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Dai, J., Huang, M., Amos, C. I., Hung, R. J., Tardon, A., Andrew, A., . . . Shen, H. (2020). Genome-wide association study of INDELs identified four novel susceptibility loci associated with lung cancer risk. International Journal of Cancer, 146(10), 2855-2864
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genome-wide association study of INDELs identified four novel susceptibility loci associated with lung cancer risk
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2020 (English)In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 146, no 10, p. 2855-2864Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 45 susceptibility loci associated with lung ncer. Only less than SNPs, small insertions and deletions (INDELs) are the second most abundant netic polymorphisms in the human genome. INDELs are highly associated with multiple human seases, including lung cancer. However, limited studies with large-scale samples have been available to stematically evaluate the effects of INDELs on lung cancer risk. Here, we performed a large-scale meta- alysis to evaluate INDELs and their risk for lung cancer in 23,202 cases and 19,048 controls. Functional notations were performed to further explore the potential function of lung cancer risk INDELs. nditional analysis was used to clarify the relationship between INDELs and SNPs. Four new risk loci re identified in genome-wide INDEL analysis (1p13.2: rs5777156, Insertion, OR = 0.92, p = 9.10 x 10(- ; 4q28.2: rs58404727, Deletion, OR = 1.19, p = 5.25 x 10(-7); 12p13.31: rs71450133, Deletion, OR = 09, p = 8.83 x 10(-7); and 14q22.3: rs34057993, Deletion, OR = 0.90, p = 7.64 x 10(-8)). The eQTL alysis and functional annotation suggested that INDELs might affect lung cancer susceptibility by gulating the expression of target genes. After conducting conditional analysis on potential causal SNPs, e INDELs in the new loci were still nominally significant. Our findings indicate that INDELs could be tentially functional genetic variants for lung cancer risk. Further functional experiments are needed to tter understand INDEL mechanisms in carcinogenesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
INDELs, lung cancer, genome-wide association studies
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-169781 (URN)10.1002/ijc.32698 (DOI)000521274600020 ()31577861 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-04-29 Created: 2020-04-29 Last updated: 2020-04-29Bibliographically approved
Battram, T., Richmond, R. C., Baglietto, L., Haycock, P. C., Perduca, V., Bojesen, S. E., . . . Relton, C. L. (2019). Appraising the causal relevance of DNA methylation for risk of lung cancer. International Journal of Epidemiology, 48(5), 1493-1504
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Appraising the causal relevance of DNA methylation for risk of lung cancer
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 1493-1504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: DNA methylation changes in peripheral blood have recently been identified in relation to lung cancer risk. Some of these changes have been suggested to mediate part of the effect of smoking on lung cancer. However, limitations with conventional mediation analyses mean that the causal nature of these methylation changes has yet to be fully elucidated.

Methods: We first performed a meta-analysis of four epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of lung cancer (918 cases, 918 controls). Next, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis, using genetic instruments for methylation at CpG sites identified in the EWAS meta-analysis, and 29 863 cases and 55 586 controls from the TRICL-ILCCO lung cancer consortium, to appraise the possible causal role of methylation at these sites on lung cancer.

Results: Sixteen CpG sites were identified from the EWAS meta-analysis [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05], for 14 of which we could identify genetic instruments. Mendelian randomization provided little evidence that DNA methylation in peripheral blood at the 14 CpG sites plays a causal role in lung cancer development (FDR > 0.05), including for cg05575921-AHRR where methylation is strongly associated with both smoke exposure and lung cancer risk.

