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Hjerm, M., Eger, M. A., Bohman, A. & Fors Connolly, F. (2019). A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference. Social Indicators Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference
2019 (English)In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Previous empirical research on tolerance suffers from a number of shortcomings, the most serious being the conceptual and operational conflation of (in)tolerance and prejudice. We design research to remedy this. First, we contribute to the literature by advancing research that distinguishes analytically between the two phenomena. We conceptualize tolerance as a value orientation towards difference. This definition—which is abstract and does not capture attitudes towards specific out-groups, ideas, or behaviors—allows for the analysis of tolerance within and between societies. Second, we improve the measurement of tolerance by developing survey items that are consistent with this conceptualization. We administer two surveys, one national (Sweden) and one cross-national (Australia, Denmark, Great Britain, Sweden, and the United States). Results from structural equation models show that tolerance is best understood as a three-dimensional concept, which includes acceptance of, respect for, and appreciation of difference. Analyses show that measures of tolerance have metric invariance across countries, and additional tests demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. We also assess tolerance’s relationship to prejudice and find that only an appreciation of difference has the potential to reduce prejudice. We conclude that it is not only possible to measure tolerance in a way that is distinct from prejudice but also necessary if we are to understand the causes and consequences of tolerance.

Keywords
tolerance, prejudice, SEM, survey
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162606 (URN)10.1007/s11205-019-02176-y (DOI)
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2019-10-09
Bohman, A., Hjerm, M. & Eger, M. A. (2019). Politics and prejudice: How political discussion with peers is related to attitudes about immigrants during adolescence. Frontiers in Sociology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Politics and prejudice: How political discussion with peers is related to attitudes about immigrants during adolescence
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Research on prejudice has shown that with whom we surround ourselves matters for intergroup attitudes, but these studies have paid little attention to the content of those interactions. Studies on political socialization and deliberation have focused on the content of interaction by examining the transmission of norms as well as the direct consequences of political discussion on attitudes and behavior. However, this literature has not focused on prejudice as a potential consequence. In this study, we combine these approaches to examine if political discussions with peers during adolescence matter for prejudice. We rely on five waves of a Swedish panel of adolescents, ages 13-22. Results show an association between political discussion and prejudice over time, and that this relationship increases as adolescents grow older. Results also demonstrate that the effect of political discussions depends on the level of prejudice in one’s peer network. Discussion with low prejudice friends is associated with lower levels of prejudice over time, while political discussion with high prejudice peers is not significantly related to attitudes.

