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Hjelmér, C. (2018). Demokratifostran i förskolan: För individen eller kollektivet?.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demokratifostran i förskolan: För individen eller kollektivet?
2018 (Swedish)In: , p. 3Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Skolverket, 2018. p. 3
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148103 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-28 Created: 2018-05-28 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Hjelmér, C. (2017). Barns inflytande i utvärdering och dokumentation i förskolan.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barns inflytande i utvärdering och dokumentation i förskolan
2017 (Swedish)In: Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Skolverket, 2017
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143237 (URN)
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Hjelmér, C. (2017). Democratic fostering for children´s influence in preschool?. In: : . Paper presented at NERA 45th Congress: Learning and education - material conditions and consequences, 23-25 March Copenhagen.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democratic fostering for children´s influence in preschool?
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, as well as in other Nordic countries, preschool is the first important step for many children in their training to be a democratic citizen. The goals in the Swedish curricula are ambitious; girls and boys from different backgrounds shall, for example, have the same possibilities to exercise influence and to learn about, and “to live”, democracy in preschool (Skolverket, 2016). How this should be carried out in the daily activities is left to the pedagogues to decide. The democratic commission in the curricula is sometimes contradictory (e.g. solidarity with others and individual freedom of choice), and research from Nordic countries reports that teachers understand this commission in different ways, and often see it as difficult to implement (Jansen, Johansson & Eriksen Ødegaard 2011). This paper focuses ‘the lived democracy’ in preschools, with a special interest for children´s influence. It covers the processes when teachers invite children to influence, as well as in the children’s own attempts to influence in preschool (how and about what, and the responses of the teachers).

The analysis in this paper is based on Basil Bernstein’s (2000) theories regarding power, control and pedagogic codes, in combination with pertinent feminist perspectives on democratic education (principally those of Arnot & Dillabough (2000), Arnot & Reay (2007) and Gordon (2006)). An ethnographic field study has been carried out during 2015-16, with participant observations in three preschool groups during two months each, eight group interviews with teacher teams, and eleven interviews with children in small groups. The preschools were selected to cover a diversity of local contexts in terms of ethnicity and socio-economic circumstances, from rural areas, and from districts in big cities (with a large number of immigrants, and with a majority of “middle-/upper class”). In the analyses it is central to consider both different groups of children´s attempts to influence, and the teacher’s invitations in the pedagogic practices. The preliminary result focuses, for example, if the processes of influence are individually or collectively oriented, the teachers´ attitudes to, and their expectations on, children’s´ possibilities to act, and what seem to be a legitimate way to exercise influence if wanting to reach the teachers ears.

 

References

Arnot, M & Dillabough, J-A (2000). Challenging democracy: International perspectives on gender, education and citizenship. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Arnot, M & Reay, D (2007). A sociology of pedagogic voice: Power, inequality and pupil consultation. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 28(3), 311-325.

Bernstein, B (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: Theory, research, critique (reviderad upplaga) Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.

Gordon, T (2006). Girls in education: Citizenship, gender and emotions. Gender and Education 18(1), 1-15.

Jansen, K E, Johansson, E & Eriksen Ødegaard (2011). På jakt etter demokratibegrep i barnehagen. Nordisk barnehageforskning, 4(2), 61-64.

Skolverket (2016). Curriculum for the preschool Lpfö 98. Revised 2016. [Läroplan för förskolan Lpfö 98. Reviderad 2016]. Stockholm: Skolverket.

