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Olofsson, A. D., Fransson, G. & Lindberg, J. O. (2019). A study of the use of digital technology and its conditions with a view to understanding what 'adequate digital competence' may mean in a national policy initiative. Educational studies (Dorchester-on-Thames)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of the use of digital technology and its conditions with a view to understanding what 'adequate digital competence' may mean in a national policy initiative
2019 (English)In: Educational studies (Dorchester-on-Thames), ISSN 0305-5698, E-ISSN 1465-3400Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, adequate digital competence has been put in the spotlight due to the Swedish 2017 national strategy for the digitalisation of the K-12 school system. Based on both policy and practice, the aim is to explore teachers' enacted digital competence in three upper secondary schools in Sweden and thereby provide an empirical account of what the notion 'adequate' means in practice. The data consists of interviews with teachers and classroom observations. At an aggregated analytical level, the results are presented as four narrative sub-case descriptions. It is concluded that teachers' adequate digital competence is flexible in meaning, determined by local contextual conditions and enacted in activities and decisions that are based on the teachers' own value frameworks. The understanding of 'adequate' in this study does not appear to be clarified in the formulations used in the national strategy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Digital competence, teacher, national policy strategy, upper secondary school
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162147 (URN)10.1080/03055698.2019.1651694 (DOI)000481124500001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-1762
Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2020-01-22
Fransson, G., Holmberg, J., Lindberg, O. J. & Olofsson, A. D. (2019). Digitalise and capitalise?: Teachers’ self-understanding in 21st-century teaching contexts. Oxford Review of Education, 45(1), 102-118
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digitalise and capitalise?: Teachers’ self-understanding in 21st-century teaching contexts
2019 (English)In: Oxford Review of Education, ISSN 0305-4985, E-ISSN 1465-3915, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 102-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The digitalisation of educational contexts has changed the practice of teaching and learning. In this, teachers have a key role in enacting digital technologies for this purpose and have different opportunities to do so. This article explores how digitalisation can affect teachers by focusing on: (a) how teachers manage to capitalise on digitalisation; and (b) how digitalisation can affect and reconstruct their self-understanding. Two teacher colleagues of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the same teaching team are interviewed and observed. Drawing on the interplay between self-image, self-esteem, job motivation, and task perception, it is shown how the teachers’ self-understanding is played out and changes due to the call for digitalisation. Whereas one of the teachers has been able to capitalise on digitalisation in a way that has been beneficial both professionally and personally, the other has felt pressurised by it. A conclusion is that a limited or extended use of digital technologies should not be taken as an indicator of teaching quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
agency, capitalisation, digital technologies, enactment, self-understanding, teacher
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151703 (URN)10.1080/03054985.2018.1500357 (DOI)000454618100006 ()2-s2.0-85052304072 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2014-1762
Available from: 2018-09-10 Created: 2018-09-10 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Fransson, G., Lindberg, J. O. & Olofsson, A. D. (2018). Adequate digital competence: a close reading of the new national strategy for digitalization of the schools in Sweden. Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, 14(2), 217-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adequate digital competence: a close reading of the new national strategy for digitalization of the schools in Sweden
2018 (English)In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 217-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the notion of ‘adequate digital competence’, as it is used in the 2017 Swedish strategy for digitalization of the school system, is in focus. Based on a close reading of the strategy, three dimensions are formulated for discussion: time, context, and interpretation. These dimensions open a more general discussion about the content of policies regarding digital competence. The notion of striving for an ‘adequate digital competence’ for children, students, teachers, school leaders, and other school staff is loaded with a variety of possible meanings. The strategy provides guidance in some aspects, but leaves a lot to local enactment of the strategy.

Keywords
ICT, implementation, policy, school, strategy
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152686 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, J. O. & Olofsson, A. D. (2018). Editorial - Recent trends in the digitalization of the Nordic K-12 schools. Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, 14(2), 103-108
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial - Recent trends in the digitalization of the Nordic K-12 schools
2018 (English)In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 103-108Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, 2018
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152685 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Fransson, G., Lindberg, O. J. & Olofsson, A. D. (2018). From a student perspective, what constitutes a good (or less good) use of ICT in teaching?. Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, 23(5), 2155-2177
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From a student perspective, what constitutes a good (or less good) use of ICT in teaching?
2018 (English)In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 2155-2177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates what upper secondary school students regard as goodor less good teaching using ICT. 367 Swedish upper secondary students in 2 schoolsresponded to a web-based questionnaire. The students were asked to describe one oftheir teachers who used ‘ICT in a way that made them learn very well, and one whoused ICT in a way that made them learn less well’ and to describe what these teachersdid and why their teaching was understood as good or less good. 18 themes wereidentified, of which 17 were combined into eight overall counterpart themes and onenon-counterpart theme. ‘Clarity’ was the most prominent theme, followed by ‘teachers’‘ICT skills’, ‘uses ICT in a good way’, ‘fun factor’, ‘puts information on the LMS’,‘varies the teaching methods’, ‘demonstrates how to use ICT’ and ‘general pedagogicalskills’. The results show that although the specific focus is on students’ views of theirteachers’ use of ICT, general pedagogical skills are a major focus in the themes.Effectiveness is an explicit theme in terms of ICT adding value to teaching andlearning, while ineffectiveness is an implicit underlying dimension in the themesrelating to less good teaching. It is also evident that the students value the sameteacher’s use of ICT in teaching differently.

