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Sundström, Anna
Publications (10 of 28) Show all publications
Sörman Eriksson, D., Rönnlund, M., Sundström, A., Norberg, M. & Nilsson, L.-G. (2017). Social network size and cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Journal of Adult Development, 24(2), 77-88.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social network size and cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Adult Development, ISSN 1068-0667, E-ISSN 1573-3440, Vol. 24, no 2, 77-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of the present study was to examine relations between social network size and three cognitive abilities (episodic memory, semantic memory, visuospatial ability) in middle-aged adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data on social network size and cognitive functioning that were available for 804 participants aged 40–60 years. In addition, we examined 5- and 10-year follow-up measurements of cognitive functioning that were available for 604 and 255 participants, respectively. Cross-sectional analyses revealed a positive association between social network size and each of the three cognitive abilities. Baseline network size was positively related to 5-year changes in semantic memory, and to 10-year changes in semantic as well as episodic memory, but was unrelated to changes in visuospatial performance. A minor portion of the sample (n = 131) had 10-year follow-up data on network size. Cross-lagged panel correlations revealed that baseline network size was associated with follow-up measurement in cognitive functioning (episodic memory, semantic memory), whereas baseline cognitive performance was unrelated to future network size. Together, the results demonstrate a small but positive relation between network size and declarative memory abilities, in line with models proposing a cognitive reserve built up by factors such as the increased cognitive stimulation associated with a more extensive social network.

Keyword
Cognition, Longitudinal, Cross-sectional, Social network, Cognitive reserve
National Category
Psychology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Sociology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-101832 (URN)10.1007/s10804-016-9248-3 (DOI)000399825300001 ()
Note

Originally published in manuscript form.

Available from: 2015-04-14 Created: 2015-04-14 Last updated: 2017-12-19Bibliographically approved
Sundström, A., Westerlund, O. & Kotyrlo, E. (2016). Marital status and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based prospective study from Sweden. BMJ Open, 6(1), Article ID e008565.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marital status and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based prospective study from Sweden
2016 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 1, e008565Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To examine the association between marital status and dementia in a cohort of young-old (50-64) and middle-old (65-74) adults, and also whether this may differ by gender. Design: Prospective population-based study with follow-up time of up to 10 years. Setting: Swedish national register-based study. Participants: 2 288 489 individuals, aged 5074 years, without prior dementia diagnosis at baseline. Dementia was identified using the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Outcome measures: The influence of marital status on dementia was analysed using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted stepwise for multiple covariates (model 1: adjusted for age and gender; and model 2: additionally adjusted for having adult children, education, income and prior cardiovascular disease). Results: During follow-up, 31 572 individuals in the study were identified as demented. Cox regression showed each non-married subcategory to be associated with a significantly higher risk of dementia than the married group, with the highest risk observed among people in the young-old age group, especially among those who were divorced or single (HRs 1.79 vs 1.71, fully adjusted model). Analyses stratified by gender showed gender differences in the young-old group, with indications of divorced men having a higher relative risk compared with divorced women (HRs 2.1 vs 1.7, only-age adjusted model). However, in the fully adjusted model, these differences were attenuated and there was no longer any significant difference between male and female participants. Conclusions: Our results suggest that those living alone as non-marrieds may be at risk for early-onset and late-onset dementia. Although more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanism by which marital status is associated with dementia, this suggests that social relationships should be taken seriously as a risk factor for dementia and that social-based interventions may provide an opportunity to reduce the overall dementia risk.

National Category
Psychology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117847 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008565 (DOI)000369993900026 ()26729377 (PubMedID)
Projects
Ageing and Living Conditions ALC
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2006-21576-36119-66Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P11-0876:1
Available from: 2016-03-16 Created: 2016-03-04 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Persson, N., Lavebratt, C., Sundström, A. & Fischer, H. (2016). Pulse Pressure magnifies the effect of COMTVal158Met on 15 Year Episodic Memory Trajectories. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 8, Article ID 34.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pulse Pressure magnifies the effect of COMTVal158Met on 15 Year Episodic Memory Trajectories
2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 8, 34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigated whether a physiological marker of cardiovascular health, pulse pressure (PP), and age magnified the effect of the functional COMT Val(158)Met (rs4680) polymorphism on 15-years cognitive trajectories [episodic memory (EM), visuospatial ability, and semantic memory] using data from 1585 non-demented adults from the Betula study. A multiple-group latent growth curve model was specified to gauge individual differences in change, and average trends therein. The allelic variants showed negligible differences across the cognitive markers in average trends. The older portion of the sample selectively age-magnified the effects of Val(158)Met on EM changes, resulting in greater decline in Val compared to homozygote Met carriers. This effect was attenuated by statistical control for PP Further, PP moderated the effects of COMT on 15-years EM trajectories, resulting in greater decline in Val carriers, even after accounting for the confounding effects of sex, education, cardiovascular diseases (diabetes, stroke, and hypertension), and chronological age, controlled for practice gains. The effect was still present after excluding individuals with a history of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of cognitive change were not moderated by any other covariates. This report underscores the importance of addressing synergistic effects in normal cognitive aging, as the addition thereof may place healthy individuals at greater risk for memory decline.

