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Rantatalo, O., Sjöberg, D. & Karp, S. (2019). Supporting roles in live simulations: how observers and confederates can facilitate learning. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 71(3), 482-499
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting roles in live simulations: how observers and confederates can facilitate learning
2019 (English)In: Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 1363-6820, E-ISSN 1747-5090, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 482-499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Live simulations in which students perform the roles of future professionals or act as confederates (i.e. student actors) are important training activities in different types of vocational education. While previous research has focused on the learning of students who enact a professional, secondary roles in scenario training, such as student observers and confederates, have received inadequate attention. The present study focuses on student observers and confederates in order to examine how these roles can support the learning of other participants in live simulations and to determine how the experience of performing these roles can become a learning experience for the performers. A total of 15 individual interviews and 1 group interview of students attending Swedish police training were conducted. The study findings indicated that the observer role is characterised by distance and detachment, and the confederate role by directness and sensory involvement. Both roles can support as well as inhibit intentional learning for primary participants and offer learning experiences for those playing the roles. The study theorises these roles and lists practical implications for planning live simulations in vocational education and training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
live simulation, scenario training, observer, confederate, learning
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152316 (URN)10.1080/13636820.2018.1522364 (DOI)000479042900009 ()2-s2.0-85054296042 (Scopus ID)
Note

First published online: 01 Oct 2018

Available from: 2018-10-02 Created: 2018-10-02 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Sjöberg, D., Karp, S. & Rantatalo, O. (2019). What students who perform in "secondary roles" can learn from scenario training in vocational education. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, 6(1), 46-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What students who perform in "secondary roles" can learn from scenario training in vocational education
2019 (English)In: International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2197-8638, E-ISSN 2197-8646, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 46-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Learning through scenario training and live simulation in vocational education is generally regarded as an effective tool for developing professional knowledge. However, previous research has largely overlooked the learning of students in secondary roles in scenario training. The objective of this study is to explore learning for students who act in secondary roles during scenario training in vocational educational settings. 

Method: The studied case entails scenario training for police students in a Swedish police education programme. A case study design, which included both participant observation and a questionnaire, was used. The analytic lens applied was inspired by practice theory and focused on how structural and situational arrangements of the training activity affect learning. 

Results: Our findings show that students who act in secondary roles learn from their scenario training experiences, but this learning often is overlooked in the design of training activities. Due to the structural arrangements of training activities, learning emerged as students in secondary roles were tasked to support the primary participants in relation to their learning objectives. In addition, it emerged in how students in secondary roles used previous scenario training experiences in relation to the current scenario and its learning objectives. Examples of learning from situational arrangements emerged as students in secondary roles formulated and provided feedback to primary participants and through informal discussions and reflection processes. Learning also emerged as students in secondary roles embodied the “other” during scenario training, something that provided the students with new perspectives on police encounters. 

Conclusions: We theorize and extract three dimensions for how learning emerges in this case for secondary participants. It emerges through embodying the “other”, in students’ sensory experiences, and through reconstruction of knowledge through repetition. However, our findings also show that learning for students in secondary roles can be improved through mindful set-up and design. Based on the findings, our article provides a discussion and suggestions on how scenario training can be planned and set-up to develop professional knowledge for students in secondary roles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Bremen, 2019
Keywords
Scenario Training, Simulation, Vocational Education and Training, VET, Learning, Police Education, Practice
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158405 (URN)10.13152/IJRVET.6.1.3 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
Sjöberg, D., Lindgren, C. & Åström, E. (2018). Preparation phase in a live simulation model. In: ICERI2018 Proceedings: . Paper presented at 11th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, 12-14 November, 2018, Seville, Spain (pp. 7339-7344).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preparation phase in a live simulation model
2018 (English)In: ICERI2018 Proceedings, 2018, p. 7339-7344Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The main principle in International and Swedish crisis management is collaboration between emergency services (police, fire brigade and ambulance service). Collaboration is a complex concept and a number of studies show that many practical problems during crisis management can be attributed to problems related to how the collaboration is organized and implemented. One way to train how critical events should be handled is through live simulation exercises. The authors have developed a validated live simulation model to improve collaboration between emergency services. The live simulation model is developed within the framework of the project Safety and Security Test Arena in Sweden. The model focusses on learning for the participants and is based on theories on learning, previous research on collaboration and live simulation together with professional experience from conducting live simulation. The model includes preparation, acting in scenarios and structured reflection seminars. In this paper, the preparation phase is in focus. A digital preparation material has been developed to support learning before and during the live simulation. The preparation aims to develop knowledge about equipment, tasks and needs of the other services as well as knowledge on functional collaboration. The preparation also aims to create a good learning climate and better conditions for learning from participating in the scenarios of the live simulation. The digital material is an interactive material, which includes instructional films from each emergency services, structured reflective questions, short lectures from researchers on collaboration and live simulation knowledge. The digital preparation material has been tested, evaluated and further developed in two collaboration live simulations. After each live simulation focus group interviews were conducted with both participants and instructors. The result showed a need to increase the interactive elements of the digital preparation material in order to stimulate active discussion and reflection, which are central theoretical bases for the model.