Conclusions: The results contrast with previous observational and mediation analysis, which have made strong claims regarding the causal role of DNA methylation. Thus, previous suggestions of a mediating role of methylation at sites identified in peripheral blood, such as cg05575921-AHRR, could be unfounded. However, this study does not preclude the possibility that differential DNA methylation at other sites is causally involved in lung cancer development, especially within lung tissue.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2019
Keywords
Lung cancer, DNA methylation, Mendelian randomization, ALSPAC, ARIES
National Category
Medical Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-167007 (URN)10.1093/ije/dyz190 (DOI)000501732200019 ()31549173 (PubMedID)
Funder
Wellcome trust, 203746Wellcome trust, 102215/2/13/2
Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Cornes, M., Ibarz, M., Ivanov, H. & Grankvist, K. (2019). Blood sampling guidelines with focus on patient safety and identification: a review. Diagnosis, 6(1), 33-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blood sampling guidelines with focus on patient safety and identification: a review
2019 (English)In: Diagnosis, ISSN 2194-8011, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 33-37Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It has been well documented over recent years that the preanalytical phase is a leading contributor to errors in the total testing process (TTP). There has however been great progress made in recent years due to the exponential growth of working groups specialising in the field. Patient safety is clearly at the forefront of any healthcare system and any reduction in errors at any stage will improve patient safety. Venous blood collection is a key step in the TTP, and here we review the key errors that occur in venous phlebotomy process and summarise the evidence around their significance to patient safety. Recent studies have identified that patient identification and tube labelling are the steps that carry the highest risk with regard to patient safety. Other studies have shown that in 16.1% of cases, patient identification is incorrectly performed and that 56% of patient identification errors are due to poor labelling practice. We recommend that patient identification must be done using open questions and ideally three separate pieces of information. Labelling of the tube or linking the identity of the patient to the tube label electronically must be done in the presence of the patient whether it is before or after sampling. Combined this will minimise any chance of patient misidentification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2019
Keywords
blood sampling, patient identification, patient safety, phlebotomy, tube labelling
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157200 (URN)10.1515/dx-2018-0042 (DOI)000459392800005 ()30315735 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-04-08 Created: 2019-04-08 Last updated: 2019-04-08Bibliographically approved
Muller, D. C., Larose, T. L., Hodge, A., Guida, F., Langhammer, A., Grankvist, K., . . . Johansson, M. (2019). Circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein concentrations and risk of lung cancer: nested case-control study within Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. BMJ. British Medical Journal, 364, Article ID k4981.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein concentrations and risk of lung cancer: nested case-control study within Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium
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2019 (English)In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 364, article id k4981Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type.

Design Nested case-control study.

Setting 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States.

Participants 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls.

Exposure Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples.

Main outcome measure Incident lung cancer diagnosis.

Results A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up.

Conclusions Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2019
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155763 (URN)10.1136/bmj.k4981 (DOI)000455305100002 ()30606716 (PubMedID)
Funder
NIH (National Institute of Health), 1U01CA155340-01
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2020-04-08Bibliographically approved
Huang, J. Y., Larose, T. L., Luu, H. N., Wang, R., Fanidi, A., Alcala, K., . . . Han, J. (2019). Circulating markers of cellular immune activation in prediagnostic blood sample and lung cancer risk in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). International Journal of Cancer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circulating markers of cellular immune activation in prediagnostic blood sample and lung cancer risk in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3)
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all p(trend) < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
lung cancer, kynurenine, tryptophan, neopterin, quinolinic acid
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161994 (URN)10.1002/ijc.32555 (DOI)000477508300001 ()31276202 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-13 Created: 2019-08-13 Last updated: 2019-08-13
Zhu, Y., Wei, Y., Zhang, R., Dong, X., Shen, S., Zhao, Y., . . . Christiani, D. C. (2019). Elevated Platelet Count Appears to Be Causally Associated with Increased Risk of Lung Cancer: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 28(5), 935-942
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elevated Platelet Count Appears to Be Causally Associated with Increased Risk of Lung Cancer: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis
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2019 (English)In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 935-942Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Platelets are a critical element in coagulation and inflammation, and activated platelets are linked to cancer risk through diverse mechanisms. However, a causal relationship between platelets and risk of lung cancer remains unclear. Methods: We performed single and combined multiple instrumental variable Mendelian randomization analysis by an inverse-weighted method, in addition to a series of sensitivity analyses. Summary data for associations between SNPs and platelet count are from a recent publication that included 48,666 Caucasian Europeans, and the International Lung Cancer Consortium and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung data consisting of 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls to analyze associations between candidate SNPs and lung cancer risk. Results: Multiple instrumental variable analysis incorporating six SNPs showed a 62% increased risk of overall nonsmall cell lung cancer [NSCLC; OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.27; P = 0.005] and a 200% increased risk for small-cell lung cancer (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.27-7.06; P = 0.01). Results showed only a trending association with NSCLC histologic subtypes, which may be due to insufficient sample size and/or weak effect size. A series of sensitivity analysis retained these findings. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a causal relationship between elevated platelet count and increased risk of lung cancer and provide evidence of possible antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention. Impact: These findings provide a better understanding of lung cancer etiology and potential evidence for antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162898 (URN)10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0356 (DOI)000481681500011 ()30700444 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2020-04-07Bibliographically approved
Cadamuro, J., Lippi, G., von Meyer, A., Ibarz, M., van Dongen-Lases, E., Cornes, M., . . . Simundic, A.-M. (2019). European survey on preanalytical sample handling - Part 1: How do European laboratories monitor the preanalytical phase? On behalf of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE). Biochemia Medica, 29(2), Article ID 020704.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>European survey on preanalytical sample handling - Part 1: How do European laboratories monitor the preanalytical phase? On behalf of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE)
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2019 (English)In: Biochemia Medica, ISSN 1330-0962, E-ISSN 1846-7482, Vol. 29, no 2, article id 020704Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Compared to other activities of the testing process, the preanalytical phase is plagued by a lower degree of standardization, which makes it more vulnerable to errors. With the aim of providing guidelines and recommendations, the EFLM WG-PRE issued a survey across European medical laboratories, to gather information on local preanalytical practices. This is part one of two coherent articles, which covers all practices on monitoring preanalytical quality except haemolysis, icterus and lipemia (HIL).

