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Forsberg, Bertil
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Publications (10 of 181) Show all publications
Cox, B., Vicedo-Cabrera, A. M., Gasparrini, A., Roels, H. A., Martens, E., Vangronsveld, J., . . . Nawrot, T. S. (2016). Ambient temperature as a trigger of preterm delivery in a temperate climate. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 70(12), 1191-1199.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ambient temperature as a trigger of preterm delivery in a temperate climate
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 70, no 12, 1191-1199 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that elevated ambient temperatures may trigger preterm delivery. Since results from studies in temperate climates are inconclusive, we investigated the association between temperature and the risk of preterm birth in Flanders (Belgium).

METHODS: We used data on 807 835 singleton deliveries (January 1998-July 2011). We combined a quasi-Poisson model with distributed lag non-linear models to allow for delayed and non-linear temperature effects, accounting for the daily pregnancies at risk and their gestational age distribution.

RESULTS: For moderate heat (95th vs 50th centile) up to 1 day before delivery (lag 0-1), the risk of preterm birth increased by 8.5% (95% CI 2.4% to 15.0%) when minimum temperature increased from 8.3°C to 16.3°C and by 9.6% (95% CI 1.1% to 18.7%) when maximum temperature increased from 14.7°C to 26.5°C. Corresponding estimates for extreme heat (99th vs 50th centile) were 15.6% (95% CI 4.8% to 27.6%) for minimum temperature (19.0°C vs 8.3°C) and 14.5% (95% CI 0.5% to 30.6%) for maximum temperature (30.7°C vs 14.7°C). Despite the increased risk of preterm birth associated with cold at lag 2 (and lag 1 for minimum temperature), cumulative cold effects were small. The per cent change in preterm birth associated with moderate cold (5th vs 50th centile) up to 3 days before delivery (lag 0-3) was 2.1% (95% CI -4.1% to 8.7%) for minimum temperature (-2.0°C vs 8.3°C) and 0.6% (95% CI -7.3% to 9.2%) for maximum temperature (2.5°C vs 14.7°C).

CONCLUSIONS: Even in a temperate climate, ambient temperature may trigger preterm delivery, suggesting that pregnant women should avoid temperature extremes.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121683 (URN)10.1136/jech-2015-206384 (DOI)000388117300007 ()27261529 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Oudin, A., Bråbäck, L., Oudin Åström, D., Strömgren, M. & Forsberg, B. (2016). Association between neighbourhood air pollution concentrations and dispensed medication for psychiatric disorders in a large longitudinal cohort of Swedish children and adolescents. BMJ Open, 6(6), Article ID e010004.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between neighbourhood air pollution concentrations and dispensed medication for psychiatric disorders in a large longitudinal cohort of Swedish children and adolescents
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2016 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 6, e010004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between exposure to air pollution and child and adolescent mental health.

DESIGN: Observational study.

SETTING: Swedish National Register data on dispensed medications for a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including sedative medications, sleeping pills and antipsychotic medications, together with socioeconomic and demographic data and a national land use regression model for air pollution concentrations for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5.

PARTICIPANTS: The entire population under 18 years of age in 4 major counties. We excluded cohort members whose parents had dispensed a medication in the same medication group since the start date of the register. The cohort size was 552 221.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for the outcomes, adjusted for individual-level and group-level characteristics.

RESULTS: The average length of follow-up was 3.5 years, with an average number of events per 1000 cohort members of ∼21. The mean annual level of NO2 was 9.8 µg/m(3). Children and adolescents living in areas with higher air pollution concentrations were more likely to have a dispensed medication for a psychiatric disorder during follow-up (HR=1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.12, associated with a 10 µg/m(3) increase in NO2). The association with NO2 was clearly present in 3 out of 4 counties in the study area; however, no statistically significant heterogeneity was detected.

CONCLUSION: There may be a link between exposure to air pollution and dispensed medications for certain psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents even at the relatively low levels of air pollution in the study regions. The findings should be corroborated by others.