Series
ICERI2018 Proceedings, ISSN 2340-1095
Keywords
live simulation, preparation, learning, collaboration, emergency services
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159123 (URN)10.21125/iceri.2018.0302 (DOI)978-84-09-05948-5 (ISBN)
Conference
11th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, 12-14 November, 2018, Seville, Spain
Available from: 2019-05-19 Created: 2019-05-19 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
Sjöberg, D., Karp, S. & Rantatalo, O. (2016). Acting in scenario training as a tool for developing professional knowing in police education. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Police Research Seminar 2016 - (Police) Reforms and Changes in the Police, Oslo, 8-9 September 2016. Linnéuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acting in scenario training as a tool for developing professional knowing in police education
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Scenario training is a common and integral part of police education, where students act as police officers in a variety of situations.  When conducting scenario training and in the research on learning via scenario training, a predominant focus has been on the students acting as police officers. However, students may also partake as actors with more periphery tasks as for instance crowd following a scene, but they can also take direct action towards the police for instance as rioters or as perpetrators of violence.  In the research literature, the learning potential of these secondary roles of students in scenario training has been largely overlooked. In this paper we report on a study of police students experiences of acting in scenario training in other roles than as police officers. The approach of the study was explorative using observations of scenario training, a questionnaire and semi structured interviews with police students at Umeå University. Overall the results show that the students value acting in scenarios in other roles than as police officers as an important tool for developing professional knowing. Hence the results have implications both for educational practitioners and for further research on learning in scenario training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnéuniversitetet, 2016
Series
Nordiska polisforskningsnätverkets nyhetsbrev
Keywords
learning, police, vocational education, simulation, scenario
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125826 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Police Research Seminar 2016 - (Police) Reforms and Changes in the Police, Oslo, 8-9 September 2016
Available from: 2016-09-19 Created: 2016-09-19 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Söderström, T., Karp, S. & Sjöberg, D. (2016). Developing police students’ professional knowing through scenario training: The impact of preparation, implementation and debriefing. In: L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez and I. Candel Torres (Ed.), EDULEARN16 Proceedings: . Paper presented at 8th annual International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, Barcelona, Spain, July 4-5, 2016 (pp. 5930-5935).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing police students’ professional knowing through scenario training: The impact of preparation, implementation and debriefing
2016 (English)In: EDULEARN16 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez and I. Candel Torres, 2016, p. 5930-5935Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When educating new police officers, using scenario training is an integral part of the educational program including a variety of practical exercises where students´ should act as police officers. The aim of this paper is to provide a holistic analysis of empirical data on preparation, implementation and debriefing of a critical incident in the Swedish police education program and conditions provided for developing professional knowing through scenario training. The approach was explorative and the methods used to collect data were observations, video-observations, interviews and surveys. The unit of analysis focused how students acted in and how they made sense of the activities. The analyses were influenced by a sociocultural and dialogical framework, in which learning is seen as a social activity. The results showed that using scenario training in professional education is a complex endeavor in which the social aspects of simulating have to be acknowledged. The analyses showed that the situated activities i.e. preparation, implementation and debriefing have to be linked to each other in way that enables the participants to; first, produce a situation with authenticity and second, to use previous experiences and coordinate them with new ones from the training in order to create good conditions for learning. With the support of and communication with others can students through scenario training, borrow, reshape and gradually develop professional knowing. It is about applying predetermined knowledge and skills but also about "... learning to perform and cope when encountering something for which one does not feel fully prepared" (Hopwood et al., 2014, p. 9). One conclusion is that students need to be challenged, but also get support for coordinating experiences from the situated activities with previous experiences to develop professional knowing. This means acknowledging that the stance of scenario training needs to be longer than just the actual scenario. How situated activities are embedded in the education program and how gaps in students knowing are to be bridged after the scenario training, need to be considered. The main implication of the results is that the use of scenario training in professional education require a specific pedagogy. Aspects that need to be taken into consideration is for example the fact that a simulated situation as scenario training is a hybrid and never a mirror of a professional situation and that creating simulation competence among both teachers and students is important in order to make the scenario work (i.e. how to act in different roles, how to produce authenticity, what is to be included and what is to be ignored). The pedagogy also has to acknowledge that focus needs to be on how to support the participants’ learning and not assume that there is a direct connection between participation and learning. To conclude, the detailed study of scenarios, preparation and debriefing draw attention to how they are linked together and build on each other which is central for understanding the conditions for learning through scenario training in police education.

