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Hammarström, Anne
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Publications (10 of 143) Show all publications
Nilsson, K., Hammarström, A. & Strandh, M. (2017). The relationship between work and family preferences and behaviors: a longitudinal study of gender differences in Sweden. Acta Sociologica, 60(2), 120-133.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between work and family preferences and behaviors: a longitudinal study of gender differences in Sweden
2017 (English)In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 60, no 2, 120-133 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Proposed theories to explain gender inequality in the labor market and family, such as gender specialization within families and gender segregation in the labor markets, lack consideration for individual preferences. Preference theory accounts for individual choice and gendered preferences but has been substantially criticized, indicating a need for further research. This study uses Swedish longitudinal data to explore how preferences for work and family relate to behavior. We explore three critical issues raised in previous research: gender differences in preferences; the relationship between work and family changes and subsequent preferences; how preferences relate to work and family behaviors. Our results showed small general gender differences in preferences, although women had a stronger preference for both children and work than men. Changes in work status were further related to changes in work preferences, while changes in family status were related to changes in family preferences. Moreover, preferences had poor predictive power in relation to work and family behaviors. Our results indicate that preferences do not explain gender inequality in Sweden. The relationship between preferences and behaviors seems bidirectional and preferences and behavior within the family sphere has little to do with preferences and behavior within the work sphere.

Keyword
Gender, family, labor market, preferences, longitudinal, Sweden
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124668 (URN)10.1177/0001699316659322 (DOI)000400089400002 ()
Available from: 2016-08-22 Created: 2016-08-22 Last updated: 2017-05-30Bibliographically approved
Hammarström, A., Westerlund, H., Kirves, K., Nygren, K., Virtanen, P. & Hägglöf, B. (2016). Addressing challenges of validity and internal consistency of mental health measures in a 27- year longitudinal cohort study–the Northern Swedish Cohort study. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 16, Article ID 4.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Addressing challenges of validity and internal consistency of mental health measures in a 27- year longitudinal cohort study–the Northern Swedish Cohort study
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2016 (English)In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 16, 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background:There are inherent methodological challenges in the measurement of mental health problems in longitudinal research. There is constant development in definitions, taxonomies and demands concerning the properties of mental health measurements. The aim of this paper was to construct composite measures of mental health problems (according to today’s standard) from single questionnaire items devised in the early 1980s, and to evaluate their internal consistency and factorial invariance across the life course using the Northern Swedish Cohort.Methods:All pupils in the last year of compulsory school in Luleå in 1981 (n= 1083) form a prospective cohort study where the participants have been followed with questionnaires from the age of 16 (in 1981) until the age of43 (in 2008). We created and tested the following composite measures from self-reports at each follow-up:depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, functional somatic symptoms, modified GHQ and positive health. Validity and internal consistency were tested by confirmatory factor analysis, including tests of factorial invariance over time.Results:As an overall assessment, the results showed that the composite measures (based on more than 30-year-old single item questions) are likely to have acceptable factorial invariance as well as internal consistency over time.Conclusions:Testing the properties of the mental health measures used in older studies according to the standards of today is of great importance in longitudinal research. Our study demonstrates that composite measures of mental health problems can be constructed from single items which are more than 30 years old and that these measures seem to have the same factorial structure and internal consistency across a significant part of the life course. Thus, it can be possible to overcome some specific inherent methodological challenges in using historical data in longitudinal research.

Keyword
Mental health measures, Internal consistency, Validity, Longitudinal, Cohort study, Adolescence, Middle adulthood, Life course
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114885 (URN)10.1186/s12874-015-0099-6 (DOI)000367720600001 ()26743433 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-28 Created: 2016-01-29 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Landstedt, E., Harryson, L. & Hammarström, A. (2016). Changing housework, changing health?: A longitudinal analysis of how changes in housework are associated with functional somatic symptoms. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 75, Article ID 31781.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing housework, changing health?: A longitudinal analysis of how changes in housework are associated with functional somatic symptoms
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 75, 31781Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse how changes in housework over the course of adulthood are related to somatic health in Swedish men and women.

Methods: Data were drawn from 2 waves of the Northern Swedish Cohort Study, response rate 94.3%, N1,001. A subsample of cohabiting individuals was selected (n328 women, 300 men). Outcome variable was functional somatic symptoms (FSS) at age 42. Associations were assessed in multivariate general linear models with adjustment for confounders and somatic health at age 30.