Keywords
Good teacher, ICT, Students’ views, Teaching, Upper secondary school
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146626 (URN)10.1007/s10639-018-9708-4 (DOI)000442598800021 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2014-1762
Available from: 2018-04-13 Created: 2018-04-13 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, O. J., Olofsson, A. D. & Fransson, G. (2018). Managing IT on a municipality level: on the role of strategists in developing digital competence. In: EDULEARN18 Proceedings: . Paper presented at EDULEARN18 10th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, Palma, Spain, 2-4 July, 2018. (pp. 9016-9020).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing IT on a municipality level: on the role of strategists in developing digital competence
2018 (English)In: EDULEARN18 Proceedings, 2018, p. 9016-9020Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, the digitalization of K-12 schools has been ongoing for more than 30 years. Several larger governmental initiatives targeting issues such as the one-to-one classroom and teachers’ development of digital competence have been carried out, but the outcomes have not been as positive as hoped for. In the research literature, there is growing evidence of the importance of long-term and well-anchored strategies, such as functioning information and communication technology (ICT) plans, as well as calls for a system approach to understanding the leadership needed for the digitalization of K-12 schools. There is also research highlighting the importance of applying multilevel analysis for understanding ICT implementation and educational change. In autumn 2017, the Swedish government suggested one such strategy for the digitalization of Swedish schools. One interesting aspect in the strategy is the aim indicating that students, teachers, and school leaders, as well as other staff members working in the schools, should develop what is called “adequate digital competence.” Departing from data gathered within a 4-year longitudinal Swedish research project investigating the advanced use of information technology (IT) in upper secondary schools, this paper focuses on educational IT strategists/managers that work on a municipality level and their role in the process of developing digital competence in schools. Through semi-structured interviews, three educational IT strategists working in three different Swedish municipalities provided their views about their work description, their functions as strategists/managers, and their understanding of digital competence. The first analysis shows clear variations regarding, for example, how the strategists formulate their own role in the ongoing digitalization of the school, as well as under which conditions they can carry out their work.

