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Biography [eng]

I'm a PhD candidate in History and Education and also affiliated with the Gender School for Gender Studies (UCGS).

In my research I focus on the conditions for the teacher occupation in the Swedish elementary school during the latter part of the 19th century and earlier part of the 20th century. In detail I study the teachers that were recruited in a rural environment and the impact this choice of occupation had on their private life. Qualitative and quantitative methods are combined to study the teachers through their social background, establishment, every day-life, family formation and life course. Varying conditions for different groups of teachers, junior school teachers and elementary school teachers, as well as the different conditions for male and female teachers are both of main interest within the PhD-project.

Biography [swe]

Jag är doktorand i historia med utbildningsvetenskaplig inriktning och en del av genusforskarskolan (UCGS).

I min forskning studerar jag läraryrkets villkor i den svenska folkskolan under senare delen av 1800-talet och tidigare delen av 1900-talet. Mer specifikt undersöker jag de lärare som rekryterades i landsbygdsmiljö och vilka följder valet att bli lärare fick för deras privatliv. Kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder kombineras för att studera lärarna utifrån deras sociala bakgrund, etablering, vardagsliv, familjebildning och levnadsbanor. De skilda förutsättningarna för manliga och kvinnliga lärare samt olika lärargrupper, småskollärare och folkskollärare, utgör båda centrala aspekter i avhandlingsprojektet.

Publications (7 of 7) Show all publications
Sandström, G. & Marklund, E. (2019). A prelude to the dual provider family: the changing role of female labor force participation and occupational field on fertility outcomes during the baby boom in Sweden 1900–60. The History of the Family, 24(1), 149-173
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A prelude to the dual provider family: the changing role of female labor force participation and occupational field on fertility outcomes during the baby boom in Sweden 1900–60
2019 (English)In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 149-173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By investigating changes in the association between women’s socioeconomic status, labor market activity and fertility outcomes during the Swedish baby boom 1900–60 this study reaches three main conclusions. First, the results show that a convergence of fertility behavior occurred across female socioeconomic strata during the peak baby boom period in the 1940s and 1950s in terms of a strong two child norm. Second, the negative socio-economic gradient of fertility found in Sweden before the baby boom declined sharply among women who came of age during the 1940s and 1950s, as white-collar women increased their fertility more than all the other strata. Third, this was especially the case for women engaged in the so called ‘caring professions’ that exhibit the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have a substantially higher fertility was thus formed in Sweden already during the 1940s and 1950s. The empirical finding fit with the interpretation that middle-class women employed in the public sector experienced stronger reductions in constraints to family formation compared to women employed in the private sector. We propose that the pronatalist polices implemented in the 1930s and 1940s, especially the extensive improvements in employment protection implemented for women who got married or became pregnant in the late 1930s in Sweden, is one important factor to consider when we try to understand why especially women employed in the public sector in education and healthcare increased their fertility more than other groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Fertility, baby boom, female labor force participation, caring professions, Sweden
National Category
History Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Historical Demography; History; history of education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154625 (URN)10.1080/1081602X.2018.1556721 (DOI)000462901600007 ()
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Marklund, E. (2017). Ett år med Ester: en mikrohistorisk undersökning av det sociala nätverket och känslolivet hos en småskollärare vid sekelskiftet 1900. Historisk Tidskrift (S), 137(3), 379-410
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ett år med Ester: en mikrohistorisk undersökning av det sociala nätverket och känslolivet hos en småskollärare vid sekelskiftet 1900
2017 (Swedish)In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 137, no 3, p. 379-410Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Med en mikrohistorisk ansats undersöks småskolläraren Ester Vikströms dagbok 1901–1902. Studien fokuserar på Esters vardag i det offentliga och privata rummet utifrån hennes sociala nätverk och känsloliv. Analysen visar att Ester hade ett stort nätverk och utbyte med många aktörer från olika samhällsskikt. Dagboken utgjorde samtidigt ett privat rum där hon kunde återge händelser och känslor om än inte alltid i klartext.

Abstract [en]

