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Tafvelin, S., Hasson, H., Holmström, S. & Schwarz, U. v. (2019). Are Formal Leaders the Only Ones Benefitting From Leadership Training?: A Shared Leadership Perspective. Journal of leadership & organizational studies, 26(1), 32-43
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are Formal Leaders the Only Ones Benefitting From Leadership Training?: A Shared Leadership Perspective
2019 (English)In: Journal of leadership & organizational studies, ISSN 1548-0518, E-ISSN 1939-7089, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 32-43Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Leadership training most often involves training of formal leaders, and little is known about the potential benefits of leadership training for other members of an organization. Using theories of shared leadership, the current study examined outcomes of transformational leadership training that targets both formal and informal leaders (i.e., both vertical and shared leadership). The training was set in a Swedish paper pulp factory and involved formal and informal leaders participating in 20 days of training over a period of 16 months. Based on employee survey data collected both pre- and postintervention our analyses revealed that both formal and informal leaders significantly improved their transformational leadership behaviors. Interestingly, the improvement in transformational leadership behaviors of formal and informal leaders tended to predict employee efficiency and well-being in different ways. Improvements in formal leaders' transformational leadership were related to employee well-being, while informal leaders' increases in transformational leadership were associated with efficiency. The results point toward the benefit of a shared leadership perspective on leadership training and indicate that improvements in transformational leadership may affect employees differently depending on who in the organization displays them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
shared leadership, transformational leadership, leadership training, efficiency, well-being
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155626 (URN)10.1177/1548051818774552 (DOI)000454595600003 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2014-0739
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
Takšić, V., Mohorić, T. & Holmström, S. (2018). Cross-cultural studies of trait emotional intelligence using the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire. In: María del Carmen Pérez Fuentes, María del Mar Molero Jurado, and José Jesús Gázquez Linares (Ed.), Emotional intelligence: perceptions, interpretations and attitudes (pp. 29-64). New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-cultural studies of trait emotional intelligence using the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire
2018 (English)In: Emotional intelligence: perceptions, interpretations and attitudes / [ed] María del Carmen Pérez Fuentes, María del Mar Molero Jurado, and José Jesús Gázquez Linares, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2018, p. 29-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When translating and adapting psychological measures in different countries, besides the problem of language translations, there are several other problems a researcher has to be aware of, since there are some common methodological problems that all cross-cultural studies share. The Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ; Takšić, 1998) was developed in Croatian settings using the theoretical framework from the Mayer and Salovey emotional intelligence model (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). The ESCQ consists of 45 items, divided into three subscales which measure: the ability to Perceive and Understand emotions, the ability to Express and Label emotions, and the ability to Manage and Regulate emotions. The ESCQ is used in a large number of studies and has showed satisfying psychometric characteristics. It was translated and validated in several countries (Avsec, Takšić & Mohorić, 2009; Faria at al., 2006; Costa & Faria, 2016). In different cross-cultural studies, the ESCQ was applied to a large sample of university students, confirming the three-factor [BM1] structure. The question of cultural impact on the items in the ESCQ was examined by Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analyses. In the chapter, common cross-cultural methodology and statistical procedures performed on ESCQ data in various countries will be compared and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2018
Keywords
Emotional intelligence
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152086 (URN)978-1-53613-325-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-09-26 Created: 2018-09-26 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
Lundkvist, E., Gustafsson, H., Davis, P. A., Holmström, S., Lemyre, N. & Ivarsson, A. (2018). The temporal relations across burnout dimensions in athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 28(3), 1215-1226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The temporal relations across burnout dimensions in athletes
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 1215-1226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Burnout is a construct that has garnered considerable attention in sport psychology within recent years. Several hypothesized models regarding how the three dimensions (exhaustion, devaluation, and reduced sense of accomplishment) temporally relate to each other have been advanced. One proposal outlined by Maslach and Leiter suggests that exhaustion predicts devaluation which predicts reduced sense of accomplishment. However, there is no consensus among researchers as it has been argued that exhaustion predicts devaluation and reduced accomplishment separately. The aim of this study was to test multiple alternative hypotheses regarding the relationships of the burnout dimensions in athletes. Two samples of Swedish youth elite athletes with differing time spans between measurements were used. Specifically, one sample involved time-intensive measures collected every week over an eight-week period, and the other sample included four measurement points across an 18-month period. Results showed that none of the previously proposed models outlining the temporal relations of burnout dimensions were supported. Statistical analysis of the models including the cross-lagged predictions of dimensions did not have any statistically significant impact except when exhaustion negatively predicted devaluation between time 1 (month 0) and time 2 (month 6) in the 18-month sample; this relation faded in the following time points. Further, issues regarding the stability of devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment emerged as their autocorrelation were very weak in the time-intensive sample. These findings raise a number of points for further theoretical and practical discussions about the athlete burnout construct.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
athlete burnout, athlete stress, burnout, causality, multivariate latent curve model with structured residuals
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146161 (URN)10.1111/sms.13000 (DOI)000426529300049 ()29087026 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Holmström, S., Lindberg, E. & Jansson, J. (2016). Entrepreneurial education embedded in sport psychology: a Swedish case study. Journal of Education and Training, 3(1), 126-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial education embedded in sport psychology: a Swedish case study
2016 (English)In: Journal of Education and Training, ISSN 2330-9709, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 126-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main objective of this study was to provide a contribution to the entrepreneurship education field through evaluating and describing changes in students' attitudes towards entrepreneurship. A pre-test and post-test design was used to evaluate a course design where sport psychology was the main topic with an embedded element of entrepreneurship education. The course was part of university program in Masters Programme in Sports Psychology or Physical Trainer Programme. Sport psychology-students are not the traditional group of students that are selected and trained to get both skills and a positive entrepreneur mindset. There were 39 students completing both the pre-test and post-test questionnaire (response rate 84.4%), mean age 23 years (SD=2.90). Both the pre- and post-test results showed that the sport psychology students had positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship, and the embedded course design have significant effect on students' subjective perception of their ability to create and commercialize new ideas. The results from this case study shown that an embedded course design with sport psychology and entrepreneurial education make it possible to strengthen students' entrepreneurial attitudes. The positive results point out that it is important to continue examine embedded coursed designs between entrepreneurial education and non-traditional areas (e.g., physiotherapists, dentists, architects, e.g.).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Macrothink Institute, 2016
Keywords
Entrepreneurship education, embedded, entrepreneurship attitudes, self-directed learning, opportunity recognition, course design, business plans
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Psychology; Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125800 (URN)10.5296/jet.v3i1.8374 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-09-19 Created: 2016-09-19 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Hasson, H., Schwarz, U. v., Holmström, S., Karanika-Murray, M. & Tafvelin, S. (2016). Improving organizational learning through leadership training. Journal of Workplace Learning, 28(3), 115-129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving organizational learning through leadership training
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 115-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - This paper aims to evaluate whether training of managers at workplaces can improve organizational learning. Managers play a crucial role in providing opportunities to employees for learning. Although scholars have called for intervention research on the effects of leadership development on organizational learning, no such research is currently available.

