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BETA
Bergqvist, Ewa, DocentORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4727-8064
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 35) Show all publications
Theens, F., Bergqvist, E. & Österholm, M. (2018). Linguistic features as possible sources for inequivalence of mathematics PISA tasks. In: Johan Häggström, Yvonne Liljekvist, Jonas Bergman Ärlebäck, Maria Fahlgren, Oduor Olande (Ed.), Perspectives on professional development of mathematics teachers: Proceedings of MADIF 11, The eleventh research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education, Karlstad, January 23–24, 2018. Paper presented at MADIF 11, The eleventh research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education, Karlstad, January 23–24, 2018 (pp. 226-226). Göteborg: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 13(13)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linguistic features as possible sources for inequivalence of mathematics PISA tasks
2018 (English)In: Perspectives on professional development of mathematics teachers: Proceedings of MADIF 11, The eleventh research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education, Karlstad, January 23–24, 2018 / [ed] Johan Häggström, Yvonne Liljekvist, Jonas Bergman Ärlebäck, Maria Fahlgren, Oduor Olande, Göteborg: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF , 2018, Vol. 13, no 13, p. 226-226Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When mathematics tasks are translated to different languages, there is a risk that the different language versions are not equivalent and display differential item functioning (DIF). In this study, we aimed to identify possible sources of DIF. We investigated whether differences in some linguistic features are related to DIF between the English (USA), German, and Swedish versions of mathematics tasks of the PISA 2012 assessment. The linguistic features chosen in this study are grammatical person, voice (active/passive), and sentence structure. We analyzed the three different language versions of 83 mathematics PISA tasks in three steps. First, we calculated the amount of differences in the three linguistic features between the language versions. Then, we calculated DIF, using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure pairwise for two language versions at a time. Finally, we searched for correlations between the amount of linguistic differences and DIF between the versions. The analysis showed that differences in linguistic features occurred between the language versions – differences in voice were most common – and that several items displayed intermediate or large level of DIF. Still, there were no statistical significant correlations between differences in linguistic features and DIF between the language versions, that is, there must be other sources of DIF.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2018
Series
Skrifter från Svensk Förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning, ISSN 1651-3274
National Category
Didactics Pedagogical Work
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157053 (URN)978-91-984024-2-1 (ISBN)
Conference
MADIF 11, The eleventh research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education, Karlstad, January 23–24, 2018
Available from: 2019-03-06 Created: 2019-03-06 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Bergqvist, E., Österholm, M., Granberg, C. & Sumpter, L. (Eds.). (2018). Proceedings of the 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Paper presented at 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Umeå, Sweden, July 3-7, 2018. Umeå, Sweden: PME
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proceedings of the 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education
2018 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå, Sweden: PME, 2018
Series
Proceedings of the 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, ISSN 0771-100X ; 42
National Category
Didactics Mathematics
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150152 (URN)978-91-7601-902-3 (ISBN)
Conference
42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Umeå, Sweden, July 3-7, 2018
Available from: 2018-07-12 Created: 2018-07-12 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Bergqvist, E., Theens, F. & Österholm, M. (2018). The role of linguistic features when reading and solving mathematics tasks in different languages. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 51, 41-55
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of linguistic features when reading and solving mathematics tasks in different languages
2018 (English)In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 51, p. 41-55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to deepen the understanding of the relation between the language used in mathematics tasks and the difficulty in reading and solving the tasks. We examine issues of language both through linguistic features of tasks (word length, sentence length, task length, and information density) and through different natural languages used to formulate the tasks (English, German, and Swedish). Analyses of 83 PISA mathematics tasks reveal that tasks in German, when compared with English and Swedish, show stronger connections between the examined linguistic features of tasks and difficulty in reading and solving the tasks. We discuss if and how this result can be explained by general differences between the three languages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
PISA, Word length, Sentence length, Task length, Information density, English, German, Swedish
National Category
Didactics Mathematics
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150157 (URN)10.1016/j.jmathb.2018.06.009 (DOI)000442439500004 ()
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, Pl3-0226:1
Available from: 2018-07-13 Created: 2018-07-13 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Sullivan Hellgren, J., Bergqvist, E. & Österholm, M. (2017). Argumentation in university textbooks: comparing biology, chemistry and mathematics. In: : . Paper presented at NFSUN 2017, Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway, 6-9 June 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Argumentation in university textbooks: comparing biology, chemistry and mathematics
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
didactics of mathematics; didactics of natural science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139601 (URN)
Conference
NFSUN 2017, Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway, 6-9 June 2017
Projects
Samband mellan olika typer av argumentation och elevers förståelse av matematiska förklaringar
Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Theens, F., Bergqvist, E. & Österholm, M. (2017). Linguistic features in mathematics PISA tasks in different languages. In: : . Paper presented at The Eighth Nordic Conference on Mathematics Education, NORMA 17, Stockholm, Sweden, May 30 – June 2, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linguistic features in mathematics PISA tasks in different languages
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When the results of international comparative studies such as PISA or TIMSS get published, they are discussed broadly in media and are used to influence politics and public opinion. To solve mathematics PISA tasks, students have to read and understand the task text. Still, since the mathematics tasks are primarily supposed to measure mathematical ability and not reading ability, it is important to avoid unnecessary demands of reading ability in the tasks. In addition, the different language versions of a task used in PISA might vary in reading difficulty. Such differences can result in differential item functioning (DIF), that is, that students with the same mathematical ability but from different countries have a different probability of answering the item correctly. One reason for DIF between language versions is that linguistic features can differ between language versions. In this study we focus on four different linguistic features that in earlier studies have shown connections to the difficulty of solving mathematics tasks (e.g., Abedi, Lord, & Plummer, 1997).