At the dawn of the twentieth century (1901–1902), the nineteen-year-old junior school teacher Ester Vikström kept a diary. Ester worked in a small coastal village in northern Sweden where she was the only teacher. Through a microhistorical approach this study aims to explore the public and private life of Ester by focusing on her social networks and emotional life. The study uses female agency, a life course approach and concepts from the history of emotions to analyze her diary. The main findings show that Ester was very active in the local community and had a broad social network, which included social ties on many different levels in the social hierarchy. Ester had her closest friends among sea captains’ wives, maidservants and a dock workers family, where she met her future husband. However, Ester was also a friend of the most prominent persons in the community, the doctor and the priest. Her everyday life in the village included involvement with numerous associations such as the home sewing association, the temperance movement and a choral society. In the diary Ester shared much of her emotional life by recounting her experiences and thoughts, which were characterized by a wide spectrum of different emotions: Esters physical and psychological status, her thoughts and empathy in the case of accidents or diseases, the interaction with her students etc. One category of emotions and thoughts is distinguished from the others, the relationship to her fiancée and future husband Emil. This can be seen in Ester’s diary because she uses cipher when she writes about her feelings for Emil. The concluding remarks of this study argue that Ester made use of her agency to integrate in the local community. The diary reveals an intriguing and eventful phase in her life course during her pathway to adulthood. Her custom to use cipher when writing about her deepest and most personal emotions can be viewed as a way to write about something that was not really accepted by the predominant “emotional regime” in the village.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Svenska Historiska Föreningen, 2017
Keywords
Sweden, 20th century, microhistory, female agency, junior school teacher, social networks, emotional life, rural schools, 1900-tal, mikrohistoria, småskollärare, dagbok, sociala nätverk, känsloliv, landsbygd, kvinnligt aktörskap, kvinnlig agens, småskola
National Category
History
Research subject
history of education; History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139637 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Sandström, G. & Marklund, E. (2017). Fertility differentials in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century: the changing effect of female labor force participation and occupational field. In: : . Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Chicago Illinois, April 27–29.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fertility differentials in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century: the changing effect of female labor force participation and occupational field
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Contrary to the expected negative link between rising female education and fertility it has been shown that in Sweden (Sandström, 2014a) and many other Western countries (Van Bavel, 2014a; Van Bavel et al., 2015) fertility differentials across educational strata decreased sharply during the baby boom. Studies on contemporary data find that the field of education/occupation has a larger net effect than the level of education (Hoem, Neyer, & Andersson, 2006a; e.g. Michelmore & Musick, 2014a; Van Bavel, 2010). Little is however know about the fertility patterns among economically active women prior to the 1960s and how they changed over time. Using individual level data this paper investigates the fertility of women in different sectors of the economy in Sweden during the early expansion of female labor force participation and higher education during the first half of the 20th century. The analysis reaches three main findings. Firstly, there is a marked shift in the effect of female economic activity on fertility in the 1940s and 1950s in Sweden. During this period a strong convergence of fertility behavior across female economic strata occurs and a two child norm is established that has persisted in Sweden since then. Secondly, the negative impact of female economic activity especially for upper strata women is strongly reduced among women that came of age during the 1940s and 1950s. Thirdly, this was especially the case for upper strata women engaged in the so called ‘caring professions’ that exhibit by far the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have substantially higher fertility formed already during the 1940s and 1950s in Sweden. The finding of the study illustrates how the mid-twentieth century baby boom works as a ”hinge” between contemporary fertility patterns and those that prevailed during the historical decline up until the 1930s.

Keywords
Fertiltiy, Baby boom, Female employment, Education, Sweden
National Category
History Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Historical Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134779 (URN)
Conference
Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Chicago Illinois, April 27–29
Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-05-11 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Marklund, E. (2017). One year with Ester: The social network and emotional life of a junior school teacher through a microhistorical lens. Historisk Tidskrift (S), 137(3), 379-410
Open this publication in new window or tab >>One year with Ester: The social network and emotional life of a junior school teacher through a microhistorical lens
2017 (English)In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 137, no 3, p. 379-410Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

