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Mårald, Erland
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Publications (10 of 56) Show all publications
Mårald, E. & Nordlund, C. (2019). Modern nature for a modern nation: an intellectual history of environmental dissonances in the Swedish welfare state. Environment and History
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modern nature for a modern nation: an intellectual history of environmental dissonances in the Swedish welfare state
2019 (English)In: Environment and History, ISSN 0967-3407, E-ISSN 1752-7023Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In the mid-1990s, the concept ‘ecological modernisation’ was established to characterise the perception that environmental protection and economic growth are not mutually exclusive but rather comprise a solid foundation for sustainable development. We argue in this essay that believing that modernisation, economic growth and a healthy environment could go hand-in-hand was nothing new as far as Sweden was concerned. Rather, it is a belief that developed during the ‘folkhem era (1930s–1970s) due to an extensive dialogue about the proper relationship between nature and society in the construction of the welfare state. We highlight the idea of ‘dissonances’ as a salient metaphor describing the disharmonic relation between old and new and modern society and modern nature. According to advocates of modernisation, it was important to overcome dissonances – backwardness, inefficient use of natural resources and negative ‘side effects’ of societal progress such as pollution and environmental damage – between society and nature. Instead, by rational thinking and new technology it would be possible to make society and nature go hand-in-hand and thereby enhance human welfare. However, broadened knowledge and intellectual horizons and critiques of progress have brought new problem complexes and dissonances to light. Like the dream of Sweden the modern Model Nation, the definitive answer to the difficulties of the environmental issue has constantly been deferred.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Isle of Harris: White Horse Press, 2019
Keywords
Ecological modernisation, welfare state, dissonances, environmental thinking
National Category
History of Ideas
Research subject
History Of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157895 (URN)10.3197/096734019X15463432086883 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-05-16
Klapwijk, M. J., Boberg, J., Bergh, J., Bishop, K., Björkman, C., Ellison, D., . . . Mårald, E. (2018). Capturing complexity: Forests, decision-making and climate change mitigation action. Global Environmental Change, 52, 238-247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capturing complexity: Forests, decision-making and climate change mitigation action
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2018 (English)In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 52, p. 238-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Managed forests can play an important role in climate change mitigation due to their capacity to sequester carbon. However, it has proven difficult to harness their full potential for climate change mitigation. Managed forests are often referred to as socio-ecological systems as the human dimension is an integral part of the system. When attempting to change systems that are influenced by factors such as collective knowledge, social organization, understanding of the situation and values represented in society, initial intentions often shift due to the complexity of political, social and scientific interactions. Currently, the scientific literature is dispersed over the differentfactorsrelated tothe socio-ecological system. Toexamine thelevelofdispersion andtoobtainaholistic view, we review climate change mitigation in the context of Swedish forest research. We introduce a heuristic framework to understand decision-making connected to climate change mitigation. We apply our framework to two themes which span different dimensions in the socio-ecological system: carbon accounting and bioenergy. A key finding in the literature was the perception that current uncertainties regarding the reliability of different methods of carbon accounting inhibits international agreement on the use of forests for climate change mitigation. This feeds into a strategic obstacle affecting the willingness of individual countries to implement forestrelated carbon emission reduction policies. Decisions on the utilization of forests for bioenergy are impeded by a lack of knowledge regarding the resultant biophysical and social consequences. This interacts negatively with the development of institutional incentives regarding the production of bioenergy using forest products. Normative disagreement about acceptable forest use further affects these scientific discussions and therefore is an over-arching influence on decision-making. With our framework, we capture this complexity and make obstacles to decision-making more transparent to enable their more effective resolution. We have identified the main research areas concerned with the use of managed forest in climate change mitigation and the obstacles that are connected to decision making.

Keywords
Global change, Socio-ecological system, Forest industry, Forestry, Governance, Adaptation
National Category
Environmental Sciences Human Geography Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153897 (URN)10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.07.012 (DOI)000449444900022 ()2-s2.0-85051138787 (Scopus ID)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E. (2018). Framtidens skogsakademiker: Skogsakademisk utbildning i ett tidsöverskridande perspektiv. Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien, 57(5)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framtidens skogsakademiker: Skogsakademisk utbildning i ett tidsöverskridande perspektiv
2018 (Swedish)Book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien, 2018. p. 71
Series
Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademiens Tidskrift (KSLAT), ISSN 00235350 ; 5
National Category
History and Archaeology
Research subject
History Of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158403 (URN)978-91-88567-19-2 (ISBN)978-91-88567-20-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
Ranius, T., Rudolphi, J., Sténs, A. & Erland, M. (2017). Conflicting demands and shifts between policy and intra-scientific orientation during conservation research programmes. Ambio, 46(6), 621-629
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conflicting demands and shifts between policy and intra-scientific orientation during conservation research programmes
2017 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conservation scientists must meet the sometimes conflicting demands of policy and science, but not necessarily at the same time. We analysed the policy and intra-scientific orientations of research projects on effects of stump extraction on biodiversity, and found shifts over time associated with these demands. Our results indicate that uncertainties related to both factual issues and human decisions are often ignored in policy-oriented reports and syntheses, which could give misleading indications of the reliability or feasibility of any conclusions. The policy versus intra-scientific orientation of the scientific papers generated from the surveyed projects varied substantially, although we argue that in applied research, societal relevance is generally more important than intra-scientific relevance. To make conservation science more socially relevant, there is a need for giving societal relevance higher priority, paying attention to uncertainties and increasing the awareness of the value of cross-disciplinary research considering human decisions and values.

