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Jarstad, A. K. & Segall, S. (2019). Grasping the empirical realities of peace in post-war northern Mitrovica. Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal, 4(2-3), 239-259
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grasping the empirical realities of peace in post-war northern Mitrovica
2019 (English)In: Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal, ISSN 2380-2014, Vol. 4, no 2-3, p. 239-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While previous research has focused on the conflicts and division in Mitrovica, Kosovo, the present article explores how peace and conflict are intertwined in the post-war city by focusing on sites where communities live side by side in an otherwise segregated city. A key finding is that the most conflictual residential areas in northern Mitrovica also are places where what we call peace acts, peace issues and peace perceptions are found. Our research suggests that even in spaces in the city where a history of violence is entrenched, the situation can seldom be reduced to be seen only as purely conflictual; rather, these ‘hotspots’ often prove to be spaces where reproduction of peace – however quotidian – also occurs at the same time. This points us to the complexity of the realities of peace, where remnants of war and potential for a co-existing peace often overlap and are sometimes intrinsically intertwined.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Peace, urban violence, post-war, Mitrovica, divided city
National Category
Globalisation Studies Social Anthropology
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165641 (URN)10.1080/23802014.2019.1687012 (DOI)
Projects
Vetenskapsrådet, projekt 2013-633
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1Swedish Research Council, 2013-6334
Available from: 2019-12-02 Created: 2019-12-02 Last updated: 2019-12-03Bibliographically approved
Jarstad, A., Eklund, N., Johansson, P., Olivius, E., Saati, A., Sahovic, D., . . . Åkebo, M. (2019). Three approaches to peace: a framework for describing and exploring varieties of peace. Umeå: Umeå University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three approaches to peace: a framework for describing and exploring varieties of peace
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2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

For decades, peace and conflict studies have devoted more attention to conflict than to peace, and despiteits centrality, peace itself has been under-conceptualized. In this paper, we propose a theoretical frameworkand methodologies to make peace beyond the absence of war researchable. The framework is designed to capture varieties of peace between and beyond dichotomous conceptions of positive versus negative peace, or successful versus failed peace processes. To capture the complexity of peace in its empirical diversity, our framework approaches peace in three different ways: as a situation or condition in a particular locality; as a web of relationships; and as ideas or discourses about what peace is or should be. These approaches provide different avenues for researching peace, and taken together they provide a fuller picture of what peace is, how it is manifested, experienced, and understood. We argue that this framework provides a way forward in advancing conceptual understandings and empirical analyses of peace that can facilitate systematic, comparative, qualitative analyses while at the same time accounting for the complex, multifaceted nature of peace.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2019. p. 22
Series
Umeå Working Papers in Peace and Conflict Studies, ISSN 1654-2398 ; 12
Keywords
peace, post-war, qualitative research, case studies
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165979 (URN)978-91-7855-171-2 (ISBN)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1
Available from: 2019-12-06 Created: 2019-12-06 Last updated: 2019-12-10Bibliographically approved
Jarstad, A. & Nilsson, D. (2018). Making and keeping promises: regime type and power-sharing pacts in peace agreements. Peace and Change, 43(2), 178-204
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making and keeping promises: regime type and power-sharing pacts in peace agreements
2018 (English)In: Peace and Change, ISSN 0149-0508, E-ISSN 1468-0130, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 178-204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Power sharing is increasingly recognized as an important tool for creating sustainable peace in war-torn societies. However, we have limited knowledge concerning why political, territorial, and military power-sharing pacts are reached and implemented. This article addresses this gap by providing a global study examining the signing and implementation of powersharing pacts in intrastate armed conflicts. We focus on how the type of political regime can influence these choices and theorize about the strategic incentives for warring parties in different types of regimes to sign and implement different pacts. Our large-N analysis is based on data on power-sharing provisions in eighty-three peace accords in forty intrastate armed conflicts between 1989 and 2004. In line with our theoretical expectations, we find that political and military pacts are more likely to be signed in autocracies, whereas territorial pacts are more common in democracies. Somewhat surprisingly, we find no difference in the implementation patterns across regimes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146530 (URN)10.1111/pech.12285 (DOI)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1Swedish Research Council, 2013-6334Swedish Research Council, 2014-03847
Available from: 2018-04-12 Created: 2018-04-12 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Jarstad, A. (2017). Kommer världens äldsta fredsmission att avslutas?. Västerbottens-Kuriren, 16 juli
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kommer världens äldsta fredsmission att avslutas?