At the dawn of the twentieth century (1901-1902), the nineteen-year-old junior school teacher Ester Vikstrom kept a diary. Ester worked in a small coastal village in northern Sweden where she was the only teacher. Through a microhistorical approach this study aims to explore the public and private life of Ester by focusing on her social networks and emotional life. The study uses female agency, a life course approach and concepts from the history of emotions to analyze her diary. The main findings show that Ester was very active in the local community and had a broad social network, which included social ties on many different levels in the social hierarchy. Ester had her closest friends among sea captains' wives, maidservants and a dock workers family, where she met her future husband. However, Ester was also a friend of the most prominent persons in the community, the doctor and the priest. Her everyday life in the village included involvement with numerous associations such as the home sewing association, the temperance movement and a choral society. In the diary Ester shared much of her emotional life by recounting her experiences and thoughts, which were characterized by a wide spectrum of different emotions: Esters physical and psychological status, her thoughts and empathy in the case of accidents or diseases, the interaction with her students etc. One category of emotions and thoughts is distinguished from the others, the relationship to her fianc e and future husband Emil. This can be seen in Ester's diary because she uses cipher when she writes about her feelings for Emil. The concluding remarks of this study argue that Ester made use of her agency to integrate in the local community. The diary reveals an intriguing and eventful phase in her life course during her pathway to adulthood. Her custom to use cipher when writing about her deepest and most personal emotions can be viewed as a way to write about something that was not really accepted by the predominant "emotional regime" in the village.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SVENSKA HISTORISKA FORENINGEN, 2017
Keywords
Sweden, 20th century, microhistory, female agency, junior school teacher, social networks, emotional life, rural schools
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-140937 (URN)000411780300004 ()
Available from: 2017-10-20 Created: 2017-10-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Vikström, L., Marklund, E. & Sandström, G. (2016). Demographic outcomes during colonisation: Migration and mortality among indigenous and non-indigenous populations in nineteenth-century Sweden. Journal of Migration History, 2(1), 148-176
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demographic outcomes during colonisation: Migration and mortality among indigenous and non-indigenous populations in nineteenth-century Sweden
2016 (English)In: Journal of Migration History, ISSN 2351-9916, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 148-176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to insufficient historical population data, there is limited knowledge about the demographic outcomes of colonisation. This study provides demographic evidence of the difficulties faced by the Sami – an indigenous population in Sweden – during nineteenth-century colonisation, as indicated by (1) high risks of migration and (2) low survival rates compared to non-Sami. The digitised parish registers of the Demographic Data Base (Umeå University) provide longitudinal, individual-level data on migration, mortality, and ethnic origin. Event history analysis reveals that the Sami were vulnerable, with a higher mortality rate than non-Sami, and that they were more prone to migrate from areas overcrowded due to an increased competition for land. However, regardless of ethnic origin, it was primarily the settlers who migrated, and who ran the lowest mortality risks. This result suggests a ‘healthy settler effect’, and diverse consequences of colonisation that did not always follow ethnic lines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brill Academic Publishers, 2016
Keywords
colonisation, demography, ethnicity, indigenous, migration, mortality, nineteenth century, Sami
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118615 (URN)10.1163/23519924-00201006 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-03-24 Created: 2016-03-24 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Sandström, G. & Marklund, E. (2016). Fertility differentials in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century: the effect of female labor force participation and occupational field. In: : . Paper presented at European Association for Population Studies (EAPS), European Population Conference, August 31-September 3, 2016. In Session 111. Before, during and after the fertility transition. Mainz, Germany. (pp. 1-19).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fertility differentials in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century: the effect of female labor force participation and occupational field
2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Contrary to the expected negative link between rising female education and fertility it has been shown that in Sweden (Sandström, 2014a) and many other Western countries (Van Bavel, 2014a; Van Bavel et al., 2015) fertility differentials across educational strata decreased sharply during the baby boom. Studies on contemporary data find that the field of education/occupation has a larger net effect than the level of education (Hoem, Neyer, & Andersson, 2006a; e.g. Michelmore & Musick, 2014a; Van Bavel, 2010). Little is however know about the fertility patterns among economically active women prior to the 1960s and how they changed over time. Using individual level data this paper investigates the fertility of women in different sectors of the economy in Sweden during the early expansion of female labor force participation and higher education from the 1920s up until the end of the baby boom.

Keywords
Fertility, female employment, baby boom
National Category
History
Research subject
Historical Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126039 (URN)
Conference
European Association for Population Studies (EAPS), European Population Conference, August 31-September 3, 2016. In Session 111. Before, during and after the fertility transition. Mainz, Germany.
Available from: 2016-09-27 Created: 2016-09-27 Last updated: 2019-02-28Bibliographically approved
Vikström, L., Sandström, G. & Marklund, E. (2013). Demographic responses to colonization among indigenous populations: Migration and mortality in 19th century northernmost Sweden. In: XXVII IUSSP International Population Conference: Book of abstracts. Paper presented at XXVII International Population Conference, Busan, Korea, 26-31 August 2013 (pp. 221-221).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demographic responses to colonization among indigenous populations: Migration and mortality in 19th century northernmost Sweden
2013 (English)In: XXVII IUSSP International Population Conference: Book of abstracts, 2013, p. 221-221Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Although history shows how colonization has exposed indigenous populations to vulnerability, there is a narrow quantitative knowledge of how they demographically responded to colonization. Swedish parish registers are unique in providing longitudinal demographic data on the indigenous populations in northernmost Sweden: the Sami. The Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, has digitized these registers, which allows this study to conduct event history analyses of the Sami’s colonial experiences during the 19th century. If colonization added to the Sami’s difficulties to maintain their traditional use of land and lifestyle, it would be indicated by (1) untimely death among them; (2) a desire to leave their space as it was increasingly colonized. However, the propensity to depart was significantly higher among the Non-Sami people, primarily settlers, probably because it was a tough task to establish a farm in these remote cold areas. Additionally, ‘lock-in’ mechanisms might have reduced the Sami’s inclination to relocate, if this meant giving up a lifestyle and occupation difficult to perform in other settings. Their survival chances were higher than those of the Non-Sami, especially among women. In all, the findings propose that the Non-Sami individuals suffered from an ‘unhealthy migrant effect’.

National Category
History Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
History; Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-92050 (URN)
Conference
XXVII International Population Conference, Busan, Korea, 26-31 August 2013
Available from: 2014-08-20 Created: 2014-08-20 Last updated: 2018-09-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0180-5762