Results: Housework is primarily performed by women, and women’s responsibility for and performance of housework increased from ages 30 to 42. These changes were associated with elevated levels of FSS at age 42 in women. Men reported considerably lower responsibility for and performed less housework compared with women, the load of housework for men does not change substantially from ages 30 to 42 and no associations with FSS were identified.

Conclusions: The gendered division of housework means that women are particularly exposed to a heavy workload. Women’s responsibility for and performance of housework increase between ages 30 and 42 and this threatens to be embodied in the form FSS. We conclude that housework should be considered an important source of stress in addition to that from waged work and that a deeper understanding of the links between housework and health requires a gender theoretical analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keyword
domestic work, functional somatic symptoms, embodiment, gender theory, longitudinal analysis
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Gender Studies
Research subject
Public health; Sociology; genusvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-123307 (URN)10.3402/ijch.v75.31781 (DOI)000396156300001 ()27369590 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-30 Created: 2016-06-30 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Hammarström, A., Wiklund, M., Stålnacke, B.-M., Lehti, A., Haukenes, I. & Fjellman-Wiklund, A. (2016). Developing a Tool for Increasing the Awareness about Gendered and Intersectional Processes in the Clinical Assessment of Patients: A Study of Pain Rehabilitation. PLoS ONE, 11(4), Article ID e0152735.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing a Tool for Increasing the Awareness about Gendered and Intersectional Processes in the Clinical Assessment of Patients: A Study of Pain Rehabilitation
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 4, e0152735Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: There is a need for tools addressing gender inequality in the everyday clinical work in health care. The aim of our paper was to develop a tool for increasing the awareness of gendered and intersectional processes in clinical assessment of patients, based on a study of pain rehabilitation.

METHODS: In the overarching project named "Equal care in rehabilitation" we used multiple methods (both quantitative and qualitative) in five sub studies. With a novel approach we used Grounded Theory in order to synthesize the results from our sub studies, in order to develop the gender equality tool. The gender equality tool described and developed in this article is thus based on results from sub studies about the processes of assessment and selection of patients in pain rehabilitation. Inspired by some questions in earlier tools, we posed open ended questions and inductively searched for findings and concepts relating to gendered and social selection processes in pain rehabilitation, in each of our sub studies. Through this process, the actual gender equality tool was developed as 15 questions about the process of assessing and selecting patients to pain rehabilitation. As a more comprehensive way of understanding the tool, we performed a final step of the GT analyses. Here we synthesized the results of the tool into a comprehensive model with two dimensions in relation to several possible discrimination axes.

RESULTS: The process of assessing and selecting patients was visualized as a funnel, a top down process governed by gendered attitudes, rules and structures. We found that the clinicians judged inner and outer characteristics and status of patients in a gendered and intersectional way in the process of clinical decision-making which thus can be regarded as (potentially) biased with regard to gender, socio-economic status, ethnicity and age.

IMPLICATIONS: The clinical implications of our tool are that the tool can be included in the systematic routine of clinical assessment of patients for both awareness raising and as a base for avoiding gender bias in clinical decision-making. The tool could also be used in team education for health professionals as an instrument for critical reflection on gender bias.

CONCLUSIONS: Thus, tools for clinical assessment can be developed from empirical studies in various clinical settings. However, such a micro-level approach must be understood from a broader societal perspective including gender relations on both the macro- and the meso-level.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Gender Studies
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119116 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0152735 (DOI)000373608000039 ()27055029 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 344-2009- 5839Swedish Research Council, 344-2011-5478
Available from: 2016-04-11 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Ahlgren, C., Hammarström, A., Sandberg, S., Lindahl, B., Olsson, T., Larsson, C. & Fjellman-Wiklund, A. (2016). Engagement in New Dietary Habits: Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23(1), 84-93.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engagement in New Dietary Habits: Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention
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2016 (English)In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, no 1, 84-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention.

METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles.

RESULTS: A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase".

CONCLUSION: We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in diet intervention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keyword
Dietary habits, Engagement, Experience, Intervention, Obese, Qualitative study
National Category
Applied Psychology Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111592 (URN)10.1007/s12529-015-9495-x (DOI)000370243400009 ()26041583 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-11-17 Created: 2015-11-17 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Harryson, L., Aléx, L. & Hammarström, A. (2016). "I have surly passed a limit, it is simply too much": women's and men's experiences of stress and wellbeing when living within a process of housework resignation. BMC Public Health, 16, Article ID 224.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"I have surly passed a limit, it is simply too much": women's and men's experiences of stress and wellbeing when living within a process of housework resignation
2016 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, 224Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Gender inequality within paid and unpaid work exposes women and men to different environments and responsibilities. These gender patterns shape living conditions for women and men, either negatively or positively, by affecting the prospect of good health. Most public health studies of gender and housework are quantitative, and knowledge about the relationship between housework experiences and health for women and men is limited. The aim of this study was to explore the housework experiences and practices of women and men and their experiences of stress and perceived wellbeing from a gender perspective.

