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Vaezghasemi, M., Mosquera, P., Gustafsson, P. E., Nilsson, K. & Strandh, M. (2020). Decomposition of income-related inequality in upper secondary school completion in Sweden by mental health, family conditions and contextual characteristics.. SSM - Population Health, 11, 1-8, Article ID 100566.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decomposition of income-related inequality in upper secondary school completion in Sweden by mental health, family conditions and contextual characteristics.
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2020 (English)In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 11, p. 1-8, article id 100566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: While previous research has evidently and extensively acknowledged socioeconomic gradients in children's education, we know very little about the determinants of socioeconomic-related inequality in children's education at the population level in Sweden. Therefore, we aimed: (i) to assess the extent of income inequality in upper secondary school completion in Sweden; (ii) to examine the contribution of mental health and other determinants to income inequality; and (iii) to explore gender differences in the magnitude and determinants of the inequalities.

Method: We utilised data from a population-based cohort available in Umeå SIMSAM Lab, linked with several national registries in Sweden. The dataset includes all children who were born in Sweden in 1991 and completed or not completed their upper secondary education in 2010, n = 116,812 (56,612 girls and 60,200 boys). We analysed the data using a Wagstaff-type decomposition method.

Results: The results first show substantial income-related inequality in upper secondary school incompletion concentrated among the poor in the Swedish setting. Second, these inequalities were in turn to a large degree explained jointly by parental, family and child factors; primarily parents' income and education, number of siblings and child's poor mental health. Third, these inferences remained when boys and girls were considered separately, although the determinants explained a greater share of the inequalities in boys than in girls.

Conclusion: Our results highlighted substantial income-related inequality in upper secondary school incompletion concentrated among the poor in the Swedish setting. Apart from family level characteristics, which explained a large portion of the inequalities, mental health problems appeared to be of particular importance as they represent a central target for both increasing the population average in upper secondary school completion and for reducing the gap in income-related inequalities in Sweden.

Keywords
Decomposition analysis, Income inequality, Mental health, School achievement, Sweden
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-170063 (URN)10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100566 (DOI)32258354 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-04-24 Created: 2020-04-24 Last updated: 2020-05-04Bibliographically approved
Högberg, B., Strandh, M. & Hagquist, C. (2020). Gender and secular trends in adolescent mental health over 24 years – The role of school-related stress. Social Science and Medicine, 250, Article ID 112890.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender and secular trends in adolescent mental health over 24 years – The role of school-related stress
2020 (English)In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 250, article id 112890Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing levels of psychosomatic symptoms, and other mental health problems, among adolescents, and especially among girls, have been reported across various countries. The “educational stressors hypothesis” states that this trend can be explained by an increasing amount of stressors in the school environment. This study tests this hypothesis, using repeated cross-sectional data, between the years 1993–2017, from the Health Behaviours of School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Regression and decomposition techniques are used to investigate the role of school stress for trends in psychosomatic symptoms, and for gender differences in symptoms.

