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Olsson, Tommy
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Mtintsilana, A., Micklesfield, L. K., Chorell, E., Olsson, T., Shivappa, N., Hebert, J. R., . . . Goedecke, J. H. (2019). Adiposity Mediates the Association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index and Markers of Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Middle-Aged Black South African Women. Nutrients, 11(6), Article ID 1246.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adiposity Mediates the Association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index and Markers of Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Middle-Aged Black South African Women
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2019 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1246Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dietary inflammatory index (DII®), a validated tool used to measure the inflammatory potential of the diet, has been associated with metabolic disorders in various settings, but not in African populations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the DII is associated with markers of type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, and if this association is mediated by adiposity and/or low-grade inflammation, in black South Africa women. Energy-adjusted-DII (E-DII) scores were calculated in 190 women (median age, 53 years) from the Birth-to-Twenty plus cohort using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and inflammatory cytokines were measured, and an oral glucose tolerance test performed. Basic anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived body fat, including estimate of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area, were measured. E-DII scores were associated with all markers of T2D risk, namely, fasting glucose and insulin, HbA1c, HOMA2-IR, two-hour glucose and Matsuda index (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, measures of adiposity, but not inflammatory cytokines, mediated the association between E-DII and markers of T2D risk (p < 0.05). Measures of central obesity had proportionally higher (range: 23.5–100%) mediation effects than total obesity (range: 10–60%). The E-DII is associated with T2D risk through obesity, in particular central obesity, among black middle-aged South African women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
DII, diet-induced inflammation, obesity, VAT, mediation, T2D risk, South African women
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161928 (URN)10.3390/nu11061246 (DOI)000474936700052 ()31159253 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067181094 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-06 Created: 2019-08-06 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Zeng, Y., Mtintsilana, A., Goedecke, J. H., Micklesfield, L. K., Olsson, T. & Chorell, E. (2019). Alterations in the metabolism of phospholipids, bile acids and branched-chain amino acids predicts development of type 2 diabetes in black South African women: a prospective cohort study. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 95, 57-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alterations in the metabolism of phospholipids, bile acids and branched-chain amino acids predicts development of type 2 diabetes in black South African women: a prospective cohort study
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2019 (English)In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0026-0495, E-ISSN 1532-8600, Vol. 95, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: South Africa (SA) has the highest global projected increase in diabetes risk. Factors typically associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes risk in Caucasians are not significant correlates in black African populations. Therefore, we aimed to identify circulating metabolite patterns that predict type 2 diabetes development in this high-risk, yet understudied SA population.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in black SA women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Participants were followed for 13 years and developed (i) type 2 diabetes (n = 20, NGT-T2D), (ii) impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n = 27, NGT-IGT), or (iii) remained NGT (n = 28, NGT-NGT). Mass-spectrometry based metabolomics and multivariate analyses were used to elucidate metabolite patterns at baseline and at follow-up that were associated with type 2 diabetes development.

Results: Metabolites of phospholipid, bile acid and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism, differed significantly between the NGT-T2D and NGT-NGT groups. At baseline: the NGT-T2D group had i) a higher lysophosphatidylcholine:lysophosphatidylethanolamine ratio containing linoleic acid (LPC(C18:2):LPE(C18:2)), ii) lower proliferation-related bile acids (ursodeoxycholic- and chenodeoxycholic acid), iii) higher levels of leucine and its catabolic intermediates (ketoleucine and C5-carnitine), compared to the NGT-NGT group. At follow-up: the NGT-T2D group had i) lower LPC(C18:2) levels, ii) higher apoptosis-related bile acids (deoxycholic- and glycodeoxycholic acid), and iii) higher levels of all BCAAs and their catabolic intermediates.

