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Padyab, M., Hansson, J., Sundqvist, J., Inzunza, M. & Ghazinour, M. (2023). A comparative study of stress experienced by Swedish and Norwegian police officers. Frontiers in Health Services, 3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparative study of stress experienced by Swedish and Norwegian police officers
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Health Services, E-ISSN 2813-0146, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Police officers work in a variable environment under different circumstances and often involves stressful situations. This include working irregular hours, ongoing exposure to critical incidents, confrontations and violence. community police officers are mainly out in the society and have daily contact with the general public. critical incidents can also consist of being criticized and stigmatized as a police officer, both from the public but also lack of support from their own organization. There is evidence on negative impacts of stress on police officers. However, knowledge about the nature of police stress and its various types is insufficient. It is assumed that there are common stress factors which are universal among all police officers in different contexts but there is a lack of comparative studies to provide empirical evidence. The aim of this study is to compare different types of stress among police officers in Norway and Sweden and how the pattern of experiencing stress has changed over time in these countries.

Methods: The study population consisted of patrolling police officers from 20 local police districts or units in all seven regions in Sweden (n = 953) and patrolling police officers from four police districts in Norway (n = 678). A 42-item Police Stress Identification Questionnaire was used to measure the stress level.

Results: The findings show differences in types of stressful events as well as its severity among police officers in Sweden and Norway. The level of stress decreased over time among Swedish police officers whereas it showed no change or even an increase among the Norwegian participants.

Discussion: The results of this study are relevant for policy-makers, police authorities and lay police officers in each country to tailor their efforts to prevent stress among police officers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
stress, police, comparative study, Sweden, Norway
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-208339 (URN)10.3389/frhs.2023.1072248 (DOI)001112632600001 ()36926512 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85159670302 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-20 Created: 2023-05-20 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Sandström, G., Padyab, M., Noguchi, H. & Fu, R. (2023). Convergence and persistent contrasts in the determinants of working-age women in Sweden and Japan living alone since the 1990s. Genus - Journal of Population Sciences, 79(11)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Convergence and persistent contrasts in the determinants of working-age women in Sweden and Japan living alone since the 1990s
2023 (English)In: Genus - Journal of Population Sciences, E-ISSN 2035-5556, Vol. 79, no 11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increase in one-person households (OPHs) in the developed world is often seen as the result of a trend in which individualistic values and behaviors are replacing family solidarity. Nordic countries have been identified as frontrunners in this development. In Asia, equally developed countries like Japan retain elements of a strong-family system and an asymmetrical gender regime, simultaneously as they are experiencing rapid increases in OPHs. This article aims to uncover how the demographic and socioeconomic composition of OPHs have developed since the 1990s among working-age women in Sweden and Japan. Our results show that, in particular, civil status and income play different roles for OPH-living in Sweden and Japan. In contrast to Japan, the level of OPHs remained stable over time in Sweden, and even declined among women with high incomes. This suggests that the negative association between family formation and women’s economic activity is temporary and only prevails as long as society has not adapted to the convergence of men’s and women’s socioeconomic roles. The findings are discussed in light of the "second demographic transition" and "dual equilibrium theory".

