have grown in size and become increasingly diversified, both in terms of origin countries and in terms of integration patterns, in all Western countries. Immigrants are a more visible but also contested presence in Western societies, which affects also the development of national labour market and welfare systems. The chapter focuses on the link between immigration-driven ethnic diversity and welfare state development by considering four interrelated issues: (1) how the patterns of immigrants' labour market incorporation in host societies affect the social rights they are entitled to; (2) how increasing international migration contributed to the reconfiguration of care arrangements; (3) the implications of immigration-driven multiculturalism for welfare state sustainability; and (4) the connection between immigration and public support for the welfare state. Then, we narrow down our analysis by providing a more detailed account of recent development of migration policies in some European countries. Based on the analysis of the country cases, we put forth the argument that recent institutional developments point to an 'Americanization' of European migration policy and, therefore, to an increasing 'racialization' of European welfare states.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
London: Oxford University Press, 2021 Opplag: 2
Emneord
Immigration, Welfare State, New Ethnic Minorities
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
sociologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-187990 (URN)10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198828389.013.22 (DOI)9780198828389 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-09-29 Laget: 2021-09-29 Sist oppdatert: 2022-01-27bibliografisk kontrollert
Scarpa, S. (2021). The Crisis is Over but Frugality Must Continue: Post-consolidation Fiscal Policy and the Dualisation of the Swedish Model. Sociologia del Lavoro, 159(1), 152-171
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Crisis is Over but Frugality Must Continue: Post-consolidation Fiscal Policy and the Dualisation of the Swedish Model
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Sociologia del Lavoro, ISSN 0392-5048, E-ISSN 1972-554X, Vol. 159, nr 1, s. 152-171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has predominantly analysed the retrenchment of the Swedish welfarestate from a long-term perspective, examining restructuring processes from thefinancial crisis of the early 1990s until recent years. This study instead takes a shorttermperspective and focuses on welfare state developments in the post-consolidationphase, after the recovery from the crisis. The aim is to investigate how the fiscalpolicy reforms introduced during the recovery years forced subsequent governmentsto continue on the path of “frugality”. Specifically, the paper focuses on the effectsof austerity politics on two policy domains: income redistribution through the benefitand tax system and the municipalities’ role as social service providers and employers.The analysis indicates that the Swedish model is showing increasing signs ofdualisation due to the gradual segmentation of prior universalistic welfare programmesand to the worsening of working conditions in the social service sector.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Milan: Edizioni Franco Angeli, 2021
Emneord
austerity, dualisation, inequality, Sweden
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
sociologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-183039 (URN)10.3280/SL2021-159008 (DOI)2-s2.0-85106499234 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-05-13 Laget: 2021-05-13 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Scarpa, S., Schierup, C.-U. & Dahlstedt, M. (2019). Is migration bad for welfare?: Reconfigurations of welfare, labour and citizenship in Sweden. In: Sven Trygged; Erica Righard (Ed.), Inequalities and migration: challenges for the Swedish welfare state (pp. 31-52). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Is migration bad for welfare?: Reconfigurations of welfare, labour and citizenship in Sweden
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Inequalities and migration: challenges for the Swedish welfare state / [ed] Sven Trygged; Erica Righard, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, s. 31-52Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this chapter is to challenge an axiomatic assumption made in current public debates – namely, that the sustainability of the welfare state in an age of globalisation requires the imposition of limits on immigration. With a particular focus on Sweden and recent changes in Swedish welfare policy, the chapter shows how the current crisis of the Swedish welfare model has, in fact, haunted this model for decades. The argument presented is that the socially integrative capacities of the Swedish model had been compromised well beforethe start of the post-2015 refugee crisis in Europe but that it is not the scale of immigration that made the Swedish welfare state unsustainable. Rather, it is the austerity-driven retrenchment of the Swedish welfare state which, in the past quarter of a century, has steadily undermined the capacity of the welfare model to offer emancipatory and non-discriminatory pathways of incorporation to immigrants. With the neoliberal reforms implemented since the early 1990s, the current reality in Sweden is that of deepening, and increasingly ethnically tinged, class divisions and the long-term social exclusion of sizeable population groups from substantial citizenship rights.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019
Emneord
Immigration, Sweden, Welfare State, Austerity
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156206 (URN)9789144116945 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-02-07 Laget: 2019-02-07 Sist oppdatert: 2023-02-06bibliografisk kontrollert
Schierup, C.-U. & Scarpa, S. (2018). Migration: ett hot mot välfärden? (1ed.). In: Aleksandra Ålund; Carl-Ulrik Schierup; Neergaard (Ed.), Nation i ombildning: essäer om 2000-talets Sverige (pp. 31-77). Stockholm: Boréa Bokförlag
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Migration: ett hot mot välfärden?
2018 (svensk)Inngår i: Nation i ombildning: essäer om 2000-talets Sverige / [ed] Aleksandra Ålund; Carl-Ulrik Schierup; Neergaard, Stockholm: Boréa Bokförlag , 2018, 1, s. 31-77Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [sv]