Keyword
Epidemiology, Public health
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121686 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010004 (DOI)000380237100010 ()27259522 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Vicedo-Cabrera, A. M., Forsberg, B., Tobias, A., Zanobetti, A., Schwartz, J., Armstrong, B. & Gasparrini, A. (2016). Associations of Inter- and Intraday Temperature Change With Mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology, 183(4), 286-293.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations of Inter- and Intraday Temperature Change With Mortality
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2016 (English)In: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 183, no 4, 286-293 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study we evaluated the association between temperature variation and mortality and compared it with the contribution due to mean daily temperature in 6 cities with different climates. Quasi-Poisson time series regression models were applied to estimate the associations (relative risk and 95% confidence interval) of mean daily temperature (99th and 1st percentiles, with temperature of minimum mortality as the reference category), interday temperature variation (difference between the mean temperatures of 2 neighboring days) and intraday temperature variation (diurnal temperature range (DTR)) (referred to as median variation) with mortality in 6 cities: London, United Kingdom; Madrid, Spain; Stockholm, Sweden; New York, New York; Miami, Florida; and Houston, Texas (date range, 1985-2010). All cities showed a substantial increase in mortality risk associated with mean daily temperature, with relative risks reaching 1.428 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.329, 1.533) for heat in Madrid and 1.467 (95% CI: 1.385, 1.555) for cold in London. Inconsistent results for inter-/intraday change were obtained, except for some evidence of protective associations on hot and cold days (relative risk (RR) = 0.977 (95% CI: 0.955, 0.999) and RR = 0.981 (95% CI: 0.971, 0.991), respectively) in Madrid and on cold days in Stockholm (RR = 0.989, 95% CI: 0.980, 0.998). Our results indicate that the association between mortality and temperature variation is generally minimal compared with mean daily temperatures, although further research on intraday changes is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2016
Keyword
ambient temperature; diurnal temperature range; mortality; temperature variation
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114880 (URN)10.1093/aje/kwv205 (DOI)000370971900005 ()26811244 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-01-29 Created: 2016-01-29 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Amaral, A. F., Newson, R. B., Abramson, M. J., Antó, J. M., Bono, R., Corsico, A. G., . . . Jarvis, D. L. (2016). Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 137(6), 1788-1795.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 137, no 6, 1788-1795 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period.

METHODS: Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse.

RESULTS: Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts.

CONCLUSION: Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111792 (URN)10.1016/j.jaci.2015.09.037 (DOI)000377527200020 ()26586040 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Carlsen, H. K., Boman, P., Björ, B., Olin, A.-C. & Forsberg, B. (2016). Coarse Fraction Particle Matter and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Non-Asthmatic Children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(6), Article ID 621.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coarse Fraction Particle Matter and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Non-Asthmatic Children
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2016 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 13, no 6, 621Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coarse particle matter, PMcoarse, is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short-term changes in PMcoarse and sub-clininal airway inflammation in children. Healthy children aged 11 years from two northern Swedish elementary schools underwent fraction of exhaled nitrogen oxide (FENO) measurements to determine levels of airway inflammation twice weekly during the study period from 11 April-6 June 2011. Daily exposure to PMcoarse, PM2.5, NO2, NOx, NO and O-3 and birch pollen was estimated. Multiple linear regression was used. Personal covariates were included as fixed effects and subjects were included as a random effect. In total, 95 children participated in the study, and in all 493 FENO measurements were made. The mean level of PMcoarse was 16.1 mu g/m(3) (range 4.1-42.3), and that of O-3 was 75.0 mu g/m(3) (range: 51.3-106.3). That of NO2 was 17.0 mu g/m(3) (range: 4.7-31.3), NOx was 82.1 mu g/m(3) (range: 13.3-165.3), and NO was 65 mu g/m(3) (range: 8.7-138.4) during the study period. In multi-pollutant models an interquartile range increase in 24 h PMcoarse was associated with increases in FENO by between 6.9 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.0-14) and 7.3 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.4-14.9). PMcoarse was associated with an increase in FENO, indicating sub-clinical airway inflammation in healthy children.

Keyword
exhaled NO, respiratory inflammation, coarse particle matter, air pollution, children
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124193 (URN)10.3390/ijerph13060621 (DOI)000378860100100 ()
Available from: 2016-08-04 Created: 2016-07-28 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Oudin Åström, D., Tornevi, A., Ebi, K. L., Rocklöv, J. & Forsberg, B. (2016). Evolution of Minimum Mortality Temperature in Stockholm, Sweden, 1901-2009. Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(6), 740-744.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of Minimum Mortality Temperature in Stockholm, Sweden, 1901-2009
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 124, no 6, 740-744 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The mortality impacts of hot and cold temperatures have been thoroughly documented, with most locations reporting a U-shaped relationship with a minimum mortality temperature (MMT) at which mortality is lowest. How MMT may have evolved over past decades as global mean surface temperature increased has not been thoroughly explored.

OBJECTIVE: We used observations of daily mean temperatures to investigate whether MMT changed in Stockholm, Sweden, from the beginning of the 20th century until 2009.

METHODS: Daily mortality and temperature data for the period 1901-2009 in Stockholm, Sweden were used to model the temperature-mortality relationship. We estimated MMT using distributed lag non-linear Poisson regression models considering lags up to 21 days of daily mean temperature as the exposure variable. To avoid large influences on the MMT from intra and inter annual climatic variability, we estimated MMT based on 30-year periods. Further, we investigated whether there were trends in the absolute value of the MMT and the relative value of the MMT (the corresponding percentile of the same day temperature distribution) over the study period.