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
One-person households, Single living, Gender, Family systems, Sweden, Japan
National Category
History Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Population studies; Historical Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-208295 (URN)10.1186/s41118-023-00192-y (DOI)000989156300001 ()2-s2.0-85159594948 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation (Grant No. 2019.0029)
Available from: 2023-05-17 Created: 2023-05-17 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Padyab, M. & Grahn, R. (2023). Demografiska skillnader i utfall. In: Lena Lundgren (Ed.), Effektiv insatsplanering vid svår substansanvändning: (pp. 111-120). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demografiska skillnader i utfall
2023 (Swedish)In: Effektiv insatsplanering vid svår substansanvändning / [ed] Lena Lundgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, p. 111-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214794 (URN)9789144155180 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-09-29 Created: 2023-09-29 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
Hansson, J. & Padyab, M. (2023). How the availability and adequacy of social support affect the general mental health of Swedish police officers. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 1196320.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How the availability and adequacy of social support affect the general mental health of Swedish police officers
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1196320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Police work is stressful. A protective function against work stress and harm to mental health is social support, either within or outside work. This cross-sectional study analyzes the associations of quantitative (availability) and qualitative (adequacy) aspects of social support with general mental health among Swedish police officers. A total of 728 officers responded to a national survey. Bivariate analyses (t-test and chi square) identified continuous and categorical variables (respectively) statistically significantly associated with sex and social support. Pearson correlation coefficient was provided to indicate the associations between general mental health and different types of social support. Sex-stratified logistic regression modeling calculated crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and assessed the relationships between different types of social support, sociodemographic variables and general mental health. The findings show that low adequacy of attachment is associated with poorer mental health among female officers, although female officers also reported higher availability of both social interaction and attachment compared to male officers. We found an association between low work-related social support and poorer mental health among single male police officers. Moreover, police officers who worked shifts, were younger, had less work experience, and/or had no children reported higher availability of attachment, whereas older police officers reported higher adequacy of social interaction compared to younger police officers. Variation in the quantity and quality of close social relationships seems to be important to mental health. Police organizations need to be aware of this in their efforts to make the work environment more supportive. Social support might create an environment where officers feel more comfortable discussing their mental health concerns and seeking assistance. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
emotional support, mental health, police, social interaction, social support, Sweden
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
police science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215302 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1196320 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175379976 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-16 Created: 2023-10-16 Last updated: 2023-11-06Bibliographically approved
Blom-Nilsson, M., Padyab, M. & Lundgren, L. (2023). Samsjuklighet, substansanvädning och psykisk ohälsa. In: Lena Lundgren (Ed.), Effektiv insatsplanering vid svår substansanvändning: (pp. 121-132). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Samsjuklighet, substansanvädning och psykisk ohälsa
2023 (Swedish)In: Effektiv insatsplanering vid svår substansanvändning / [ed] Lena Lundgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, p. 121-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212671 (URN)9789144155180 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-08-07 Created: 2023-08-07 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
Jemberie, W. B., Padyab, M., Snellman, F. & Eriksson, M. (2023). Studying the trajectories and mediators of old-age problematic alcohol use and the agency of older persons. Gothenburg: Swedish National Data Service
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studying the trajectories and mediators of old-age problematic alcohol use and the agency of older persons
2023 (English)Data set, Primary data
Alternative title[sv]
En studie av samspelet mellan åldrande, hälsa, alkoholvanor, och personers aktörsskap i detta samspel
Abstract [en]

Unit of analysis: Individual

Population: Older people aged between 61 and 73 years who have sought treatment for alcohol at a specialist outpatient clinic in a metropolitan city in Sweden.

Time Method: Cross-section

Sampling procedure: Non-probability: Purposive

The study participants were purposefully recruited from a specialist outpatient alcohol treatment clinic located in a Swedish metropolitan city. To be eligible for the study, participants had to be 55 years or older, had to self-report a history of problematic alcohol use and treatment for alcohol use after the age of 50. Individuals who were unable or unwilling to provide informed consent or participate in the interview via Zoom, Skype, or telephone were excluded from the study.