Materials and methods: An online survey, containing 39 questions dealing with a broad spectrum of preanalytical issues, was disseminated to EFLM member countries. The survey included questions on willingness of laboratories to engage in preanalytical issues.

Results: Overall, 1405 valid responses were received from 37 countries. 1265 (94%) responders declared to monitor preanalytical errors. Assessment, documentation and further use of this information varied widely among respondents and partially among countries. Many responders were interested in a preanalytical online platform, holding information on various aspects of the preanalytical phase (N = 1177; 87%), in a guideline for measurement and evaluation of preanalytical variables (N = 1235; 92%), and in preanalytical e-learning programs or webinars (N = 1125; 84%). Fewer responders were interested in, or already participating in, preanalytical EQA programs (N = 951; 71%).

Conclusion: Although substantial heterogeneity was found across European laboratories on preanalytical phase monitoring, the interest in preanalytical issues was high. A large majority of participants indicated an interest in new guidelines regarding preanalytical variables and learning activities. This important data will be used by the WG-PRE for providing recommendations on the most critical issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 2019
Keywords
preanalytics, standardization, survey
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161454 (URN)10.11613/BM.2019.020704 (DOI)000470705100010 ()31223258 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-07-09 Created: 2019-07-09 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Cadamuro, J., Lippi, G., von Meyer, A., Ibarz, M., van Dongen-Lases, E., Cornes, M., . . . Simundic, A.-M. (2019). European survey on preanalytical sample handling - Part 2: Practices of European laboratories on monitoring and processing haemolytic, icteric and lipemic samples. On behalf of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE). Biochemia Medica, 29(2), Article ID 020705.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>European survey on preanalytical sample handling - Part 2: Practices of European laboratories on monitoring and processing haemolytic, icteric and lipemic samples. On behalf of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE)
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2019 (English)In: Biochemia Medica, ISSN 1330-0962, E-ISSN 1846-7482, Vol. 29, no 2, article id 020705Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: No guideline currently exists on how to detect or document haemolysis, icterus or lipemia (HIL) in blood samples, nor on subsequent use of this information. The EFLM WG-PRE has performed a survey for assessing current practices of European laboratories in HIL monitoring. This second part of two coherent articles is focused on HIL.

Materials and methods: An online survey, containing 39 questions on preanalytical issues, was disseminated among EFLM member countries. Seventeen questions exclusively focused on assessment, management and follow-up actions of HIL in routine blood samples.

Results: Overall, 1405 valid responses from 37 countries were received. A total of 1160 (86%) of all responders stating to analyse blood samples - monitored HIL. HIL was mostly checked in clinical chemistry samples and less frequently in those received for coagulation, therapeutic drug monitoring and serology/infectious disease testing. HIL detection by automatic HIL indices or visual inspection, along with haemolysis cut-offs definition, varied widely among responders. A quarter of responders performing automated HIL checks used internal quality controls. In haemolytic/icteric/lipemic samples, most responders (70%) only rejected HIL-sensitive parameters, whilst about 20% released all test results with general comments. Other responders did not analysed but rejected the entire sample, while some released all tests, without comments. Overall, 26% responders who monitored HIL were using this information for monitoring phlebotomy or sample transport quality.