METHODS: We conducted thematic interviews with four women and four men living in Sweden, and performed an analysis using the Grounded Theory method.

FINDINGS: We found that stereotypical gender practices in housework influenced experiences of stress and perceived wellbeing among women and men. Despite proposing gender equality in housework as a means of improving wellbeing, inequality was amplified by the way women and men handle the gendered division of housework. We call this recurring theme "The process of housework resignation", which also constitute the core category in our analysis. "The process of housework resignation" was theorised from the categories "Gender practices in housework", "Experiencing stress and wellbeing" and "Managing daily life".

CONCLUSIONS: Stereotypical gender practices in housework can increase experiences of stress among women and men. Challenging stereotypical masculinities can be a key for breaking the process of resignation in housework and for facilitating improved health among both women and men in heterosexual couple relationships within a Swedish context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2016
Keyword
Housework, Gender equality, Health, Wellbeing, Stress, Grounded theory, Masculinities, Femininities
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118710 (URN)10.1186/s12889-016-2920-5 (DOI)000371866800001 ()26944701 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Wennberg, M., Gustafsson, P., Wennberg, P. & Hammarström, A. (2016). Irregular eating of meals in adolescence and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood: results from a 27-year prospective cohort. Public Health Nutrition, 19(3), 667-673.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Irregular eating of meals in adolescence and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood: results from a 27-year prospective cohort
2016 (English)In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 19, no 3, 667-673 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The objective was to investigate whether irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicts the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood, and if any specific meal is of particular importance. Design: Prospective cohort study with 27 years of follow-up. Information on meals (breakfast, school lunch and dinner with family), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, smoking habits, physical activity, consumption of sweets and pastries) at age 16 years was assessed from questionnaires, and presence or not of the metabolic syndrome and its components were defined at age 43 years in 889 participants (82.1 % of total cohort). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Setting: The Northern Swedish Cohort; all school-leavers of the 9th grade in the town Lulea in 1981. Subjects: Adolescents (age 16 years). Results: Irregular eating of meals at age 16 years was associated with higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years (OR=1.74; 95 % CI 1.12, 2.71), but this was explained by concurrent unhealthy lifestyle at age 16 years. Poor breakfast at age 16 years was the only meal associated with the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years, independent of other meals, BMI (kg/m2) and lifestyle at age 16 years (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI 1.00, 2.80). Conclusions: Irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicted the metabolic syndrome in adulthood, but not independently of BMI and lifestyle in adolescence. Poor breakfast in adolescence was the only specific meal associated with future metabolic syndrome, even after adjustments. Breakfast eating should be encouraged in adolescence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2016
Keyword
Irregular eating, Meal, Metabolic syndrome, Life course
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-101984 (URN)10.1017/S1368980015001445 (DOI)000372821000011 ()25936413 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-04-18 Created: 2015-04-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, F., San Sebastian, M., Stromsten, L. M. J., Hammarstrom, A. & Gustafsson, P. E. (2016). Life Course Pathways of Adversities Linking Adolescent Socioeconomic Circumstances and Functional Somatic Symptoms in Mid-Adulthood: A Path Analysis Study. PLoS ONE, 11(5), Article ID e0155963.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Course Pathways of Adversities Linking Adolescent Socioeconomic Circumstances and Functional Somatic Symptoms in Mid-Adulthood: A Path Analysis Study
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, e0155963Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While research examining the health impact of early socioeconomic conditions suggests that effects may exist independently of or jointly with adult socioeconomic position, studies exploring other potential pathways are few. Following a chain of risk life course model, this prospective study seeks to examine whether pathways of occupational class as well as material and social adversities across the life course link socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescent to functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood. Applying path analysis, a multiple mediator model was assessed using prospective data collected during 26 years through the Northern Swedish Cohort. The sample contained 987 individuals residing in the municipality of Lulea, Sweden, who participated in questionnaire surveys at age 16, 21, 30 and 42. Socioeconomic conditions (high/low) in adolescence (age 16) were operationalized using the occupation of the parents, while occupational class in adulthood (manual/nonmanual) was measured using the participant's own occupation at age 21 and 30. The adversity measurements were constructed as separate age specific parcels at age 21 and 30. Social adversity included items pertaining to stressful life events that could potentially harm salient relationships, while material adversity was operationalized using items concerning unfavorable financial and material circumstances. Functional somatic symptoms at age 42 was a summary measure of self-reported physical symptoms, palpitation and sleeping difficulties that had occurred during the last 12 months. An association between socioeconomic conditions at age 16 and functional somatic symptoms at age 42 (r = 0.068) which was partially explained by people's own occupational class at age 21 and then material as well as social adversity at age 30 was revealed. Rather than proposing a direct and independent health effect of the socioeconomic conditions of the family, the present study suggests that growing up in an unfavorable socioeconomic environment might be a source for a chain of adverse material and social living situations, which in turn affects adult health.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-123074 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0155963 (DOI)000376880200041 ()27214206 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-27 Created: 2016-06-27 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Landstedt, E., Gustafsson, P. E., Johansson, K. & Hammarström, A. (2016). Longitudinal associations between social relationships at age 30 and internalising symptoms at age 42: findings from the Northern Swedish Cohort.. International Journal of Public Health, 61(1), 75-81.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal associations between social relationships at age 30 and internalising symptoms at age 42: findings from the Northern Swedish Cohort.
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 61, no 1, 75-81 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: Little is known on long-term consequences of poor social relationships in adulthood. The study aimed to examine associations between social relationships at age 30 and internalising symptoms at age 42.

