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Sandström, G. & Marklund, E. (2019). A prelude to the dual provider family: the changing role of female labor force participation and occupational field on fertility outcomes during the baby boom in Sweden 1900–60. The History of the Family, 24(1), 149-173
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A prelude to the dual provider family: the changing role of female labor force participation and occupational field on fertility outcomes during the baby boom in Sweden 1900–60
2019 (English)In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 149-173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By investigating changes in the association between women’s socioeconomic status, labor market activity and fertility outcomes during the Swedish baby boom 1900–60 this study reaches three main conclusions. First, the results show that a convergence of fertility behavior occurred across female socioeconomic strata during the peak baby boom period in the 1940s and 1950s in terms of a strong two child norm. Second, the negative socio-economic gradient of fertility found in Sweden before the baby boom declined sharply among women who came of age during the 1940s and 1950s, as white-collar women increased their fertility more than all the other strata. Third, this was especially the case for women engaged in the so called ‘caring professions’ that exhibit the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have a substantially higher fertility was thus formed in Sweden already during the 1940s and 1950s. The empirical finding fit with the interpretation that middle-class women employed in the public sector experienced stronger reductions in constraints to family formation compared to women employed in the private sector. We propose that the pronatalist polices implemented in the 1930s and 1940s, especially the extensive improvements in employment protection implemented for women who got married or became pregnant in the late 1930s in Sweden, is one important factor to consider when we try to understand why especially women employed in the public sector in education and healthcare increased their fertility more than other groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Fertility, baby boom, female labor force participation, caring professions, Sweden
National Category
History Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Historical Demography; History; history of education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154625 (URN)10.1080/1081602X.2018.1556721 (DOI)000462901600007 ()
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Padyab, M., Reher, D., Requena, M. & Sandström, G. (2019). Going It Alone in Later Life: A Comparative Analysis of Elderly Women in Sweden and Spain. Journal of Family Issues, 40(8), 1038-1064
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Going It Alone in Later Life: A Comparative Analysis of Elderly Women in Sweden and Spain
2019 (English)In: Journal of Family Issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 1038-1064Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article compares the determinants of living alone in later life in Spain and Sweden, two countries with relatively similar levels of economic development from a global view point but different family systems and institutional contexts. With microdata coming from census (Spain) and linked administrative registers (Sweden), logistic regression techniques, including a nonlinear regression–based decomposition of differences between, are used to estimate the weight of different factors behind the residential choices of elderly women. Theoretical expectations are validated. Levels of living alone are associated with age, childlessness, marital status, and education in both populations. Population characteristics (compositions effects) explain only a small part of the differences in living alone between both countries, while behaviors (rate effects) account for the larger part of the variation. Therefore, among elderly women proximate determinants of living arrangements produce different outcomes in different sociocultural environments largely determined by existing family systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
aging, childlessness, family systems, living alone, Spain, Sweden
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Population studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157006 (URN)10.1177/0192513X19831334 (DOI)000468939800005 ()2-s2.0-85062451753 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-04 Created: 2019-03-04 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Sandström, G. & Lena, K. (2019). The educational gradient of living alone: A comparison among the working-age population in Europe. Demographic Research, 40, 1645-1670, Article ID 55.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The educational gradient of living alone: A comparison among the working-age population in Europe
2019 (English)In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 1645-1670, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In recent decades, the proportion of individuals in Western countries living in a one-person household has increased. Previous research has mainly focused on the increase among the elderly and younger segments of the population, and there is a lack of research regarding the characteristics of individuals living alone among the working-age population.

Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the educational gradient of living alone in the working-age population (aged 30–64 years) in a comparative perspective and to assess if the differences in the educational gradient are related to the level of gender equality in different European societies.

Methods: Using data on 12 European countries from the Generations and Gender Surveys, the estimated probabilities of living alone for men and women with different levels of education were calculated using logistic regression models while controlling for parental status and differences in the age distribution across different populations.