Conclusions: Changes in lysophospholipid metabolism and the bile acid pool occur during the development of type 2 diabetes in black South African women. Further, impaired leucine catabolism precedes valine and isoleucine catabolism in the development of type 2 diabetes. These metabolite patterns can be useful to identify and monitor type 2 diabetes risk >10 years prior to disease onset and provide insight into the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in this high risk, but under-studied population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Type 2 diabetes, Insulin resistance, Metabolomics, Branched-chain amino acids, Phospholipids, Bile acids
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-160603 (URN)10.1016/j.metabol.2019.04.001 (DOI)000470307800007 ()30954560 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilWellcome trust
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, V., Bergman, F., Öhberg, F., Eskilsson, T., Olsson, T. & Slunga-Järvholm, L. (2019). Effects of a multicomponent physical activity promoting program on sedentary behavior, physical activity and body measures: a longitudinal study in different office types. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Article ID 3808.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a multicomponent physical activity promoting program on sedentary behavior, physical activity and body measures: a longitudinal study in different office types
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2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, article id 3808Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate effects of a multicomponent program promoting physical activity on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and body measures, when relocating from cell offices to either a flex or cell office. Methods The Active Office Design (AOD) study is a longitudinal non-randomized controlled study performed in a municipality in northern Sweden. A subsample of 86 participants were randomly recruited from the AOD study to objectively measure sedentary behavior and physical activity, using ActivPAL and ActiGraph, before and after relocation to the two different office types. The multicomponent program promoting physical activity was performed in both offices. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Results Eighteen months after relocation, the total number of steps per work day increased by 21% in the flex office and 3% in the cell office group, compared to baseline. Moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during work hours increased by 42% in the flex office group and 19% in the cell office group. No changes were seen regarding sitting time at work. Small additive effects for walking and MVPA were seen for both groups during non-work time. Weight increased in the flex office group. Conclusions This long-term study shows that a multicomponent workplace intervention can lead to increased walking time, steps, and MVPA in a flex compared to a cell office. Small additive increases of physical activity were seen during non-work time in both groups. More long-term controlled studies are needed to confirm these results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
the Nordic Association of Occupational Safety and Health (NOROSH), 2019
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157427 (URN)10.5271/sjweh.3808 (DOI)30860269 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-06-24
Stomby, A., Salami, A., Dahlqvist, P., Evang, J. A., Ryberg, M., Bollerslev, J., . . . Ragnarsson, O. (2019). Elevated resting-state connectivity in the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex among patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission. European Journal of Endocrinology, 180(5), 329-338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elevated resting-state connectivity in the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex among patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 180, no 5, p. 329-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Cushing's syndrome is associated with long-term cognitive deficits and affective symptoms such as depression and anxiety. The alterations in brain function under lying these deficits after Cushing's syndrome are unclear and therefore we aimed to explore alterations in resting-state functional connectivity in patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission. Design: Cross-sectional case-control study. Methods: Nineteen women with Cushing's syndrome in remission for a median time of 7 years (IQR: 6-10) and a mean age of 45 years were included at three university clinics. These patients and 38 age-matched female controls underwent brain imaging at a single center. The main outcome measure was functional connectivity at rest, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex networks, exhibited elevated functional connectivity among patients compared to controls. The degree of elevated functional connectivity in the MTL was negatively associated with time in remission. Conclusions: Resting-state functional connectivity within glucocorticoid receptor-rich regions, particularly the MTL and medial prefrontal cortex, was increased in patients. These differences in connectivity may provide a neural basis for the cognitive deficits and affective symptoms commonly experienced by patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bioscientifica, 2019
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159205 (URN)10.1530/EJE-19-0028 (DOI)000466509100003 ()30939453 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Otten, J., Andersson, J., Ståhl, J., Stomby, A., Saleh, A., Waling, M., . . . Olsson, T. (2019). Exercise Training Adds Cardiometabolic Benefits of a Paleolithic Diet in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, 8(2), Article ID e010634.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exercise Training Adds Cardiometabolic Benefits of a Paleolithic Diet in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
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2019 (English)In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 8, no 2, article id e010634Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The accumulation of myocardial triglycerides and remodeling of the left ventricle are common features in type 2 diabetes mellitus and represent potential risk factors for the development of diastolic and systolic dysfunction. A few studies have investigated the separate effects of diet and exercise training on cardiac function, but none have investigated myocardial changes in response to a combined diet and exercise intervention. This 12-week randomized study assessed the effects of a Paleolithic diet, with and without additional supervised exercise training, on cardiac fat, structure, and function.

