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Evander, Magnus
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 69) Show all publications
Rusanganwa, V., Gahutu, J. B., Evander, M. & Hurtig, A.-K. (2019). Clinical Referral Laboratory Personnel’s Perception of Challenges and Strategies for Sustaining the Laboratory Quality Management System: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda. American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clinical Referral Laboratory Personnel’s Perception of Challenges and Strategies for Sustaining the Laboratory Quality Management System: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda
2019 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Pathology, ISSN 0002-9173, E-ISSN 1943-7722Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To explore challenges explaining the decrease in quality performance and suggest strategies to improve and sustain laboratory quality services.

Methods: Twenty key informants’ interviews from laboratory personnel were conducted in five laboratories. Four had previously shown a decrease in quality performance. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis.

Results: Two themes emerged: (1) insufficient coordination and follow-up system towards accreditation, where lack of coordination, follow-up, and audits explained the decrease in performance; (2) inadequate resource optimization, where insufficient knowledge in Laboratory Quality Management System (LQMS), ownership by laboratory workforce, and insufficient stakeholders’ communication contributed to low-quality performance.

Conclusions: The coordination, follow-up, and assessments of LQMS, in conjunction with training of laboratory workforce, would establish an institutional culture of continuous quality improvement (CQI) towards accreditation and sustainment of quality health care. To achieve CQI culture, routine gap checking and planning for improvement using a system approach is required.

Keywords
Continuous improvement, Laboratory quality management system (LQMS), Quality performance, Rwanda
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162435 (URN)10.1093/ajcp/aqz092 (DOI)31304959 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-08-26
Lwande, O. W., Näslund, J., Lundmark, E., Ahlm, K., Ahlm, C., Bucht, G. & Evander, M. (2019). Experimental Infection and Transmission Competence of Sindbis Virus in Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens Mosquitoes from Northern Sweden. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 19(2), 128-133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Infection and Transmission Competence of Sindbis Virus in Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens Mosquitoes from Northern Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 128-133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus known to infect birds and cause intermittent outbreaks among humans in Fenno-Scandia. In Sweden, the endemic area has mainly been in central Sweden. Recently, SINV infections have emerged to northern Sweden, but the vectorial efficiency for SINV of mosquito species in this northern region has not yet been ascertained.

Objective: Mosquito larvae were sampled from the Umea region in northern Sweden and propagated in a laboratory to adult stage to investigate the infection, dissemination, and transmission efficiency of SINV in mosquitoes.

Materials and Methods: The mosquito species were identified by DNA barcoding of the cytochrome oxidase I gene. Culex torrentium was the most abundant (82.2%) followed by Culex pipiens (14.4%), Aedes annulipes (1.1%), Anopheles claviger (1.1%), Culiseta bergrothi (1.1%), or other unidentified species (1.1%). Mosquitoes were fed with SINV-infected blood and monitored for 29 days to determine the viral extrinsic incubation period. Infection and dissemination were determined by RT-qPCR screening of dissected body parts of individual mosquitoes. Viral transmission was determined from saliva collected from individual mosquitoes at 7, 14, and 29 days. SINV was detected by cell culture using BHK-21 cells, RT-qPCR, and sequencing.

Results: Cx. torrentium was the only mosquito species in our study that was able to transmit SINV. The overall transmission efficiency of SINV in Cx. torrentium was 6.8%. The rates of SINV infection, dissemination, and transmission in Cx. torrentium were 11%, 75%, and 83%, respectively.