Results: In the more gender equal countries, we found a negative educational gradient of living alone, especially for men, with decreasing gender differences in the probability of living alone as education increases. In the less gender equal countries, women tend to live alone to a higher extent than men regardless of their educational level. In the least gender equal countries, we found a positive educational gradient of living alone most markedly among women. Here we found the lowest probability of living alone among those who had received only a primary education and the highest levels among men and women with university degrees. Thus, we found a shift in the educational gradient of living alone from a negative gradient in the most gender equal countries in Northern Europe to a positive gradient in the least gender equal countries in the South and in Eastern Europe.

Contribution: This study highlights differences in living alone for men and women in the working-age population in Europe across different levels of education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, 2019
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161402 (URN)10.4054/DemRes.2019.40.55 (DOI)000474616700001 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07115
Available from: 2019-07-04 Created: 2019-07-04 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Requena, M., Reher, D., Padyab, M. & Sandström, G. (2019). Women living alone in later life: A multicountry comparative analysis. Population, Space and Place, Article ID e2269.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women living alone in later life: A multicountry comparative analysis
2019 (English)In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, article id e2269Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This paper compares the determinants of living alone among elderly women in six countries (Tanzania, Kyrgyzstan, Indonesia, Brazil, Spain, and Sweden) with very different family systems, policy contexts, levels of development, and socio-economic characteristics. Different factors behind the residential choices of elderly women are estimated by means of logistic regression. Decomposition models are used to assess the extent to which observed differences between countries correspond to specific population compositions or to other factors. Although the importance of all independent variables for living alone is shown to be strong and statistically significant, persistent intercountry disparities in behaviour linked to levels of familism and development remain. Population composition explains only a small part of the observed differences in living alone. Economic development provides an important underlying explanation for the incidence of living alone among women, but many specific differences can also be explained by societal characteristics such as family systems and available policy options.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
development, family systems, living alone, management of aging
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161646 (URN)10.1002/psp.2269 (DOI)000476292300001 ()
Projects
Ageing Well- Forskningsrådet för hälsa, arbetsliv och välfärd (FORTE) in 2017 (DNR: 2016-07115)
Available from: 2019-07-18 Created: 2019-07-18 Last updated: 2019-08-14
Sandström, G. & Garðarsdóttir, Ó. (2018). Long-Term Perspectives on Divorce in the Nordic Countries: Introduction. Scandinavian Journal of History, 43(1), 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-Term Perspectives on Divorce in the Nordic Countries: Introduction
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Nordic countries are often put forward as forerunners in the acceptance of permissive divorce practices and in the shift away from a patriarchal family system during the twentieth century. This special issue focuses on the long term historical path dependencies that make Nordic institutions and norms regarding divorce stand out as liberal and individualistic in an international comparison, but also shed new light on the differences that exist between the countries. Specific traits that are raised is the role played by the shared Lutheran culture that facilitated the breakthrough of a secular notion of marriage as a civil contract, but also the important role played by the first wave feminist movement in all of the Nordic countries for the early breakthrough of liberal divorce laws. However, it is clear that permissive norms and institutions have tended to spread in two distinct waves with leaders and laggards within the Nordic context. In the early twentieth century, Denmark and Norway spearheaded the shift to bi-lateral no-fault divorce. In the 1970s, Sweden took over as the leader when the country adopted unilateral no-fault divorce while Finland consistently has tended to stand out as the conservative laggard within the Nordic context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
Union dissolution, Marriage legislation, Divorce, Second Demographic Transition
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142310 (URN)10.1080/03468755.2017.1384661 (DOI)000425798600001 ()2-s2.0-85032796872 (Scopus ID)
Note

Introduktion till temanummer "Historical Perspectives on Divorce and Union Dissolution in the Nordic Countries"

Introduction to special issue: "Historical Perspectives on Divorce and Union Dissolution in the Nordic Countries"