Results show that the effects of school stress on psychosomatic symptoms have become stronger over time, but that they can only account for a small share of the overall increase in symptoms since 1993. However, school stress has increased more among girls than among boys, and it explains about half of the growth of the gender gap in symptoms. Thus, school stress accounts for a substantial portion of the increase in symptoms for girls, but only a minor share of the increase for boys. In sum, we found weak evidence for the educational stressors hypothesis in regard to the overall trend in symptoms, but strong evidence for it in explaining the growing gender gap.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-168811 (URN)10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.112890 (DOI)000528208000024 ()32143086 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-03870_3Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-1736
Available from: 2020-03-10 Created: 2020-03-10 Last updated: 2020-05-27Bibliographically approved
Bortes, C., Strandh, M. & Nilsson, K. (2020). Parental Illness and Young People's Education. Child Indicators Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parental Illness and Young People's Education
2020 (English)In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of parental health problems on the probability of youths leaving upper secondary education before completion in Sweden, and to investigate potential gender differences in these effects. Medical and social microdata from Swedish administrative registers were used. The study population consisted of individuals born between 1987 and 1990 (N = 398,748) who were still alive and residing in Sweden in 2010. We employed a quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study design. Logistic regression was used to analyse the relationships between indicators of parental illness and young people's early school leaving in relation to health and sociodemographic confounders. Having had a mother or father with psychiatric, but not somatic, illness that necessitated hospitalisation after completing compulsory schooling was significantly associated with an increased probability of leaving upper secondary education. We found no significant gender-specific interaction effects. The existence of these effects in Sweden, a country with an extensive institutional welfare system, suggests that similar but more pronounced effects may exist in regions lacking such systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Parental health, Academic achievement, Early school leaving, Registry data, Sweden
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-169551 (URN)10.1007/s12187-020-09731-x (DOI)000524209800001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-1992Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0154
Available from: 2020-04-06 Created: 2020-04-06 Last updated: 2020-04-28
Bortes, C., Strandh, M. & Nilsson, K. (2020). Sibling Ill-Health and Children's Educational Outcomes. Journal of School Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sibling Ill-Health and Children's Educational Outcomes
2020 (English)In: Journal of School Health, ISSN 0022-4391, E-ISSN 1746-1561Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The presence of health problems in a child is known to be negatively associated with later academic achievement, but less is known about the educational outcomes for siblings of children in poor health. The study investigated how having a sibling with health problems affects a healthy sibling’s academic achievement.

METHODS: We utilized medical and social microdata from Swedish administrative population registers. Our sample consisted of N = 115 106 individuals (51.3% boys) born in 1990 in Sweden. We compared children with ill siblings to children whose siblings did not have poor health. Siblings’ hospital admissions and the academic achievements of the healthy sibling during their final year of compulsory education (at the age of 15-16) were analyzed using linear and logistic regression in relation to individual health- and family-related confounders.

RESULTS: Sibling hospitalization was significantly associated with lower overall grade points (b = –10.73, p < .001) and an increased odds ratio (OR) of ineligibility for upper secondary education (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.31-1.52, p < .001).

CONCLUSIONS: School and health personnel should also consider the needs of healthy siblings during their work with children in poor health, because they too can be disadvantaged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-166715 (URN)10.1111/josh.12887 (DOI)000516651300001 ()32105351 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, Dnr.2014-1992Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0154
Available from: 2019-12-20 Created: 2019-12-20 Last updated: 2020-04-21
Högberg, B., Lindgren, J., Johansson, K., Strandh, M. & Petersen, S. (2019). Consequences of school grading systems on adolescent health: evidence from a Swedish school reform. Journal of education policy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consequences of school grading systems on adolescent health: evidence from a Swedish school reform
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2019 (English)In: Journal of education policy, ISSN 0268-0939, E-ISSN 1464-5106Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Education reforms that entail increased emphasis on high-stakes testing, assessment and grading have spread across education systems in recent decades. Critics have argued that these policies could have consequences for stress, identity, self-esteem and the overall health of pupils. However, these potentially negative consequences have rarely been investigated in a systematic and rigorous way. In this study we use a major education reform in Sweden, which introduced grades and increased the use of testing for pupils in the 6th and 7th school year (aged 12 to 13 years), to study the consequences of grading and assessment for health outcomes. Using data from the Health Behaviours of School-Aged Children Survey, we find that the reform increased school-related stress and reduced the academic self-esteem of pupils in the 7th school year. This, in turn, had an indirect effect on psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction for these pupils. Moreover, the negative effects of the reform were generally stronger for girls, thereby widening the already troubling gender differences in health. We conclude that accountability reforms aimed at increased use of testing, assessment and grading can potentially have negative side effects on pupils’ health.

National Category
Educational Sciences Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165211 (URN)10.1080/02680939.2019.1686540 (DOI)000493743800001 ()
Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2019-11-21
Högberg, B., Strandh, M., Petersen, S. & Johansson, K. (2019). Education system stratification and health complaints among school-aged children. Social Science and Medicine, 220, 159-166
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Education system stratification and health complaints among school-aged children
2019 (English)In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 220, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research shows that the school environment is an important social determinant of health among children and adolescents. However, we know virtually nothing of the health consequences of national education systems and policies, for example the stratification of pupils by academic ability. This study aimed to investigate if education system stratification is related to self-reported psychological and somatic health complaints of pupils aged 11 to 15, and social inequalities in such health complaints.