Keywords
simulation, police, police education, vocational education, learning, scenario training, simulation pedagogy, professional knowing
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124738 (URN)10.21125/edulearn.2016.0258 (DOI)978-84-608-8860-4 (ISBN)
Conference
8th annual International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, Barcelona, Spain, July 4-5, 2016
Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Sjöberg, D. (2016). Simuleringens situerade aktiviteter: Förutsättningar för lärande i polisutbildning. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simuleringens situerade aktiviteter: Förutsättningar för lärande i polisutbildning
2016 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is about simulations in professional education and what they mean for developing professional knowing. When educating new police officers, using simulations is an integral part of the educational program. A starting point for the studies in this thesis was that not only the scenario but also the preparation and the debriefing, i.e. the situated activities, must be included. Another starting point was that activities and the individuals cannot be studied separately; both have to be included in the analyses. Two simulations, which were part of the Swedish police education program were studied. The approach was explorative and the methods used to collect data were observations, video-observations, interviews and surveys. The unit of analysis focused how students acted in and how they made sense of the simulation activities. The analytical process was influenced by a sociocultural and dialogical framework, in which learning is seen as a social activity. The thesis showed that using simulation in professional education is a complex endeavor in which the social aspects of simulating have to be acknowledged. The analyses showed that the situated activities of the simulation have to be linked to each other in way that enables the participants to; first, produce a situation with authenticity and second, to use previous experiences and coordinate them with new ones from the simulation in order to create good conditions for learning. This means acknowledging that the stance of a simulation needs to be longer than just the actual simulation. How they are embedded in the education program and how gaps in students knowing are to be bridged after the simulation, need to be considered. The main implication of the results is that the use of simulations in professional education require a specific simulation pedagogy. Some foundations of this are outlined and include; the fact that a simulated situation is a hybrid and never a mirror of a professional situation and also includes creating simulation competence among both teachers and students. This includes learning the “gaming rules” of simulating such as how to act in different roles, how to produce authenticity, what is to be included and what is to be ignored in order to make the scenario work. Simulation pedagogy also has to acknowledge that focus needs to be on how to support the participants’ learning and not assume that there is a direct connection between participation and learning. If all of these issues are considered in the design, the potential of simulations for developing professional knowing can be utilized. To conclude, this thesis shows that in the detailed study of scenarios, preparation and follow-up are important and draw attention to aspects that are central for understanding the conditions for learning in simulations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2016. p. 87, 34 sidor bilagor
Series
Akademiska avhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, ISSN 0281-6768 ; 116
Keywords
simulation, police, police education, vocational education, learning, scenario training, simulation pedagogy, professional knowing
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114810 (URN)978-91-7601-406-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-02-19, Hörsal E, Humanisthuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-01-29 Created: 2016-01-28 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Sjöberg, D., Karp, S. & Söderström, T. (2015). The impact of preparation: conditions for developing professional knowledge through simulations. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 67(4), 529-542
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of preparation: conditions for developing professional knowledge through simulations
2015 (English)In: Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 1363-6820, E-ISSN 1747-5090, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 529-542Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article examines simulations of critical incidents in police education by investigating how activities in the preparation phase influence participants’ actions and thus the conditions for learning professional knowledge. The study is based on interviews in two stages (traditional and stimulated recall interviews) with six selected students and video analysis of one student police patrol’s short-term preparation. The results showed that simulation and associated activities informed the students of their responsibilities and pre-determined tasks without effectively helping them to cope with the situation. The analysis suggests that an understanding of the social and interactional requirements for producing the kind of situation that the students were to be trained for and learn from were not mediated. Thus our conclusion is that good conditions for learning in and through simulations require a simulation competence among the participants and that it is a responsibility of the instructors to consider how this competence is to be developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2015
Keywords
Vocational Education and Training, higher education, pedagogy, Vocational HE, competence
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107740 (URN)10.1080/13636820.2015.1076500 (DOI)000374508000007 ()
Available from: 2015-08-28 Created: 2015-08-28 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Söderström, T., Lindgren, C., Sjöberg, D., Söderlund, R., Åström, E. & Widing, M. (2015). Virtual Police Cases: Impact on Performance in Practical Scenario Training. In: In L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez and I. Candel Torres (Ed.), 8 th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at ICERI2015, 8th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville, Spain. November 16-18, 2015. (pp. 3970-3975).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Virtual Police Cases: Impact on Performance in Practical Scenario Training
Show others...
2015 (English)In: 8 th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation: Conference Proceedings / [ed] In L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez and I. Candel Torres, 2015, p. 3970-3975Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Police students must learn skills to manage different complex situations. Students must master both specific practical techniques and the thinking and decision-making required to use these techniques effectively. This is normally learned through a variety of practical exercises such as drill exercises and practical scenario training where students´ should act as police officers (Söderström, et al, 2014). Practical scenario training, which is in focus in this article, is usually arranged in such a way that students are prepared for the training through a teacher-led lesson before the actual scenario training. However, since practical training generally requires large investments, limiting opportunities for sufficient training, there is a need to raise the students' level of knowing for increasing possibilities to learn through scenario training. Therefore a virtual case was developed that allow students to practice tactical skills, decision making and receive feedback on their actions based on the national basic police tactics manual (Polishögskolan, 2005). This study compares the influence of two learning conditions – a virtual police case and conventional teacher led lesson – that prepare police students for the upcoming practical scenario training. The study focused on a) how the students´ experienced the different learning conditions and how it prepared them for the scenario training and b) how the different learning conditions influenced their task completion in the practical scenarios. The sample consisted of 66 participants and used a comparative group design with 35 participants assigned to a virtual case training group (VCASE) or conventional-training group (CON) with 5-6 students in each group. The VCASE group worked 1.5 hour with a virtual police case to perform two exercises (a stolen car incident and observation of a house with suspects). The CON group had a teacher led lesson with the same content. This was followed by practical scenario training. The objectives with the practical scenario training was that the students should learn to perform various police tasks and acquire an understanding of these tasks based on the national basic police tactics manual (Polishögskolan, 2005). A questionnaire was used to collect the students´ experiences of the both the preparation and practical scenario training. A blind expert assessment, by police officers, was used to collect students´ performance in the practical scenario training. The results showed that a majority of the students in both groups believed that the task they did before the practical training was meaningful and motivating. However, the results showed (independent t-test) that the VCASE group in significantly higher extent thought that the preparation helped them when they conducted the practical training (e.g. confident how to act, sufficient knowledge to solve the situation, a feeling of being sufficiently prepared). The expert assessment of a stolen car incident during practical training showed (independent t-test) that the VCASE group performed better according to three out of five base tactics measurements (stop the car and approach the suspects, reporting and treatment of the arrested). To conclude, the different learning conditions produced different results with respect to how they prepared for practical scenario training.