  • Grammatical person, that is, if the text is written in first, second, or third person.
  • Voice, that is, if active or passive voice is used in the text.
  • Sentence structure, that is, how the sentences are built of main and subordinate clauses.
  • Word order, that is, the order of subject, finite verb, and object in the sentence.

This study is part of a larger project examining the relation between the language used in mathematics tasks and both the tasks’ difficulty and demand of reading ability. The research questions in this study are: Which differences in the four linguistic features investigated occur between PISA tasks in English, German, and Swedish? Which of these differences are related to DIF between the task versions? The English (USA), German, and Swedish language versions of 83 mathematics tasks of the PISA 2012 assessment are analyzed. The first step of the analysis was to search for differences in the four linguistic features between the different language versions of the tasks. The next steps will be quantitative analyses of the differences, a statistical analysis to detect DIF between the versions, and then statistical analyses to investigate possible relations between the differences and DIF. The first step showed that some differences occur sporadically, for example, the use of third person (he/she/it) in one language version and second person (you) in another language version. Other differences occur much more frequently. For example, differences in word order are quite common, in particular since the finite verb always is at the last position in subordinate clauses in German but not in English and Swedish. The next steps of the analysis are at present (January 2017) ongoing.

Keywords
PISA, language and mathematics, DIF
National Category
Didactics Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141582 (URN)
Conference
The Eighth Nordic Conference on Mathematics Education, NORMA 17, Stockholm, Sweden, May 30 – June 2, 2017
Available from: 2017-11-08 Created: 2017-11-08 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Bergqvist, E. & Bergqvist, T. (2017). The role of the formal written curriculum in standards-based reform. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 49(2), 149-168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of the formal written curriculum in standards-based reform
2017 (English)In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 149-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

More than 15 years after the introduction of a standards-based curriculum reform, the mathematics teachers are positive towards the reform message but have not changed their classroom practice accordingly. To improve the impact of future reforms, it is important to learn from this situation and to better understand the role of the national policy documents. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine how the standards-based reform in mathematics in Sweden was conveyed in the formal written curriculum. The research questions focus on to what extent and how clearly the national policy documents convey the message. The results show that the message is present to a large extent in the policy documents, but that it is vague and formulated with complex wording. The study gives concrete examples and shows in detail in what ways the documents are vague and complex.

