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van der Watt, Lize-MarieORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7815-8340
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Publications (7 of 7) Show all publications
Eklund, N. & van der Watt, L.-M. (2017). Refracting (geo)political choices in the Arctic. The Polar Journal, 7(1), 86-103
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Refracting (geo)political choices in the Arctic
2017 (English)In: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 86-103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Geopolitics as a field was originally intended as a theoretical modelling of the relationship between fixed geographical circumstances and political choice. Now, the field is largely dominated by critical studies. It is almost considered axiomatic to include geopolitics as a theme in descriptive and analytical studies of the Arctic in global, regional, national and local contexts. This essay aims to review the core tenets of geopolitical thought and trace the categories and distinctions between the classical and critical approaches as applied in Arctic scholarship. It draws on highlights from the Arctic policy texts of three states demonstrating how assumptions and political options in terms of Arctic geographies can be expressed in different geopolitical frameworks. It is argued that revisiting and reviewing the core categories of geopolitics and their application in Arctic affairs can contribute to a better-informed understanding of how developments in the Arctic may unfold, as well as provide insights into the different functionalities of geopolitics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2017
Keywords
Classical geopolitics, critical geopolitics, Arctic policy, Norway, Russia, Canada, Arctic change
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136801 (URN)10.1080/2154896X.2017.1337334 (DOI)
Projects
Mistra Arctic Sustainable Development
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2017-06-22 Created: 2017-06-22 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
van der Watt, L.-M., Riedel, A., Dahlbäck, B., Tedsen, E., Jagodziński, K. & Kankaanpää, P. (2016). European Arctic initiatives: capacities, gaps and future opportunities. In: Adam Stępień, Timo Koivurova and Paula Kankaanpää (Ed.), The changing Arctic and the European Union: (pp. 243-295). Amsterdam: Brill Nijhoff
Open this publication in new window or tab >>European Arctic initiatives: capacities, gaps and future opportunities
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2016 (English)In: The changing Arctic and the European Union / [ed] Adam Stępień, Timo Koivurova and Paula Kankaanpää, Amsterdam: Brill Nijhoff, 2016, p. 243-295Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Brill Nijhoff, 2016
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124698 (URN)9789004303171 (ISBN)9789004303188 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-08-22 Created: 2016-08-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Goodsite, M. E., Bertelsen, R. G., Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, S., Ren, J., van der Watt, L.-M. & Johansson, H. (2016). The role of science diplomacy: a historical development and international legal framework of arctic research stations under conditions of climate change, post-cold war geopolitics and globalization/power transition. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 6(4), 645-661
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of science diplomacy: a historical development and international legal framework of arctic research stations under conditions of climate change, post-cold war geopolitics and globalization/power transition
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, ISSN 2190-6483, E-ISSN 2190-6491, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 645-661Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Arctic is undergoing transformation, where three important drivers are climate change, post-Cold War geopolitics and globalization/power transition from the rise of China. This transformation defines the nexus between science diplomacy, geopolitics, law and globalization under climate change, which is shaping the future of the Arctic and will bring considerable opportunity at national, regional and global levels. Research infrastructures (research stations both military and non-military, observation and monitoring networks) are opening access and data to new Arctic and non-Arctic players. Additional logistics hubs than those already existing are and should be established. Countries are sustaining and building new research as well as search and rescue bases/stations. Stations can be used as indicator of this transformation as well as their implications to improve cooperation, engage in multilateral rather than unilateral actions to protect the Arctic infrastructures and to improve military capabilities. These actions have started to attract also non-Arctic actors, such as China and the European Union (EU), which are developing new policies. Stations may not be developed and maintained only not only for the purpose of the scientific understanding of climatic and environmental impacts but also for function as entities that legitimize national or sovereign claims. At the nexus are the scientists that utilize the research bases and their international colleagues. Arctic/Northern bases are primarily military for historical reasons and for reasons of logistics and expertise, as historically indicated through the American presence in Alaska. This is not the same as saying that the bases are militarized—or part of some national militarization strategy in the Arctic. New steps to identify the role of stations at national, regional and global levels are needed. In this essay, we explore the implications and opportunities for these stations to act as pivots between scientific and geopolitical issues. We argue that where there is scientific collaboration, there is less risk of military conflict and that the Arctic is not “militarized” based on the international politics and science diplomacy of the Arctic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2016
Keywords
Arctic research station, Climate change, Geopolitics, Science diplomacy, Arctic Law, China