Keywords
Conservation biology, Forest biofuels, Policy-science interface, Synthesis, Uncertainties
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Entomology; Conservation Biology; History Of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138182 (URN)10.1007/s13280-017-0913-y (DOI)000410711600001 ()
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2017-08-15 Created: 2017-08-15 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E., Sandström, C. & Annika, N. (2017). Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract. London & New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract
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2017 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years' rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors.

This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London & New York: Routledge, 2017. p. 174
Series
The Earthscan forest library
Keywords
reflexive forestry, forest history, social contracts, governance, future studies
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
History; statskunskap; biology; History Of Sciences and Ideas; Social and Economic Geography; Conservation Biology; biological chemistry; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-140184 (URN)978-1-138-90430-9 (ISBN)978-1-315-69643-0 (ISBN)
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E. (2017). Vad är jord?: En relationshistoria. In: Roland von Bothmer, Håkan Wallander och Sven-Olle R. Olsson (Ed.), Jord: mylla, mark och makt (pp. 13-43). Lidingö: Fri tanke förlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vad är jord?: En relationshistoria
2017 (Swedish)In: Jord: mylla, mark och makt / [ed] Roland von Bothmer, Håkan Wallander och Sven-Olle R. Olsson, Lidingö: Fri tanke förlag , 2017, p. 13-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lidingö: Fri tanke förlag, 2017
National Category
History of Ideas
Research subject
History Of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139427 (URN)978-91-87935-77-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-09-12 Created: 2017-09-12 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E. (2016). 1900-talets skogshistoria påverkar synen på framtiden. Skogshistoriska sällskapets årsskrift, 22-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>1900-talets skogshistoria påverkar synen på framtiden
2016 (Swedish)In: Skogshistoriska sällskapets årsskrift, ISSN 1650-0962, p. 22-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skogshistoriska Sällskapet, 2016
National Category
Humanities
Research subject
History Of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133002 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-28 Created: 2017-03-28 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Rist, L., Felton, A., Mårald, E., Samuelsson, L., Lundmark, T. & Rosvall, O. (2016). Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture. Ambio, 45, 140-151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture
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2016 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 140-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden’s current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership—characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry.

Keywords
Climate change, Forest management, Risk, Silviculture, Uncertainty
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118045 (URN)10.1007/s13280-015-0750-9 (DOI)000372300000007 ()26744049 (PubMedID)
Note

Supplement: 2

Available from: 2016-03-10 Created: 2016-03-10 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E. & Westholm, E. (2016). Changing Approaches to the Future in Swedish Forestry, 1850–2010. Nature and Culture, 11(1), 1-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing Approaches to the Future in Swedish Forestry, 1850–2010
2016 (English)In: Nature and Culture, ISSN 1558-6073, E-ISSN 1558-5468, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores the changing construction of the future in Swedish forestry since 1850. The framework is based on three concepts: (1) knowability, addressing changing views of knowledge; (2) governability, addressing changing views of the ability to steer the future; and (3) temporality, referring to varying ways of relating to time. The results reveal that until the 1980s, trust in science-based forestry triggered other knowledge-based activities, such as education, surveys, and field trials. The future was seen as predictable and forecasts were expected to support increased forest production. In the 1970s, the environmental debate about the forest incorporated a pluralistic futures agenda. High-production forestry using intensive management methods was questioned. Futures studies shifted focus from predictions to scenarios, highlighting a less predictable future open to human agency. Paradoxically, with increased knowledge of forest ecology and forest markets with improved modeling techniques, the future horizon shifted to one of risks and uncertainties.

Keywords
constructions of the future, forestry, future, history, sustainability, Sweden
National Category
History of Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118680 (URN)10.3167/nc.2016.110101 (DOI)000372334300001 ()
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2016-03-29 Created: 2016-03-29 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E., Langston, N., Sténs, A. & Moen, J. (2016). Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Ambio, 45, 74-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries
2016 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 74-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader—and often ecologically focused—concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed.

Keywords
Ecology, Forestry concepts, Governance, History, Sweden, The United States
National Category
History Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
biology, Environmental Science; History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-115209 (URN)10.1007/s13280-015-0744-7 (DOI)000372300000002 ()26744044 (PubMedID)
Projects
Future Forests
Note

Supplement: 2

Available from: 2016-02-01 Created: 2016-02-01 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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