Survey data from the Health Behaviors of School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, covering 33 countries and more than 180 000 pupils in primary and lower secondary school, were used. Multilevel models showed that education system stratification was not associated with the average levels of health complaints of pupils, but cross-level interaction effects showed that stratification moderated the relationship between social background and health complaints, such that inequalities in health complaints were smaller in countries with more stratified systems. Moreover, this moderating effect was mediated by the school learning environmentand social relations in school. Specifically, social inequalities in school pressure, academic self-concept, school climate, and school satisfaction were smaller in more stratified education systems, which in turn accounted for smaller inequalities in health complaints in these countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Health complaints, Health inequalities, Education systems, Schools Children, Adolescents, Multilevel, Comparative research
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155320 (URN)10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.11.007 (DOI)000456222400017 ()30445341 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2015-00048Swedish Research Council, 2018-03870_3
Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-01-11 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
Assarsson, R., Petersen, S., Högberg, B., Strandh, M. & Johansson, K. (2019). Gender inequality and adolescent suicide ideation across Africa, Asia, the South Pacific and Latin America: a cross-sectional study based on the Global School Health Survey (GSHS). Global Health Action, 11, Article ID 1663619.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender inequality and adolescent suicide ideation across Africa, Asia, the South Pacific and Latin America: a cross-sectional study based on the Global School Health Survey (GSHS)
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2019 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, article id 1663619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Suicide ideation is a health issue affecting adolescents worldwide. There are significant variations in suicide ideation between countries and genders, which have not been fully explained. Research is especially lacking in countries outside Europe and North America. Gender equality has been shown to matter in other aspects of adolescent mental health, such as life satisfaction, but has not been researched in relation to suicide ideation at national level.

Objective: To investigate how national gender inequality is related to self-reported suicide ideation among adolescents, and whether this association differs between boys and girls.

Methods: This is a cross-national, cross-sectional study using individual survey data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey, a survey in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the South Pacific, developed and supported by among others the WHO and the CDC; connecting this to national data: the gender inequality index from the UNDP; controlling for GDP per capita and secondary school enrolment. The data was analysed using a multilevel logistic regression method and included 149,306 students from 37 countries.

Results: Higher national gender inequality, as measured by the gender inequality index, was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of suicide ideation in both girls and boys (odds ratio: 1.38 p-value: 0.015), but for girls and both sexes this was only after adjusting for selection bias due to secondary school enrolment (as well as GDP/capita). Interaction models showed that this association was stronger in boys than in girls.

Conclusions: National gender inequality seems to be associated with higher levels of suicide ideation among adolescents in mainly low- and middle-income countries, especially among boys.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Gender equality, adolescents, suicide ideation, global health, mental health, child, inequality, low income populations, gender, suicide
National Category
General Practice Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164000 (URN)10.1080/16549716.2019.1663619 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072558412 (Scopus ID)
Note

