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Sandström, Camilla
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Beland Lindahl, K., Sténs, A., Sandström, C., Johansson, J., Lidskog, R., Ranius, T. & Roberge, J.-M. (2017). The Swedish forestry model: more of everything?. Forest Policy and Economics, 77, 44-55.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish forestry model: more of everything?
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2017 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, 44-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

"The Swedish forestry model" refers to the forest regime that evolved following the 1993 revision of the Swedish Forestry Act. It is key to Swedish forest politics and used to capture the essence of a sustainable way of managing forests. However, the ideas, institutions and practices comprising the model have not been comprehensively analyzed previously. Addressing this knowledge gap, we use frame analysis and a Pathways approach to investigate the underlying governance model, focusing on the way policy problems are addressed, goals, implementation procedures, outcomes and the resulting pathways to sustainability. We suggest that the institutionally embedded response to pressing sustainability challenges and increasing demands is expansion, inclusion and integration: more of everything. The more-of-everything pathway is influenced by ideas of ecological modernization and the optimistic view that existing resources can be increased. Our findings suggest that in effect it prioritizes the economic dimension of sustainability. While broadening out policy formulation it closes down the range of alternative outputs, a shortcoming that hampers its capacity to respond to current sustainability challenges. Consequently, there is a need for a broad public debate regarding not only the role of forests in future society, but also the operationalization of sustainable development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Forest policy analysis, Forest governance, Frame analysis, Tradeoffs, Pathways to sustainability, Sweden
National Category
Forest Science Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
statskunskap; History; Sociology; Entomology; biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-115208 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2015.10.012 (DOI)000397552600006 ()
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Note

Highlights

The study is influenced by frame analysis and a STEPS Pathways approach.

The study builds on legal acts and bylaws, governmental bills and commissions.

The Swedish forest governance system has successively expanded and broadened out.

The current Swedish forestry model promotes "more of everything".

The Swedish forestry model lacks mechanisms for implementation and tradeoffs.

Available from: 2016-02-01 Created: 2016-02-01 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Sténs, A., Bjärstig, T., Nordström, E.-M., Sandström, C., Fries, C. & Johansson, J. (2016). In the eye of the stakeholder: the challenges of governing social forest values. Ambio, 45(2), 87-99.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In the eye of the stakeholder: the challenges of governing social forest values
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2016 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 2, 87-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines which kinds of social benefits derived from forests are emphasised by Swedish stakeholders and what governance modes and management tools they accept. Our study shows that there exists a great variety among stakeholders’ perceptions of forests’ social values, where tourism and recreation is the most common reference. There are also differences in preferred governance modes and management where biomass and bioenergy sectors advocate business as usual (i.e. framework regulations and voluntarism) and other stakeholders demand rigid tools (i.e. coercion and targeting) and improved landscape planning. This divide will have implications for future policy orientations and require deliberative policy processes and improved dialogue among stakeholders and authorities. We suggest that there is a potential for these improvements, since actors from almost all stakeholder groups support local influence on governance and management, acknowledged and maintained either by the authorities, i.e. targeting, or by the stakeholders themselves, i.e. voluntarism.

Keyword
cultural ecosystem services, forest management, legal instruments, multiple use forestry, social values, stakeholder analysis
National Category
History Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
statskunskap; History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114053 (URN)10.1007/s13280-015-0745-6 (DOI)000372300000003 ()26744045 (PubMedID)
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Nordin, A. & Sandström, C. (2016). Interdisciplinary science for future governance and management of forests. Ambio, 45, S69-S73.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interdisciplinary science for future governance and management of forests
2016 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, S69-S73 p.Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The sustainable use of forests constitutes one of the great challenges for the future due to forests' large spatial coverage, long-term planning horizons and inclusion of many ecosystem services. The mission of the Future Forests programme is to provide a scientifically robust knowledge base for sustainable governance and management of forests preparing for a future characterized by globalization and climate change. In this introduction to the Special Issue, we describe the interdisciplinary science approach developed in close collaboration with actors in the Future Forests programme, and discuss the potential impacts of this science on society. In addition, we introduce the 13 scientific articles and present results produced by the programme.

Keyword
Forests, Governance, Management, Interdisciplinary science, Actor participation, Societal impact
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119301 (URN)10.1007/s13280-015-0743-8 (DOI)000372300000001 ()26744043 (PubMedID)
Note

Supplement: 2

Available from: 2016-04-19 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Overvåg, K., Skjeggedal, T. & Sandström, C. (2016). Management of mountain areas in Norway and the persistence of local-national conflicts. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 59(7), 1186-1204.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Management of mountain areas in Norway and the persistence of local-national conflicts
2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 59, no 7, 1186-1204 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have investigated why conflicts linked to the distribution of power between governments and actors at the national and local levels concerning environmental management of mountain areas in Norway persist despite political intentions to strengthen local powers. We seek to explain this by analysing changes in policies, institutional frameworks, and regional contexts, and the local perceptions of these changes. Paradoxically, the national government's power has apparently been strengthened by new sectoral regulations and more stringent enforcement of the existing ones, increases in the number and extent of protected areas, and failures to act on intentions to devolve power. An additional factor spurring conflicts is the increased importance of tourism to mountain communities. To become more relevant to policies and development in mountain areas, future studies on multilevel governance must address multilevel politics, entire mountain areas, and the context of their development, rather than focusing on minor projects and protected areas.

