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Hjerm, M., Eger, M. A., Bohman, A. & Fors Connolly, F. (2019). A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference. Social Indicators Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference
2019 (English)In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Previous empirical research on tolerance suffers from a number of shortcomings, the most serious being the conceptual and operational conflation of (in)tolerance and prejudice. We design research to remedy this. First, we contribute to the literature by advancing research that distinguishes analytically between the two phenomena. We conceptualize tolerance as a value orientation towards difference. This definition—which is abstract and does not capture attitudes towards specific out-groups, ideas, or behaviors—allows for the analysis of tolerance within and between societies. Second, we improve the measurement of tolerance by developing survey items that are consistent with this conceptualization. We administer two surveys, one national (Sweden) and one cross-national (Australia, Denmark, Great Britain, Sweden, and the United States). Results from structural equation models show that tolerance is best understood as a three-dimensional concept, which includes acceptance of, respect for, and appreciation of difference. Analyses show that measures of tolerance have metric invariance across countries, and additional tests demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. We also assess tolerance’s relationship to prejudice and find that only an appreciation of difference has the potential to reduce prejudice. We conclude that it is not only possible to measure tolerance in a way that is distinct from prejudice but also necessary if we are to understand the causes and consequences of tolerance.

Keywords
tolerance, prejudice, SEM, survey
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162606 (URN)10.1007/s11205-019-02176-y (DOI)
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2019-10-09
Fors Connolly, F., Goossen, M. & Hjerm, M. (2019). Does Gender Equality Cause Gender Differences in Values?: Reassessing the Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox. Sex Roles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does Gender Equality Cause Gender Differences in Values?: Reassessing the Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox
2019 (English)In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

The Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox (GEPP) is the finding that gender differences in personality are at their largest in the most gender equal countries. Previous known studies have not examined this relationship over time. Examining this linkage is crucial to our understanding of gender differences and personality development. In the present study, we contrast evolutionary perspectives predicting a gender divergence in personality due to progression in gender equality against biosocial perspectives predicting convergence. Using data from all eight rounds of the European Social Survey (n = 235,339) across 32 European countries, we report three findings. First, in accordance with the evolutionary perspective, country-level gender equality is positively associated with gender differences in basic human values. Second, in accordance with the biosocial perspective, we find evidence supporting gender convergence in basic human values. Third, contradicting both evolutionary and biosocial assumptions, we find no evidence that gender equality causes gender differences in values. We argue that there is a need to explore alternative explanations to the observed cross-sectional association between gender equality and personality differences, as well as gender convergence in personality over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Gender Studies
Research subject
Sociology; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163865 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-10-10
Bohman, A., Hjerm, M. & Eger, M. A. (2019). Politics and prejudice: How political discussion with peers is related to attitudes about immigrants during adolescence. Frontiers in Sociology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Politics and prejudice: How political discussion with peers is related to attitudes about immigrants during adolescence
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Research on prejudice has shown that with whom we surround ourselves matters for intergroup attitudes, but these studies have paid little attention to the content of those interactions. Studies on political socialization and deliberation have focused on the content of interaction by examining the transmission of norms as well as the direct consequences of political discussion on attitudes and behavior. However, this literature has not focused on prejudice as a potential consequence. In this study, we combine these approaches to examine if political discussions with peers during adolescence matter for prejudice. We rely on five waves of a Swedish panel of adolescents, ages 13-22. Results show an association between political discussion and prejudice over time, and that this relationship increases as adolescents grow older. Results also demonstrate that the effect of political discussions depends on the level of prejudice in one’s peer network. Discussion with low prejudice friends is associated with lower levels of prejudice over time, while political discussion with high prejudice peers is not significantly related to attitudes.