Conclusions: Cx. torrentium may be the key vector involved in SINV transmission in northern Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mary Ann Liebert, 2019
Keywords
Sindbis virus, Alphavirus, dissemination, transmission, Culex mosquitoes
National Category
Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152980 (URN)10.1089/vbz.2018.2311 (DOI)000446699100001 ()30300110 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060807212 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 221-2014-1556
Available from: 2018-11-01 Created: 2018-11-01 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Lwande, O. W., Obanda, V., Lindstrom, A., Ahlm, C., Evander, M., Näslund, J. & Bucht, G. (2019). Globe-Trotting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus: Risk Factors for Arbovirus Pandemics. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Article ID CTANDER P, 1995, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, V262, P13 ntenille D, 1997, TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE, V91,.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Globe-Trotting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus: Risk Factors for Arbovirus Pandemics
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2019 (English)In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, article id CTANDER P, 1995, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, V262, P13 ntenille D, 1997, TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE, V91Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Two species of Aedes (Ae.) mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) are primary vectors for emerging arboviruses that are a significant threat to public health and economic burden worldwide. Distribution of these vectors and the associated arboviruses, such as dengue virus, chikungunya virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus, was for a long time restricted by geographical, ecological, and biological factors. Presently, arbovirus emergence and dispersion are more rapid and geographically widespread, largely due to expansion of the range for these two mosquitoes that have exploited the global transportation network, land perturbation, and failure to contain the mosquito population coupled with enhanced vector competence. Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may also sustain transmission between humans without having to depend on their natural reservoir forest cycles due to arthropod adaptation to urbanization. Currently, there is no single strategy that is adequate to control these vectors, especially when managing arbovirus outbreaks. Objective: This review aimed at presenting the characteristics and abilities of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, which can drive a global public health risk, and suggests strategies for prevention and control. Methods: This review presents the geographic range, reproduction and ecology, vector competence, genetic evolution, and biological and chemical control of these two mosquito species and how they have changed and developed over time combined with factors that may drive pandemics and mitigation measures. Conclusion: We suggest that more efforts should be geared toward the development of a concerted multidisciplinary approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2019
Keywords
mosquitoes, arboviruses, vector control, pandemic risk
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164457 (URN)10.1089/vbz.2019.2486 (DOI)000488218500001 ()31556813 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-10-22 Created: 2019-10-22 Last updated: 2019-10-22
Seruyange, E., Ljungberg, K., Muvunyi, C. M., Gahutu, J. B., Katare, S., Nyamusore, J., . . . Bergstrom, T. (2019). Seroreactivity to Chikungunya and West Nile Viruses in Rwandan Blood Donors. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 19(10), 731-740
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seroreactivity to Chikungunya and West Nile Viruses in Rwandan Blood Donors
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2019 (English)In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 731-740Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV) have previously been reported from several African countries, including those bordering Rwanda where they may have originated. However, there have been no serosurveillance reports from Rwanda regarding these two viral pathogens. In this article, we present the first study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroreactivity of CHIKV and WNV in Rwandan blood donor samples. Methods: Blood donors from Rwanda (n = 874) and Sweden (n = 199) were tested for IgG reactivity against CHIKV, using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the E1 envelope protein fused with p62 as antigen, and against WNV using a commercial kit. Data on mosquito distribution were obtained from the 2012 assessment of yellow fever virus circulation in Rwanda. Results: Seroreactivity to CHIKV was high in Rwanda (63.0%), when compared with Swedish donors, where only 8.5% were IgG positive. However, a cross-reactivity to O'nyong'nyong virus in neutralization test was noted in Rwandan donors. No significant difference in WNV seroreactivity was found (10.4% for Rwandan and 14.1% for Swedish donors). The relatively high seroreactivity to WNV among Swedish donors could partly be explained by cross-reactivity with tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalent in Sweden. Donors from the Eastern Province of Rwanda had the highest IgG reactivity to the two investigated viruses (86.7% for CHIKV and 33.3% for WNV). Five genera of mosquitoes were found in Rwanda where Culex was the most common (82.5%). The vector of CHIKV, Aedes, accounted for 9.6% of mosquitoes and this species was most commonly found in the Eastern Province. Conclusions: Our results showed high seroreactivity to CHIKV in Rwandan donors. The highest IgG reactivity to CHIKV, and to WNV, was found in the Eastern Province, the area reporting the highest number of mosquito vectors for these two viruses. Infection control by eliminating mosquito-breeding sites in population-dense areas is recommended, especially in eastern Rwanda.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2019
Keywords
seroreactivity, chikungunya virus, West Nile virus, ELISA, mosquitoes, Rwanda
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164450 (URN)10.1089/vbz.2018.2393 (DOI)000488806000004 ()31246538 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-10-22 Created: 2019-10-22 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
diva2:1239402
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus RNA in Hyalomma rufipes Ticks Infesting Migratory Birds, Europe and Asia Minor
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2018 (English)In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 879-882Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus RNA was detected in immature Hyalomma rufipes ticks infesting northward migratory birds caught in the North Mediterranean Basin. This finding suggests a role for birds in the ecology of the Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus and a potential mechanism for dissemination to novel regions. Increased surveillance is warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2018
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150716 (URN)10.3201/eid2405.171369 (DOI)000430355500010 ()29664386 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045631537 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-16 Created: 2018-08-16 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Islam, M. K. K., Strand, M., Saleeb, M., Svensson, R., Baranczewski, P., Artursson, P., . . . Evander, M. (2018). Anti-Rift Valley fever virus activity in vitro, pre-clinical pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of benzavir-2, a broad-acting antiviral compound. Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 1925.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anti-Rift Valley fever virus activity in vitro, pre-clinical pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of benzavir-2, a broad-acting antiviral compound
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 1925Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne hemorrhagic fever virus affecting both humans and animals with severe morbidity and mortality and is classified as a potential bioterror agent due to the possible aerosol transmission. At present there is no human vaccine or antiviral therapy available. Thus, there is a great need to develop new antivirals for treatment of RVFV infections. Benzavir-2 was previously identified as potent inhibitor of human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and type 2. Here we assess the anti-RVFV activity of benzavir-2 together with four structural analogs and determine pre-clinical pharmacokinetic parameters of benzavir-2. In vitro, benzavir-2 efficiently inhibited RVFV infection, viral RNA production and production of progeny viruses. In vitro, benzavir-2 displayed satisfactory solubility, good permeability and metabolic stability. In mice, benzavir-2 displayed oral bioavailability with adequate maximum serum concentration. Oral administration of benzavir-2 formulated in peanut butter pellets gave high systemic exposure without any observed toxicity in mice. To summarize, our data demonstrated potent anti-RVFV activity of benzavir-2 in vitro together with a promising pre-clinical pharmacokinetic profile. This data support further exploration of the antiviral activity of benzavir-2 in in vivo efficacy models that may lead to further drug development for human use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144950 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-20362-9 (DOI)000423663100004 ()29386590 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-22 Created: 2018-02-22 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Mosomtai, G., Evander, M., Mundia, C., Sandström, P., Ahlm, C., Hassan, O. A., . . . Sang, R. (2018). Datasets for mapping pastoralist movement patterns and risk zones of Rift Valley fever occurrence. Data in Brief, 16, 762-770
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Datasets for mapping pastoralist movement patterns and risk zones of Rift Valley fever occurrence
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2018 (English)In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 16, p. 762-770Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals. It is caused by RVF virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. The data presented in this article propose environmental layers suitable for mapping RVF vector habitat zones and livestock migratory routes. Using species distribution modelling, we used RVF vector occurrence data sampled along livestock migratory routes to identify suitable vector habitats within the study region which is located in the central and the north-eastern part of Kenya. Eleven herds monitored with GPS collars were used to estimate cattle utilization distribution patterns. We used kernel density estimator to produce utilization contours where the 0.5 percentile represents core grazing areas and the 0.99 percentile represents the entire home range. The home ranges were overlaid on the vector suitability map to identify risks zones for possible RVF exposure. Assimilating high spatial and temporal livestock movement and vector distribution datasets generates new knowledge in understanding RVF epidemiology and generates spatially explicit risk maps. The results can be used to guide vector control and vaccination strategies for better disease control.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Home range estimation, Vector distribution, Rift Valley fever
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155042 (URN)10.1016/j.dib.2017.11.097 (DOI)000449758500102 ()29276743 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Ianevski, A., Zusinaite, E., Kuivanen, S., Strand, M., Lysvand, H., Teppor, M., . . . Kainov, D. (2018). Novel activities of safe-in-human broad-spectrum antiviral agents. Antiviral Research, 154, 174-182
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel activities of safe-in-human broad-spectrum antiviral agents
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2018 (English)In: Antiviral Research, ISSN 0166-3542, E-ISSN 1872-9096, Vol. 154, p. 174-182Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