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124696 (URN)10.1007/s13412-015-0329-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-84993973275 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-08-22 Created: 2016-08-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Roberts, P. & van der Watt, L.-M. (2015). On past, present and future Arctic expeditions. In: Birgitta Evengård, Joan Nymand Larsen, Øyvind Paasche (Ed.), The new Arctic: (pp. 57-68). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On past, present and future Arctic expeditions
2015 (English)In: The new Arctic / [ed] Birgitta Evengård, Joan Nymand Larsen, Øyvind Paasche, Cham: Springer, 2015, p. 57-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today the term "Arctic expedition" conjures up images of heroic men chasing knowledge, but also personal and national glory. Geographical goals such as the North Pole, the Northwest and Northeast Passages and the discovery of new lands became major cultural touchstones during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Individuals such as Sir John Franklin, Fridtjof Nansen, and Robert E. Peary became household names. Many smaller expeditions also ventured to the Arctic from Eurasia and North America. This chapter is about how large, publicity-friendly expeditions related to smaller, more prosaic ventures, and how the term expedition is used in the present to denote everything from seasonal fieldwork conducted by scientists to one-off feats of travel. We conclude with some reflections on how Arctic expeditions may look in the future – and how the term expedition continues to carry meaning in terms of culture and memory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2015
Keywords
Arctic Expedition, Arctic Exploration, Northwest Passage, Northeast Passage, Nationalism, North Pole, Magnetic Crusade, Spitsbergen, Sweden, Norway, Arctic Science
National Category
History of Ideas
Research subject
History Of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124679 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-17602-4_5 (DOI)978-3-319-17601-7 (ISBN)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2016-08-22 Created: 2016-08-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Dahlbäck, B., van der Watt, L.-M., Jagodziński, K. & Kankaanpää, P. (2014). European Arctic Initiatives Compendium: Preparatory Action, Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment of development of the Arctic. Rovanniemi: Arctic Centre, University of Lapland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>European Arctic Initiatives Compendium: Preparatory Action, Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment of development of the Arctic
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rovanniemi: Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, 2014. p. 133
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124700 (URN)
Available from: 2016-08-22 Created: 2016-08-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Roberts, P., Dodds, K. & van der Watt, L.-M. (2013). ''But why do you go there?': Norway and South Africa in the Antarctic during the 1950s. In: Sverker Sörlin (Ed.), Science, geopolitics and culture in the Polar region: Norden beyond borders (pp. 79-107). Aldershot: Ashgate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>''But why do you go there?': Norway and South Africa in the Antarctic during the 1950s
2013 (English)In: Science, geopolitics and culture in the Polar region: Norden beyond borders / [ed] Sverker Sörlin, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2013, p. 79-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aldershot: Ashgate, 2013
Series
The Nordic experience ; 2
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124695 (URN)9781472409690 (ISBN)9781472409706 (ISBN)9781472409713 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-08-22 Created: 2016-08-22 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
van der Watt, L.-M. (2013). Return to Gondwanaland: South Africa, Antarctica, minerals and apartheid. The Polar Journal, 3(1), 72-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Return to Gondwanaland: South Africa, Antarctica, minerals and apartheid
2013 (English)In: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 72-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the 1980s, the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) faced intense international scrutiny. A new power bloc of developing countries, utilising the language of colonialism and using the United Nations as one of their main platforms, called into question the legitimacy of the ATS. The developing countries’ lobby also challenged apartheid South Africa’s membership of the Antarctic Treaty. One of the main driving forces behind these tensions was widely acknowledged to be resources, living and mineral and the rights of access to them. The debate on mineral exploration and extraction culminated in the Convention on the Regulation of the Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA). Preparations started in the mid-1970s, CRAMRA was adopted in 1988 but it never went into force. This article investigates some of the historical complexities and contingencies involved in the CRAMRA process, using South Africa as a case study. It looks at how Gondwanaland–broadly conceived–surfaced in the debates in terms of geology as well as geopolitics. “Gondwanaland” highlighted the proximity of South Africa to Antarctica, and the shared geological formations between parts of southern Africa and Antarctica implied shared mineral potential. In South Africa, debates about Antarctic mineral resources and the Antarctic Treaty were invested with concerns about the apartheid state’s status as pariah state on the one hand, and its “first world”, anti-communist status on the other. Diplomats were anxious for South Africa to maintain its membership of the Treaty, one of the few multilateral bodies that still welcomed the country. In public, fears about a “third world grab” in the Antarctic resonated with the “total onslaught” rhetoric of the South African police state.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2013
Keywords
Antarctica, convention on the regulation of antarctic mineral resource activities (CRAMRA), apartheid, minerals, United Nations, Question of Antarctica
National Category
History of Technology
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124697 (URN)10.1080/2154896X.2013.790198 (DOI)2-s2.0-84940895151 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-08-22 Created: 2016-08-22 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7815-8340

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