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Liu, J., Zhou, Y., Guo, S., Hou, J., Zhao, G., Ma, W., . . . Jia, S. (2019). A novel methodology to directly pre-determine the relative wavelength response of DFB laser in wavelength modulation spectroscopy. Optics Express, 27(2), 1249-1261
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A novel methodology to directly pre-determine the relative wavelength response of DFB laser in wavelength modulation spectroscopy
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2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 1249-1261Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel methodology to directly pre-determine the relative wavelength response (RWR) of a DFB laser, in terms of a combined current linearly scanned wavelength response and current modulated wavelength response (CMWR), in wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is presented. It is shown that the assessed RWR can be used to mimic the measured response with standard deviation of discriminations that are below 3.4 x 10(-3)cm(-1) under a variety of conditions. It is also shown that its performance supersedes two commonly used assessment models of the CMWR but is slightly worse than that of the third model. however with the benefit of solely using a single fitting parameter (the concentration) instead of more. When the novel method is applied to the assessment of CO2 concentration in a Herriot-type multipass cell by using the technique of calibration-free WMS, the results show that there is virtually no difference compared to that by use of the best of the other methods. It is concluded that the novel method is more robust and simplifies the retrieval process of gas concentration.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Optical Society of America, 2019
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156320 (URN)10.1364/OE.27.001249 (DOI)000456326300074 ()30696194 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-02-20 Laget: 2019-02-20 Sist oppdatert: 2019-02-20bibliografisk kontrollert
Silander, I., Hausmaninger, T., Forssén, C., Zelan, M. & Axner, O. (2019). Gas equilibration gas modulation refractometry for assessment of pressure with sub-ppm precision. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Nanotechnology and Microelectronics, 37(4), Article ID 042901.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Gas equilibration gas modulation refractometry for assessment of pressure with sub-ppm precision
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2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Nanotechnology and Microelectronics, ISSN 2166-2746, E-ISSN 2166-2754, Vol. 37, nr 4, artikkel-id 042901Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Gas modulation refractometry (GAMOR) is a methodology that, by performing repeated reference assessments with the measurement cavity being evacuated while the reference cavity is held at a constant pressure, can mitigate drifts in dual Fabry-Perot cavity based refractometry. A novel realization of GAMOR, referred to as gas equilibration GAMOR, that outperforms the original realization of GAMOR, here referred to as single cavity modulated GAMOR (SCM-GAMOR), is presented. In this, the reference measurements are carried out by equalizing the pressures in the two cavities, whereby the time it takes to reach adequate conditions for the reference measurements has been reduced. This implies that a larger fraction of the measurement cycle can be devoted to data acquisition, which reduces white noise and improves on its short-term characteristics. The presented realization also encompasses a new cavity design with improved temperature stabilization and assessment. This has contributed to improved long-term characteristics of the GAMOR methodology. The system was characterized with respect to a dead weight pressure balance. It was found that the system shows a significantly improved precision with respect to SCM-GAMOR for all integration times. For a pressure of 4303 Pa, it can provide a response for short integration times (up to 10 min) of 1.5 mPa (cycle)1/2, while for longer integration times (up to 18 h), it shows an integration time-independent Allan deviation of 1mPa (corresponding to a precision, defined as twice the Allan deviation, of 0.5 ppm), exceeding the original SCM-GAMOR system by a factor of 2 and 8, respectively. When used for low pressures, it can provide a precision in the sub-mPa region; for the case with an evacuated measurement cavity, the system provided, for up to 40 measurement cycles (ca. 1.5 h), a white noise of 0.7 mPa (cycle)1/2, and a minimum Allan deviation of 0.15mPa. It shows a purely linear response in the 2.8-10.1 kPa range. This implies that the system can be used for the transfer of calibration over large pressure ranges with exceptional low uncertainty.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2019
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165111 (URN)10.1116/1.5090860 (DOI)000492053600016 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-11-13 Laget: 2019-11-13 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Zhao, G., Hausmaninger, T., Schmidt, F. M., Ma, W. & Axner, O. (2019). High-resolution trace gas detection by sub-Doppler noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: application to detection of acetylene in human breath. Optics Express, 27(13), 17940-17953
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>High-resolution trace gas detection by sub-Doppler noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: application to detection of acetylene in human breath
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2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 27, nr 13, s. 17940-17953Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