Keywords
prejudice, longitudinal, anti-immigrant, adolescent, discussion, political
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163463 (URN)10.3389/fsoc.2019.00070 (DOI)
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P16-0446:1Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2019-09-24
Bohman, A. (2018). Who's Welcome and Who's Not?: Opposition towards Immigration in the Nordic Countries, 2002–2014. Scandinavian Political Studies, 41(3), 283-306
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who's Welcome and Who's Not?: Opposition towards Immigration in the Nordic Countries, 2002–2014
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 283-306Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article demonstrates the analytical advantages of studying not only the degree to which people oppose immigration in a country, but also the character of their opposition. Using Latent Class Analysis and data from the European Social Survey, Nordic patterns and trends are examined with the aim of identifying different kinds of immigration attitudes and how they develop in different national contexts. The Nordic countries are interesting to compare as, while they are similar in many respects, they also diverge significantly from each other in areas theoretically considered important to the formation of attitudes towards immigration. Studying the character of immigration opposition reveals five different types of immigration attitudes. These are differently distributed between the Nordic countries as well as over time, and include nativist opposition (opposition only towards immigrants of ethnic/racial groups other than that of the majority population) and economic opposition (opposition that entails a separation between immigrants considered to be an economic resource and an economic burden). By demonstrating how immigration opposition in the Nordic countries varies not only in degree but also in character, the article contributes to a deeper understanding of the nature of immigration opposition as well as of how different attitudinal profiles evolve under different contextual circumstances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151760 (URN)10.1111/1467-9477.12120 (DOI)000442852900003 ()
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, Marianne och Marcus Wallenbergs stiftelse. MMW 2014, 0019Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P16-0446:1
Available from: 2018-09-13 Created: 2018-09-13 Last updated: 2018-10-05Bibliographically approved
Bohman, A. & Hjerm, M. (2016). In the wake of radical right electoral success: a cross-country comparative study of anti-immigration attitudes over time. Journal of ethnic and migration studies, 11(42), 1729-1747
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In the wake of radical right electoral success: a cross-country comparative study of anti-immigration attitudes over time
2016 (English)In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 11, no 42, p. 1729-1747Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper tests the theoretically assumed relationship between the parliamentary presence of radical right parties (RRPs) and anti-immigration attitudes over time. Data come from six rounds of the European Social Survey between 2002 and 2012. Using multi-level models with applications for repeated cross-sectional data, the study examines the implications of changes tied to the political advancements of the radical right with a focus on three possible scenarios: people's attitudes about immigration have generally become more negative, opposition towards immigration has become more dependent on immigrants' ethnicity, and attitudes towards immigration have become more polarised. Contrary to expectations, it is found that neither the presence, the representational strength, nor the nationalistic framing of an RRP affect opposition towards immigration over time. Thus, the conclusion is that the RRPs, so far, have not driven anti-immigration attitudes in Europe. Possible explanations for these results are discussed in the concluding section.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keywords
RRP, immigration, prejudice, political representation, over time
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125885 (URN)10.1080/1369183X.2015.1131607 (DOI)000382756500001 ()
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, MMW 2014.00019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775
Available from: 2016-09-21 Created: 2016-09-21 Last updated: 2019-10-03Bibliographically approved
Eger, M. A. & Bohman, A. (2016). The political consequences of contemporary immigration. Sociology Compass, 10(10), 877-892
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The political consequences of contemporary immigration
2016 (English)In: Sociology Compass, ISSN 1751-9020, E-ISSN 1751-9020, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 877-892Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article synthesizes research on political outcomes associated with increasing immigration, with an emphasis on cross-national studies of European countries, where immigration is a relatively newer phenomenon compared to the United States and other traditional immigrant destinations. We begin with explanations of and research on anti-immigrant sentiment, not a political phenomenon in itself but considered an important precursor to other relevant political attitudes. Next, we review scholarship on the relationship between immigration and support for the welfare state, as well as exclusionary attitudes regarding immigrants’ rights to welfare benefits. Then, we review research on immigration and political party preferences, in particular radical right parties, whose platforms often combine anti-immigration and welfare chauvinistic positions. We conclude by discussing how these processes may ultimately shape social policies, which may in turn influence immigration itself.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keywords
Immigration attitudes, welfare attitudes, radical right, politics, Europe
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124093 (URN)10.1111/soc4.12409 (DOI)000385711500004 ()
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019
Available from: 2016-07-15 Created: 2016-07-15 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Hjerm, M. & Bohman, A. (2016). Välkommen hit?: attityder till invandring i Europa under 2000-talet. In: Filip Fors och Jenny Olofsson (Ed.), Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse (pp. 11-28). Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Välkommen hit?: attityder till invandring i Europa under 2000-talet
2016 (Swedish)In: Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse / [ed] Filip Fors och Jenny Olofsson, Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2016, p. 11-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, 2016
Keywords
immigration, Europa, attityder, främlingsfientlighet
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125886 (URN)978-91-7601-429-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-09-21 Created: 2016-09-21 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Bohman, A. (2015). It’s who you know: political influence on anti-immigrant attitudes and the moderating role of intergroup contact. Sociological research online, 20(3), Article ID 6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>It’s who you know: political influence on anti-immigrant attitudes and the moderating role of intergroup contact
2015 (English)In: Sociological research online, ISSN 1360-7804, E-ISSN 1360-7804, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines whether political frames influence anti-immigrant attitudes among native populations in 21 European countries, and if this relationship is somehow moderated by personal experiences of intergroup contact. Using data from the Comparative Manifesto Project and European Social Survey, two indicators of intergroup contact are tested: immigrant friends and immigrant colleagues, to see whether they can counter the effectof nationalistic political framing. The analysis reveals a positive relationship between nationalistic frames and anti-immigrant attitudes that is moderated by experiences of intergroup contact. In this sense, extensive contact with immigrants seems to inoculate individuals against political influences. The results contribute to a better understanding of both the role of political contexts and of the consequences of intergroup contact.