According to the WHO, there is an urgent need for better control of viral diseases. Re-positioning existing safe-inhuman antiviral agents from one viral disease to another could play a pivotal role in this process. Here, we reviewed all approved, investigational and experimental antiviral agents, which are safe in man, and identified 59 compounds that target at least three viral diseases. We tested 55 of these compounds against eight different RNA and DNA viruses. We found novel activities for dalbavancin against echovirus 1, ezetimibe against human immunodeficiency virus 1 and Zika virus, as well as azacitidine, cyclosporine, minocycline, oritavancin and ritonavir against Rift valley fever virus. Thus, the spectrum of antiviral activities of existing antiviral agents could be expanded towards other viral diseases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150889 (URN)10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.04.016 (DOI)000433651300021 ()29698664 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046170096 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-17 Created: 2018-08-17 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Bystrom, J. W., Näslund, J., Trulsson, F., Evander, M., Wesula Lwande, O., Ahlm, C. & Bucht, G. (2018). Quantification and kinetics of viral RNA transcripts produced in Orthohantavirus infected cells. Virology Journal, 15, 1-7, Article ID 18.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification and kinetics of viral RNA transcripts produced in Orthohantavirus infected cells
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2018 (English)In: Virology Journal, ISSN 1743-422X, E-ISSN 1743-422X, Vol. 15, p. 1-7, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Rodent borne viruses of the Orthohantavirus genus cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome among people in Eurasia, and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. At present, there are no specific treatments or efficient vaccines against these diseases. Improved understanding of viral transcription and replication may instigate targeted treatment of Orthohantavirus infections. For this purpose, we investigated the kinetics and levels of viral RNA transcription during an ongoing infection in-vitro. Methods: Vero E6 cells were infected with Puumala Orthohantavirus (strain Kazan) before cells and supernatants were collected at different time points post infection for the detection of viral RNAs. A plasmid containing primer binding sites of the three Orthohantavirus segments small (S), medium (M) and large (L) was constructed and standard curves were generated to calculate the copy numbers of the individual transcripts in the collected samples. Results: Our results indicated a rapid increase in the copy number of viral RNAs after 9 h post infection. At peak days, 2-6 days after infection, the S- and M-segment transcripts became thousand and hundred-fold more abundant than the copy number of the L-segment RNA, respectively. The presence of viral RNA in the cell culture media was detected at later time-points. Conclusions: We have developed a method to follow RNA transcription in-vitro after synchronous infection of Vero cells. The obtained results may contribute to the understanding of the viral replication, and may have implications in the development of antiviral drugs targeting transcription or replication of negative stranded RNA viruses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2018
Keywords
Orthohantavirus, RNA segments, In-vitro infection, Quantitative real-time PCR
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144345 (URN)10.1186/s12985-018-0932-8 (DOI)000422978500001 ()
Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Matiko, M. K., Salekwa, L. P., Kasanga, C. J., Kimera, S. I., Evander, M. & Nyangi, W. P. (2018). Serological evidence of inter-epizootic/interepidemic circulation of Rift Valley fever virus in domestic cattle in Kyela and Morogoro, Tanzania. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 12(11), Article ID e0006931.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serological evidence of inter-epizootic/interepidemic circulation of Rift Valley fever virus in domestic cattle in Kyela and Morogoro, Tanzania
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2018 (English)In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 12, no 11, article id e0006931Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Tanzania is among the Rift Valley fever (RVF) epizootic/endemic countries in sub Saharan Africa, where RVF disease outbreaks occur within a range of 3 to 17-year intervals. Detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antibodies in animals in regions with no previous history of outbreaks raises the question of whether the disease is overlooked due to lack-of effective surveillance systems, or if there are strains of RVFV with low pathogenicity. Furthermore, which vertebrate hosts are involved in the inter-epidemic and inter-epizootic maintenance of RVFV? In our study region, the Kyela and Morogoro districts in Tanzania, no previous RVF outbreaks have been reported.