Den svenska samhällsekonomiska modellensupplösning under 2000-talet har följts av en djup politisk kris. Det är enkris som har tagits till intäkt för den upprepade berättelsen om liberalt präglad invandrings- och mångfaldspolitik som misslyckat experiment. Författarna ifrågasätter denna berättelse genom attvända på argumentet om det negativa förhållandet mellan migrationoch välfärdsstatlig solidaritet. De hävdar således att det främst är deneuropeiska och svenska åtstramningspolitiken som sedan tidigt 90-talhar undergrävt samhällets socialpolitiska integrationspotential, skapat fördjupade etniskt präglade klasskillnader, permanentat social exkluderingav stora befolkningsgrupper från sociala och medborgerliga rättigheter,samt i sin konsekvens medfört bristande solidaritet kring välfärdsstatens institutioner.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: Boréa Bokförlag, 2018 Opplag: 1
Emneord
svenska modellen, social transformation, social exkludering, rasism, migration, välfärd, nyliberalism, migrationspolitik, integration, arbetsmarknad, populism, prekaritet, Sverige
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204455 (URN)9789189140950 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-02-06 Laget: 2023-02-06 Sist oppdatert: 2023-02-06bibliografisk kontrollert
Schierup, C.-U. & Scarpa, S. (2018). Modelo en desorden: estado de bienestar, dogmatismo de austeridad y cambio radical en las políticas de migración suecas. Migración y Desarollo, 16(31), 71-104
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Modelo en desorden: estado de bienestar, dogmatismo de austeridad y cambio radical en las políticas de migración suecas
2018 (spansk)Inngår i: Migración y Desarollo, ISSN 1870-7599, Vol. 16, nr 31, s. 71-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The winds of xenophobia hovering over Europe have swept the moral political foundations of an inclusive Swedish migration policy into the dustbin of history and twisted an enlightened left-right consensus on an open and humanitarian asylum policy into its mirror opposite. Lured by advances of the extreme right the main political parties have, since 2015, come to indiscriminately embrace the view that immigration, etno-cultural diversity and an open-door refugee policy is detrimental to welfare and, in consequence, curbing migration has become the all dominant political strategem in vying for votes. The authors challenge this widely accepted narrative by arguing that the sustainability of the Swedish welfare state has not been undermined by migration but by consecutive Swedish governments' unbending adherence to austerity politics since the beginning of the 1990s. Austerity politics have, step by step, weakened the Swedish Model's socially integrative functions and prevented the implementation of an ambitious agenda, harvesting a potentially dynamic interplay of expansionary economic and social policies and a humanitarian asylum policy.

Abstract [es]

La sombra de xenofobia que se cierne sobre Europa ha arrojado al cubo de basuralos fundamentos morales de una política inclusiva de migración en Suecia y ha tergiversado un consenso de izquierda y derecha sobre una política de asilo abierta y humanitaria hacia suextremo opuesto. Desde el 2015, atraídos por los avances de la extrema derecha, los principales partidos políticos han aceptado indistintamente que la inmigración, la diversidad etnoculturaly la política de puertas abiertas para refugiados van en perjuicio del Estado de bienestar y, como consecuencia, frenar la migración se ha convertido en la estratagema política dominante parala obtención de votos. Los autores desafían esta narrativa ampliamente aceptada al argumentarque la sostenibilidad del Estado de bienestar en Suecia no ha sido socavada a causa de la migración sino a la firme adherencia hacia políticas de austeridad por consecutivas gubernaturas suecas desde comienzos de los 1990. Las políticas de austeridad han debilitado, poco apoco, las funciones socialmente integradoras del Modelo Sueco y han impedido la implementación de una agenda ambiciosa que reúna una interacción potencialmente dinámica de políticas económicas y sociales expansionistas, así como una política de asilo humanitaria.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Zacatezas: Red Internacional de MIgracion y Desarrollo, 2018
Emneord
Swedish Model, welfare state, migration policies, social solidarity, Modelo Sueco, Estado de bienestar, políticas migratorias, solidaridad social
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204456 (URN)10.35533/myd.1631.cus.ss (DOI)
Forskningsfinansiär
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2006-1524
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-02-06 Laget: 2023-02-06 Sist oppdatert: 2023-02-06bibliografisk kontrollert
Scarpa, S. & Schierup, C.-U. (2018). Who undermines the welfare state? Austerity-dogmatism and the u-turn in Swedish asylum policy. Social Inclusion, 6(1), 199-207
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Who undermines the welfare state? Austerity-dogmatism and the u-turn in Swedish asylum policy
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Social Inclusion, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 199-207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Within the EU, the so-called “refugee crisis” has been predominantly dealt with as an ill-timed and untenable financial burden. Since the 2007–08 financial crisis, the overarching objective of policy initiatives by EU-governments has been to keep public expenditure firmly under control. Thus, Sweden’s decision to grant permanent residence to all Syrians seeking asylum in 2013 seemed to represent a paradigmatic exception, pointing to the possibility of combining a humanitarian approach in the “long summer of migration” with generous welfare provisions. At the end of 2015, however, Sweden reversed its asylum policy, reducing its intake of refugees to the EU-mandated minimum. The main political parties embraced the mainstream view that an open-door refugee policy is not only detrimental to the welfare state, but could possibly trigger a “system breakdown”. In this article, we challenge this widely accepted narrative by arguing that the sustainability of the Swedish welfare state has not been undermined by refugee migration but rather by the Swedish government’s unbending adherence to austerity politics. Austerity politics have weakened the Swedish welfare state’s socially integrative functions and prevented the implementation of a more ambitious growth agenda, harvesting a potentially dynamic interplay of expansionary economic policies and a humanitarian asylum policy.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Lisbon: Cogitatio Press, 2018
Emneord
Austerity, Asylum Policy, Sweden, Consolidation State
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204452 (URN)10.17645/si.v6i1.1285 (DOI)000432487000010 ()2-s2.0-85064164736 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-02-06 Laget: 2023-02-06 Sist oppdatert: 2024-07-04bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8532-1019