RESULTS: Our findings suggest that both the absolute MMT and the relative MMT increased in Stockholm, Sweden over the course of the last century.

CONCLUSIONS: The increase in MMT over the course of the last century suggests autonomous adaptation within the context of the large epidemiological, demographical and societal changes that occurred. Whether the rate of increase will be sustained with climate change is an open question.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111544 (URN)10.1289/ehp.1509692 (DOI)000377081300016 ()26566270 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-11-16 Created: 2015-11-16 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Al-Shamkhi, N., Alving, K., Dahlen, S. E., Hedlin, G., Middelveld, R., Bjerg, A., . . . Malinovschi, A. (2016). Important non-disease-related determinants of exhaled nitric oxide levels in mild asthma: results from the Swedish GA(2)LEN study. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 46(9), 1185-1193.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Important non-disease-related determinants of exhaled nitric oxide levels in mild asthma: results from the Swedish GA(2)LEN study
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2016 (English)In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 46, no 9, 1185-1193 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has a potential clinical role in asthma management. Constitutive factors such as age, height and male gender, as well as individual characteristics, as IgE sensitisation and smoking, affect levels of FeNO in population-based studies. However their effect on FeNO in subjects with asthma has been scarcely studied.

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects on FeNO of these commonly regarded determinants, as demonstrated in healthy subjects, as well as menarche age and parental smoking, in a population of asthmatics.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: FeNO was measured in 557 subjects with asthma from the Swedish GA2LEN study. Allergic sensitisation was assessed by skin prick tests to most common aeroallergens. Upper airway comorbidities, smoking habits, smoking exposure during childhood, hormonal status (for women) were questionnaire-assessed.

RESULTS: Male gender (p<0.001), greater height (p<0.001) and sensitisation to both perennial allergens and pollen (p<0.001) related to higher FeNO levels. Current smoking (p<0.001) and having both parents smoking during childhood, vs having neither (p<0.001) or only one parent smoking (p=0.002), related to lower FeNO. Women with menarche between 9-11 years of age had lower FeNO than those with menarche between 12-14 years of age (p = 0.03) or 15-17 years of age (p=0.003).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Interpreting FeNO levels in clinical practice is complex and constitutional determinants, as well as smoking and IgE sensitization, are of importance in asthmatic subjects and should be accounted for when interpreting FeNO levels. Furthermore, menarche age and parental smoking during childhood and their effects on lowering FeNO deserve further studies.

Keyword
asthma, determinants, exhaled nitric oxide, GA2LEN, menarche, parental smoking
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120074 (URN)10.1111/cea.12749 (DOI)000386955700007 ()27138350 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-01-16Bibliographically approved
Makowska, J. S., Burney, P., Jarvis, D., Keil, T., Tomassen, P., Bislimovska, J., . . . Kowalski, M. L. (2016). Respiratory hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs in Europe: the global allergy and asthma network (GA2LEN) survey. Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 71(11), 1603-1611.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Respiratory hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs in Europe: the global allergy and asthma network (GA2LEN) survey
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2016 (English)In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 71, no 11, 1603-1611 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most prevalent drugs inducing hypersensitivity reactions. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory symptoms in population across Europe and to assess its association with upper and lower respiratory tract disorders.

Methods: The GA2LEN survey was conducted in 22 centers in 15 European countries. Each of 19 centers selected random samples of 5000 adults aged 15–74 from their general population, and in three centers (Athens, Munich, Oslo), a younger population was sampled. Questionnaires including questions about age, gender, presence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking status, and history of NSAID-induced hypersensitivity reactions were sent to participants by mail. Totally, 62 737 participants completed the questionnaires.

Results: The mean prevalence of NSAID-induced dyspnea was 1.9% and was highest in the three Polish centers [Katowice (4.9%), Krakow (4.8%), and Lodz (4.4%)] and lowest in Skopje, (0.9%), Amsterdam (1.1%), and Umea (1.2%). In multivariate analysis, the prevalence of respiratory reactions to NSAIDs was higher in participants with chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms (Odds Ratio 2.12; 95%CI 1.78–2.74), asthma symptoms in last 12 months (2.7; 2.18–3.35), hospitalization due to asthma (1.53; 1.22–1.99), and adults vs children (1.53; 1.24–1.89), but was not associated with allergic rhinitis.