Keywords
intergroup contact, political frames, prejudice, xenophobia, multi-level analysis
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-88215 (URN)10.5153/sro.3622 (DOI)000369745900010 ()
Note

Originally published in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2014-04-28 Created: 2014-04-28 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Bohman, A. (2014). Anti-immigrant attitudes in context: The role of rhetoric, religion and political representation. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anti-immigrant attitudes in context: The role of rhetoric, religion and political representation
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background. This thesis directs attention to how attitudes towards immigrants evolve under different contextual circumstances. Unlike previous research that primarily focuses on contextual factors related to the availability of material resources, the included studies explore the influence of less tangible aspects of our surroundings, brought together under the term immaterial contexts. Three kinds of immaterial contexts are in focus: political representatives’ use of nationalistic rhetoric, the parliamentary presence of the extreme right, and the religious context. The studies examine the direct effects of these contexts, but also how individuals’ beliefs, loyalties, and experiences interact with the contextual factors to shape peoples’ attitudes.

Methods. The thesis takes a comparative approach where countries serve as the main contextual unit. Data on attitudes and other individual features are gathered from the European Social Survey 2002-2012. To be able to analyze these data in the same model as used for country-level data, the thesis applies multi-level models.

Results. The findings support a theoretical expectation that immaterial contexts influence anti-immigrant attitudes. How people perceive immigrants and immigration can be traced to political and religious aspects of their surroundings. Also, it is found that individuals are not passive recipients of contextual influences as their reactions depend on their preferences and experiences. While political representatives influence anti-immigrant attitudes, these effects are strongly conditional both on features of the representatives themselves, and on characteristics and experiences of individuals. For example, individuals respond to political rhetoric by traditional political parties but are not influenced by the same kind of message if conveyed by a party belonging to the extreme right.

Conclusion. The thesis is an attempt to widen the very notion of contexts in empirical research, and as such, it is a contribution to the literature on anti-immigrant attitudes. It shows that anti-immigrant attitudes depend not only on material circumstances, but also on immaterial circumstances tied to the political and religious arena. Further, the thesis demonstrates how combining the theoretical perspectives of group threat theory and framing theory implies greater possibilities to conceive of the link between contexts and attitudes, as well as improved theoretical tools to understand when and why such effects do not occur. It signals that research on immaterial contexts is necessary to further advance the comparative scholarship on anti-immigrant attitudes and reach a deeper understanding of how such attitudes emerge and evolve.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2014. p. 35
Series
Akademiska avhandlingar vid Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, ISSN 1104-2508 ; 73
Keywords
Anti-immigrant attitudes, immaterial contexts, political framing, political parties, religious context, Europe.
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-88221 (URN)978-91-7601-052-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-05-23, Norra Beteendevetarhuset, Hörsal 1031 Nbvh, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-04-30 Created: 2014-04-28 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Bohman, A. & Hjerm, M. (2014). How the religious context affects the relationship between religiosity and attitudes towards immigration. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(6), 937-957
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How the religious context affects the relationship between religiosity and attitudes towards immigration
2014 (English)In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 937-957Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article approaches two shortcomings in previous research on religiosity and prejudice: (1) the lack of cross-country comparative studies; and (2) a failure to consider any moderating effects of religious contexts. We examine whether the relationship between religiosity and anti-immigration attitudes varies depending on religious contexts in Europe, and we find two things. First, strongly religious people are on average less likely to oppose immigration than non-religious people. Second, different religious contexts moderate the religiosity–attitude relationship in that religious people in Protestant countries and in countries with a low proportion of majority adherents are more tolerant than religious people in Catholic countries and in religiously homogenous countries. State policies also matter in that religious people are more negative where the government favours the majority religion. This calls into question the taken-for-granted understanding of religiosity and out-group attitudes found in the USA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2014
Keywords
immigation, religion, Europe, prejudice, xenophobia, comparative
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-71404 (URN)10.1080/01419870.2012.748210 (DOI)000335947100001 ()
Available from: 2013-05-28 Created: 2013-05-28 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Hjerm, M. & Bohman, A. (2014). Is it getting worse?: Anti-immigrant attitudes in Europe during the 21th century. In: Clara Sandelind (Ed.), European Populism and winning the immigration debate: (pp. 41-64). Fores
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is it getting worse?: Anti-immigrant attitudes in Europe during the 21th century
2014 (English)In: European Populism and winning the immigration debate / [ed] Clara Sandelind, Fores , 2014, p. 41-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Fores, 2014
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-94739 (URN)978-91-87379-22-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-10-15 Created: 2014-10-15 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Projects
Social foundations of prejudice. The role of parents, peers and intergroup contact in the development of prejudice in adolescence [P16-0446:1_RJ]; Umeå University; Publications
Bohman, A., Hjerm, M. & Eger, M. A. (2019). Politics and prejudice: How political discussion with peers is related to attitudes about immigrants during adolescence. Frontiers in Sociology
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8335-9235

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