A sensitive high-resolution sub-Doppler detecting spectrometer, based on noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS), for trace gas detection of species whose transitions have severe spectral overlap with abundant concomitant species is presented. It is designed around a NICE-OHMS instrumentation utilizing balanced detection that provides shot-noise limited Doppler-broadened (Db) detection. By synchronous dithering the positions of the two cavity mirrors, the effect of residual etalons between the cavity and other surfaces in the system could be reduced. An Allan deviation of the absorption coefficient of 2.2 × 10-13 cm-1 at 60 s, which, for the targeted transition in C2H2, corresponds to a 3σ detection sensitivity of 130 ppt, is demonstrated. It is shown that despite significant spectral interference from CO2 at the targeted transition, which precludes Db detection of C2H2, acetylene could be detected in exhaled breath of healthy smokers.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Optical Society of America, 2019
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161422 (URN)10.1364/OE.27.017940 (DOI)000472621000043 ()31252745 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council, 2015-04374Swedish Research Council, 2013-6031The Kempe Foundations, JCK-1317The Kempe Foundations, SMK-1446
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-07-07 Laget: 2019-07-07 Sist oppdatert: 2019-07-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Zhou, Y., Liu, J., Guo, S., Zhao, G., Ma, W., Cao, Z., . . . Jia, S. (2019). Laser frequency stabilization based on a universal sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS instrumentation for the potential application in atmospheric lidar. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 12(3), 1807-1814
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Laser frequency stabilization based on a universal sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS instrumentation for the potential application in atmospheric lidar
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2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 1807-1814Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Lidar is an effective tool for high-altitude atmospheric measurement in which a weak absorption line for the target gas is selected to ensure a large optical depth. The laser frequency stabilization to the line center is required, and a sub-Doppler (sD) spectroscopy of the target line is preferred as a frequency reference. In this paper, a novel universal sD noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) instrumentation based on a fiber-coupled optical single-sideband electro-optic modulator (f-SSM) for the potential application in atmospheric lidar for different target gases with different types of lasers is reported. The f-SSM can replace all frequency actuators in the system, so as to eliminate the individual design of feedback servos that often are tailored for each laser. The universality of the instrumentation was demonstrated by the alternative use of either an Er-doped fiber laser or a whispering-gallery mode laser. Then the instruments based on both lasers were used to produce the sD signals of acetylene, which worked as a frequency reference to stabilize the laser. By performing the lockings, relative frequency stabilizations of 8.3 x 10(-13) and 7.5 x 10(-13) at an integration time of 240 s were demonstrated.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Gottingen: Copernicus Gesellschaft MBH, 2019
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157954 (URN)10.5194/amt-12-1807-2019 (DOI)000461616700003 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-17 Laget: 2019-04-17 Sist oppdatert: 2019-04-17bibliografisk kontrollert
Johansson, A. C., Rutkowski, L., Filipsson, A., Hausmaninger, T., Zhao, G., Axner, O. & Foltynowicz, A. (2018). Broadband calibration-free cavity-enhanced complex refractive index spectroscopy using a frequency comb. Optics Express, 26(16), 20633-20648
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Broadband calibration-free cavity-enhanced complex refractive index spectroscopy using a frequency comb
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2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 26, nr 16, s. 20633-20648Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

We present broadband cavity-enhanced complex refractive index spectroscopy (CE-CRIS), a technique for calibration-free determination of the complex refractive index of entire molecular bands via direct measurement of transmission modes of a Fabry-Perot cavity filled with the sample. The measurement of the cavity transmission spectrum is done using an optical frequency comb and a mechanical Fourier transform spectrometer with sub-nominal resolution. Molecular absorption and dispersion spectra (corresponding to the imaginary and real parts of the refractive index) are obtained from the cavity mode broadening and shift retrieved from fits of Lorentzian profiles to the individual cavity modes. This method is calibration-free because the mode broadening and shift are independent of the cavity parameters such as the length and mirror reflectivity. In this first demonstration of broadband CE-CRIS we measure simultaneously the absorption and dispersion spectra of three combination bands of CO2 in the range between 1525 nm and 1620 nm and achieve good agreement with theoretical models. This opens up for precision spectroscopy of the complex refractive index of several molecular bands simultaneously. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Optical Society of America, 2018