Methods and Results: Twenty-two overweight and obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized to either a Paleolithic diet and standard-care exercise recommendations ( PD ) or to a Paleolithic diet plus supervised exercise training 3 hours per week ( PD - EX ). This study includes secondary end points related to cardiac structure and function, ie, myocardial triglycerides levels, cardiac morphology, and strain were measured using cardiovascular magnetic resonance, including proton spectroscopy, at baseline and after 12 weeks. Both groups showed major favorable metabolic changes. The PD - EX group showed significant decreases in myocardial triglycerides levels (-45%, P=0.038) and left ventricle mass to end-diastolic volume ratio (-13%, P=0.008) while the left ventricle end-diastolic volume and stroke volume increased significantly (+14%, P=0.004 and +17%, P=0.008, respectively). These variables were unchanged in the PD group.

Conclusions: Exercise training plus a Paleolithic diet reduced myocardial triglycerides levels and improved left ventricle remodeling in overweight/obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 01513798.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
Keywords
cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, diet, exercise, myocardial metabolism, type 2 diabetes mellitus
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157046 (URN)10.1161/JAHA.118.010634 (DOI)000460105800010 ()30652528 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-07 Created: 2019-03-07 Last updated: 2019-03-27Bibliographically approved
Mtintsilana, A., Micklesfield, L. K., Chorell, E., Olsson, T. & Goedecke, J. H. (2019). Fat redistribution and accumulation of visceral adipose tissue predicts type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged black South African women: a 13-year longitudinal study. Nutrition & Diabetes, 9, Article ID 12.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fat redistribution and accumulation of visceral adipose tissue predicts type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged black South African women: a 13-year longitudinal study
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2019 (English)In: Nutrition & Diabetes, ISSN 2044-4052, E-ISSN 2044-4052, Vol. 9, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Cross-sectional studies in South Africa (SA) have shown that black SA women, despite being more insulin resistant, have less visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and more subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than white women. This study aimed to investigate whether baseline and/or change in body fat and its distribution predict type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in middle-aged black SA women, 13 years later. Methods: We studied 142 black SA women who are the caregivers of the Birth-to-Twenty plus cohort, and who had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at baseline. At baseline and follow-up, fasting blood samples, basic anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition were measured. At follow-up, an oral glucose tolerance test was completed. The WHO diabetes diagnostic criteria were used to define NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and T2D. Results: At follow-up, 64% of participants remained NGT, whereas 25% developed IGM, and 11% developed T2D. The IGM and the T2D groups were combined for statistical analyses. At baseline, trunk fat mass (FM), VAT but not SAT (measures of central FM) were higher in the IGM/T2D group than the NGT group (p < 0.0001). In contrast, the IGM/T2D group had lower leg %FM at baseline than the NGT group (p < 0.0001). Baseline trunk FM (Odds ratio per 1 kg increase (95% confidence interval, 1.95 (1.43-2.67))), and VAT (OR per 10 cm(2) increase, 1.25 (1.10-1.42)), and the change in VAT (1.12 (1.03-1.23)) were associated with greater odds of developing IGM/T2D, whereas baseline leg FM (OR per 1 kg increase, 0.55 (0.41-0.73)) were associated with reduced IGM/T2D risk at follow-up (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Relative fat redistribution, with VAT accumulation, predicted the development of IGM/T2D 13 years before its onset. Prevention of central obesity is a key factor to reduce the risk of developing T2D among middle-aged urban black SA women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159077 (URN)10.1038/s41387-019-0079-8 (DOI)000466705600001 ()30918247 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-20 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Ragnarsson, O., Olsson, D. S., Papakokkinou, E., Chantzichristos, D., Dahlqvist, P., Segerstedt, E., . . . Johannsson, G. (2019). Overall and Disease-Specific Mortality in Patients With Cushing Disease: A Swedish Nationwide Study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 104(6), 2375-2384
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overall and Disease-Specific Mortality in Patients With Cushing Disease: A Swedish Nationwide Study
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 104, no 6, p. 2375-2384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Whether patients with Cushing disease (CD) in remission have increased mortality is still debatable.

