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Mårald, Erland
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Publications (10 of 53) Show all publications
Ranius, T., Rudolphi, J., Sténs, A. & Erland, M. (2017). Conflicting demands and shifts between policy and intra-scientific orientation during conservation research programmes. Ambio, 46(6), 621-629
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conflicting demands and shifts between policy and intra-scientific orientation during conservation research programmes
2017 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conservation scientists must meet the sometimes conflicting demands of policy and science, but not necessarily at the same time. We analysed the policy and intra-scientific orientations of research projects on effects of stump extraction on biodiversity, and found shifts over time associated with these demands. Our results indicate that uncertainties related to both factual issues and human decisions are often ignored in policy-oriented reports and syntheses, which could give misleading indications of the reliability or feasibility of any conclusions. The policy versus intra-scientific orientation of the scientific papers generated from the surveyed projects varied substantially, although we argue that in applied research, societal relevance is generally more important than intra-scientific relevance. To make conservation science more socially relevant, there is a need for giving societal relevance higher priority, paying attention to uncertainties and increasing the awareness of the value of cross-disciplinary research considering human decisions and values.

Keywords
Conservation biology, Forest biofuels, Policy-science interface, Synthesis, Uncertainties
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Entomology; Conservation Biology; History Of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138182 (URN)10.1007/s13280-017-0913-y (DOI)000410711600001 ()
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2017-08-15 Created: 2017-08-15 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E., Sandström, C. & Annika, N. (2017). Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract. London & New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract
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2017 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years’ rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors.

This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London & New York: Routledge, 2017. p. 174
Series
The Earthscan forest library
Keywords
reflexive forestry, forest history, social contracts, governance, future studies
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
History; statskunskap; biology; History Of Sciences and Ideas; Social and Economic Geography; Conservation Biology; biological chemistry; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-140184 (URN)978-1-138-90430-9 (ISBN)978-1-315-69643-0 (ISBN)
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E. (2017). Vad är jord?: En relationshistoria. In: Roland von Bothmer, Håkan Wallander och Sven-Olle R. Olsson (Ed.), Jord: mylla, mark och makt (pp. 13-43). Lidingö: Fri tanke förlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vad är jord?: En relationshistoria
2017 (Swedish)In: Jord: mylla, mark och makt / [ed] Roland von Bothmer, Håkan Wallander och Sven-Olle R. Olsson, Lidingö: Fri tanke förlag , 2017, p. 13-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lidingö: Fri tanke förlag, 2017
National Category
History of Ideas
Research subject
History Of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139427 (URN)978-91-87935-77-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-09-12 Created: 2017-09-12 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E. (2016). 1900-talets skogshistoria påverkar synen på framtiden. Skogshistoriska sällskapets årsskrift, 22-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>1900-talets skogshistoria påverkar synen på framtiden
2016 (Swedish)In: Skogshistoriska sällskapets årsskrift, ISSN 1650-0962, p. 22-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skogshistoriska Sällskapet, 2016
National Category
Humanities
Research subject
History Of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133002 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-28 Created: 2017-03-28 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Rist, L., Felton, A., Mårald, E., Samuelsson, L., Lundmark, T. & Rosvall, O. (2016). Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture. Ambio, 45, 140-151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture
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2016 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 140-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden’s current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership—characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry.

Keywords
Climate change, Forest management, Risk, Silviculture, Uncertainty
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118045 (URN)10.1007/s13280-015-0750-9 (DOI)000372300000007 ()26744049 (PubMedID)
Note

Supplement: 2

Available from: 2016-03-10 Created: 2016-03-10 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E. & Westholm, E. (2016). Changing Approaches to the Future in Swedish Forestry, 1850–2010. Nature and Culture, 11(1), 1-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing Approaches to the Future in Swedish Forestry, 1850–2010
2016 (English)In: Nature and Culture, ISSN 1558-6073, E-ISSN 1558-5468, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores the changing construction of the future in Swedish forestry since 1850. The framework is based on three concepts: (1) knowability, addressing changing views of knowledge; (2) governability, addressing changing views of the ability to steer the future; and (3) temporality, referring to varying ways of relating to time. The results reveal that until the 1980s, trust in science-based forestry triggered other knowledge-based activities, such as education, surveys, and field trials. The future was seen as predictable and forecasts were expected to support increased forest production. In the 1970s, the environmental debate about the forest incorporated a pluralistic futures agenda. High-production forestry using intensive management methods was questioned. Futures studies shifted focus from predictions to scenarios, highlighting a less predictable future open to human agency. Paradoxically, with increased knowledge of forest ecology and forest markets with improved modeling techniques, the future horizon shifted to one of risks and uncertainties.