Series
EDULEARN Proceedings, ISSN 2340-1117
Keywords
digitalization, k-12 school, it-strategist, research projects
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education; Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151706 (URN)10.21125/edulearn.2018.2113 (DOI)978-84-09-02709-5 (ISBN)
Conference
EDULEARN18 10th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, Palma, Spain, 2-4 July, 2018.
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2014-1762
Available from: 2018-09-10 Created: 2018-09-10 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Fransson, G., Hrastinski, S., Jaldemark, J., Lindberg, J. O., Lundin, J., Olofsson, A. D., . . . Öberg, L.-M. (2018). On the Swedish national graduate school for digital technologies in education - GRADE: Expectations and experiences of doctoral students and supervisors. In: L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres (Ed.), ICERI2018 Proceedings: 11th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. Paper presented at 11th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville, Spain, November 12-14, 2018 (pp. 769-774). The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Swedish national graduate school for digital technologies in education - GRADE: Expectations and experiences of doctoral students and supervisors
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2018 (English)In: ICERI2018 Proceedings: 11th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, p. 769-774Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Swedish National Graduate School for Digital Technologies in Education (GRADE) is a cooperative venture between six Swedish universities established during 2018. Within the field of educational sciences and in the area of digital technologies in education, GRADE aims to strengthen the expertise in the area and to increase national and international cooperation in research training activities.Over a number of years, and from multitude of sources (cf. Brown & Davis, 2004; Fisher, Higgins & Loveless, 2006; Kafai & Resnick 1996), research has stressed that increased digitalization in schools leads to a complexity that needs to be taken into account on different levels, from different perspectives and with different designs, methodologies and theoretical perspectives (cf. Olofsson, Lindberg, Fransson & Hauge, 2015; Price, Jewitt & Brown, 2013; Tondeur, Valcke & van Braak, 2008). At a micro-level, the learning situation of students, teachers and school-leaders changes and it becomes important to deepen the knowledge about the impact digital technologies has on the fundamental conditions for teaching and learning of different school subjects (cf. Chun, Kern & Smith 2016; Leung & Baccaglini-Frank, 2017). On a macro-level, conditions for education as such changes and digital technologies becomes an important object of study as agents of change (Wong & Li, 2008). The digitalization of K-12 schools has long been highlighted in policy as a necessity (cf. Kirkman et al, 2002; OECD, 2010). However, research and evaluations (cf. Fransson et al, 2012; OECD, 2015; Wastiau et al, 2013) show that many substantial challenges remain. One of the fundamental pillars of GRADE is the interdisciplinary approach. Several disciplines are present (Applied IT, Curriculum studies, Education, Informatics, Technology and Learning, Educational work, Work-interated Learning) in researching digital technologies in K-12 schools with the ambition to contribute to the continued implementation, integration and use of digital technologies in Swedish K-12 schools that stems from the evidence-based knowledge produced within the activities of GRADE. The research within GRADE will be characterized by close cooperation with stakeholders from school practice, with the aim to contribute to concrete school development. In GRADE, a multi-level approach that involves multiple layers or levels of school activities will be encouraged. When possible, studies will be longitudinal. This will imply studies from an organizational and management perspective, e.g. studies of school leaders and other members of senior management positions responsible for digital technology use and implementation. Also implied are studies of teachers' teaching practices and didactical considerations, as well as studies of the students in classrooms and their learning using digital technologies. This will also imply that several issues with a bearing on the digitalization of education, for example regarding school policy, teaching, learning, assessment and professional development will be researched from different perspectives and with different methodological approaches. In this paper, these points of departure will be explored based on the expectations and experiences of the first twelve admitted doctoral students and their supervisors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018
Series
ICERI Proceedings, ISSN 2340-1095
Keywords
digital technologies, k-12, research school
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153939 (URN)10.21125/iceri.2018.1164 (DOI)978-84-09-05948-5 (ISBN)
Conference
11th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville, Spain, November 12-14, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Olofsson, A. D., Lindberg, O. J. & Fransson, G. (2018). Students' voices about information and communication technology in upper secondary schools. The international journal of information and learning technology, 35(2), 82-92
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Students' voices about information and communication technology in upper secondary schools
2018 (English)In: The international journal of information and learning technology, ISSN 2056-4880, E-ISSN 2056-4899, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 82-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore upper secondary school students’ voices on how information and communication technology (ICT) could structure and support their everyday activities and time at school.

Design/methodology/approach: In all, 11 group interviews were conducted with a total of 46 students from three upper secondary schools. NVivo PRO 11 was used for a qualitative content analysis.

Findings: The results show that ICT plays a central role in the students’ schooling, not in terms of “state-of-the-art” technology, but rather as “state-of-the-actual”, by for example supporting the writing process and for peer support, digital documentation and storage.

Research limitations/implications: A relatively small number of students in three schools and three specific programmes make generalisations difficult.

Practical implications: Students’ perspectives on the “state-of-the-actual” could influence teachers’ use of ICT in education, their professional development activities and the development of an in-school ICT infrastructure.

Social implications: The study could lead to a better understanding of students’ expectations and use of ICT at school and in everyday life.