2017 (Swedish)In: Västerbottens-Kuriren, Vol. 16 juliArticle in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: , 2017
Keywords
Cypern, fredsförhandlingar, FN
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-137905 (URN)
Projects
Varieties of Peace
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Available from: 2017-07-26 Created: 2017-07-26 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Jarstad, A., Åkebo, M., Johansson, P., Barnes, P., Eklund, N., Eklund Wimelius, M., . . . Söderström, J. (2017). Varieties of peace: presentation of a research program. Umeå: Umeå Universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Varieties of peace: presentation of a research program
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Varieties of Peace research program aims to analyze long-term effects of peace processes in conflicts that ended in the 1990s. The central research questions are: What characterizes peace after the peace processes initiated in the 1990s and how does it vary? How can this variation be described and explained? Peace processes have been studied using short time perspectives, usually in ”lessons-learned” evaluations five years after conflict termination, and usually with theories of conflict as a starting point. The Varieties of Peace research program is an ambitious initiative, which starts from a theoretical understanding of peace, its quality and character, and views peace and peace processes as dynamic and transformative. It will investigate and evaluate different types of peace processes from a comparative perspective and 25–30 years after they started, with the ambition of producing generalizable knowledge about peace, what it is and how it can be achieved. As a starting point, the program studies explanatory factors in five areas: 1) the actions, capacity and resilience of civil society, 2) the interests and strategies of the elites, 3) the aims and character of the agreements, 4) the societies’ institutions and resilience, and 5) international involvement. These issues will be studies in at least ten projects, with the ambition to capture and explain variation, internal dynamics and ultimately the results and effects of peace processes, studied over a longer period of time. The Varieties of Peace program is funded by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond: the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences, 2017-2024. For more info, please visit our webpage at www.varietiesofpeace.net.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2017. p. 23
Series
Umeå Working Papers in Peace and Conflict Studies, ISSN 1654-2398 ; 9
Keywords
peace; peace processes; peace agreements; peacebuilding
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-137164 (URN)978-91-7601-744-9 (ISBN)
Projects
Varieties of Peace
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, 2017-2024
Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Jarstad, A. (2016). Democratization after civil war: timing and sequencing of peacebuilding reforms. In: Arnim Langer and Graham K. Brown (Ed.), Building sustainable peace: timing and sequencing of post-conflict reconstruction and peacebuilding (pp. 87-109). Oxford: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democratization after civil war: timing and sequencing of peacebuilding reforms
2016 (English)In: Building sustainable peace: timing and sequencing of post-conflict reconstruction and peacebuilding / [ed] Arnim Langer and Graham K. Brown, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, p. 87-109Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The UN ambition to promote democratization via peacebuilding operations in post-civil war cases has largely failed. Suboptimal choices for democratization, such as power-sharing, are chosen as a result of the bargaining power of the former warring parties. Many issues, such as who belongs to the citizenry, are not settled and political parties not defined by the conflict lines have little chance of gaining power. While past experience shows that there is not one single pathway of democratization after civil war, it is suggested that these issues are important for democracy after civil war. For democracy to take root, it is also necessary to engage more seriously with the local networks and individuals who work to change behaviour and attitudes to become more democratic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016
Keywords
power-sharing, stateness problem, reforming warring parties, citizenry, statebuilding, democratization, democracy index, peacebuilding, civil war
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124533 (URN)10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198757276.003.0006 (DOI)978-0-19-875727-6 (ISBN)978-0-19-181721-2 (ISBN)
Projects
Demokrati utifrån? Internationella interventioner i Afghanistan, Somalia, Sydafrika och Bosnien-Hercegovina
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-08-15 Created: 2016-08-15 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Jarstad, A. K. & Höglund, K. (2015). Local violence and politics in KwaZulu-Natal: perceptions of agency in a post-conflict society. Third World Quarterly, 36(5), 967-984
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local violence and politics in KwaZulu-Natal: perceptions of agency in a post-conflict society
2015 (English)In: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 967-984Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article analyses the narratives of survivors of violence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and addresses the relationship between local violence, politics and agency in a post-conflict setting. In particular, the study advances an understanding of how local political violence serves to increase or decrease agency. In line with previous research on emotions and agency, our study suggests that fear and anxiety encourage risk avoidance and have a pacifying effect on survivors of violence. It also indicates that anger and enthusiasm are emotions experienced by those who have a strong sense of agency and have become politically mobilised after violence. The study contributes to the debate on local capacity for peacebuilding and democracy by showing how local agency is affected by violence and how survivors of violence can become agents of change through politics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2015
Keywords
agency, local violence, peacebuilding, South Africa, post-conflict societies
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-105851 (URN)10.1080/01436597.2015.1030385 (DOI)000355794100010 ()
Available from: 2015-06-30 Created: 2015-06-30 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Jarstad, A., Olivius, E., Åkebo, M., Höglund, K., Söderberg Kovacs, M., Söderström, J., . . . Sahovic, D. (2015). Peace agreements in the 1990s – what are the outcomes 20 years later?. Paper presented at Workshop on the outcomes of the war endings of the 1990s, Umeå University, 4-5 November 2015. Umeå
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peace agreements in the 1990s – what are the outcomes 20 years later?