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151397 (URN)10.1364/OE.26.020633 (DOI)000440803600079 ()30119372 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council, 2016-03593Swedish Research Council, 2015-04374Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2015.0159
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-09-04 Laget: 2018-09-04 Sist oppdatert: 2018-11-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Hausmaninger, T., Zhao, G., Ma, W. & Axner, O. (2018). Depletion of the vibrational ground state of CH4 in absorption spectroscopy at 3.4 μm in N2 and air in the 1-100Torr range. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 205, 59-70
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Depletion of the vibrational ground state of CH4 in absorption spectroscopy at 3.4 μm in N2 and air in the 1-100Torr range
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 205, s. 59-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

A model presented in an accompanying work predicts that mid-IR absorption signals from methane in trace concentrations in various buffer gases detected at pressures in the 1-100Torr range can be reduced and distorted due to depletion of the vibrational ground state if the molecules are exposed to laser powers in the tens of mW range or above. This work provides experimental evidence of such depletion in a resonant cavity under a variety of conditions, e.g. for intracavity laser powers up to 2W and for buffer gases of N-2 or dry air, and verifies the applicability of the model. It was found that the degree of depletion is significantly larger in N-2 than dry air, and that it increases with pressure for pressures up to around 10Torr (attributed to a decreased diffusion rate) but decreases with pressure for pressures above 20Torr (caused by an increased collisional vibrational decay rate). The maximum degree of depletion (similar to 80%) was obtained for methane in N-2 at around 15Torr. This implies that absorption spectrometry of methane can experience significant non-linear dependencies on laser power, pressure, as well as buffer gas composition. It is shown that depletion takes place also in (CH4)-C-13, which verifies the applicability of the model also for this isotopologue, and that NICE-OHMS signals detected in absorption phase are less affected by depletion than in dispersion. It was concluded that the absorption mode of detection can provide concentration assessments that are virtually free of influence of depletion for intracavity powers below 0.8 W. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Emneord
Absorption spectroscopy, Cavity enhanced, Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy, Methane, Depletion, Optical saturation
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143714 (URN)10.1016/j.jqsrt.2017.10.007 (DOI)000417665000008 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-01-08 Laget: 2018-01-08 Sist oppdatert: 2018-11-06bibliografisk kontrollert
Silander, I., Hausmaninger, T., Zelan, M. & Axner, O. (2018). Gas modulation refractometry for high-precision assessment of pressure under non-temperature-stabilized conditions. Paper presented at AVS 64th International Symposium and Exhibition, OCT 29-NOV 03, 2017, Tampa, FL, USA. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 36(3), Article ID 03E105.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Gas modulation refractometry for high-precision assessment of pressure under non-temperature-stabilized conditions
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 36, nr 3, artikkel-id 03E105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The authors report on the realization of a novel methodology for refractometry-GAs modulation refractometry (GAMOR)-that decreases the influence of drifts in Fabry Perot cavity refractometry. The instrumentation is based on a dual Fabry-Perot cavity refractometer in which the beat frequency between the light fields locked to two different cavities, one measurement and one reference cavity, is measured. The GAMOR methodology comprises a process in which the measurement cavity sequentially is filled and evacuated while the reference cavity is constantly evacuated. By performing beat frequency measurements both before and after the finite-pressure measurement, zero point references are periodically created. This opens up for high precision refractometry under nontemperature-stabilized conditions. A first version of an instrumentation based on the GAMOR methodology has been realized and its basic performance has been scrutinized. The refractometer consists of a Zerodur cavity-block and tunable narrow linewidth fiber lasers operating within the C34 communication channel (i.e., around 1.55 μm) at which there are a multitude of fiber coupled off-the-shelf optical, electro-optic, and acousto-optic components. The system is fully computer controlled, which implies it can perform unattended gas assessments over any foreseeable length of time. When applied to a system with no active temperature stabilization, the GAMOR methodology has demonstrated a 3 orders of magnitude improvement of the precision with respect to conventional static detection. When referenced to a dead weight pressure scale the instrumentation has demonstrated assessment of pressures in the kilo-Pascal range (4303 and 7226 Pa) limited by white noise with standard deviations in the 3.2N-1/2-3.5N-1/2 mPa range, where N is the number of measurement cycles (each being 100 s long). For short measurement times (up to around 103 s), the system exhibits a (1σ) total relative precision of 0.7 (0.5) ppm for assessment of pressures in the 4 kPa region and 0.5 (0.4) ppm for pressures around 7 kPa, where the numbers in parentheses represent the part of the total noise that has been attributed to the refractometer. As long as the measurement procedure is performed over short time scales, the inherent properties of the GAMOR methodology allow for high precision assessments by the use of instrumentation that is not actively temperature stabilized or systems that are affected by outgassing or leaks. They also open up for a variety of applications within metrology; e.g., transfer of calibration and characterization of pressure gauges, including piston gauges.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148832 (URN)10.1116/1.5022244 (DOI)000432372400005 ()2-s2.0-85045843634 (Scopus ID)