Originality/value: The originality of this paper is the focus on students’ voices about how the basic use and functionality of ICT could structure and support their everyday activities at school.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
teaching, students, upper secondary school, use of ICT, student voices
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144196 (URN)10.1108/IJILT-09-2017-0088 (DOI)000423358000001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-1762
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, O. J., Olofsson, A. D. & Karakoyun, F. (2018). Teacher education students’ view on 21st century skills. In: EDULEARN18 Proceedings: . Paper presented at EDULEARN2018 10th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, Palma, Spain, 2-4 July, 2018 (pp. 9028-9032). The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teacher education students’ view on 21st century skills
2018 (English)In: EDULEARN18 Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, p. 9028-9032Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper is concerned with teacher education students’ views on 21st century skills. Today, western societies are becoming more and more reliant on digital technologies as digital technology is present in many aspects of everyday life. As these technologies become ubiquitous, the skills to use them and to function in a highly digitalized society are becoming important. One way to label the skills required is 21st-century skills. However, no matter what the label, the responsibility to make sure that present and future citizens have the digital skills they need falls to schools in general and teachers in particular. This paper presents a study on teacher education students views on 21st century skills, as a way to further the understanding of how these skills become part of the work in schools.  Data for this paper come from a questionnaire consisting of six open questions presented to student teachers (n=81). The questions concerned the students’ views on the 21st century skills they use in their everyday life and their views on 21st century skills in relation to their teacher education, their future work as teachers, and their future students. An early analysis shows variation in the way student teachers view their own 21st century skills and their future school students’ skills. A conclusion that can be drawn is that student teachers seem to give voice to the complexities in including 21st century skills in their future teaching. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018
Series
EDULEARN Proceedings, ISSN 2340-1117
Keywords
21st century skills, teacher education students, questionnaire study
National Category
Pedagogy Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151709 (URN)10.21125/edulearn.2018.2115 (DOI)978-84-09-02709-5 (ISBN)
Conference
EDULEARN2018 10th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, Palma, Spain, 2-4 July, 2018
Available from: 2018-09-10 Created: 2018-09-10 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Fransson, G., Lindberg, J. O. & Olofsson, A. D. (2017). Conditions for implementing ICT in Swedish upper secondary schools : How national strategies for implementation relate to existing local educational practices. In: : . Paper presented at European Conference on Educational Research, ECER - Reforming Education and the Imperative of Constant Change: Ambivalent roles of policy and educational research, in Copenhagen, Denmark, 22-25 August, 2017.. Berlin: European Educational Research Association, Freie Universität Berlin
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conditions for implementing ICT in Swedish upper secondary schools : How national strategies for implementation relate to existing local educational practices
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The implementation and use of information- and communication technology (ICT) in education are high on the educational agendas of most countries. In principle, all western countries now have a policy or strategy for ICT in K-12 schools. Although countries may have similar economic preconditions, they often implement different ICT policies in school (Austin & Hunter, 2013; Ottestad, 2010).  ICT policies may also have different rationales and are often over-optimistic about ICT options (Convery, 2009; Egea, 2014; Jordan, 2011) and the use of ICT as a tool for teaching and learning in education (Hammond, 2014). Most research on ICT policies seems to focus on issues such as policy rationale or how policy is implemented in schools. However, few studies focus on the existing educational practices in schools as preconditions for ICT implementation. In this paper, the focus is on how policy implementation strategies, as they are understood in the recently proposed Swedish ICT policy, relate to already established educational practices in upper secondary school settings. Specifically, the aim of the paper is to discuss how policy implementation strategies relate to the existing local practices in three upper secondary contexts as preconditions for integration of ICT. We discuss whether the proposed strategies can be understood as supported or not by existing contextual factors as conditions for the policy implementation.

 

Traditionally, policy has often been viewed as a top-down process, where policy is formulated in one arena and then realized in another (Lindensjö & Lundgren, 2000). However, policy formation processes are rather more complicated than that and can be understood as processes of interpretation and enactment (Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012). Acknowledging these processes of policy formation (Edwards, 2012) is to acknowledge processes of micro-political manoeuvring, power and negotiation in practice, and to relate the policy enactment processes to the existing preconditions, structures and activities of the contexts in which the policy is to be realized. Thus, understanding how the proposed policy implementation strategies relate to existing practices as preconditions in schools may help us to understand what kind of challenges an ICT policy may face and to formulate more realistic expectations for the use of ICT in education.

 

The kind of analysis that is suggested in this paper may also clarify why the implementation and use of ICT in school is so challenging and why there seems to be a discrepancy between expectations in the policy formulation arena and its use in the realization arena (Olofsson, Lindberg, Hauge, & Fransson, 2011; Tondeur, van Braak and Valcke’s, 2007). It has been suggested that national and political initiatives and governing have little impact on the use of ICT in school (McGarr, 2009). Rather, it has been emphasized that teachers want to see compelling reasons why they and their students should use ICT for teaching and learning (Howard, 2013; Lim, 2015). This might be related to ‘teacher culture’ and a reason why principals have been identified as key persons when implementing ICT. However, different leadership styles have also been found to give different results when it comes to implementing ICT (Hadjithoma-Garstka, 2011). Indeed, different leadership styles seem to fit different educational cultures. Implementing an ICT policy in local schools has been found to be a multifaceted phenomenon rooted in educational culture (Vanderlinde, van Braak, & Dexter 2012). If contextual matter is of importance for implementing ICT, it is therefore of interest to study how the proposed policy implementation strategies relate to existing educational practices in schools.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: European Educational Research Association, Freie Universität Berlin, 2017
Keywords
ICT, implementation strategies, upper secondary school, policy
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138710 (URN)
Conference
European Conference on Educational Research, ECER - Reforming Education and the Imperative of Constant Change: Ambivalent roles of policy and educational research, in Copenhagen, Denmark, 22-25 August, 2017.
Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2020-01-22
Projects
Graduate school - Digital technologies in education - GRADE [2017-03687_VR]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0941-9364

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