Conclusion: Strategies for monitoring and treating haemolytic, icteric or lipemic samples are quite heterogeneous in Europe. The WG-PRE will use these insights for developing and providing recommendations aimed at harmonizing strategies across Europe.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 2019
Keywords
preanalytics, standardization, survey
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161453 (URN)10.11613/BM.2019.020705 (DOI)000470705100011 ()31223259 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-10 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Li, Y., Xiao, X., Bossé, Y., Gorlova, O., Gorlov, I., Han, Y., . . . Amos, C. I. (2019). Genetic interaction analysis among oncogenesis-related genes revealed novel genes and networks in lung cancer development. OncoTarget, 10(19), 1760-1774
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic interaction analysis among oncogenesis-related genes revealed novel genes and networks in lung cancer development
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2019 (English)In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 10, no 19, p. 1760-1774Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development of cancer is driven by the accumulation of many oncogenesis-related genetic alterations and tumorigenesis is triggered by complex networks of involved genes rather than independent actions. To explore the epistasis existing among oncogenesis-related genes in lung cancer development, we conducted pairwise genetic interaction analyses among 35,031 SNPs from 2027 oncogenesis-related genes. The genotypes from three independent genome-wide association studies including a total of 24,037 lung cancer patients and 20,401 healthy controls with Caucasian ancestry were analyzed in the study. Using a two-stage study design including discovery and replication studies, and stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical analysis, we identified significant genetic interactions between SNPs in RGL1:RAD51B (OR=0.44, p value=3.27x10-11 in overall lung cancer and OR=0.41, p value=9.71x10-11 in non-small cell lung cancer), SYNE1:RNF43 (OR=0.73, p value=1.01x10-12 in adenocarcinoma) and FHIT:TSPAN8 (OR=1.82, p value=7.62x10-11 in squamous cell carcinoma) in our analysis. None of these genes have been identified from previous main effect association studies in lung cancer. Further eQTL gene expression analysis in lung tissues provided information supporting the functional role of the identified epistasis in lung tumorigenesis. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed potential pathways and gene networks underlying molecular mechanisms in overall lung cancer as well as histology subtypes development. Our results provide evidence that genetic interactions between oncogenesis-related genes play an important role in lung tumorigenesis and epistasis analysis, combined with functional annotation, provides a valuable tool for uncovering functional novel susceptibility genes that contribute to lung cancer development by interacting with other modifier genes.

Keywords
epistasis, functional annotation, lung cancer, oncogenesis
National Category
Medical Genetics Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-170950 (URN)10.18632/oncotarget.26678 (DOI)30956756 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-05-19 Created: 2020-05-19 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
Ward, H. A., Whitman, J., Muller, D. C., Johansson, M., Jakszyn, P., Weiderpass, E., . . . Cross, A. J. (2019). Haem iron intake and risk of lung cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73(8), 1122-1132
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Haem iron intake and risk of lung cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 73, no 8, p. 1122-1132Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that haem iron, which is found predominantly in red meat and increases endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, may be positively associated with lung cancer. The objective was to examine the relationship between haem iron intake and lung cancer risk using detailed smoking history data and serum cotinine to control for potential confounding.  

Methods: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 416,746 individuals from 10 countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident lung cancer (n = 3731) risk relative to haem iron, non-haem iron, and total dietary iron intake. A corresponding analysis was conducted among a nested subset of 800 lung cancer cases and 1489 matched controls for whom serum cotinine was available.

Results: Haem iron was associated with lung cancer risk, including after adjustment for details of smoking history (time since quitting, number of cigarettes per day): as a continuous variable (HR per 0.3 mg/1000 kcal 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.07), and in the highest versus lowest quintile (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.32; trend across quintiles: P = 0.035). In contrast, non-haem iron intake was related inversely with lung cancer risk; however, this association attenuated after adjustment for smoking history. Additional adjustment for serum cotinine did not considerably alter the associations detected in the nested case-control subset.

Conclusions: Greater haem iron intake may be modestly associated with lung cancer risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162675 (URN)10.1038/s41430-018-0271-2 (DOI)000479120900006 ()30337714 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4289-2097

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