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Padyab, M., Eriksson, M., Ghazinour, M. & Lundgren, L. (2020). Unaccompanied minors and court mandated institutional care: A national registry-based study in Sweden. Children and youth services review, 109, Article ID 104698.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unaccompanied minors and court mandated institutional care: A national registry-based study in Sweden
2020 (English)In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 109, article id 104698Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Sweden received, in 2016, 40% of EUs asylum seeking unaccompanied minors (UAM) (individuals less than 18 years of age). Some of these youth end up in a court mandated compulsory-care institution within months upon their arrival. A key concern is the appropriateness of UAMs ending up in an institutional care system which is aimed at youth with significant criminal justice, violence and/or drug problems. A second concern is that UAMs in compulsory care may display behavioral and acting out behaviors while in care due to their history of trauma and confusion regarding being institutionalized. The research question examined is whether UAMs in compulsory care receive more restrictive actions by compulsory care staff compared to their counterparts who are non-UAMs.

Materials and methods: The research team used national compulsory-care registry data from 2014-2016 to compare a range of restrictive actions taken by institution staff between UAMs versus non-UAMs while in care. Differences in the rate of compulsory care restrictive actions reported between UAMs and non-UAMs, while in care, were examined using chi-square test and Poisson regression methods.

Results: A total of 2398 children and youth were placed in compulsory institutional care during the study period, of whom 423 (17.5%) were unaccompanied. The Poisson regression model identified that being subjected to body search, limited body inspection, drug use testing, and care in locked unit were used significantly less often for UAMs individuals compared to non-AUMs. In addition, repeated number of intakes in compulsory care and number of dropouts were lower among UAMs during this time period.

Conclusion: The finding of this national registry study revealed that restrictive actions by institutional staff within compulsory care were significantly less common for UAMs versus non-UAMs. This study roughly suggests that the Swedish policy makers overseeing NSBIC need to consider and evaluate other care alternatives for UAMs, in addition to youth compulsory institutional care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Unaccompanied minor, Compulsory care, Restrictive action, Sweden
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-166724 (URN)10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.104698 (DOI)2-s2.0-85077214818 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Swedish National Board of Institutional Care, SiS
Available from: 2019-12-20 Created: 2019-12-20 Last updated: 2020-01-07Bibliographically approved
Grahn, R., Padyab, M. & Lundgren, L. (2019). Associations between a risky psychosocial childhood and recurrent addiction compulsory care as adult. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between a risky psychosocial childhood and recurrent addiction compulsory care as adult
2019 (English)In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background: Treatment for substance use disorder (SUD), results, in general, in improvements in terms of both drug use and social functioning. However, there are clients who are in need of repeated treatment. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify, for adults in compulsory care for severe SUD, the association between reporting having experienced a risky psychosocial childhood and repeated entries into the Swedish compulsory care system for SUD.

Method: Hierarchical logistic regression and mediation analysis methods were used to analyse data from the Swedish National Board of Institutional Care (SiS) database. The sample included 2719 adults assessed at their compulsory care intake. The study examined the association between history of institutional care, family with SUD or psychiatric problem and repeated compulsory care entries as an adult controlling for main drug, age and gender.

Results: In the regression model the factor with the strongest association with repeated compulsory care intakes for SUD, was as a child having been in mandated institutional care (OR = 2.0 (1.60–2.51)). The proportion of the total effect that is mediated through LVU (law (1990:52) the care of young persons (special provisions) act) was 33% for SUD problems in family during childhood, 44% for psychiatric problems in family during childhood, and 38% for having been in foster care.