Series
ICERI Proceedings, ISSN 2340-1095
Keywords
Vocational Education and Training, Higher Education, Pedagogy, Virtual Case, Computer based training, Scenario training
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111977 (URN)978-84-608-2657-6 (ISBN)
Conference
ICERI2015, 8th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville, Spain. November 16-18, 2015.
Available from: 2015-11-27 Created: 2015-11-27 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Söderström, T., Lindgren, C., Sjöberg, D., Söderlund, R., Åström, E. & Widing, M. (2015). Virtual police cases: impact on performance in practical scenario training. In: L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres (Ed.), ICERI 2015: 8th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. Paper presented at 8th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI), NOV 16-20, 2015, Seville, SPAIN (pp. 3970-3975).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Virtual police cases: impact on performance in practical scenario training
Show others...
2015 (English)In: ICERI 2015: 8th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2015, p. 3970-3975Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study compares the influence of two learning conditions - a virtual police case and conventional teacher led lesson - that prepare police students for a practical scenario training. The study focused on how the students' experience the different learning conditions and a) how they prepare them for the scenario training and b) how they influence their task completion in the practical scenarios. The sample consisted of 66 participants and used a comparative group design with 35 participants assigned to a virtual case training group (VCASE) and 31 participants to a conventional-training group (CON) with 5-6 students in each group. The VCASE group worked two hours with a virtual police case to perform two exercises. The CON group had a two hour teacher led lesson with the same content. This was followed by practical scenario training. A questionnaire was used to collect the students' experiences of both the preparation and practical scenario training. A blind expert assessment, carried out by police officers, was used to collect the students' performance in the practical scenario training. The results showed that a majority of the students in both groups believed that the task they did before the practical training was meaningful and motivating. However, the results showed (independent t-test) that the VCASE group in significantly higher extent thought that the preparation helped them when they conducted the practical training (e.g. confident how to act, sufficient knowledge to solve the situation and a feeling of being sufficiently prepared). The expert assessment of a stolen car incident during practical training showed (independent t-test) that the VCASE group performed better according to three out of five base tactics measurements. To conclude, the different learning conditions produced different results with respect to how they prepared for practical scenario training.