Available from: 2017-11-27 Created: 2017-11-27 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Van Bavel, J., Klesment, M., Beaujouan, E., Brzozowska, Z., Puur, A., Reher, D., . . . Zeman, K. (2018). Seeding the gender revolution: Women’s education and cohort fertility among the baby boom generations. Population Studies, 72(3), 283-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seeding the gender revolution: Women’s education and cohort fertility among the baby boom generations
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 283-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Europe and the United States, women’s educational attainment started to increase around the middle of the twentieth century. The expected implication was fertility decline and postponement, whereas in fact the opposite occurred. We analyse trends in the quantum of cohort fertility among the baby boom generations in 15 countries and how these relate to women’s education. Over the 1901–45 cohorts, the proportion of parents with exactly two children rose steadily and homogeneity in family sizes increased. Progression to a third child and beyond declined in all the countries, continuing the ongoing trends of the fertility transition. In countries with a baby boom, and especially among women with post-primary education, this was compensated for by decreasing childlessness and increasing progression to a second child. These changes, linked to earlier stages of the fertility transition, laid the foundations for later fertility patterns associated with the gender revolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
baby boom, cohort fertility, childlessness, education, Europe, United States
National Category
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152352 (URN)10.1080/00324728.2018.1498223 (DOI)000456729900001 ()30280973 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054371362 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
Sandström, G. (2018). The Breakthrough of a Post-Materialistic Marital Ideology: The discussion of divorce in Swedish newspapers during the 1960s. Scandinavian Journal of History, 43(1), 161-185
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Breakthrough of a Post-Materialistic Marital Ideology: The discussion of divorce in Swedish newspapers during the 1960s
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 161-185Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the 1960s and 1970s in Sweden, both the labour force participation rate of married women and the divorce rate increased more than any other period of the 20th century. Higher levels of extramarital fertility, non-marital cohabitation, and increasing age at first birth accompanied the rise of these two rates. These developments exemplify phenomena associated with the second demographic transition (SDT), and were markedly evident in Sweden during the 1960s and 1970s. By investigating the debate on divorce in national newspapers during the 1960s, this study traces the impact of these demographic and socioeconomic changes prior to the implementation of the permissive 1974 divorce law in Sweden. The main finding of the study is that a normative shift occurred in Sweden during the 1960s. From 1964 to 1969, publicly expressed attitudes towards divorce were increasingly characterized by post-materialist and individualistic values and a marital ideology prioritizing individual autonomy and emotional fulfilment started to dominate the debate. Conversely, representatives expressing a conservative view on marriage that framed the conjugal family rather than the individual as the most important social unit were increasingly marginalized in public discussions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
divorce, Sweden, 1960s, gender regime, second demographic transition, post-materialism, welfare state, de-familialization
National Category
History
Research subject
Historical Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128809 (URN)10.1080/03468755.2016.1261462 (DOI)000425798600008 ()2-s2.0-85006147404 (Scopus ID)
Note

Ingår i temanummer "Historical Perspectives on Divorce and Union Dissolution in the Nordic Countries".

Part of special issue "Historical Perspectives on Divorce and Union Dissolution in the Nordic Countries".

Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Sandström, G. (2017). A reversal of the socioeconomic gradient of nuptiality during the Swedish mid-20th-century baby boom. Demographic Research, 37(50), 1625-1658
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A reversal of the socioeconomic gradient of nuptiality during the Swedish mid-20th-century baby boom
2017 (English)In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 37, no 50, p. 1625-1658Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND Research into the causes of the mid-twentieth-century baby boom has concluded that the main proximate cause of the fertility increase during the 1940s was earlier and more universal marriage in the cohorts born after 1910, and that this association between nuptiality trends and fertility was particularly strong in Sweden.

OBJECTIVE However, we do not know whether this was a general trend or if certain socio-economic groups spearheaded the change towards earlier marriage.

METHODS The present study uses event history analysis to investigate the marital histories of approximately 100,000 men and women in Sweden, born 1880-1934, to determine how socio-economic differentials in nuptiality developed during the period 1900-1960.

CONCLUSIONS The analysis shows that the sharp increase in nuptiality was not driven uniformly across different social strata, but rather took the form of earlier and more universal marriage among men in the mid and upper social strata and among economically active women, while male unskilled workers and women outside the labor market did not participate in the nuptiality boom during the peak baby boom years and even showed some signs of decreased marriage probabilities compared to earlier cohorts.

