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Hjelmér, C. (2019). Mångfald i förskolan ställer krav på den pedagogiska kompetensen.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mångfald i förskolan ställer krav på den pedagogiska kompetensen
2019 (Swedish)In: Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Andelen nyanlända familjer med barn som börjar i förskolan i Sverige har ökat under senare år. Detta ger många möjligheter, men ställer även stora krav på förskollärare att kunna arbeta utifrån respekt för allas olikhet och lika värde.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2019
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164195 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-16 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2019-11-05Bibliographically approved
Alexiadou, N., Hjelmér, C., Pihlaja, P. & Laiho, A. (2019). Policy change in ECE in Finland and Sweden. In: Early years: making it count: abstract book. Paper presented at EECERA 29th conference "Early Years: Making it Count", 20th August – 23rd August 2019, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (pp. 215-216). European Early Childhood Education Research Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policy change in ECE in Finland and Sweden
2019 (English)In: Early years: making it count: abstract book, European Early Childhood Education Research Association , 2019, p. 215-216Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We analyse policy in Finland and Sweden in the post-1970s. Our research questions are: What are the key policies and goals for ECE, and the governance mechanisms in the sector? What are the policy and pedagogical ideas that define policy and change? Finland and Sweden invest substantially on ECE and developed delivery that is regulated by the state (Alila, 2013; Martin-Korpi, 2014). Expansion policies are underpinned by views on children’s' rights, equality and welfare (Vallberg-Roth, 2012). We examine 216 the changing policy ideas and institutional mechanisms for ECE provision and how these are affected by wider policy reforms. We combine two theoretical perspectives: A historical-policy approach on institutional formation (Mahoney & Thelen, 2010); and an examination of the role of ideas in the policy process (Schmidt, 2008). We view policy as dynamic, but also shaped by history, administrative traditions, and policy ideas that can instigate change of policy direction. We employ historical policy analysis. Our methods consist of documentary analysis and compilation of statistics (Alexander, 2000). Ethical consideration is given to a fair and balanced representation of policy documents and literature to avoid bias. Finland and Sweden have followed a similar trajectory of ECE policies, but with: a time-lag in implementation; a distinct approach to quasi-market provision; a different relation towards EU/OECD frameworks. We find that: surface similarities of policy discourses in different countries may hide differences in pedagogical assumptions about practice; and, an understanding of institutional contexts and values is necessary for the successful implementation of ECE reforms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Early Childhood Education Research Association, 2019
Keywords
policy change, policy analysis, Finland, Sweden, comparative
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164201 (URN)
Conference
EECERA 29th conference "Early Years: Making it Count", 20th August – 23rd August 2019, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Available from: 2019-10-16 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2019-10-25Bibliographically approved
Hjelmér, C. (2018). Demokratifostran i förskolan: För individen eller kollektivet?.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demokratifostran i förskolan: För individen eller kollektivet?
2018 (Swedish)In: , p. 3Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Skolverket, 2018. p. 3
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148103 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-28 Created: 2018-05-28 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Hjelmér, C. (2018). Individual or collective?: Democratic education in Swedish preschools. In: Early childhood education, families and communities: abstract book. Paper presented at EECERA 28th conference, "Early Childhood Education, Families and Communities", Budapest, Hungary, 28th – 31st August 2018 (pp. 75-75). European Early Childhood Education Research Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual or collective?: Democratic education in Swedish preschools
2018 (English)In: Early childhood education, families and communities: abstract book, European Early Childhood Education Research Association , 2018, p. 75-75Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses democratic education in Swedish preschools regarding children´s individual and collective influence. It covers planned activities, as well as unplanned in the daily life in preschool. A special interest is on instruction in situations when the influence has a collective stamp. Previous research show that preschool staff in Nordic countries foremost understand children´s participation in terms of individual choices and self-determination, which implies that instruction about democracy have an individual, rather than collective orientation (Bae 2010; Emilson & Johansson 2018). The analysis draws on Dillabough and Arnot ´s (2000) theories about democracy, whether the emphasis is on collective justice and struggles for equality or the rights of the individual.  Moreover, Bae´s (2012) concepts moments of democracy, and spacious and narrow interactional patterns, are used. An interpretative and critical ethnographic approach was applied, with participant observations to cover democratic processes in daily practice, and interviews with teacher teams and children (Hammersley & Atkinson 2007). A consent form including information about the project and informants rights was provided to all parents and teachers involved. Informed consent was negotiated with the children, and pseudonyms replaced the participants’ names. The invitations for children to exert influence during planned activities had an individual stamp even regarding group activities such as circle time. In the daily preschool life there were moments of democracy also of a collective character, often unconscious for the staff. By showing moments of democracy regarding children’s individual or collective participation, the quality of democratic education may increase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Early Childhood Education Research Association, 2018
Keywords
children's participation, collective influence, individual influence, power relations, democratic education
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164197 (URN)978-615-80226-6-8 (ISBN)
Conference
EECERA 28th conference, "Early Childhood Education, Families and Communities", Budapest, Hungary, 28th – 31st August 2018
Available from: 2019-10-16 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2019-10-24Bibliographically approved
Hjelmér, C. (2017). Barns inflytande i utvärdering och dokumentation i förskolan.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barns inflytande i utvärdering och dokumentation i förskolan
2017 (Swedish)In: Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Skolverket, 2017
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143237 (URN)
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Hjelmér, C. (2017). Democratic fostering for children´s influence in preschool?. In: : . Paper presented at NERA 45th Congress: Learning and education - material conditions and consequences, 23-25 March Copenhagen.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democratic fostering for children´s influence in preschool?
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, as well as in other Nordic countries, preschool is the first important step for many children in their training to be a democratic citizen. The goals in the Swedish curricula are ambitious; girls and boys from different backgrounds shall, for example, have the same possibilities to exercise influence and to learn about, and “to live”, democracy in preschool (Skolverket, 2016). How this should be carried out in the daily activities is left to the pedagogues to decide. The democratic commission in the curricula is sometimes contradictory (e.g. solidarity with others and individual freedom of choice), and research from Nordic countries reports that teachers understand this commission in different ways, and often see it as difficult to implement (Jansen, Johansson & Eriksen Ødegaard 2011). This paper focuses ‘the lived democracy’ in preschools, with a special interest for children´s influence. It covers the processes when teachers invite children to influence, as well as in the children’s own attempts to influence in preschool (how and about what, and the responses of the teachers).