Konferanse
AVS 64th International Symposium and Exhibition, OCT 29-NOV 03, 2017, Tampa, FL, USA
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-06-13 Laget: 2018-06-13 Sist oppdatert: 2018-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Zhao, G., Hausmaninger, T., Ma, W. & Axner, O. (2018). Shot-noise-limited Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry. Optics Letters, 43(4), 715-718
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Shot-noise-limited Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 715-718Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Shot-noise-limited Doppler-broadened (Db) noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) has been realized by implementation of balanced detection. A characterization of the system based on Allan-Werle plots of the absorption coefficient, retrieved by fitting a model function to data, shows that the system has a white noise equivalent absorption per unit length per square root of bandwidth of 2.3 x 10(-13) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2), solely 44% above the shot noise limit, and a detection sensitivity of 2.2 x 10(-14) cm(-1) over 200 s, both being unprecedented for Db NICE-OHMS. The white noise response follows the expected inverse square root dependence on power that is representative of a shot-noise-limited response, which confirms that the system is shot-noise-limited. 

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145590 (URN)10.1364/OL.43.000715 (DOI)000425123700023 ()29444060 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council, 2015-04374
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-03-21 Laget: 2018-03-21 Sist oppdatert: 2018-11-06bibliografisk kontrollert
Zhao, G., Hausmaninger, T., Ma, W. & Axner, O. (2017). Differential noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy for improvement of the detection sensitivity by reduction of drifts from background signals. Optics Express, 25(23), 29454-29471
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Differential noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy for improvement of the detection sensitivity by reduction of drifts from background signals
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 25, nr 23, s. 29454-29471Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The detection sensitivity of noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) is often limited by background signals that bring in drifts. A novel realization of NICE-OHMS, termed differential NICE-OHMS, that both reduces such drifts and enlarges the molecular signal is presented. It is based on simultaneous detection of NICE-OHMS signals in reflection and transmission, followed by a subtraction of the former (properly weighted) from the latter. An Allan plot analysis shows that the instrumentation could demonstrate a noise equivalent absorption per unit length (NEAL) of 4.7 × 10−14 cm−1, obtained for an integration time of 170 s.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Optical Society of America, 2017
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142459 (URN)10.1364/OE.25.029454 (DOI)000415136700127 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-12-04 Laget: 2017-12-04 Sist oppdatert: 2018-11-06bibliografisk kontrollert
Rutkowski, L., Johansson, A. C., Zhao, G., Hausmaninger, T., Khodabakhsh, A., Axner, O. & Foltynowicz, A. (2017). Sensitive and broadband measurement of dispersion in a cavity using a Fourier transform spectrometer with kHz resolution. Optics Express, 25(18), 21711-21718
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sensitive and broadband measurement of dispersion in a cavity using a Fourier transform spectrometer with kHz resolution
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2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 25, nr 18, s. 21711-21718Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Optical cavities provide high sensitivity to dispersion since their resonance frequencies depend on the index of refraction. We present a direct, broadband, and accurate measurement of the modes of a high finesse cavity using an optical frequency comb and a mechanical Fourier transform spectrometer with a kHz-level resolution. We characterize 16000 longitudinal cavity modes spanning 16 THz of bandwidth in terms of center frequency, linewidth, and amplitude. Using the center frequencies we retrieve the group delay dispersion of the cavity mirror coatings and pure N2 with 0.1 fs2 precision and 1 fs2 accuracy, as well as the refractivity of the 3ν13 absorption band of CO2 with 5 × 10‒12 precision. This opens up for broadband refractive index metrology and calibration-free spectroscopy of entire molecular bands.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Optical Society of America, 2017
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-140651 (URN)10.1364/OE.25.021711 (DOI)000411529000067 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-17 Laget: 2017-10-17 Sist oppdatert: 2018-11-13bibliografisk kontrollert
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