Keywords
constructions of the future, forestry, future, history, sustainability, Sweden
National Category
History of Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118680 (URN)10.3167/nc.2016.110101 (DOI)000372334300001 ()
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2016-03-29 Created: 2016-03-29 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E., Langston, N., Sténs, A. & Moen, J. (2016). Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Ambio, 45, 74-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries
2016 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 74-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader—and often ecologically focused—concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed.

Keywords
Ecology, Forestry concepts, Governance, History, Sweden, The United States
National Category
History Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
biology, Environmental Science; History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-115209 (URN)10.1007/s13280-015-0744-7 (DOI)000372300000002 ()26744044 (PubMedID)
Projects
Future Forests
Note

Supplement: 2

Available from: 2016-02-01 Created: 2016-02-01 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Backman, F. & Mårald, E. (2016). Is there a Nordic Model for the treatment of introduced tree species?: A comparison of the use, policy, and debate concerning introduced tree species in the Nordic countries. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 31(2), 222-232
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is there a Nordic Model for the treatment of introduced tree species?: A comparison of the use, policy, and debate concerning introduced tree species in the Nordic countries
2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 222-232Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article compares the use, policy, and debate concerning introduced tree species in the five Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland). These countries have a long common history and are culturally similar. They are often framed under the benchmark of the Nordic Model or even the Nordic Forestry Model. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Nordic countries' treatment of introduced tree species share common aspects, and that global environmental agreements and international currents in science and policy have reinforced these similarities. The comparison shows that globalization is strong and it seems, at least at a first glimpse, that the Nordic countries follow a kind of Nordic Model in their approach to introduced tree species. However, the history and importance of forestry, ecological conditions, afforestation campaigns, traditions of using introduced trees, understandings, and stakeholder positions have shaped different national and even regional path dependencies and circumstances. This, in turn, has transmuted international policy-making, regulations, and discussions into different specific ways to interpret, control, and implement the use of introduced trees in practice. This article concludes that global environmental agreements and international currents in science and policy adapt to diverse national contexts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keywords
Forests, introduced trees, the Nordic countries, forestry, biodiversity, history, bioeconomy
National Category
History of Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116730 (URN)10.1080/02827581.2015.1089929 (DOI)000368547300010 ()
Available from: 2016-02-19 Created: 2016-02-11 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E. & Nordlund, C. (2016). Natur och miljö i nordisk kultur: några idéhistoriska nedslag. RIG: Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, 99(1), 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Natur och miljö i nordisk kultur: några idéhistoriska nedslag
2016 (Swedish)In: RIG: Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0035-5267, E-ISSN 2002-3863, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Do Swedes love and adore natural scenery, perhaps even more than other people do. In this essay, the authors argue that nature – and certain images of a typically Swedish nature – has indeed played a vital role in Swedish cultural history, especially since the end of the nineteenth century. However, this has not been the case due to some "inherent element" within the Swedish population but is rather a result of a "collective learning process" at the social level. According to the authors, this learning process was initially connected to nationalism, industrialisation and modernisation and has over time been driven, shaped and mediated by many different institutions and practices in society, such as natural science, landscape painting, wildlife tourism, winter sports, nature protection, literature, environmental politics and agencies, and eventually business and marketing. Furthermore, the authors discuss similarities as well as differences between the modern environmental history and view of nature in Sweden and the other Nordic countries. 