Time period(s) investigated: 2021-12 – 2022-04

Number of individuals/objects: 10

Data format / data structure: Text

Place, publisher, year
Gothenburg: Swedish National Data Service, 2023
Keywords
Aged, Ageing, Middle aged, Alcohol-related disorders, Addiction, Interviews (data collection), Healthy aging, Substance use, Alcohol use
National Category
Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences Social Work Substance Abuse
Research subject
Psychiatry; Clinical Psychology; Social Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-220093 (URN)10.5878/j3hm-3w77 (DOI)
Projects
Substance Use Disorder Among Older Adults: typologies, pathways and health outcomes
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesThe Kempe Foundations
Available from: 2024-01-28 Created: 2024-01-28 Last updated: 2024-02-07
Falahat, K., Baradarn Eftekhari, M., Dejman, M., Forouzan, A. S., Mahmoodi, Z., Padyab, M. & Tavassoli, S. (2022). Determining the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy interventions based on the transdiagnostic approach in the treatment of common mental health problems: Presenting an experience from the Islamic Republic of Iran. Brain and Behavior, 12(5), Article ID e2551.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determining the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy interventions based on the transdiagnostic approach in the treatment of common mental health problems: Presenting an experience from the Islamic Republic of Iran
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2022 (English)In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e2551Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: There is growing support to develop transdiagnostic approaches that provide new insights into mental health problems and cut across the existing traditional diagnostic boundaries all over the world. The present study was conducted to test the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral therapy (TCBT) approach in treating patients with common mental health problems and evaluate its effectiveness compared to the current treatment settings of the healthcare system.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Semnan Province, north of Iran. The study took pace in urban health centers. A sample of 520 Iranian adults, tested as positive on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, were enrolled. Participants who received a score above the cut-off point in any of the three mental health disorders (depression, anxiety, or obsessive compulsive disorder [OCD]) based on the locally validated study instrument were randomly allocated to the study. The intervention group received TCBT during eight sessions provided by trained general health service providers without previous mental health training; the standby control group received Mental Health Services as Usual (MHSU). The post-test interviews were conducted using the study instrument after the completion of both group treatments.

Results: A total of 459 individuals (87.8% female) ultimately entered the study. The withdrawal rate was 24% (53 participants in the TCBT and 56 in the MHSU). Reduction in depression, anxiety, and OCD symptoms was significant within each group and when comparing TCBT and MHSU (mean difference).

Conclusion: This trial recommends that the transdiagnostic CBT approach can be effective in improving common mental health problems and functions among individuals by trained general healthcare providers in the primary healthcare system. The results can be more useful in decision making when defining the process of providing mental healthcare in the National Primary Healthcare System.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
anxiety, cognitive behavioral therapy, depression, Iran, mental health, obsessive compulsive disorder
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193810 (URN)10.1002/brb3.2551 (DOI)000782218700001 ()35377557 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85127594811 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-06 Created: 2022-05-06 Last updated: 2022-07-07Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, L., Padyab, M., Sandlund, M. & McCarty, D. (2022). Frequency and recency of non-medical opioid use and death due tooverdose or suicide among individuals assessed for risky substance use: Anational registry study in Sweden. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Article ID 108567.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frequency and recency of non-medical opioid use and death due tooverdose or suicide among individuals assessed for risky substance use: Anational registry study in Sweden
2022 (English)In: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, ISSN 0740-5472, E-ISSN 1873-6483, article id 108567Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden and many other countries have experienced increases in suicide and accidental overdose deaths. Ananalysis examined the associations between recency of non-medical opioid misuse and frequency of use of nonmedicalopioids with death due to either suicide or accidental overdose within a sample of 15,000 Swedish adultswho completed an Addiction Severity Index (ASI) assessment for risky substance use or a substance use disorder.Methods and materials: Suicide (n = 136) and death due to overdose (n = 405) were identified in the official Causeof Death Registry from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Control variables included demographiccharacteristics and risks associated with either overdose or suicide. Cox regression analyses controlledfor variables statistically significantly at the bivariate level.Results: At the multivariable level: a) a higher (modified) ASI Composite Score for mental health; b) history ofsuicide attempt; c) having used non-medical opioids for 1–2 times per week for at least a year; d) history ofinjection drug use; and, e) early onset of drug use, were all significantly and positively associated with death dueto suicide. At the multivariable level: a) a higher the revised ASI Composite Score for mental health; b) recency ofuse of non-medical opioids; c) frequency of non-medical opioid use; d) being a male; and e) being of ages 18–24years compared to ages 43–51 years were all positively and significantly associated with death due to accidentaloverdose.Conclusion: These findings underscore the need to integrate mental health and substance use disorder treatmentand provide suicide and overdose prevention interventions for individuals with an opioid use disorder. Recencyand frequency of non-medical opioids were only associated with death due to overdose and not suicide. However,other drug use related variables (using opioids 1–2 times per week for at least a year, early onset of drug use anddrug injection) were significantly associated with death due to suicide.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Overdose, Suicide, Mortality, Opioid use, Sweden
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-190495 (URN)10.1016/j.jsat.2021.108567 (DOI)000789151900009 ()34340844 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85111594396 (Scopus ID)
Projects
STANCE-programmet: Studier av socialtjänstens interventioner för alkohol- och narkotikaproblem och hälsoeffekter, ett kollaboralt longitudinellt forskningsprogram
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07213
Available from: 2021-12-16 Created: 2021-12-16 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Jemberie, W. B., Padyab, M., McCarty, D. & Lundgren, L. M. (2022). Hospital admission rate, cumulative hospitalized days, and time to admission among older persons with substance use and psychiatric conditions. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13, Article ID 882542.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hospital admission rate, cumulative hospitalized days, and time to admission among older persons with substance use and psychiatric conditions
2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 13, article id 882542Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Substance use among older persons occurs with medical and psychiatric comorbidities. This study examined the associations of substance use disorder (SUD), psychiatric, and dual diagnoses with 12-month cumulative hospitalized days, hospital admission rate and number of days to first hospitalization.