Keyword
cognition, aging, COMT, hypertension, longitudinal, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116804 (URN)10.3389/fnagi.2016.00034 (DOI)000371113200001 ()
Available from: 2016-02-11 Created: 2016-02-11 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M., Sundström, A. & Nilsson, L.-G. (2015). Interindividual differences in general cognitive ability from age 18 to age 65 years are extremely stable and strongly associated with working memory capacity. Intelligence, 53, 59-64.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interindividual differences in general cognitive ability from age 18 to age 65 years are extremely stable and strongly associated with working memory capacity
2015 (English)In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 53, 59-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of the study was to examine the degree of stability of interindividual differences in general cognitive ability (g) across the adult life span. To this end, we examined a sample of men (n = 262), cognitively assessed for the first time at age 18 (conscript data). The sample was reassessed at age 50 and at five year intervals up to age 65. Scores from conscript tests at age 18 were retrieved and three of the subtests were used as indicators of g in early adulthood. At age 50–65 years, four indicators served the same purpose. At the 15-year follow-up (age 65) two working memory measures were administered which allowed examination of the relationship with working memory capacity. Results from structural Equation Modelling (SEM) indicated extremely high level of stability from young adulthood to age 50 (standardized regression coefficient = − 95) as well as from age 50 to age 55, 60 and 65 with stability coefficients of .90 or higher for the for the latent g factor. Standardized regression coefficients between young-adult g and the g factor in midlife/old age were .95 from age 18 up to age 50 and 55, .94 up to age 60, and .86 up to age 65. Hence, g at age 18 accounted for 90–74% of the variance in g 32–47 years later. A close association between g and working memory capacity was observed (concurrent association: r = .88, time lagged association: r = .61). Taken together, the present study demonstrates that interindividual differences in g are extremely stable over the period from 18 to midlife, with a significant deviation from unity only at age 65. In light of the parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence, consistent with the close association between g and working memory capacity, midlife may be characterized by neural stability, with decline and decreased interindividual stability, related to loss of parieto-frontal integrity, past age 60.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
General cognitive ability, Inter-individual differences, Stability, Longitudinal
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116803 (URN)10.1016/j.intell.2015.08.011 (DOI)000366077700008 ()
Available from: 2016-02-11 Created: 2016-02-11 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M., Sundström, A., Adolfsson, R. & Nilsson, L.-G. (2015). Self-reported memory failures: associations with future dementia in a population-based study with long-term follow-up. Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, 63(9), 1766-1773.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-reported memory failures: associations with future dementia in a population-based study with long-term follow-up
2015 (English)In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 63, no 9, 1766-1773 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between self-reported memory failures and incident dementia in individuals aged 60 and older.

DESIGN: Longitudinal, community based.

SETTING: Betula Prospective Cohort Study, a population-based study in Umea, Sweden.

PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with a mean age of 71.5 +/- 8.8 (range 60-90) (N = 1,547).

MEASUREMENTS: Participants rated the frequency of everyday memory failures using the 16-item Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) and underwent objective memory testing at baseline. Participant self-reports of complaints of poor memory by family and friends were evaluated. Dementia status was followed-up for 10 to 12 years.

RESULTS: Over the study period, 225 participants developed dementia (132 with Alzheimer's disease (AD)). In Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for demographic factors, PRMQ z-scores predicted incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.21 for all-cause dementia; HR = 1.25 for AD, Ps < .01). The significant associations remained when depressive symptoms and objective memory performance were adjusted for, when low performers on objective memory (= 1 standard deviations below the age group mean) were excluded, and in analyses with delayed entry (survival time = 5 years). Similar patterns were observed for the prospective and retrospective subscales, although including how often participants self-reported that others complained about their poor memory eliminated the association between PRMQ scores and dementia and itself emerged as a significant predictor.