Conclusion: Having been in mandated institutional care as a youth was strongly associated with repeated compulsory care for SUD as an adult. This is concerning since receipt of services as a child is supposed to mediate against the consequences of risky childhood conditions. These adults, as a group, are in need of a well-coordinated and integrated system of extensive aftercare services to reduce the likelihood of re-entry into compulsory care for an SUD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
compulsory care, psychosocial vulnerability, substance use disorder, Sweden
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-166709 (URN)10.1177/1455072519882785 (DOI)000503882000001 ()
Funder
The Swedish National Board of Institutional Care, SiS, 41-153-2011
Available from: 2019-12-20 Created: 2019-12-20 Last updated: 2020-01-10
Padyab, M., Reher, D., Requena, M. & Sandström, G. (2019). Going It Alone in Later Life: A Comparative Analysis of Elderly Women in Sweden and Spain. Journal of Family Issues, 40(8), 1038-1064
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Going It Alone in Later Life: A Comparative Analysis of Elderly Women in Sweden and Spain
2019 (English)In: Journal of Family Issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 1038-1064Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article compares the determinants of living alone in later life in Spain and Sweden, two countries with relatively similar levels of economic development from a global view point but different family systems and institutional contexts. With microdata coming from census (Spain) and linked administrative registers (Sweden), logistic regression techniques, including a nonlinear regression–based decomposition of differences between, are used to estimate the weight of different factors behind the residential choices of elderly women. Theoretical expectations are validated. Levels of living alone are associated with age, childlessness, marital status, and education in both populations. Population characteristics (compositions effects) explain only a small part of the differences in living alone between both countries, while behaviors (rate effects) account for the larger part of the variation. Therefore, among elderly women proximate determinants of living arrangements produce different outcomes in different sociocultural environments largely determined by existing family systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
aging, childlessness, family systems, living alone, Spain, Sweden
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Population studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157006 (URN)10.1177/0192513X19831334 (DOI)000468939800005 ()2-s2.0-85062451753 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-04 Created: 2019-03-04 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, L., Padyab, M., Lucero, N. M., Blom-Nilsson, M., Nyström, S., Carver-Roberts, T. & Sandlund, M. (2019). Immigration Status and Substance Use Disorder-related Mortality in Sweden: A National Longitudinal Registry Study. Journal of addiction medicine, 13(6), 483-492
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immigration Status and Substance Use Disorder-related Mortality in Sweden: A National Longitudinal Registry Study
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2019 (English)In: Journal of addiction medicine, ISSN 1932-0620, E-ISSN 1935-3227, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 483-492Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: First-generation immigrants, in many countries, are healthier than their native counterparts. This study examined the association between first- and second-generation immigrant status and alcohol- or drugs other than alcohol-related (primarily opioids) mortality for those with risky substance use.

Methods: A Swedish longitudinal, 2003 to 2017, registry study combined Addiction Severity Index (ASI) assessment data with mortality data (n = 15 601). Due to missing data, the analysis sample for this study was 15 012. Multivariate models tested the relationship between immigration status and drugs other than alcohol or alcohol-related mortality, controlling for demographics and the 7 ASI composite scores (CS).

Results: Age, a higher ASI CS for alcohol, a lower ASI CS family and social relationship, a lower ASI CS for drug use and a higher ASI CS for health significantly predicted mortality because of alcohol-related causes. Higher ASI CS for drugs other than alcohol, employment, and health, age, male sex, and immigration status predicted drugs other than alcohol, related mortality. Individuals born in Nordic countries, excluding Sweden, were 1.76 times more likely to die of drugs other than alcohol compared with their Swedish counterparts. Individuals born outside a Nordic country (most common countries: Iran, Somalia, Iraq, Chile) were 61% less likely to die of drugs other than alcohol compared with their Swedish counterparts. Those with parents born outside Nordic countries were 54% less likely to die of drugs other than alcohol.

Discussion: Research is needed on why people with risky substance use from Nordic countries (not Sweden) residing in Sweden, have higher mortality rates because of drugs other than alcohol (primarily opioids drugs other than alcohol compared with the other population groups in our study). Findings indicate that ASI CSs are strong predictors of future health problems including mortality due to alcohol and other drug-related causes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2019
Keywords
alcohol-related mortality, Addiction Severity Index, drugs other than alcohol-related mortality, immigration status, opioid-related mortality
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157873 (URN)10.1097/ADM.0000000000000524 (DOI)30889058 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85074552763 (Scopus ID)
Projects
STANCE
Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2020-01-02Bibliographically approved
Ghazinour, M., Padyab, M., Lauritz, L.-E. & Richter, J. (2019). Personality and mental health changes throughout the course of university police training in Sweden. Nordisk Politiforskning, 6(1), 7-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personality and mental health changes throughout the course of university police training in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Nordisk Politiforskning, E-ISSN 1894-8693, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 7-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Police trainees have to be prepared for future job demands and challenges. Personality plays an important role in stress management. The first assessment of a longitudinal investigation was conducted among 103 Swedish police trainees to study their personality changes and mental health responses in first two weeks after intake. Fifty-two of these trainees, who participated in the second assessment, were included in the analysis. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to measure personality, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to measure mental health. A multiple regression analysis was performed with personality scores from the first assessment as independent variables and SCL-90-R scores as dependent variables. Over two years, minor changes were found in the police trainees’ personality characteristics, which seemingly fit the demands of policing and are potentially valuable in the trainees’ future careers. Personality characteristics are predictors of mental health at the end of university training.