SPECIAL ISSUE: Gender and Health Inequality

Available from: 2019-10-11 Created: 2019-10-11 Last updated: 2019-10-15Bibliographically approved
Bortes, C., Strandh, M. & Nilsson, K. (2019). Is the effect of ill health on school achievement among Swedish adolescents gendered?. SSM - Population Health, 8, Article ID 100408.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is the effect of ill health on school achievement among Swedish adolescents gendered?
2019 (English)In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 8, article id 100408Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates why the relationship between health problems requiring hospitalization between the ages of 13 and 16 and school achievement (school grades in 9th grade) in Sweden was stronger for girls than for boys. We reviewed previous research on gender differences in subjective health, health care utilization and medical drug treatment to identify mechanisms responsible for this gendered effect. The relationship was analysed using retrospective observational data from several national full-population registers of individuals born in 1990 in Sweden (n = 115 196), and ordinary least squares techniques were used to test hypotheses. We found that girls had longer stays when hospitalized, which mediated 15% of the interaction effect. Variability in drug treatment between boys and girls did not explain the gendered effect of hospitalization. The main mediator of the gendered effect was instead differences in diagnoses between boys and girls. Girls’ hospitalizations were more commonly related to mental and behavioural diagnoses, which have particularly detrimental effects on school achievement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Sweden, Child health, Adolescent health, Disease, Mental disorders, Academic achievement, Registries, Gender differences
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163022 (URN)10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100408 (DOI)31289741 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Johansson, K., Petersen, S., Högberg, B., Stevens, G. W., De Clercq, B., Frasquilho, D., . . . Strandh, M. (2019). The interplay between national and parental unemployment in relation to adolescent life satisfaction in 27 countries: analyses of repeated cross-sectional school surveys. BMC Public Health, 19, Article ID 1555.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The interplay between national and parental unemployment in relation to adolescent life satisfaction in 27 countries: analyses of repeated cross-sectional school surveys
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2019 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 1555Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Previous research shows that parental unemployment is associated with low life satisfaction in adolescents. It is unclear whether this translates to an association between national unemployment and adolescent life satisfaction, and whether such a contextual association is entirely explained by parental unemployment, or if it changes as a function thereof. For adults, associations have been shown between unemployment and mental health, including that national unemployment can affect mental health and life satisfaction of both the employed and the unemployed, but to different degrees. The aim of this paper is to analyse how national unemployment levels are related to adolescent life satisfaction, across countries as well as over time within a country, and to what extent and in what ways such an association depends on whether the individual’s own parents are unemployed or not.

Methods: Repeated cross-sectional data on adolescents’ (aged 11, 13 and 15 years, n = 386,402) life satisfaction and parental unemployment were collected in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, in 27 countries and 74 country-years, across 2001/02, 2005/06 and 2009/10 survey cycles. We linked this data to national harmonised unemployment rates provided by OECD and tested their associations using multilevel linear regression, including interaction terms between national and parental unemployment.

Results: Higher national unemployment rates were related to lower adolescent life satisfaction, cross-sectionally between countries but not over time within countries. The verified association was significant for adolescents with and without unemployed parents, but stronger so in adolescents with unemployed fathers or both parents unemployed. Having an unemployed father, mother och both parents was in itself related to lower life satisfaction.

Conclusion: Living in a country with higher national unemployment seems to be related to lower adolescent life satisfaction, whether parents are unemployed or not, although stronger among adolescents where the father or both parents are unemployed. However, variation in unemployment over the years did not show an association with adolescent life satisfaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Adolescents, HBSC, Health behaviour in school-aged children, Life satisfaction, National factors, Unemployment
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-166569 (URN)10.1186/s12889-019-7721-1 (DOI)31775833 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85075743099 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-18 Created: 2019-12-18 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Högberg, B., Strandh, M. & Baranowska-Rataj, A. (2019). Transitions from temporary employment to permanent employment among young adults: The role of labour law and education systems. Journal of Sociology, 55(4), 689-707
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transitions from temporary employment to permanent employment among young adults: The role of labour law and education systems
2019 (English)In: Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0004-8690, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 689-707Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Temporary work is common across Europe, especially among young people. Whether temporary employment is a transitory stage on the road to standard employment, and whether this varies depending on institutional contexts, is controversial. This article investigates variability in transition rates from temporary to permanent employment across Europe, and how this is related to employment protection legislation (EPL) and the vocational specificity of education systems. We utilize harmonized panel data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions, covering 18 European countries and including 34,088 temporary workers aged 18–30. The results show that stricter EPL is associated with lower rates of transitions to permanent employment, while partial deregulation, with strict EPL for permanent contracts but weaker EPL for temporary contracts, is associated with higher transition rates. Vocationally specific education systems have higher transition rates, on average. Moreover, the role of EPL is conditional on the degree of vocational specificity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
age groups, education systems, employment opportunities, labour market, social stratification, unemployment, welfare state, youth
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology; Social Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163490 (URN)10.1177/1440783319876997 (DOI)000488721600001 ()2-s2.0-85074497922 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-23 Created: 2019-09-23 Last updated: 2020-01-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6867-6205

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