Keywords
prejudice, longitudinal, anti-immigrant, adolescent, discussion, political
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163463 (URN)10.3389/fsoc.2019.00070 (DOI)
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P16-0446:1Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2019-09-24
Miklikowska, M., Thijs, J. & Hjerm, M. (2019). The Impact of Perceived Teacher Support on Anti-Immigrant Attitudes from Early to Late Adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(6), 1175-1189
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of Perceived Teacher Support on Anti-Immigrant Attitudes from Early to Late Adolescence
2019 (English)In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 1175-1189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although research has shown that school context has consequences for intergroup attitudes, few studies have examined the role of teacher qualities, such as teacher support. In addition, previous research has paid limited attention to the mechanisms that could help to explain teacher effects. This 5-wave study (2010–2015) examined the effects of perceived teacher support on the anti-immigrant attitudes of Swedish majority youth (N = 671, Mage = 13.41, 50.2% girls, 34 classrooms). It also tested whether social trust would mediate these effects. The results of multilevel analyses showed that perceived teacher support was associated with less prejudice at all levels of analysis. At the within-person level, fluctuations in teacher support were related to fluctuations in youth prejudice: in years when, on average, adolescents perceived their teachers as more supportive, they reported lower prejudice. At the between-person level, adolescents who perceived their teachers as more supportive compared to their peers reported lower prejudice. Similarly, classrooms where students shared an experience of teacher support were lower in prejudice than classrooms with weaker teacher support. The results also showed that social trust explained teacher effects: adolescents who experienced their teachers as more supportive displayed higher levels of trust and, in turn, lower levels of prejudice than youth with less supportive teachers. These findings suggest that teachers can counteract the development of prejudice and facilitate social trust in adolescents by being supportive of them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Anti-immigrant attitudes, Teacher support, Social trust, School context, Adolescence, Attachment
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159846 (URN)10.1007/s10964-019-00990-8 (DOI)000468355700010 ()30847638 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-04165Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Eger, M. A. & Hjerm, M. (2019). The Sweden Democrats remain deeply unpopular despite making gains. In: William Allchorn (Ed.), Tracking the rise of the radical right globally: CARR Yearbook 2018/2019 (pp. 135-138). Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Sweden Democrats remain deeply unpopular despite making gains
2019 (English)In: Tracking the rise of the radical right globally: CARR Yearbook 2018/2019 / [ed] William Allchorn, Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2019, p. 135-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2019
National Category
Sociology Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159202 (URN)978-3-8382-1326-2 (ISBN)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Hjerm, M., Johansson Sevä, I. & Werner, L. (2018). How critical thinking, multicultural education and teacher qualification affect anti-immigrant attitudes. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 27(1), 42-59
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How critical thinking, multicultural education and teacher qualification affect anti-immigrant attitudes
2018 (English)In: International Studies in Sociology of Education, ISSN 0962-0214, E-ISSN 1747-5066, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 42-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous studies identify a relationship between education and anti-immigrant attitudes. There is, however, uncertainty regarding the underlying explanations linking education to attitudes. In this article, we examine whether a relationship exists between exposure to teaching about critical thinking as well as multiculturalism (measured as religions/cultures as well as xenophobia/racism), and anti-immigrant attitudes among adolescents. In addition, we examine whether teacher qualification matters for attitudes. The analysis is based on survey data collected from high school students in Sweden. The results show an association between exposure to teaching about critical thinking as well as multiculturalism (both indicators) and anti-immigrant attitudes among students, i.e. higher exposure is related to lower levels of anti-immigrant attitudes. However, we find that teaching about xenophobia/racism affects attitudes, but not when simultaneously controlling for teaching about critical thinking and religions/cultures. In terms of teacher qualification, we find that students in schools with a high proportion of certified teachers tend to have lower levels of anti-immigrant attitudes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
anti-immigrant attitudes, education, critical thinking, multicultural education, teacher qualification, Sweden
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145047 (URN)10.1080/09620214.2018.1425895 (DOI)000428517200004 ()
Available from: 2018-02-19 Created: 2018-02-19 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Hjerm, M., Eger, M. A. & Danell, R. (2018). Peer Attitudes and the Development of Prejudice in Adolescence. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, 4, 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peer Attitudes and the Development of Prejudice in Adolescence
2018 (English)In: Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, ISSN 2378-0231, Vol. 4, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