Keywords
Personality, Stress management, Mental health, Police trainee
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164742 (URN)10.18261/issn.1894-8693-2019-01-03 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-30 Created: 2019-10-30 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Blom-Nilsson, M., Padyab, M., McCarty, D. & Lundgren, L. (2019). Sexual Abuse and Future Mental Health Hospitalization ina Swedish National Sample of Men Who Use Opioids. Journal of addiction medicine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sexual Abuse and Future Mental Health Hospitalization ina Swedish National Sample of Men Who Use Opioids
2019 (English)In: Journal of addiction medicine, ISSN 1932-0620, E-ISSN 1935-3227Article in journal (Other academic) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Objective: Experiences of trauma, specifically sexual abuse, have been linked to both mental health and substance use disorders. This study used 14 years of Swedish health registry data to select a sample of adult men who reported frequent opioid use and assessed if those with a self-reported history of sexual abuse had a higher likelihood of hospitalization for a mental health disorder.

Methods: A Swedish longitudinal (2003–2017) registry study linked Addiction Severity Index (ASI) assessments completed with individuals who sought treatment for substance use disorders with data on hospitalizations for mental health disorders, and assessed associations with self-reported histories of sexual abuse among men who reported sustained and frequent use of opioids (n¼1862). Cox regression methods tested associations and controlled for age, and the7 ASI composite scores: family and social relationships, employment, alcohol use, drug use, legal, physical health, and mental health.

Results: The ASI composite score for mental health (hazard ratio[HR] 16.6, P<0.001) and a history of sexual abuse (HR 1.93,P<0.001) were associated with an elevated risk of future mental health hospitalization.

Conclusion: Both the ASI composite scores for mental health andself-reported history of sexual abuse reflected complex needs amongmen who used opioids and increased risk for mental health hospitalization.Treatment providers should strive to provide integrated careand address the negative aspects of victimization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2019
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163583 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-10-02
Grahn, R., Padyab, M., Hall, T. & Lundgren, L. (2019). The Associations between Risky Psychosocial Environment, Substance Addiction Severity and Imprisonment: A Swedish Registry Study. Substance Use & Misuse
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Associations between Risky Psychosocial Environment, Substance Addiction Severity and Imprisonment: A Swedish Registry Study
2019 (English)In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objective: Both childhood and adult psychosocial stressors have been identified as links to both increased risk for substance use disorder (SUD) and increased risk of imprisonment. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify, for a sample of 14,914 adults who all were assessed for risky substance use or a SUD, the importance of having a history of psychosocial stressors compared to current addiction severity. The analyses control for age, gender and education on the likelihood of future imprisonment. 

Method: Baseline Addiction Severity Index data (ASI) were merged with national registry data on prison sentences from 2003 to 2016. In the analysis, a Cox regression was used to study the association between independent variables and the likelihood of future imprisonment. 

Results: In the regression, five variables showed significant association to increased risk of imprisonment: ASI drugs other than alcohol Composite Score (positive relationship), ASI alcohol Composite Score (negative relationship), age (younger), education (lower) and parental problems with drugs other than alcohol. The factor with strongest association with imprisonment was the ASI drugs other than alcohol Composite Score, which showed the highest HR = 10.63 (3.50–32.31) for women and HR = 5.52 (3.77–8.08) for men to predict the likelihood of imprisonment. 