Methodology: The study was conducted from June 2014 to October 2015 in the Kyela and Morogoro districts, Tanzania. Samples (n = 356) were retrieved from both the local breed of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and Bos indicus/Bos Taurus cross breed. RVFV antibodies were analyzed by two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) approaches. Initially, samples were analyzed by a RVFV multi-species competition ELISA (cELISA), which detected both RVFV IgG and IgM antibodies. All serum samples that were positive with the cELISA method were specifically analysed for the presence of RVFV IgM antibodies to trace recent infection. A plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT80) was performed to determine presence of RVFV neutralizing antibodies in all cELISA positive samples.

Findings: Overall RVFV seroprevalence rate in cattle by cELISA in both districts was 29.2% (104 of 356) with seroprevalence rates of 33% (47/147) in the Kyela district and 27% (57/209) in the Morogoro district. In total, 8.4% (30/356) of all cattle sampled had RVFV IgM antibodies, indicating current disease transmission. When segregated by districts, the IgM antibody seroprevalence was 2.0% (3/147) and 12.9% (27/209) in Kyela and Morogoro districts respectively. When the 104 cELISA positive samples were analyzed by PRNT80 to confirm that RVFV-specific antibodies were present, the majority (89%, 93/104) had RVFV neutralising antibodies.

Conclusion: The results provided evidence of widespread prevalence of RVFV antibody among cattle during an inter-epizootic/inter-epidemic period in Tanzania in regions with no previous history of outbreaks. There is a need for further investigations of RVFV maintenance and transmission in vertebrates and vectors during the long inter-epizootic/inter-epidemic periods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
San Francisco: Public Library of Science, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154971 (URN)10.1371/journal.pntd.0006931 (DOI)000452162500046 ()30418975 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
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