Methods: The cohort of 3,624 individuals (28.2% women) aged 50 years or older was assessed for substance use severity in 65 Swedish municipalities during March 2003–May 2017. Addiction Severity Index data were linked to hospital discharge records and crime statistics. The outcomes were (a) 12-month cumulative hospitalized days; (b) Hospital admission rate, and (c) days to first hospitalization. Generalized linear regression techniques investigated associations between outcomes and SUD, psychiatric and dual diagnoses at admission.

Results: During 2003–2017, 73.5% of the participants were hospitalized. Twelve-month hospitalized days were positively associated with SUD (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.41, 95%CI: 1.26–1.58), dual diagnosis (IRR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.74–2.36), and psychiatric diagnoses (IRR = 2.51, 95%CI: 2.09–3.01). Hospital admission rate was positively associated with SUD (IRR = 4.67, 95%CI: 4.28–5.08), dual diagnosis (IRR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.64–2.04), and psychiatric diagnoses (IRR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.55–1.92). Days to first hospitalization were negatively associated with SUD (IRR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.47–0.58), dual diagnosis (IRR = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.50–0.65), and psychiatric diagnoses (IRR = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.73–0.93). The marginal effects of SUD and/or mental disorders increased with age for all outcomes, except for days to first hospitalization.

Conclusion: Three of four older persons assessed for substance use severity were later hospitalized. Substance use disorders, dual diagnoses and other mental disorders were the primary reasons for hospitalization and were associated with longer stays, earlier hospitalization, and repeated admissions. Sensitizing service providers to old age substance use and sharing data across the care continuum could provide multiple points of contact to reduce the risk of hospitalizations among older persons with problematic substance use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
aged, repeated hospitalizations, length of stay (D007902), older adult, dual diagnosis, substance use disorder, mental health disorders, comorbidities
National Category
Psychiatry Social Work Geriatrics
Research subject
Social Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-194017 (URN)10.3389/fpsyt.2022.882542 (DOI)000876149900001 ()35530023 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85129652326 (Scopus ID)
Projects
STANCE
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07213The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesThe Kempe Foundations
Available from: 2022-04-22 Created: 2022-04-22 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Ghazinour, M., Padyab, M. & Hansson, J. (2022). Polisens stresshantering och hälsa (1ed.). In: Mehdi Ghazinour; Malin Eriksson (Ed.), Polisiärt arbete i utsatta områden: utmaningar och möjligheter (pp. 267-283). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polisens stresshantering och hälsa
2022 (Swedish)In: Polisiärt arbete i utsatta områden: utmaningar och möjligheter / [ed] Mehdi Ghazinour; Malin Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 1, p. 267-283Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022 Edition: 1
National Category
Law and Society
Research subject
police science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-192760 (URN)978-91-44-14095-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-02-25 Created: 2022-02-25 Last updated: 2022-03-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8296-5313

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