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2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the 1990s, a number of protracted armed conflicts were finally ended. This period can be described as a paradigmatic shift with regards to how armed conflicts are brought to an end. When the logic of the Cold War no longer hindered the United Nations (UN) to intervene, the number of UN peace operations rose dramatically and became more comprehensive. In addition, conflicts increasingly ended through negotiated settlements rather than military victory. The peace processes of the 1990s gave rise to great optimism that negotiations and peacebuilding efforts, often with considerable international involvement, would bring sustainable peace to war-affected countries. The outcomes of these peace processes, however, appears to be far from unanimously positive. Today, 20 years after the war endings of the 1990s, it is therefore imperative to critically analyze and evaluate these peace processes and their long-term results. What is the situation like today in countries where conflicts ended in the 1990s? What has become of the peace? In this paper, the long-term outcomes of peace processes that took place in the 1990s are evaluated through brief analyses of a number of cases,demonstrating that the nature and quality of peace today show great diversity. The paper also includes a conceptualization of the ”peace triangle” aimed at distinguishing between different forms of peace, as well as a study of the relationship between peacebuilding and democracy in UN peace operations in the 1990s, concluding that outcomes with regards to democratic development in the intervened countries are generally poor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: , 2015. p. 30
Series
Umeå Working Papers in Peace and Conflict Studies, ISSN 1654-2398 ; 8
Keywords
Peace processes, peace agreements, peace triangle, peace operations, Namibia, Guatemala, Mindanao, Myanmar/Burma, Bosnia and Herzegovina
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-113660 (URN)
Conference
Workshop on the outcomes of the war endings of the 1990s, Umeå University, 4-5 November 2015
Available from: 2015-12-22 Created: 2015-12-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Jarstad, A. K. (2014). Costly democracy: peacebuilding and democratization after war, edited by Christoph Zürcher, Carrie Manning, Kristie Evenson, Rachel Hayman, Sarah Riese, and Nora Roehner, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 2013, 189 pp., index, £24.99 (paperback), ISBN 978-0-8047-8197-8 [Review]. Democratization, 21(7), 1351-1352
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Costly democracy: peacebuilding and democratization after war, edited by Christoph Zürcher, Carrie Manning, Kristie Evenson, Rachel Hayman, Sarah Riese, and Nora Roehner, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 2013, 189 pp., index, £24.99 (paperback), ISBN 978-0-8047-8197-8
2014 (English)In: Democratization, ISSN 1351-0347, E-ISSN 1743-890X, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1351-1352Article, book review (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2014
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-105843 (URN)10.1080/13510347.2014.940905 (DOI)000346237900010 ()
Projects
Democracy from the outside?/Demokrati utifrån?
Available from: 2014-11-19 Created: 2015-06-30 Last updated: 2018-06-07
Jarstad, A. K. (2014). Unpacking Friction in Security Sector Reform in Afghanistan. Peacebuilding, 1(3), 381-396
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unpacking Friction in Security Sector Reform in Afghanistan
2014 (English)In: Peacebuilding, ISSN 2164-7259, E-ISSN 2164-7267, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 381-396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Afghanistan, peacebuilding is conducted in parallel to the military involvement. This article unpacks some of the frictional encounters that emerge during efforts to promote local ownership of the security sector reform which seeks to prepare Afghan actors for taking full responsibility for security from 2014. It contributes to the research field both empirically by shedding light on the insider attacks in the context of police training, and theoretically by developing the challenges of local ownership in relation to international support to institutional reconstruction. The outcomes of these frictional encounters include a lowering of the ambition of the international engagement to ‘Afghan good enough’, an orphaned peace process, and an uneasy coexistence of informal and formal security organisations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2014
Keywords
peace operation, international intervention, local ownership, security sector reform, Afghanistan
National Category
Social Sciences Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-105841 (URN)10.1080/21647259.2013.813179 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-11-19 Created: 2015-06-30 Last updated: 2018-06-07
Projects
Varieties of Peace [M16-0297:1_RJ]; Umeå University; Publications
Johansson, P. & Saati, A. (2020). Different Methods for Analyzing Varieties of Peace. Umeå: Umeå universitetÅkebo, M. (2019). “Coexistence Ceasefire” in Mindanao. Peace and Change, 44(4), 468-496Jarstad, A. K. & Segall, S. (2019). Grasping the empirical realities of peace in post-war northern Mitrovica. Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal, 4(2-3), 239-259Jarstad, A., Eklund, N., Johansson, P., Olivius, E., Saati, A., Sahovic, D., . . . Åkebo, M. (2019). Three approaches to peace: a framework for describing and exploring varieties of peace. Umeå: Umeå UniversityJohansson, P. (2018). Resilience Thinking for Peacebuilders. International Journal of Peace Studies, 23(2), 1-14
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8048-1868

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