Keywords
Policy documents, content analysis, mathematical competencies, assimilation, clarity, accommodation
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-122460 (URN)10.1080/00220272.2016.1202323 (DOI)000395626400003 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2007-375-50893-28
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-17 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Bergqvist, E. & Österholm, M. (2017). Variation of explicit argumentation in mathematics textbooks. In: Kaur, B., Ho, W.K., Toh, T.L., & Choy, B.H. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 41st Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: . Paper presented at 41st Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME41), Singapore, July 17-22, 2017 (pp. 170-170). , 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation of explicit argumentation in mathematics textbooks
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 41st Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Kaur, B., Ho, W.K., Toh, T.L., & Choy, B.H., 2017, Vol. 1, p. 170-170Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147746 (URN)9781387136087 (ISBN)
Conference
41st Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME41), Singapore, July 17-22, 2017
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
Edmonds-Wathen, C., Bergqvist, E. & Österholm, M. (2016). Comparing mathematics tasks in different languages. In: Csíkos, C., Rausch, A., & Szitányi, J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: . Paper presented at The 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (pp. 151-151). Szeged, Hungary: PME, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing mathematics tasks in different languages
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Csíkos, C., Rausch, A., & Szitányi, J., Szeged, Hungary: PME , 2016, Vol. 1, p. 151-151Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Szeged, Hungary: PME, 2016
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124599 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
The 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P13-0226:1
Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-17 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Edmonds-Wathen, C., Bergqvist, E. & Österholm, M. (2016). Framework of linguistic properties to compare mathematics tasks in different languages. In: Johan Häggström, Eva Norén, Jorryt van Bommel, Judy Sayers, Ola Helenius, Yvonne Liljekvist (Ed.), ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities: Proceedings of MADIF 10 The tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016. Paper presented at MADIF 10: The tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016 (pp. 146-146). Göteborgs universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framework of linguistic properties to compare mathematics tasks in different languages
2016 (English)In: ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities: Proceedings of MADIF 10 The tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016 / [ed] Johan Häggström, Eva Norén, Jorryt van Bommel, Judy Sayers, Ola Helenius, Yvonne Liljekvist, Göteborgs universitet , 2016, p. 146-146Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study aims to construct a framework of linguistic properties of mathematical tasks that can be used to compare versions of mathematics test tasks in different natural languages. The framework will be useful when trying to explain statistical differences between different language versions of mathematical tasks, for example, differences in item functioning (DIF) that are due to inherent properties of different languages. Earlier research suggests that different languages might have different inherent properties when it comes to expressing mathematics. We have begun with a list of linguistic properties for which there are indications that they might affect the difficulty of a task. We are conducting a structured literature review looking for evidence of connections between linguistic properties and difficulty. The framework should include information about each property including methods used to measure the property, empirical and/or theoretical connections to aspects of difficulty, and relevance for mathematical tasks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborgs universitet, 2016
Series
Skrifter från Svensk Förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning ; 11
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159492 (URN)978-91-984024-0-7 (ISBN)
Conference
MADIF 10: The tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P130226:1
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
Bergqvist, E., Theens, F. & Österholm, M. (2016). Linguistic properties of PISA mathematics tasks in different languages. In: Häggström, Johan; Norén, Eva; van Bommel, Jorryt; Sayers, Judy; Helenius, Ola; Liljekvist, Yvonne (Ed.), ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities: Proceedings of MADIF 10: the tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016. Paper presented at Tionde Matematikdidaktiska forskningsseminariet av Svensk Förening för Matematikdidaktisk Forskning (MADIF-10), Karlstad, Sweden, January 26-27, 2016 (pp. 147-147). Göteborg: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linguistic properties of PISA mathematics tasks in different languages
2016 (English)In: ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities: Proceedings of MADIF 10: the tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016 / [ed] Häggström, Johan; Norén, Eva; van Bommel, Jorryt; Sayers, Judy; Helenius, Ola; Liljekvist, Yvonne, Göteborg: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2016, p. 147-147Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The mathematics PISA tasks are primarily supposed to measure mathematical ability and not reading ability, so it is important to avoid unnecessary demands of reading ability in the tasks. Many readability formulas are using both word length and sentence length as indicators of text difficulty. In this study, we examine differences and similarities between English, German, and Swedish mathematics PISA tasks regarding word length and sentence length. We analyze 146 mathematics PISA tasks from 2000–2013, in English, German, and Swedish. For each task we create measures of mean word and sentence length. To analyze if there are any differences between the three language versions of the tasks, we use t-tests to compare the three languages pairwise. We found that in average, the German versions have the longest words, followed by Swedish and then English. Average sentence length was highest for English, followed by German and then Swedish.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2016
Series
Skrifter från SMDF, ISSN 1651-3274 ; 11
National Category
Didactics Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141581 (URN)978-91-984024-0-7 (ISBN)
Conference
Tionde Matematikdidaktiska forskningsseminariet av Svensk Förening för Matematikdidaktisk Forskning (MADIF-10), Karlstad, Sweden, January 26-27, 2016
Available from: 2017-11-08 Created: 2017-11-08 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Projects
Effects on the demand of reading ability when translating mathematical tasks between different languages [P13-0226:1_RJ]; Umeå University; Publications
Edmonds-Wathen, C., Bergqvist, E. & Österholm, M. (2016). Framework of linguistic properties to compare mathematics tasks in different languages. In: Johan Häggström, Eva Norén, Jorryt van Bommel, Judy Sayers, Ola Helenius, Yvonne Liljekvist (Ed.), ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities: Proceedings of MADIF 10 The tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016. Paper presented at MADIF 10: The tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016 (pp. 146-146). Göteborgs universitet
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4727-8064

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