Objective: To study overall and disease-specific mortality and predictive factors in an unselected nationwide cohort of patients with CD.

Design, Patients, and Methods: A retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CD, identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry between 1987 and 2013. Medical records were systematically reviewed to verify the diagnosis. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% CIs were calculated and Cox regression models were used to identify predictors of mortality.

Results: Of 502 identified patients with CD (n = 387 women; 77%), 419 (83%) were confirmed to be in remission. Mean age at diagnosis was 43 (SD, 16) years and median follow-up was 13 (interquartile range, 6 to 23) years. The observed number of deaths was 133 vs 54 expected, resulting in an overall SMR of 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1 to 2.9). The commonest cause of death was cardiovascular diseases (SMR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.6 to 4.3). Excess mortality was also found associated with infections and suicide. For patients in remission, the SMR was 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.3); bilateral adrenalectomy and glucocorticoid replacement therapy were independently associated with increased mortality, whereas GH replacement was associated with improved outcome.

Conclusion: Findings from this large nationwide study indicate that patients with CD have excess mortality. The findings illustrate the importance of achieving remission and continued active surveillance, along with adequate hormone replacement and evaluation of cardiovascular risk and mental health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2019
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161459 (URN)10.1210/jc.2018-02524 (DOI)000471028400058 ()30715394 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-07-09 Created: 2019-07-09 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Otten, J., Ryberg, M., Mellberg, C., Andersson, T., Chorell, E., Lindahl, B., . . . Olsson, T. (2019). Postprandial levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon after two years of weight loss with a Paleolithic diet: a randomized controlled trial in healthy obese women. European Journal of Endocrinology, 180(6), 417-427
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Postprandial levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon after two years of weight loss with a Paleolithic diet: a randomized controlled trial in healthy obese women
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 180, no 6, p. 417-427Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how weight loss by different diets impacts on postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon.

METHODS: In this single-centre, parallel group 2-year trial, 70 healthy postmenopausal obese women were randomized to the Paleolithic diet or a healthy control diet based on Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Both diets were without calorie restriction. The primary outcome was the change in fat mass. Here, secondary analyses on GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon measured during an OGTT are described.

RESULTS: In the Paleolithic diet group, mean weight loss compared to baseline was 11% at 6 months, and 10% at 24 months. In the control diet group, mean weight loss was 6% after 6 and 24 months (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.049 for the comparison between groups at 6 and 24 months respectively). Compared to baseline, the mean incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for GLP-1 increased by 34% and 45% after 6 and 24 months in the Paleolithic diet group, and increased by 59% after 24 months in the control diet group. The mean iAUC for GIP increased only in the Paleolithic diet group. The AUC for glucagon increased during the first 6 months in both groups. The fasting glucagon increase correlated with the β-hydroxybutyrate increase.

CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss caused an increase in postprandial GLP-1 levels and a further rise occurred during weight maintenance. Postprandial GIP levels increased only after the Paleolithic diet. Reduced postprandial glucagon suppression may be caused by a catabolic state.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bioscientifica, 2019
Keywords
glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucose tolerance test, Paleolithic diet, weight loss
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158775 (URN)10.1530/EJE-19-0082 (DOI)000468743400012 ()31042670 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2006-0699Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2010-0398Swedish Research Council, K2011-12237-15-16Swedish Heart Lung FoundationSwedish Diabetes AssociationVästerbotten County Council
Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Kufe, N. C., Masemola, M., Chikowore, T., Kengne, A. P., Olsson, T., Goedecke, J. H. & Micklesfield, L. K. (2019). Protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of sex hormones and diabetes risk in ageing men and women of African ancestry. BMJ Open, 9(1), Article ID e024446.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of sex hormones and diabetes risk in ageing men and women of African ancestry
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2019 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 1, article id e024446Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To present the protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence examining the association between sex hormones and type 2 diabetes risk in ageing men and women of African descent.