Abstract [sv]

Människorna i Sverige beskrivs gärna som ett naturälskande folk. Som orsak till deras vurm för naturen har olika förklaringar angetts. Inte sällan har forskare och författare velat koppla samman människorna och naturen med hjälp av klimatläror och geopolitiska teorier. Väl kända för svenskt vidkommande är den serie aforismer som statistikern och demografen Gustaf Sundbärg torgförde i boken Det svenska folklynnet (1911). Sundbärg hävdar här att kärleken till naturen är ”djupt rotad hos vårt folk”. Upplysningens blomsterkonung Carl von Linné, som hyllade naturen som ett Guds mirakel, sägs ha haft en avgörande betydelse som inspiratör, men känslan antas ha funnits där långt före 1700-talet. Ty ”i sig själf är denna naturdyrkan nog äldre än så, ja den ligger i vårt folks lynne från begynnelsen”. I samma anda verkade författaren och litteraturhistorikern Fredrik Böök, som 1924 skrev: ”Hela den svenska kulturen är inbäddad i storskogen som ett nybygge. Det doftar barr och pors kring oss alla” (Christensson 2002:9). Exempel på utsagor av detta kulturessentialistiska slag kan mångfaldigas. Sådana utsagor är emellertid möjliga att problematisera. För det första har liknande omdömen framförts även i andra länder och med en liknande retorik. Detta inte minst i övriga nordiska länder. För det andra bör det påpekas att de som uttalat sig om naturen i Sverige långt ifrån alltid varit positivt sinnade. Att naturkärleken skulle vara urgammal är antagligen en lika stor myt som idén om att det skulle ha funnits ett specifikt ”svenskt folk” sedan begynnelsen. Faktum är att naturen i Sverige också har uppfattats som hård och karg, menlös och trist. Och den otämjda vildmark som på senare tid har upphöjts till norm var länge något människorna, ibland på goda grunder, fruktade. Det tidiga 1800-talets naturideal var varken djupa skogar, höga fjäll eller glittrande sjölandskap utan snarare de tillrättalagda parklandskap som stod att finna på den europeiska kontinenten. Svenskarnas påstått kollektiva vurm för den egna naturen är i själva verket ett ganska sent fenomen, inte mer än ett drygt sekel gammal (Ek-Nilsson, Midholm, Nordström, Saltzman & Sjögård 2014). Vårt syfte med denna essä är att resonera kring uppkomsten och utvecklingen av den svenska naturvurmen genom att göra några nedslag i naturumgängets idéhistoria i ett nordiskt sammanhang. Den tes vi driver är att svenskarnas kärlek till naturen är modern och att den är resultatet av en kollektiv läroprocess. Vi hävdar också att det finns stora likheter (men också vissa skillnader) mellan de nordiska länderna när det gäller den moderna synen på naturen. Essän är baserad på vår egen och andras forskning men vi hoppas att vår komparativa ansats kan bidra till en fördjupad förståelse av ämnet.

Keywords
Nordic countries, view of nature, nationalism, interaction with nature, environmentalism, Norden, natursyn, nationalism, naturumgänge, miljövård
National Category
History of Ideas
Research subject
History Of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119546 (URN)
Available from: 2016-04-22 Created: 2016-04-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E., Sandström, C., Rist, L., Rosvall, O., Samuelsson, L. & Idenfors, A. (2015). Exploring the use of a dialogue process to tackle a complex and controversial issue in forest management. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 30(8), 749-756
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the use of a dialogue process to tackle a complex and controversial issue in forest management
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2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 749-756Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores the use of a dialogue process to approach complex issues related to forest management. Aninterdisciplinary research team set up an experimental dialogue process concerning the use of introduced tree speciesin Southern Sweden for the purposes of climate change adaptation. The process involved stakeholders at a regionallevel, including those with divergent opinions regarding introduced tree species and their use in forestry. Through aprocess of repeated meetings and exchanges with researchers, the participant’s knowledge was deepened and grouprelationships developed such that the group was able to jointly formulate a set of policy recommendations. Theinvestigation revealed that dialogue processes may improve decision-making by identifying priorities for action orfurther research. However, when a collaborative process targets complex environmental issues on larger geographicaland temporal scales, as matters about forests typically do, a collaborative process must be integrated with externalactors and institutions in order to attain tangible outcomes. Consequently, to fully access the benefits of usingcollaborative processes to handle complex challenges in forest policy and management, the connections betweenpolitical sphere, the private sector, authorities and research institutions must be concretely established.

Keywords
Collaborative processes, forest management, climate change adaptation, introduced tree species, complex problems, policy recommendations
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-108178 (URN)10.1080/02827581.2015.1065343 (DOI)000361601800012 ()
Available from: 2015-09-04 Created: 2015-09-04 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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