The analysis in this paper is based on Basil Bernstein’s (2000) theories regarding power, control and pedagogic codes, in combination with pertinent feminist perspectives on democratic education (principally those of Arnot & Dillabough (2000), Arnot & Reay (2007) and Gordon (2006)). An ethnographic field study has been carried out during 2015-16, with participant observations in three preschool groups during two months each, eight group interviews with teacher teams, and eleven interviews with children in small groups. The preschools were selected to cover a diversity of local contexts in terms of ethnicity and socio-economic circumstances, from rural areas, and from districts in big cities (with a large number of immigrants, and with a majority of “middle-/upper class”). In the analyses it is central to consider both different groups of children´s attempts to influence, and the teacher’s invitations in the pedagogic practices. The preliminary result focuses, for example, if the processes of influence are individually or collectively oriented, the teachers´ attitudes to, and their expectations on, children’s´ possibilities to act, and what seem to be a legitimate way to exercise influence if wanting to reach the teachers ears.

 

References

Arnot, M & Dillabough, J-A (2000). Challenging democracy: International perspectives on gender, education and citizenship. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Arnot, M & Reay, D (2007). A sociology of pedagogic voice: Power, inequality and pupil consultation. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 28(3), 311-325.

Bernstein, B (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: Theory, research, critique (reviderad upplaga) Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.

Gordon, T (2006). Girls in education: Citizenship, gender and emotions. Gender and Education 18(1), 1-15.

Jansen, K E, Johansson, E & Eriksen Ødegaard (2011). På jakt etter demokratibegrep i barnehagen. Nordisk barnehageforskning, 4(2), 61-64.

Skolverket (2016). Curriculum for the preschool Lpfö 98. Revised 2016. [Läroplan för förskolan Lpfö 98. Reviderad 2016]. Stockholm: Skolverket.