CONTRIBUTION The results indicate that sector-specific economic growth after the depression and the breakthrough of the Swedish welfare state benefitted couples who could aspire to a middle-class identity, and that pronatalist policies made female economic activity more compatible with marriage. The results show that the shift towards a positive female socio-economic gradient of marriage and family formation that can be observed in contemporary Sweden, had its beginnings already with the cohorts that participated in the mid-twentieth-century baby boom.

Keywords
nuptialtiy, socioeconomic status, female employment, baby boom, Sweden
National Category
History
Research subject
Historical Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142551 (URN)10.4054/DemRes.2017.37.50 (DOI)000416425300001 ()
Available from: 2017-12-04 Created: 2017-12-04 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Reher, D. S., Sandström, G., Sanz-Gimeno, A. & van Poppel, F. W. A. (2017). Agency in Fertility Decisions in Western Europe During the Demographic Transition: A Comparative Perspective. Demography, 54(1), 3-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agency in Fertility Decisions in Western Europe During the Demographic Transition: A Comparative Perspective
2017 (English)In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We use a set of linked reproductive histories taken from Sweden, the Netherlands, and Spain for the period 1871–1960 to address key issues regarding how reproductive change was linked specifically to mortality and survivorship and more generally to individual agency. Using event-history analysis, this study investigates how the propensity to have additional children was influenced by the number of surviving offspring when reproductive decisions were made. The results suggest that couples were continuously regulating their fertility to achieve reproductive goals. Families experiencing child fatalities show significant increases in the hazard of additional births. In addition, the sex composition of the surviving sibset also appears to have influenced reproductive decisions in a significant but changing way. The findings offer strong proof of active decision-making during the demographic transition and provide an important contribution to the literature on the role of mortality for reproductive change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Demographic transition, Fertility, Mortality, Sex-preferences, Europe
National Category
History
Research subject
Historical Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130324 (URN)10.1007/s13524-016-0536-0 (DOI)000394328900001 ()2-s2.0-85008686826 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-17 Created: 2017-01-17 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Sandström, G. & Marklund, E. (2017). Fertility differentials in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century: the changing effect of female labor force participation and occupational field. In: : . Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Chicago Illinois, April 27–29.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fertility differentials in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century: the changing effect of female labor force participation and occupational field
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Contrary to the expected negative link between rising female education and fertility it has been shown that in Sweden (Sandström, 2014a) and many other Western countries (Van Bavel, 2014a; Van Bavel et al., 2015) fertility differentials across educational strata decreased sharply during the baby boom. Studies on contemporary data find that the field of education/occupation has a larger net effect than the level of education (Hoem, Neyer, & Andersson, 2006a; e.g. Michelmore & Musick, 2014a; Van Bavel, 2010). Little is however know about the fertility patterns among economically active women prior to the 1960s and how they changed over time. Using individual level data this paper investigates the fertility of women in different sectors of the economy in Sweden during the early expansion of female labor force participation and higher education during the first half of the 20th century. The analysis reaches three main findings. Firstly, there is a marked shift in the effect of female economic activity on fertility in the 1940s and 1950s in Sweden. During this period a strong convergence of fertility behavior across female economic strata occurs and a two child norm is established that has persisted in Sweden since then. Secondly, the negative impact of female economic activity especially for upper strata women is strongly reduced among women that came of age during the 1940s and 1950s. Thirdly, this was especially the case for upper strata women engaged in the so called ‘caring professions’ that exhibit by far the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have substantially higher fertility formed already during the 1940s and 1950s in Sweden. The finding of the study illustrates how the mid-twentieth century baby boom works as a ”hinge” between contemporary fertility patterns and those that prevailed during the historical decline up until the 1930s.

Keywords
Fertiltiy, Baby boom, Female employment, Education, Sweden
National Category
History Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Historical Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134779 (URN)
Conference
Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Chicago Illinois, April 27–29
Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-05-11 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7559-2571

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