METHODS: Data was drawn from four waves of the Northern Swedish cohort (n = 1001, 94 % response rate). The outcome internalising symptoms was measured by a composite index of depressiveness and anxiety. A cumulative measure was constructed to reflect various aspects of social relationships. Multivariate ordinal logistic regressions were used, controlling for socioeconomic indicators and previous level of internalising symptoms.

RESULTS: An accumulation of poor social relationships indicators at age 30 is related to internalising symptoms at age 42 in women (OR 1.30; CI 1.11-1.52) and men (OR 1.17; CI 1.02-1.36). The associations remained significant after adjustment for covariates.

CONCLUSIONS: Poor quality of social relationships at age 30 can predict internalising symptoms 12 years later in both men and women even when previous mental health as well as financial disadvantage is accounted for. More research is required to further examine pathways and mechanisms as well as suitable interventions.

Keyword
Mental health, Prospective study, Social network, Social integration, Non-work factors
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103802 (URN)10.1007/s00038-015-0691-x (DOI)000367692400009 ()26024816 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-06-01 Created: 2015-06-01 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Rajaleid, K., Nummi, T., Westerlund, H., Virtanen, P., Gustafsson, P. E. & Hammarström, A. (2016). Social adversities in adolescence predict unfavourable trajectories of internalized mental health symptoms until middle age: results from the Northern Swedish Cohort.. European Journal of Public Health, 26(1), 23-29.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social adversities in adolescence predict unfavourable trajectories of internalized mental health symptoms until middle age: results from the Northern Swedish Cohort.
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2016 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no 1, 23-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Experiencing adversities during upbringing has short-term and long-term effects on mental health. This study aims to explore how social adversities in adolescence predict trajectories of internalized mental health symptoms (IMHS), from adolescence and onward until middle age.

METHODS: Based on 1040 individuals from the Northern Swedish Cohort Study, a community-based cohort with 27 years of follow-up. We applied latent class growth analysis to extract trajectories of IMHS between ages 16 and 43. Multinomial logistic regression was used to study the association of social adversities (residential mobility, residential crowding, parental loss, unemployment of a parent, physical illness of a parent, mental illness or alcohol problems of a parent) in adolescence with IMHS trajectories.

RESULTS: Five trajectory classes were identified: 'very low stable' (26% of the sample), 'low stable' (58%), 'moderate stable' (5%), 'increasing' (8%) and 'high decreasing' (3%). Both in men and women, reporting social adversities at the age of 16 increased the risk of belonging to the classes with less favourable development of IMHS. Reporting adversities was positively associated with the initial level of the IMHS trajectories. Thus it seems that the influence of adversities is more pronounced during the early years of follow-up and is attenuated over time.

CONCLUSION: Experiencing social adversities in adolescence increases the risk of entering unfavourable developmental trajectories of mental health until middle age.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2016
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107112 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/ckv150 (DOI)000374478800008 ()26275987 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-08-18 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
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