Series
ICERI Proceedings, ISSN 2340-1095
Keywords
Vocational Education and Training, Higher Education, Pedagogy, Virtual Case, Computer based aining, Scenario training
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124210 (URN)000377304004010 ()978-84-608-2657-6 (ISBN)
Conference
8th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI), NOV 16-20, 2015, Seville, SPAIN
Available from: 2016-08-01 Created: 2016-07-28 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Sjöberg, D., Karp, S. & Söderström, T. (2014). Vad var det som hände?: Efterbearbetning av en simulering för utvecklande av professionell kunskap hos polisstudenter. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 4(2), 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vad var det som hände?: Efterbearbetning av en simulering för utvecklande av professionell kunskap hos polisstudenter
2014 (Swedish)In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Att öva för att lära sig att hantera polisiära situationer utgör ett viktigt inslag i polisstudenters utbildning. Lärandet sker genom praktiska övningar t.ex. drillövningar och övningar av specifika momentmen även via simuleringar där studenter agerar som polis imera komplexa situationer. Simuleringar ärinte unika för polisutbildningutan utgör ett vanligt inslag i professionsutbildninggenom sin koppling till ”verkliga” situationer (Peters & Vissers, 2004; Lederman, 1984). Under de senaste årtiondena har simuleringar använts för utbildning inom så skilda professionsfält som medicin och hälsovård, flyg och blåljusverksamhet. Simuleringar kan vara av skiftande karaktär t.ex. fysiska i form av rollspel men även datorbaserade. Simuleringar kan syfta till att utveckla en specifik färdighet (se t.ex. Windsor, 2009; Stefanidis, Acker, & Heniford, 2008; Wallin, Meurling, Hedman, Hedengård, & Felländer-Tsai,2007),som t ex att lära sig hur man avläser röntgenbilder (se t.ex. Söderström, Häll, Nilsson, & Ahlqvist2012) eller till att lära hur man ska agera i komplexa situationer (Andersson, Carlström, & Berlin, 2013; Bauman, Gohm & Bonner,2011), t.ex. vid svåra olyckshändelser med många personer inblandade (se t.ex. McConnell & Drennan, 2006). Simuleringar av komplexa situationer med många inblandade brukar benämnas som fullskaliga(se t.ex. Andersson, Carlström, & Berlin, 2013). Simuleringar antas träna och utveckla professionell kunskap genom att förbereda studenter på att hantera komplexa och ibland farliga situationer som de kan komma att ställas inför i enkommande yrkespraktik. Användningen av simuleringar i utbildningarbygger således på ett antagande om överföring av erfarenheter och kunskaper från ett sammanhang till ett annat(se t.ex. Söderström, Åström, Anderson & Bowles, 2014). I denhär artikeln utgår vi från simulering som en utbildningsresurs där deltagarna interagerar med varandra och miljön (situationen) på ett målorienterat sätt i syfte att lära sig polisära kunskaper

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
http://www.nordyrk.org/, 2014
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96587 (URN)10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.14v4i2a8 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-11-24 Created: 2014-11-24 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1846-8643

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