According to a number of psychological and sociological theories, individuals are susceptible to social influence from their immediate social environment, especially during adolescence. An important social context is the network of one’s peers. However, data limitations, specifically a lack of longitudinal data with information about respondents’ social networks, have limited previous analyses of the relationship between peers and prejudice over time. In this article, we rely on a five-wave panel of adolescents, aged either 13 or 16 in wave 1 (N = 1,009). We examine the effects of this social context on prejudice by focusing on nominated friends’ attitudes, attitudes of prestigious peers, and respondents’ own positions in their networks. Results indicate that the level of prejudice among peers affects individual prejudice over time. Results also show that both prestigious and nonprestigious peers affect prejudice. Finally, adolescents’ own positions in their networks matter: Network centrality is inversely related to prejudice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
prejudice, adolescence, longitudinal, anti-immigrant sentiment, peers
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144665 (URN)10.1177/2378023118763187 (DOI)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Eger, M. A. & Hjerm, M. (2018). Two sides of the same coin?: The rise of neo-nationalism and civic integrationism in multi-ethnic Europe. In: Nina G. Jablonski, Gerhard Maré (Ed.), The effects of race: (pp. 151-167). Stellenbosch: AFRICAN SUN MeDIA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two sides of the same coin?: The rise of neo-nationalism and civic integrationism in multi-ethnic Europe
2018 (English)In: The effects of race / [ed] Nina G. Jablonski, Gerhard Maré, Stellenbosch: AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, 2018, p. 151-167Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stellenbosch: AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, 2018
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152843 (URN)10.18820/9781928357858 (DOI)9781928357858 (ISBN)9781928357841 (ISBN)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019
Note

The STIAS research theme on Being Human Today explores the interrelated questions: What does it mean to be human? And: What is the nature of the world in which we aspire to be human? In the context of post-apartheid South Africa race and racism remain key references in both these questions. Why is this so, considering that the biological basis of race thinking has been refuted? Templates of race and racialism remain at the core of state policy in South Africa, periodic gross incidents of racism surface in public, and notions of the existence of races remain central to everyday thinking and discourse. This book is the result of the work of a group of leading thinkers and their in-depth conversations at STIAS during the winter of 2015 on the effects of race. Convened by evolutionary anthropologist Nina Jablonski and sociologist Gerhard Maré, the group included Njabulo Ndebele, Chabani Manganyi, Barney Pityana, Crain Soudien, Göran Therborn, Mikael Hjerm, Zimitri Erasmus and George Chaplin. The group reconvened annually through 2017. This is the first in a series of planned publications on the their work.

Available from: 2018-10-27 Created: 2018-10-27 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Sandelind, C., Hjerm, M. & Rehnwall, A. (2017). Sweden: the immigration country in the North. In: Sophia Gaston (Ed.), Nothing to fear but fear itself: (pp. 375-422). London: Demos. Centre for Democracy and Human Rights Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sweden: the immigration country in the North
2017 (English)In: Nothing to fear but fear itself / [ed] Sophia Gaston, London: Demos. Centre for Democracy and Human Rights Studies, 2017, p. 375-422Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Swedish migration and asylum politics 2015 and 2016 were turbulent years, with a rapid move from mass demonstrations welcoming refugees, including speeches by the prime minister, to the largest asylum seeker inflow in history, to border closure. Support for the Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna), an anti-immigration party, has fluctuated since 2015, as asylum policies have moved towards their position. Yet it has been constantly above the party's 2014 general election result, which was an all-time high. Public debate also appears to have taken a nationalist turn. Previous research shows that exclusive forms of national identity are strong explanatory factors of attitudes to immigration. In this study we are interested in whether narratives on national identity in Sweden have been exclusionary during this turbulent time.