Design/methodology/approach - The training program consisted of theoretical and practical elements aimed to improve line managers' transformational leadership behaviors and, in turn, improve organizational learning. The study used a pre- and post-intervention evaluation survey. Line managers' and their subordinates' perceptions of organizational learning were measured with the Dimensions of Organizational Learning Questionnaire and with post-intervention single items on organizational learning.

Findings - Comparisons between pre- and post-intervention assessments revealed that managers' ratings of continuous learning and employees' ratings of empowerment and embedded systems improved significantly as a result of the training. The leadership training intervention had positive effects on managers' perceptions of individual-level and on employees' perceptions of organizational-level aspects of organizational learning.

Originality/value - The study provides empirical evidence that organizational learning can be improved through leadership training. Both line managers and their subordinates perceived that organizational learning had increased after the training intervention, albeit in different ways. Implications for developing leadership training programs and for evaluating these are discussed.

Keywords
Organisational learning, Leadership
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124354 (URN)10.1108/JWL-06-2015-0049 (DOI)000379685600002 ()
Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-08-04 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Molander, B., Holmström, S. & Takšić, V. (2015). Differential Item Functioning in the Croatian-Swedish study of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire. In: : . Paper presented at 22nd Ramiro and Zoran Bujas’ Days.” Zagreb 16-18 April, 2015 (pp. 1).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differential Item Functioning in the Croatian-Swedish study of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
Differential item functioning (DIF), Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ), cross-cultural differences
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102032 (URN)
Conference
22nd Ramiro and Zoran Bujas’ Days.” Zagreb 16-18 April, 2015
Available from: 2015-04-21 Created: 2015-04-21 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Holmström, S., Jansson, J. & Lindberg, E. (2015). Entrepreneurship education as a tool for helping the psychologist to meeting new and different demands. In: NERA 2015: the 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association. Paper presented at The 43rd annual congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association, Gothenburg, Mars 6 (pp. 79-79). , 43
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurship education as a tool for helping the psychologist to meeting new and different demands
2015 (English)In: NERA 2015: the 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association, 2015, Vol. 43, p. 79-79Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The psychologist profession has been characterized by an attitude to education for employment, and often employment in the public sector. The outside world has changed and so also the labour market for the psychologist. Today, it's not as obvious to the psychology program only to prepare students for a working life as an employee, but also for a working life with elements of self-employment and entrepreneurship. The aim of this paper is to describe how we developed one course in the education of psychologist to meet this challenge.

