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Angst, J., Adolfsson, R., Benazzi, F., Gamma, A., Hantouche, E., Meyer, T. D., . . . Scott, J. (2005). The HCL-32: towards a self-assessment tool for hypomanic symptoms in outpatients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 88(2), 217-233
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The HCL-32: towards a self-assessment tool for hypomanic symptoms in outpatients
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2005 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 217-233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Bipolar disorders (BP) are frequently diagnosed and treated as pure depression initially; accurate diagnosis often being delayed by 8 to 10 years. In prospective studies, the presence of hypomanic symptoms in adolescence is strongly predictive of later bipolar disorders. As such, an instrument for self-assessment of hypomanic symptoms might increase the detection of suspected and of manifest, but under-treated, cases of bipolar disorders.

Methods: The multi-lingual hypomania checklist (HCL-32) has been developed and is being tested internationally. This preliminary paper reports the performance of the scale in distinguishing individuals with BP (N=266) from those with major depressive disorder (MDD; N= 160). The samples were adult psychiatry patients recruited in Italy (N= 186) and Sweden (N=240).

Results: The samples reported similar clinical profiles and the structure for the HCL-32 demonstrated two main factors identified as "active/elated" hypomania and "risk-taking/irritable" hypomania. The HCL-32 distinguished between BP and MDD with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 51%.

Limitations: Although the HCL-32 is a sensitive instrument for hypomanic symptoms, it does not distinguish between BP-1 and BP-11 disorders.

Conclusions: Future studies should test if different combinations of items. possibly recording the consequences of hypomania, can distinguish between these BP subtypes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005
hypomania, major depressive episodes, bipolar disorder, hypomania checklist, screening questionnaire
National Category
Neurology Psychiatry
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120399 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2005.05.011 (DOI)000232477100013 ()16125784 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-10 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved

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