CONCLUSION: Self-reported memory failure predicted future dementia or AD independent of objective memory performance. Subjective reports of complaints by family and friends appear to be an even more-important indicator of preclinical impairments, and physicians should not ignore them, even in the absence of objective memory deficits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2015
Keyword
subjective memory, objective memory, dementia, Alzheimer's disease
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111769 (URN)10.1111/jgs.13611 (DOI)000363804800005 ()26280989 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84942197349 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Eriksson Sörman, D., Rönnlund, M., Sundström, A., Adolfsson, R. & Nilsson, L.-G. (2015). Social relationships and risk of dementia: a population-based study. International psychogeriatrics, 27(8), 1391-1399.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social relationships and risk of dementia: a population-based study
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2015 (English)In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 27, no 8, 1391-1399 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The objective was to examine whether aspects of social relationships in old age are associated with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Methods: We studied 1,715 older adults (≥ 65 years) who were dementia-free at baseline over a period of up to 16 years. Data on living status, contact/visit frequency, satisfaction with contact frequency, and having/not having a close friend were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regressions with all-cause dementia or AD as the dependent variable. To control for reverse causality and to identify potential long-term effects, we additionally performed analyses with delayed entry.

Results: We identified 373 incident cases of dementia (207 with AD) during follow-up. The variable visiting/visits from friends was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia. Further, a higher value on the relationships index (sum of all variables) was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia and AD. However, in analyses with delayed entry, restricted to participants with a survival time of three years or more, none of the social relationship variables was associated with all-cause dementia or AD.

Conclusions: The results indicate that certain aspects of social relationships are associated with incident dementia or AD, but also that these associations may reflect reverse causality. Future studies aimed at identifying other factors of a person's social life that may have the potential to postpone dementia should consider the effects of reverse causality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2015
Keyword
dementia, Alzheimer's disease, longitudinal, social relationships, social network
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-101778 (URN)10.1017/S1041610215000319 (DOI)000361384500014 ()25779679 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-04-10 Created: 2015-04-10 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M., Sundström, A., Adolfsson, R. & Nilsson, L.-G. (2015). Subjective memory impairment in older adults predicts future dementia independent of baseline memory performance: Evidence from the Betula prospective cohort study. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 11(11), 1385-1392.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subjective memory impairment in older adults predicts future dementia independent of baseline memory performance: Evidence from the Betula prospective cohort study
2015 (English)In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 11, no 11, 1385-1392 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: The objective was to examine whether subjective memory impairment (SMI) predicts all-cause dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a population-based study with long-term follow-up (median = 10 years).

METHODS: A total of 2043 initially dementia-free participants (≥ 60 years) made three memory ratings ("compared with others", "compared with five years ago", and "complaints from family/friends") at baseline. During follow-up, 372 participants developed dementia (208 with AD).

RESULTS: Cox regression revealed that subjective memory impairment ratings predicted all-cause dementia in models adjusting for age and sex (hazard ratio or HR from 2.04 to 3.94), with even higher values for AD (HR from 2.29 to 5.74). The result persisted in models including other covariates, including baseline episodic memory performance, and in analyses restricted to participants with long time to dementia diagnosis (≥ 5 years).

DISCUSSION: The findings underscore the usefulness of subjective memory assessment in combination with other factors in identifying individuals at risk for developing dementia.

Keyword
Subjective memory impairment, Objective memory, Dementia, Alzheimer's disease
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112734 (URN)10.1016/j.jalz.2014.11.006 (DOI)000365162900013 ()25667997 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Eriksson Sörman, D., Sundström, A., Rönnlund, M., Adolfsson, R. & Nilsson, L.-G. (2014). Leisure Activity in Old Age and Risk of Dementia: a 15-Year Prospective Study. The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, 69(4), 493-501.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leisure Activity in Old Age and Risk of Dementia: a 15-Year Prospective Study
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2014 (English)In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 69, no 4, 493-501 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate whether leisure activity is associated with incident dementia in an older sample.

Method. We examined a sample of 1,475 elderly (>= 65 years) who were dementia free at baseline over a follow-up period of up to 15 years. In addition to analyses involving the total time period, separate analyses of three time periods were performed, 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 years, following baseline measurement of leisure activity.