National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132962 (URN)
Conference
NERA 45th Congress: Learning and education - material conditions and consequences, 23-25 March Copenhagen
Available from: 2017-03-27 Created: 2017-03-27 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Hjelmér, C. & Rosvall, P.-Å. (2017). Does social justice count?: 'Lived democracy' in mathematics classes in diverse Swedish upper secondary programmes. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 49(2), 216-234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does social justice count?: 'Lived democracy' in mathematics classes in diverse Swedish upper secondary programmes
2017 (English)In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 216-234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article analyses what students attending four Swedish upper secondary school programmes with different social class profiles tried and wanted to influence in relation to mathematics teachers' pedagogic practice and responses during the year 2008/9. The theoretical framework is based on Bernstein's theories regarding power and control. The analyses draw on ethnographic observations of classes taking the Natural Science and Social Science academic programmes, and the Vehicle and Child & Recreation vocational programmes, at two Swedish upper secondary schools. Students attending different programmes tried to influence the teaching. However, what the students taking the academic and vocational programmes were able to influence considerably differed. Generally the vocational students exerted influence more successfully when they wanted to reduce the pace and difficulty of teaching, than when they wished to get more out of their education, while the opposite applied to the academic, especially Natural Science, students. Thus, the power relations reflected the programmes' social class profiles and the students' expected positions in society, despite policies at the time to promote democracy and reduce social reproduction in education. The findings support the importance of analysing not only students' voices, but also their voices in relation to the pedagogic practice they encounter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Student participation, teacher response, vocational education, social stratification
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114680 (URN)10.1080/00220272.2016.1138326 (DOI)000395626400006 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, Dnr 2006-23855-40762-27.
Available from: 2016-01-25 Created: 2016-01-25 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Hjelmér, C. (2017). Freedom to choose?: Children´s influence in preschools in different local areas. In: : . Paper presented at EECERA 27th Conference "ECE beyond the crisis: social justice, solidarity and children’s rights".
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Freedom to choose?: Children´s influence in preschools in different local areas
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses democratic fostering in different preschools from gender perspectives. It covers the teaching in and about democracy, as well as children’s power-positions and their attempts to affect daily preschool activities. Previous research show how teacher’s expectations on, and attitudes to, different children have impact on children’s way of acting (Eidevald 2011), children´s choices are not neutral, but unspoken influenced by gender norms (Ryan 2005), and gendered power-relationships are not statically realised, but vary depending on contexts (Walkerdine 1990). The analysis is based on Basil Bernstein’s (2000) theories regarding power and control, in combination with gender theories (Arnot 2006; Connell 1987). An interpretative and critical ethnographic approach was applied (Beach 2010), with participant observations to cover democratic processes in daily practice, and interviews with teacher teams and children (Hammersley & Atkinson 2007). Preschools in three districts (rural, immigrant, high-income) were analysed as different pedagogic codes (Bernstein), and with varying masculinities and femininities that children adopt (Connell 1987). A consent form including information about the project and informants rights was provided to all parents and teachers involved. Informed consent was negotiated with the children, and pseudonyms replaced the participants’ names. The results show boys and girls who exert influence in all groups. However, whether their agency were perceived as strong or boundless differed due to local context, as well as if the children´s free play choices were traditionally gendered or not. By showing how power relations interacts in preschools, the quality of democratic education for all children may increase.

National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139491 (URN)
Conference
EECERA 27th Conference "ECE beyond the crisis: social justice, solidarity and children’s rights"
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Hjelmér, C. (2017). Kritik mot standardiserade program för bedömning i förskolan.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kritik mot standardiserade program för bedömning i förskolan
2017 (Swedish)In: Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2017
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139489 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Rosvall, P.-Å., Hjelmér, C. & Lappalainen, S. (2017). Staying in the comfort zones: low expectations in vocational education and training mathematics teaching in Sweden and Finland. European Educational Research Journal (online), 16(4), 425-439
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Staying in the comfort zones: low expectations in vocational education and training mathematics teaching in Sweden and Finland
2017 (English)In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 425-439Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vocational education has a historical legacy of being low-status and aimed at producing skilled workers. Students with low marks in comprehensive school are still often guided to the vocational educational track. In this article we examine how mathematics teaching in a vocational educational context is framed (henceforth VET). Therefore, our aim with this article is to explore how teacher responses come into play in school mathematics classes, and the teacher–student interactions within those practices. The empirical material is based on educational ethnographic research, i.e. classroom observations and interviews, conducted in three upper secondary institutions, two in Sweden and one in Finland. The results indicate that both teachers and students seem to remain in what might be called their ‘comfort zones’, i.e. that pedagogic practices tend to strengthen the idea of a vocational learner as being practically oriented; using their hands instead of their heads and in need of care and surveillance. The analysis focuses on mathematics teaching rather than on the content and was chosen because it is associated with general qualifications and the notion of lifelong learning. In this respect it exemplifies the growing tension in VET between workplace and academic knowledge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Mathematics education, vocational education, teacher response, educational sociology
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125962 (URN)10.1177/1474904116669154 (DOI)000403653400004 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-09-23 Created: 2016-09-23 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Hjelmér, C. (2016). Democratic education for competent children?: Ethnographic research in preschools in different local contexts. In: : . Paper presented at NERA 44th Congress: Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education, 9-11 March Helsinki.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democratic education for competent children?: Ethnographic research in preschools in different local contexts
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the starting point in a planned study about democracy in different preschools, this roundtable invites to a deepened discussion about power relations in democratic fostering of children and the need and value of studying their situation in preschools in different local contexts. In Sweden, as well as in other Nordic countries, preschool is the first important step for many children in the education to be a democratic citizen. The goals in the Swedish curricula are ambitious; girls and boys from different backgrounds shall, for example, have the same possibilities to exercise influence and to learn about, and “to live”, democracy in preschool (Skolverket 2010). How this should be carried out is left to the pedagogues to decide. The democratic commission in the curricula is sometimes contradictory (e.g. solidarity with others and individual freedom of choice), and research from Nordic countries reports that the commission are understood in different ways, and often seen as difficult to implement (Jansen, Johansson & Eriksen Ødegaard 2011). One often emphasized key component for children´s possibilities to participate is to be seen as competent persons. However, what is understood as competent is not neutral, for example, in Kjørholt´s (2008) study, competences that were highly valued in other cultures than the Norwegian, ran the risk of being interpreted as shortcomings.   