The purpose of this course has been to influence attitudes towards entrepreneurship and to develop skills to apply entrepreneurship. To meet this challenge as educator, cooperation between the Department of Psychology and Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE) were initiated for the course on the Masters Programme in Sports Psychology. To our knowledge this is unique in educating future psychologists in Sweden.

One important aim with the course is that the students are going to learn how to combine their knowledge in psychology with entrepreneurship and use it in an applied way. One main moment of the course is to stimulate their creative ability and innovation to increase their opportunity recognition, entrepreneurial orientation and risk willingness. To achieve this the students are encourage to create their own business ideas, where they take their knowledge in psychology and generate a new service or product to use in the field of sports and health. At the end of the course they present their business idea in front of bankers, business consultants and business angels. Results from our measurements and evaluation go in the same direction as proposed by Fayol (2001), and that entrepreneurship can be taught. After the course the students are better prepared for the future working life as a clinical psychologist, both as employed and self-employed. This approach should also be considered for other educational programs, because the working life is changing for them as well. One benefit for the students has been the interdisciplinary collaboration between psychology and business administration.

National Category
Psychology Business Administration
Research subject
Psychology; Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125808 (URN)
Conference
The 43rd annual congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association, Gothenburg, Mars 6
Available from: 2016-09-19 Created: 2016-09-19 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved
Stenling, A. & Holmström, S. (2014). Evidence of relative age effects in Swedish women's ice hockey. Talent Development and Excellence, 6(1), 31-40
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidence of relative age effects in Swedish women's ice hockey
2014 (English)In: Talent Development and Excellence, ISSN 1869-0459, E-ISSN 1869-2885, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to consequences of differences in chronological age among individuals within age-grouped cohorts. RAEs advantage relatively older players and have consistently been found in male ice hockey, but research in women’s ice hockey is scarce. This study examined RAEs in Swedish women’s elite (N = 688) and junior elite (N = 399) ice hockey and a moderator of RAEs, playing position. RAEs were also examined in the entire population of youth female ice hockey players (N = 2811). Chi-square analyses showed significant RAEs (p < .05) in all three samples. The elite and junior elite sample showed RAEs among defenseman and forwards, but not among goalies. In the youth sample, RAEs were evident in all age groups. RAEs were present in all age groups, from the youngest players (5-6 years) to the elite players. Despite a weak depth of competition, RAEs were displayed in Swedish women´s ice hockey, indicating that other mechanisms seem to influence RAEs.

Keywords
relative age effect, elite, youth, player position, female sports, talent development
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96790 (URN)
Available from: 2014-12-03 Created: 2014-12-03 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Stenling, A., Hassmén, P. & Holmström, S. (2014). Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes. European Journal of Sport Science, 14(7), 720-729
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes
2014 (English)In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 720-729Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

People’s implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes’ approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery- avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes’ anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes’ well-being and performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2014
Keywords
motivation, gender differences, anxiety, team sports, conditional process model
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87621 (URN)10.1080/17461391.2014.901419 (DOI)000342285700011 ()
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2011-0177
Available from: 2014-04-06 Created: 2014-04-06 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Schéle, I., Hauer, E., Holmström, S., Lundkvist, E., Stenling, A., Eriksson Sörman, D. & Tafvelin, S. (2014). The interrelationships between individual, contextual and processual constructs and stress and wellbeing among psychologists. In: : . Paper presented at The third conference about wellbeing at work, 26-28 May 2014. Copenhagen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The interrelationships between individual, contextual and processual constructs and stress and wellbeing among psychologists
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2014 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen: , 2014
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-94074 (URN)
Conference
The third conference about wellbeing at work, 26-28 May 2014
Available from: 2014-10-03 Created: 2014-10-03 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7574-9679

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