Results. After controlling for a variety of potential confounders, analyses of data for the total time period revealed that higher levels of "Total activity" and "Social activity," but not "Mental activity," were associated with decreased risk of dementia. However, analyses of the separate time periods showed that this association was only significant in the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline.

Discussion. The results from this study provide little support for the hypothesis that frequent engagement in leisure activities among elderly serve to protect against dementia diseases across a longer time frame. The finding of a relationship for the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline, could indicate short-term protective effects but could also reflect reverse causality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2014
Keyword
Cognitive aging, Dementia, Leisure activities, Lifestyle, Longitudinal
National Category
Psychology Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-79204 (URN)10.1093/geronb/gbt056 (DOI)000338009000001 ()23766435 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84902162889 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-08-13 Created: 2013-08-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Sundström, A., Rönnlund, M., Adolfsson, R. & Nilsson, L.-G. (2014). Stressful life events are not associated with development of dementia.. International psychogeriatrics, 26, 147-154.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stressful life events are not associated with development of dementia.
2014 (English)In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 26, 147-154 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The impact of stressful life events as a risk factor of dementia diseases is inconclusive. We sought to determine whether stressful negative life events are associated with incidental dementia in a population-based study with long-term follow-up. We also tested the hypothesis that the occurrence of positive life events could mitigate or overcome the possible adverse effects of negative life events on dementia conversion.

Methods: The study involved 2,462 dementia-free participants aged 55 years and older. Information on life events was ascertained at baseline from a comprehensive Life Event Inventory, which included 56 questions about specific life events. For each life event, the emotional impact (both positive and negative) and emotional adjustment were asked for.

Results: During follow-up, 423 participants developed dementia; of these, 240 developed Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cox regression analysis showed no association between the total number of negative life events and the incidence of dementia when adjusted solely for age and gender (hazard ratio = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.92-1.02), or with multiple adjustments for a range of covariates (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.01). Similarly, neither emotional impact nor emotional adjustment to these life events was associated with incident dementia. A separate analysis of AD did not alter the results.

Conclusions: The result of this population-based study finds no association between negative or positive life events and dementia. Accordingly, our results reject the hypothesis that stressful life events trigger the onset of dementia diseases.

Keyword
dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, life events, stress, risk factor, longitudinal
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-84031 (URN)10.1017/S1041610213001804 (DOI)24182362 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-12-13 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Sundström, A., Westerlund, O., Mousavi-Nasab, H., Adolfsson, R. & Nilsson, L.-G. (2014). The relationship between marital and parental status and the risk of dementia. International psychogeriatrics, 26(5), 749-757.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between marital and parental status and the risk of dementia
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2014 (English)In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 26, no 5, 749-757 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: This study examines the association between marital and parental status and their individual and combined effect on risk of dementia diseases in a population-based longitudinal study while controlling for a range of potential confounders, including social networks and exposure to stressful negative life events. Methods: A total of 1,609 participants without dementia, aged 65 years and over, were followed for an average period of 8.6 years (SD = 4.8). During follow-up, 354 participants were diagnosed with dementia. Cox regression was used to investigate the effect of marital and parental status on risk of dementia. Results: In univariate Cox regression models (adjusted for age as time scale), widowed (hazard ratio (HR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.78), and not having children (HR 1.54, 95% CI = 1.15-2.06) were significantly associated with incident dementia. In multivariate analyses that included simultaneously marital and parental status and covariates that were found to be significant in univariate models (p < 0.10), the HR was 1.30 (95% CI = 1.01-1.66) for widowed, and 1.51 (95% CI = 1.08-2.10) for those not having children. Finally, a group of four combined factors was constructed: married parents (reference), married without children, widowed parents, and widowed without children. The combined effect revealed a 1.3 times higher risk (95% CI = 1.03-1.76) of dementia in widow parents, and a 2.2 times higher risk (95% CI = 1.36-3.60) in widowed persons without children, in relation to married parents. No significant difference was observed for those being married and without children. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that marital- and parental status are important risk factors for developing dementia, with especially increased risk in those being both widowed and without children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2014
Keyword
dementia, marital status, parental status, risk factors, childlessness, longitudinal
National Category
Psychology Geriatrics
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-85012 (URN)10.1017/S1041610213002652 (DOI)000333639000006 ()24451183 (PubMedID)
Funder
Linnaeus research environment CADICS, 2006-21576-36119-66
Available from: 2014-01-24 Created: 2014-01-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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