The aim of the planned study is to develop knowledge about democratic fostering in preschools in different local contexts with respect to ethnical and socio-economic circumstances. Of special interest is the content and methods used in the pedagogic practice, as well as the children´s own attempts to influence in preschool. Questions about how democratic subjects are presented in the pedagogic practice, as well as questions about how, and what, the children are promoted to, and themselves try to, influence are focused. Three preschools will be selected to cover a variety of local contexts in terms of ethnicity and socio-economic circumstances, one from a rural area, and two from big cities (one district with a large number of immigrants and one district with a majority of “middle-/upper class”). A critical ethnographic approach will be applied, and the empirical material will consist of observations, conversations, interviews and documents (two months in each preschool). The analyses will focus on power relations such as gender, ethnicity and social class perspectives, and the relation to local contexts. It is central to consider both different groups of children´s attempts to influence, and the power relations in the pedagogic practices, i.e. the relationship between agency and structures in the different environments.

References

Jansen, K E, Johansson, E & Eriksen Ødegaard (2011). På jakt etter demokratibegrep i barnehagen. Nordisk barnehageforskning, 4(2), 61-64.

Kjørholt, A T (2008). Children as new citizens: In the best Interests of the child? I: A James & A L James (eds.) European childhoods: Cultures, politics and childhoods in Europe. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Skolverket (2010). Läroplan för förskolan Lpfö 98. Reviderad 2010. Stockholm: Fritzes.

National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118296 (URN)
Conference
NERA 44th Congress: Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education, 9-11 March Helsinki
Available from: 2016-03-14 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Rosvall, P.-Å. & Hjelmér, C. (2016). 'Lived democracy' in mathematics classes in diverse Swedish upper secondary school programmes. In: JustEd: 2nd Biennial JustEd Conference: 'Actors for Social Justice in Education' : 8-9 March 2016, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland : Abstracts. Paper presented at 2nd Biennial JustEd Conference: 'Actors for Social Justice in Education', Helsinki, March 8-9, 2016 (pp. 18-19). Helsinki: University of Helsinki
Open this publication in new window or tab >>'Lived democracy' in mathematics classes in diverse Swedish upper secondary school programmes
2016 (English)In: JustEd: 2nd Biennial JustEd Conference: 'Actors for Social Justice in Education' : 8-9 March 2016, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland : Abstracts, Helsinki: University of Helsinki , 2016, p. 18-19Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2016
Keywords
Student participation, teacher response, vocational education, social stratification
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118295 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
2nd Biennial JustEd Conference: 'Actors for Social Justice in Education', Helsinki, March 8-9, 2016
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-03-14 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Hjelmér, C. (2015). Dokumentation för kontinuerlig utveckling. Förskoletidningen, 40(6), 16-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dokumentation för kontinuerlig utveckling
2015 (Swedish)In: Förskoletidningen, ISSN 1402-7135, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 16-19Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Keywords
Pedagogisk dokumentation, systematiskt kvalitetsarbete, förskola
National Category
Social Sciences Educational Sciences Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-113499 (URN)
Available from: 2015-12-20 Created: 2015-12-20 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3910-0319

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