Keyword
mountain areas, environmental management, conflicts, multilevel governance, Norway
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies) Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121499 (URN)10.1080/09640568.2015.1062747 (DOI)000375862400003 ()
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-02 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Roberge, J.-M., Laudon, H., Björkman, C., Ranius, T., Sandström, C., Felton, A., . . . Lundmark, T. (2016). Socio-ecological implications of modifying rotation lengths in forestry. Ambio, 45, 109-123.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socio-ecological implications of modifying rotation lengths in forestry
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2016 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, 109-123 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The rotation length is a key component of even-aged forest management systems. Using Fennoscandian forestry as a case, we review the socioecological implications of modifying rotation lengths relative to current practice by evaluating effects on a range of ecosystem services and on biodiversity conservation. The effects of shortening rotations on provisioning services are expected to be mostly negative to neutral (e.g. production of wood, bilberries, reindeer forage), while those of extending rotations would be more varied. Shortening rotations may help limit damage by some of today's major damaging agents (e.g. root rot, cambium-feeding insects), but may also increase other damage types (e.g. regeneration pests) and impede climate mitigation. Supporting (water, soil nutrients) and cultural (aesthetics, cultural heritage) ecosystem services would generally be affected negatively by shortened rotations and positively by extended rotations, as would most biodiversity indicators. Several effect modifiers, such as changes to thinning regimes, could alter these patterns.

Keyword
Climate change, Forest damage, Non-timber forest products, Production, Recreation, Timber
National Category
Forest Science Environmental Sciences
Research subject
biology; biology, Environmental Science; sustainable development; statskunskap; Aesthetics; Conservation Biology; Entomology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-115210 (URN)10.1007/s13280-015-0747-4 (DOI)000372300000005 ()
External cooperation:
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Note

Supplement: 2

Available from: 2016-02-01 Created: 2016-02-01 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Sandström, C., Carlsson-Kanyama, A., Beland Lindahl, K., Mossberg Sonnek, K., Mossing, A., Nordin, A., . . . Räty, R. (2016). Understanding consistencies and gaps between desired forest futures: An analysis of visions from stakeholder groups in Sweden. Ambio, 45, S100-S108.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding consistencies and gaps between desired forest futures: An analysis of visions from stakeholder groups in Sweden
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2016 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, S100-S108 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conflicting perspectives on forests has for a long time challenged forest policy development in Sweden. Disagreements about forest futures create intractable deadlocks when stakeholders talk past each other. The purpose of this study is to move beyond this situation through the application of participatory backcasting. By comparing visions of the future forest among stakeholder groups, we highlight contemporary trajectories and identify changes that were conceived as desirable. We worked with four groups: the Biomass and Bioenergy group, the Conservation group, the Sami Livelihood group and the Recreation and Rural Development group; in total representatives from 40 organizations participated in workshops articulating the groups' visions. Our results show well-known tensions such as intrinsic versus instrumental values but also new ones concerning forests' social values. Identified synergies include prioritization of rural development, new valued-added forest products and diversified forest management. The results may feed directly into forest policy processes facilitating the process and break current deadlocks.

Keyword
Backcasting, Conflicts, Forest policy, Frames, Governance
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies) Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119305 (URN)10.1007/s13280-015-0746-5 (DOI)000372300000004 ()26744046 (PubMedID)
Note

Supplement: 2

Available from: 2016-04-19 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Dressel, S., Sandström, C. & Ericsson, G. (2015). A meta-analysis of studies on attitudes toward bears and wolves across Europe 1976–2012. Conservation Biology, 29(2), 565-574.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A meta-analysis of studies on attitudes toward bears and wolves across Europe 1976–2012
2015 (English)In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 29, no 2, 565-574 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ranges of wolves (Canis lupus) and bears (Ursus arctos) across Europe have expanded recently, and it is important to assess public attitudes toward this expansion because responses toward these species vary widely. General attitudes toward an object are good predictors of broad behavioral patterns; thus, attitudes toward wolves and bears can be used as indicators to assess the social foundation for future conservation efforts. However, most attitude surveys toward bears and wolves are limited in scope, both temporally and spatially, and provide only a snapshot of attitudes. To extend the results of individual surveys over a much larger temporal and geographical range so as to identify transnational patterns and changes in attitudes toward bears and wolves over time, we conducted a meta-analysis. Our analysis included 105 quantitative surveys conducted in 24 countries from 1976 to 2012. Across Europe, people's attitudes were more positive toward bears than wolves. Attitudes toward bears became more positive over time, but attitudes toward wolves seemed to become less favorable the longer people coexisted with them. Younger and more educated people had more positive attitudes toward wolves and bears than people who had experienced damage from these species, and farmers and hunters had less positive attitudes toward wolves than the general public. For bears attitudes among social groups did not differ. To inform conservation of large carnivores, we recommend that standardized longitudinal surveys be established to monitor changes in attitudes over time relative to carnivore population development. Our results emphasize the need for interdisciplinary research in this field and more advanced explanatory models capable of capturing individual and societal responses to changes in large carnivore policy and management.