We begin with a short historic overview of Sweden as an immigration country, giving key statistics and useful background knowledge about recent changes in party politics and policies. In order to investigate recent narratives on national identity and how they relate to public opinion, we then undertake a mixed method design, where we combine a qualitative analysis of speeches by political party leaders with a quantitative analysis of new public opinion survey data. The combination of methods enables us to examine the elite discourses on national identity by political party, and public understanding of national identity by party preferences, and the consequences of such understanding. The chapter ends with a short summary of our findings. Themes to be explored in this case study are party politics, policy, narrative, rhetoric and identity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Demos. Centre for Democracy and Human Rights Studies, 2017
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163301 (URN)9781911192077 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-09-12 Created: 2019-09-12 Last updated: 2019-09-16Bibliographically approved
Gärling, T., Gamble, A., Fors, F. & Hjerm, M. (2016). Emotional Well-Being Related to Time Pressure, Impediment to Goal Progress, and Stress-Related Symptoms. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(5), 1789-1799
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional Well-Being Related to Time Pressure, Impediment to Goal Progress, and Stress-Related Symptoms
2016 (English)In: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 1789-1799Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose that emotional well-being in everyday life is partially related to the balance of positive and negative affect associated with everyday routine activities. Factors that interfere with positive affect associated with such activities would therefore have negative impacts on emotional well-being. Supporting that time pressure is one such factor, we find in Study 1 for a representative sample of Swedish employees (n = 1507) answering a survey questionnaire that emotional well-being has a negative relationship to time pressure. In Study 2 we test the hypothesis that the negative effect of time pressure on emotional well-being is jointly mediated by impediment to goal progress and time stress. In another survey questionnaire a sample of Swedish employees (n = 240) answered retrospective questions about emotional well-being at work and off work, experienced impediment to goal progress, experienced time pressure, and stress-related symptoms. Statistical mediation analyses supported the proposed hypothesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keywords
Emotional well-being, Time pressure, Time stress, Goal progress
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Sociology
Research subject
Psychology; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106990 (URN)10.1007/s10902-015-9670-4 (DOI)000386374400002 ()
Available from: 2015-08-13 Created: 2015-08-13 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Projects
Commitment to the Nation: Collective National Identity and the Welfare State [2008-01314_VR]; Umeå UniversityEuropean Social survey 5 (ESS 5) [2009-06074_VR]; Umeå UniversityEuropean Social Survey round 5 (ESS 5) [In09-0483:1-E_RJ]; Umeå UniversityEuropean Social Survey, Round 6 and 7 and he beginning of round 8. Application for Swedish participation in ESS as an ERIC [2011-05706_VR]; Umeå UniversityAnti-immigrant attitudes in a changing Europe. [P14-0775:1_RJ]; Umeå University; Publications
Hjerm, M., Eger, M. A., Bohman, A. & Fors Connolly, F. (2019). A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference. Social Indicators ResearchEger, M. A. & Valdez, S. (2019). From radical right to neo-nationalist. European Political Science, 18(3), 379-399Werner, L. (2019). It's who you know and what you know: exploring the relationship between education and prejudice in adolescence. (Licentiate dissertation). Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitetBohman, A., Hjerm, M. & Eger, M. A. (2019). Politics and prejudice: How political discussion with peers is related to attitudes about immigrants during adolescence. Frontiers in SociologyMitchell, J. (2019). Prejudice in the classroom: A longitudinal analysis of anti-immigrant attitudes. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 42(9), 1514-1533Eger, M. A. (2019). The return of nationalism and the rise of the radical right. In: William Allchorn (Ed.), Tracking the rise of the radical right globally: CARR yearbook 2018/2019 (pp. 41-44). Stuttgart: Ibidem-VerlagEger, M. A. & Valdez, S. (2019). The rise of neo-nationalism. In: Pieter Bevelander & Ruth Wodak (Ed.), Europe at the crossroads: confronting populist, nationalist, and global challenges (pp. 113-134). Nordic Academic PressEger, M. A. & Hjerm, M. (2019). The Sweden Democrats remain deeply unpopular despite making gains. In: William Allchorn (Ed.), Tracking the rise of the radical right globally: CARR Yearbook 2018/2019 (pp. 135-138). Stuttgart: Ibidem-VerlagHjerm, M., Eger, M. A. & Danell, R. (2018). Peer Attitudes and the Development of Prejudice in Adolescence. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, 4, 1-11Eger, M. A. & Hjerm, M. (2018). Two sides of the same coin?: The rise of neo-nationalism and civic integrationism in multi-ethnic Europe. In: Nina G. Jablonski, Gerhard Maré (Ed.), The effects of race: (pp. 151-167). Stellenbosch: AFRICAN SUN MeDIA
Konsolidering av SWEEP-Swedish Survey Program [2015-06004_VR]; Umeå UniversityThe Evolution of Prejudice [2016-07177_Forte]; Umeå University; Publications
Hjerm, M., Eger, M. A., Bohman, A. & Fors Connolly, F. (2019). A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference. Social Indicators ResearchEger, M. A. & Valdez, S. (2019). From radical right to neo-nationalist. European Political Science, 18(3), 379-399Bohman, A., Hjerm, M. & Eger, M. A. (2019). Politics and prejudice: How political discussion with peers is related to attitudes about immigrants during adolescence. Frontiers in SociologyEger, M. A., Larsen, C. A. & Mewes, J. (2019). Welfare nationalism before and after the “migration crisis". In: Tijs Laenen, Bart Meuleman, and Wim van Oorschot (Ed.), Welfare State Legitimacy in Times of Crisis and Austerity: Between Change and Continuity: . Edward Elgar Publishing
SWEEP: Swedish Survey Program [2017-00667_VR]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4203-5394

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