Conclusion: Our study documented significant variation between European countries in the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory hypersensitivity reactions, and association with chronic airway diseases, but also with environmental factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
Keyword
drug allergy, epidemiology, GA2LEN, NSAIDs hypersensitivity
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Respiratory Medicine and Allergy Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121304 (URN)10.1111/all.12941 (DOI)000386083700010 ()27230252 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-05-31 Created: 2016-05-31 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Gómez Real, F., Pérez Barrionuevo, L., Franklin, K., Lindberg, E., Jacobsen Bertelsen, R., Benediktsdóttir, B., . . . Svanes, C. (2016). The Association of Gum Bleeding with Respiratory Health in a Population Based Study from Northern Europe. PLoS ONE, 11(1), Article ID e0147518.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Association of Gum Bleeding with Respiratory Health in a Population Based Study from Northern Europe
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, e0147518Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge about how oral and respiratory health is interrelated even though the mucosa of the oral cavity and airways constitutes a continuum and the exposures to these are partly similar.

AIMS: To investigate whether gum bleeding is related to asthma, respiratory symptoms and self-reported COPD.

METHODS: A postal questionnaire including questions about respiratory and oral health was sent to general population samples in seven Northern European centres. In 13,409 responders, gum bleeding when brushing teeth was reported always/often by 4% and sometimes by 20%. Logistic regressions accounted for age, smoking, educational level, centre and gender. Effects of BMI, cardio-metabolic diseases, early life factors, gastro-oesophageal reflux, dental hygiene, nasal congestion, and asthma medication were addressed.

RESULTS: Gum bleeding always/often was significantly associated with ≥3 asthma symptoms (OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.10-3.18), asthma (1.62 [1.23-2.14]) and self-reported COPD (2.02 [1.28-3.18]). There was a dose-response relationship between respiratory outcomes and gum bleeding frequency (≥3 symptoms: gum bleeding sometimes 1.42 [1.25-1.60], often/always 2.58 [2.10-3.18]), and there was no heterogeneity between centres (pheterogeneity = 0.49). None of the investigated risk factors explained the associations. The observed associations were significantly stronger among current smokers (pinteraction = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS: A consistent link between gum bleeding and obstructive airways disease was observed, not explained by common risk factors or metabolic factors. We speculate that oral pathogens might have unfavourable impact on the airways, and that the direct continuity of the mucosa of the oral cavity and the airways reflects a pathway that might provide novel opportunities for interventions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public library science, 2016
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114765 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0147518 (DOI)000369527800119 ()26808490 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-01-27 Created: 2016-01-27 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Olivieri, M., Heinrich, J., Schlünssen, V., Antó, J. M., Forsberg, B., Janson, C., . . . Verlato, G. (2016). The risk of respiratory symptoms on allergen exposure increases with increasing specific IgE levels.. Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 71(6), 859-868.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The risk of respiratory symptoms on allergen exposure increases with increasing specific IgE levels.
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2016 (English)In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 71, no 6, 859-868 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The relation between IgE sensitization and allergic respiratory symptoms has usually been evaluated by dichotomizing specific IgE levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between specific IgE levels and risk of symptoms on allergen-related exposure, with special reference to allergen-related asthma-rhinitis comorbidity.

METHODS: We considered 6391 subjects enrolled within the European Community Respiratory Health Survey 2, having information on cat/grass/D. pteronissinus IgE levels and symptoms on exposure to animals/pollen/dust. The risk of oculonasal/asthmalike/both symptoms was evaluated by a multinomial logistic model.

RESULTS: A clear positive association was observed between specific IgE levels to cat/grass/mite and the risk of symptoms on each allergen-related exposure (test for trend with p<0.001). This trend was particularly pronounced when considering the coexistence of asthma-like and oculonasal symptoms. Compared to not-sensitized subjects, subjects with specific IgE to cat >=3.5 kU/l presented Relative Risk Ratios of 11.4 (95% CI 6.7-19.2), 18.8 (8.2-42.8), and 55.3 (30.5-100.2) when considering respectively, only oculonasal symptoms, only asthmalike symptoms, or both. A similar pattern was observed when considering specific IgE to grass/mite and symptoms on exposure to pollen/dust. Also the proportion of people using inhaled medicines or visiting a general practitioner for breathing problems in the previous year increased with increasing sum of specific IgE to cat/grass/mite.

CONCLUSION: Specific IgE levels are the most important predictor of allergen-related symptoms. The risk of both oculonasal/asthmalike symptoms increases with specific IgE levels, suggesting that specific IgE contribute to the "united airways disease".

Keyword
allergen exposure, allergic respiratory symptoms, specific IgE levels, united airways disease
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114322 (URN)10.1111/all.12841 (DOI)000376148100012 ()26764559 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-01-18 Created: 2016-01-18 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
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