Keyword
Canis lupus, human dimension, Europe, large carnivore conservation, Ursus arctos
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use Ecology
Research subject
statskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-98540 (URN)DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12420 (DOI)000351353400027 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2015-01-23 Created: 2015-01-23 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Gaillard, M.-J., Kleinen, T., Samuelsson, P., Nielsen, A., Bergh, J., Kaplan, J., . . . Wramneby, A. (2015). Causes of Regional Change—Land Cover. In: Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin: (pp. 453-477). Springer.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Causes of Regional Change—Land Cover
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2015 (English)In: Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin, Springer, 2015, 453-477 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) is one of the few climate forcings for which the net direction of the climate response over the last two centuries is still not known. The uncertainty is due to the often counteracting temperature responses to the many biogeophysical effects and to the biogeochemical versus biogeophysical effects. Palaeoecological studies show that the major transformation of the landscape by anthropogenic activities in the southern zone of the Baltic Sea basin occurred between 6000 and 3000/2500 cal year BP. The only modelling study of the biogeophysical effects of past ALCCs on regional climate in north-western Europe suggests that deforestation between 6000 and 200 cal year BP may have caused significant change in winter and summer temperature. There is no indication that deforestation in the Baltic Sea area since AD 1850 would have been a major cause of the recent climate warming in the region through a positive biogeochemical feedback. Several model studies suggest that boreal reforestation might not be an effective climate warming mitigation tool as it might lead to increased warming through biogeophysical processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Series
Regional Climate Studies
Keyword
land use, land cover, Holocene, land cover-climate interactions, climate forcing, Baltic Sea catchment area, Europe, northern hemisphere
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-105505 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-16006-1_25 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-06-24 Created: 2015-06-24 Last updated: 2016-05-26Bibliographically approved
Sandström, C. & Sténs, A. (2015). Dilemmas in forest policy development: the Swedish forestry model under pressure. In: Erik Westholm, Karin Beland Lindahl, Florian Kraxner (Ed.), The future use of nordic forests: a global perspective (pp. 145-158). Springer.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dilemmas in forest policy development: the Swedish forestry model under pressure
2015 (English)In: The future use of nordic forests: a global perspective / [ed] Erik Westholm, Karin Beland Lindahl, Florian Kraxner, Springer, 2015, 145-158 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter brings back the discussion to the Swedish situation and describes the forest policy dilemmas related to a transition of forest governance. The expected transition implies a shift in forest policy and practice in developed countries with a reduced "emphasis on timber production relative to the provision of environmental goods and services". The chapter describes a number of dilemmas and concludes that Swedish forestry policy has not managed to handle the gap between key stakeholders. Now this gap seems too wide to expect any joint contribution to the development of Swedish forest policy. Instead, the disagreements have resulted in putting pressure on the Swedish forestry model 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Keyword
forest policy, transition, governance, eco-modernization, sustainability
National Category
Forest Science Political Science
Research subject
statskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100070 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-14218-0 (DOI)978-3-319-14217-3 (ISBN)978-3-319-14218-0 (e-book) (ISBN)
Projects
Future forests
Available from: 2015-02-20 Created: 2015-02-20 Last updated: 2016-05-25Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, M., Sandström, C. & Ericsson, G. (2015). Direct experience and attitude change towards bears and wolves. Wildlife Biology, 21(3), 131-137.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct experience and attitude change towards bears and wolves
2015 (English)In: Wildlife Biology, ISSN 0909-6396, E-ISSN 1903-220X, Vol. 21, no 3, 131-137 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding how changes in the sizes of large carnivore populations affect the attitudes of the public is vital in order to mitigate social conflicts over large carnivore management issues. Using data from two Swedish postal surveys in 2004 and 2009, we examined the probable social effects of a continued increase in the Swedish populations of bear and wolf by comparing levels of direct experience of bears and wolves with public attitudes towards these animals. We report an increase in direct experience of bears and wolves, lower levels of acceptance of the existence of these animals, and a lower degree of support for the policy goals of both species in 2009 compared to 2004. We also find that these changes are more prominent in areas with local carnivore populations than in other areas of Sweden. Our results imply that attitudes towards bears and wolves are likely to become more negative as populations continue to grow. The uneven distributions of the carnivore populations are likely to generate more frequent social conflicts in the future as they could cause an increase in the attitudinal divide between those members of the Swedish public who have had direct experiences of carnivores and those who have not.

National Category
Fish and Wildlife Management Other Social Sciences
Research subject
statskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100507 (URN)10.2981/wlb.00062 (DOI)000354319400003 ()
Available from: 2015-03-03 Created: 2015-03-03 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
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