National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132962 (URN)
Conference
NERA 45th Congress: Learning and education - material conditions and consequences, 23-25 March Copenhagen
Available from: 2017-03-27 Created: 2017-03-27 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Hjelmér, C. & Rosvall, P.-Å. (2017). Does social justice count?: 'Lived democracy' in mathematics classes in diverse Swedish upper secondary programmes. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 49(2), 216-234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does social justice count?: 'Lived democracy' in mathematics classes in diverse Swedish upper secondary programmes
2017 (English)In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 216-234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article analyses what students attending four Swedish upper secondary school programmes with different social class profiles tried and wanted to influence in relation to mathematics teachers' pedagogic practice and responses during the year 2008/9. The theoretical framework is based on Bernstein's theories regarding power and control. The analyses draw on ethnographic observations of classes taking the Natural Science and Social Science academic programmes, and the Vehicle and Child & Recreation vocational programmes, at two Swedish upper secondary schools. Students attending different programmes tried to influence the teaching. However, what the students taking the academic and vocational programmes were able to influence considerably differed. Generally the vocational students exerted influence more successfully when they wanted to reduce the pace and difficulty of teaching, than when they wished to get more out of their education, while the opposite applied to the academic, especially Natural Science, students. Thus, the power relations reflected the programmes' social class profiles and the students' expected positions in society, despite policies at the time to promote democracy and reduce social reproduction in education. The findings support the importance of analysing not only students' voices, but also their voices in relation to the pedagogic practice they encounter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Student participation, teacher response, vocational education, social stratification
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114680 (URN)10.1080/00220272.2016.1138326 (DOI)000395626400006 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, Dnr 2006-23855-40762-27.
Available from: 2016-01-25 Created: 2016-01-25 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Hjelmér, C. (2017). Freedom to choose?: Children´s influence in preschools in different local areas. In: : . Paper presented at EECERA 27th Conference "ECE beyond the crisis: social justice, solidarity and children’s rights".
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Freedom to choose?: Children´s influence in preschools in different local areas
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses democratic fostering in different preschools from gender perspectives. It covers the teaching in and about democracy, as well as children’s power-positions and their attempts to affect daily preschool activities. Previous research show how teacher’s expectations on, and attitudes to, different children have impact on children’s way of acting (Eidevald 2011), children´s choices are not neutral, but unspoken influenced by gender norms (Ryan 2005), and gendered power-relationships are not statically realised, but vary depending on contexts (Walkerdine 1990). The analysis is based on Basil Bernstein’s (2000) theories regarding power and control, in combination with gender theories (Arnot 2006; Connell 1987). An interpretative and critical ethnographic approach was applied (Beach 2010), with participant observations to cover democratic processes in daily practice, and interviews with teacher teams and children (Hammersley & Atkinson 2007). Preschools in three districts (rural, immigrant, high-income) were analysed as different pedagogic codes (Bernstein), and with varying masculinities and femininities that children adopt (Connell 1987). A consent form including information about the project and informants rights was provided to all parents and teachers involved. Informed consent was negotiated with the children, and pseudonyms replaced the participants’ names. The results show boys and girls who exert influence in all groups. However, whether their agency were perceived as strong or boundless differed due to local context, as well as if the children´s free play choices were traditionally gendered or not. By showing how power relations interacts in preschools, the quality of democratic education for all children may increase.

National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139491 (URN)
Conference
EECERA 27th Conference "ECE beyond the crisis: social justice, solidarity and children’s rights"
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Hjelmér, C. (2017). Kritik mot standardiserade program för bedömning i förskolan. Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kritik mot standardiserade program för bedömning i förskolan
2017 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

I takt med att allt fler former av dokumentation och bedömning förs in i svenska förskolor, betonas i forskning vikten av att utveckla kunskap om förtjänster, begränsningar och hur förenliga de olika formerna av dokumentation är med intentionerna i läroplanen.

Place, publisher, year, pages
Stockholm: , 2017
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139489 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Rosvall, P.-Å., Hjelmér, C. & Lappalainen, S. (2017). Staying in the comfort zones: low expectations in vocational education and training mathematics teaching in Sweden and Finland. European Educational Research Journal (online), 16(4), 425-439
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Staying in the comfort zones: low expectations in vocational education and training mathematics teaching in Sweden and Finland
2017 (English)In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 425-439Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vocational education has a historical legacy of being low-status and aimed at producing skilled workers. Students with low marks in comprehensive school are still often guided to the vocational educational track. In this article we examine how mathematics teaching in a vocational educational context is framed (henceforth VET). Therefore, our aim with this article is to explore how teacher responses come into play in school mathematics classes, and the teacher–student interactions within those practices. The empirical material is based on educational ethnographic research, i.e. classroom observations and interviews, conducted in three upper secondary institutions, two in Sweden and one in Finland. The results indicate that both teachers and students seem to remain in what might be called their ‘comfort zones’, i.e. that pedagogic practices tend to strengthen the idea of a vocational learner as being practically oriented; using their hands instead of their heads and in need of care and surveillance. The analysis focuses on mathematics teaching rather than on the content and was chosen because it is associated with general qualifications and the notion of lifelong learning. In this respect it exemplifies the growing tension in VET between workplace and academic knowledge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Mathematics education, vocational education, teacher response, educational sociology
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125962 (URN)10.1177/1474904116669154 (DOI)000403653400004 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-09-23 Created: 2016-09-23 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3910-0319

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