Methods: We shall conduct a comprehensive search of published studies that examined the association between sex hormones and type 2 diabetes risk in men and women aged ≥40 years from 01/01/1980 to 31/03/2018 with no language restriction. Databases to be searched include: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, ISI Web of Science, Clinical Trial registries, Google Scholar and institutional websites such as the WHO, American Diabetes Association, International Diabetes Federation, World Diabetes Foundation, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, African Journal Online and ProQuest databases. This protocol is developed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols guidelines. Independent screening for eligible studies using defined criteria and data extraction, will be completed in duplicate. Discrepancies will be resolved by consensus or consultation with a third researcher. Risk of bias of included studies will be assessed by the appropriate Cochrane risk of bias tool. The overall association estimates will be pooled using appropriate meta-analytic techniques. Heterogeneity will be assessed using Cochrane Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I2). The random effects model will be used to calculate a pooled estimate.

Ethics and dissemination: No ethics clearance is required as no primary data will be collected. The systematic review and meta-analysis are part of a PhD project at WITS University (Johannesburg, South Africa) and results will be presented at conferences and published in a peer-review journal. The results will guide future population specific interventions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161597 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024446 (DOI)000471116800186 ()30610025 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-07-22 Created: 2019-07-22 Last updated: 2019-07-22Bibliographically approved
Ragnarsson, O., Olsson, D. S., Chantzichristos, D., Papakokkinou, E., Dahlqvist, P., Segerstedt, E., . . . Johannsson, G. (2019). The incidence of Cushing's disease: a nationwide Swedish study. Pituitary, 22(2), 179-186
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The incidence of Cushing's disease: a nationwide Swedish study
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2019 (English)In: Pituitary, ISSN 1386-341X, E-ISSN 1573-7403, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 179-186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Studies on the incidence of Cushing’s disease (CD) are few and usually limited by a small number of patients. The aim of this study was to assess the annual incidence in a nationwide cohort of patients with presumed CD in Sweden.

Methods: Patients registered with a diagnostic code for Cushing’s syndrome (CS) or CD, between 1987 and 2013 were identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry. The CD diagnosis was validated by reviewing clinical, biochemical, imaging, and histopathological data.

Results: Of 1317 patients identified, 534 (41%) had confirmed CD. One-hundred-and-fifty-six (12%) patients had other forms of CS, 41 (3%) had probable but unconfirmed CD, and 334 (25%) had diagnoses unrelated to CS. The mean (95% confidence interval) annual incidence between 1987 and 2013 of confirmed CD was 1.6 (1.4–1.8) cases per million. 1987–1995, 1996–2004, and 2005–2013, the mean annual incidence was 1.5 (1.1–1.8), 1.4 (1.0–1.7) and 2.0 (1.7–2.3) cases per million, respectively. During the last time period the incidence was higher than during the first and second time periods (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The incidence of CD in Sweden (1.6 cases per million) is in agreement with most previous reports. A higher incidence between 2005 and 2013 compared to 1987–2004 was noticed. Whether this reflects a truly increased incidence of the disease, or simply an increased awareness, earlier recognition, and earlier diagnosis can, however, not be answered. This study also illustrates the importance of validation of the diagnosis of CD in epidemiological research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Cushing's syndrome, Epidemiology, Incidence, Validation
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157741 (URN)10.1007/s11102-019-00951-1 (DOI)000461291200010 ()30799512 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062015323 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-09 Created: 2019-04-09 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
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