Discussion: Research is needed on why individuals with history of psychosocial stressors have a higher likelihood of imprisonment compared to their counterparts. Findings indicate that a high ASI Composite Score for drugs other than alcohol are strong predictors of future criminality and criminal justice system involvement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Substance use disorder, addiction severity index, imprisonment, Sweden, register database study
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-166043 (URN)10.1080/10826084.2019.1696823 (DOI)000501420600001 ()
Available from: 2019-12-09 Created: 2019-12-09 Last updated: 2020-01-03
Requena, M., Reher, D., Padyab, M. & Sandström, G. (2019). Women living alone in later life: A multicountry comparative analysis. Population, Space and Place, 25(7), Article ID e2269.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women living alone in later life: A multicountry comparative analysis
2019 (English)In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 25, no 7, article id e2269Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper compares the determinants of living alone among elderly women in six countries (Tanzania, Kyrgyzstan, Indonesia, Brazil, Spain, and Sweden) with very different family systems, policy contexts, levels of development, and socio-economic characteristics. Different factors behind the residential choices of elderly women are estimated by means of logistic regression. Decomposition models are used to assess the extent to which observed differences between countries correspond to specific population compositions or to other factors. Although the importance of all independent variables for living alone is shown to be strong and statistically significant, persistent intercountry disparities in behaviour linked to levels of familism and development remain. Population composition explains only a small part of the observed differences in living alone. Economic development provides an important underlying explanation for the incidence of living alone among women, but many specific differences can also be explained by societal characteristics such as family systems and available policy options.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
development, family systems, living alone, management of aging
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161646 (URN)10.1002/psp.2269 (DOI)000476292300001 ()2-s2.0-85068173156 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Ageing Well- Forskningsrådet för hälsa, arbetsliv och välfärd (FORTE) in 2017 (DNR: 2016-07115)
Available from: 2019-07-18 Created: 2019-07-18 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Olofsson, J., Padyab, M. & Malmberg, G. (2018). Health disparities in Europe’s ageing population: the role of social network. Global Health Action, 11(1), Article ID 1445498.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health disparities in Europe’s ageing population: the role of social network
2018 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1445498Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Previous research suggests that the social network may play very different roles in relation to health in countries with differing welfare regimes. 

Objective: The study aimed to assess the interplay between social network, socioeconomic position, and self-rated health (SRH) in European countries. 

Methods: The study used cross-sectional data on individuals aged 50+ from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and includes data from 16 countries. The outcome is poor SRH. All analyses are adjusted for age and stratified by gender. 

Results: Low satisfaction with the social network was associated with poor SRH among women in all country groups, but predicted poor SRH among males in West/Central and Eastern Europe only. The results from the multivariable analysis showed an increased likelihood of poor SRH among those with relatively lower education, as well as among those with low satisfaction with the social network (women from all country groups and men from Western/Central and Eastern Europe). However, the results from interaction analysis show that poor SRH for those with lower relative position in educational level was greater among those with higher satisfaction with the social network among male and female participants from Northern Europe. The health of individuals who are highly satisfied with their social network is more associated with socioeconomic status in Northern Europe. 

Conclusions: This study highlights the significance of social network and socioeconomic gradients in health among the elderly in Europe.

Keywords
self-rated health (SRH), ageing, Europe, social network, Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)
National Category
Human Geography Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145933 (URN)10.1080/16549716.2018.1445498 (DOI)000427797400001 ()29553305 (PubMedID)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013- 2506
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Padyab, M., Armelius, B.-Å., Armelius, K., Nyström, S., Blom, B., Gröonlund, A.-S. & Lundgren, L. (2018). Is Clinical Assessment of Addiction Severity of Individuals with Substance UseDisorder, Using the Addiction Severity Index, A Predictor of Future InpatientMental Health Hospitalization? A Nine-Year Registry Study. Journal of dual diagnosis, 14(3), 187-191
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is Clinical Assessment of Addiction Severity of Individuals with Substance UseDisorder, Using the Addiction Severity Index, A Predictor of Future InpatientMental Health Hospitalization? A Nine-Year Registry Study
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2018 (English)In: Journal of dual diagnosis, ISSN 1550-4263, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 187-191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: In Sweden, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) is the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare's recommended substance use disorder assessment tool and used routinely for patient intakes. Our study of 213 individuals assessed for substance use disorder with the ASI used nine years of the National Patient Register and examined whether clinical social workers' assessments of addiction severity at baseline were associated with later hospitalizations for mental health disorder (MHD). 

Methods: ASI composite scores and interviewer severity rating were used to measure clients' problems in seven areas (mental health, family and social relationships, employment, alcohol, drug use, health, and legal) at baseline. A stepwise regression method was used to assess the relative importance of ASI composite scores, MHD hospitalization two years prior to baseline, age, and gender for MHD hospitalization seven years post-baseline. 

Results: Almost two-thirds of the individuals (63%) were hospitalized at least once for MHD in the seven years post-baseline. At the multivariable level, MHD hospitalization prior to baseline was the strongest predictor of future MHD hospitalization, followed by ASI composite scores for drug use, employment, mental health and, last, male gender. Conclusions: A key finding is that higher ASI composite scores for drug use and mental health are predictors of future need for MHD treatment. Future studies will replicate this effort with a national population of individuals with substance use disorder.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Addiction Severity Index; substance use disorder; register-based study; mental health hospitalization; Sweden
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159482 (URN)10.1080/15504263.2018.1466086 (DOI)000469842200006 ()29683791 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013-1749Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016–07213
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8296-5313

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