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Preet, Raman
Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Preet, R. (2018). Dental health is a neglected topic in travel medicine [Letter to the editor]. Journal of Travel Medicine, 25(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dental health is a neglected topic in travel medicine
2018 (English)In: Journal of Travel Medicine, ISSN 1195-1982, E-ISSN 1708-8305, Vol. 25, no 1Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153765 (URN)10.1093/jtm/tay082 (DOI)000451526900001 ()30192970 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-30 Created: 2018-11-30 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
Kailembo, A., Quiñonez, C., Lopez Mitnik, G. V., Weintraub, J. A., Stewart Williams, J., Preet, R., . . . Dye, B. A. (2018). Income and wealth as correlates of socioeconomic disparity in dentist visits among adults aged 20 years and over in the United States, 2011–2014. BMC Oral Health, 18(1), Article ID 147.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Income and wealth as correlates of socioeconomic disparity in dentist visits among adults aged 20 years and over in the United States, 2011–2014
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2018 (English)In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Most studies in the United States (US) have used income and education as socioeconomic indicators but there is limited information on other indicators, such as wealth. We aimed to assess how two socioeconomic status measures, income and wealth, compare as correlates of socioeconomic disparity in dentist visits among adults in the US.

Methods: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014 were used to calculate self-reported dental visit prevalence for adults aged 20 years and over living in the US. Prevalence ratios using Poisson regressions were conducted separately with income and wealth as independent variables. The dependent variable was not having a dentist visit in the past 12 months. Covariates included sociodemographic factors and untreated dental caries. Parsimonious models, including only statistically significant (p < 0.05) covariates, were derived. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) measured the relative statistical quality of the income and wealth models. Analyses were additionally stratified by race/ethnicity in response to statistically significant interactions.

Results: The prevalence of not having a dentist visit in the past 12 months among adults aged 20 years and over was 39%. Prevalence was highest in the poorest (58%) and lowest wealth (57%) groups. In the parsimonious models, adults in the poorest and lowest wealth groups were close to twice as likely to not have a dentist visit (RR 1.69; 95%CI: 1.51–1.90) and (RR 1.68; 95%CI: 1.52–1.85) respectively. In the income model the risk of not having a dentist visit were 16% higher in the age group 20–44 years compared with the 65+ year age group (RR 1.16; 95%CI: 1.04–1.30) but age was not statistically significant in the wealth model. The AIC scores were lower (better) for the income model. After stratifying by race/ethnicity, age remained a significant indicator for dentist visits for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Asians whereas age was not associated with dentist visits in the wealth model.

Conclusions: Income and wealth are both indicators of socioeconomic disparities in dentist visits in the US, but both do not have the same impact in some populations in the US.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2018
Keywords
dental utilization, dental visits, disparities, income, inequalities, socioeconomic position, wealth
National Category
Dentistry Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151112 (URN)10.1186/s12903-018-0613-4 (DOI)000442838700002 ()30139349 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Wilder-Smith, A., Tissera, H., AbuBakar, S., Kittayapong, P., Logan, J., Neumayr, A., . . . Preet, R. (2018). Novel tools for the surveillance and control of dengue: findings by the dengueTools research consortium. Global Health Action, 11(1), Article ID 1549930.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel tools for the surveillance and control of dengue: findings by the dengueTools research consortium
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2018 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1549930Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Dengue fever persists as a major global disease burden, and may increase as a consequence of climate change. Along with other measures, research actions to improve diagnosis, surveillance, prevention, and predictive models are highly relevant. The European Commission funded the DengueTools consortium to lead a major initiative in these areas, and this review synthesises the outputs and findings of this work conducted from 2011 to 2016. Research areas: DengueTools organised its work into three research areas, namely [1] Early warning and surveillance systems; [2] Strategies to prevent dengue in children; and [3] Predictive models for the global spread of dengue. Research area 1 focused on case-studies undertaken in Sri Lanka, including developing laboratory-based sentinel surveillance, evaluating economic impact, identifying drivers of transmission intensity, evaluating outbreak prediction capacity and developing diagnostic capacity. Research area 2 addressed preventing dengue transmission in school children, with case-studies undertaken in Thailand. Insecticide-treated school uniforms represented an intriguing potential approach, with some encouraging results, but which were overshadowed by a lack of persistence of insecticide on the uniforms with repeated washing. Research area 3 evaluated potential global spread of dengue, particularly into dengue-naive areas such as Europe. The role of international travel, changing boundaries of vectors, developing models of vectorial capacity under different climate change scenarios and strategies for vector control in outbreaks was all evaluated. Concluding remarks: DengueTools was able to make significant advances in methods for understanding and controlling dengue transmission in a range of settings. These will have implications for public health agendas to counteract dengue, including vaccination programmes. Outlook: Towards the end of the DengueTools project, Zika virus emerged as an unexpected epidemic in the central and southern America. Given the similarities between the dengue and Zika viruses, with vectors in common, some of the DengueTools thinking translated readily into the Zika situation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018
Keywords
Dengue, DengueTools, surveillance, impregnated clothing, schools, Aedes, vectorial capacity, edictive modelling, importation, travel, Zika, reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase plification
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154333 (URN)10.1080/16549716.2018.1549930 (DOI)000451847300001 ()
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2018-12-27Bibliographically approved
Kailembo, A., Preet, R. & Stewart Williams, J. (2018). Socioeconomic inequality in self-reported unmet need for oral health services in adults aged 50 years and over in China, Ghana, and India. International Journal for Equity in Health, 17, Article ID 99.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socioeconomic inequality in self-reported unmet need for oral health services in adults aged 50 years and over in China, Ghana, and India
2018 (English)In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, article id 99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study estimated that oral conditions affect 3.5 billion people worldwide with a higher burden among older adults and those who are socially and economically disadvantaged. Studies of inequalities in the use of oral health services by those in need have been conducted in high-income countries but evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is limited. This study measures and describes socioeconomic inequality in self-reported unmet need for oral health services in adults aged 50 years and over, in China, Ghana and India.

METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of national survey data from the WHO SAGE Wave 1 (2007-2010) was conducted. Study samples in China (n = 1591), Ghana (n = 425) and India (n = 1307) were conditioned on self-reported need for oral health services in the previous 12 months. The binary dependent variable, unmet need for oral health services, was derived from questions about self-reported need and service use. Prevalence was estimated by country. Unmet need was measured and compared in terms of relative levels of education and household wealth. The methods were logistic regression and the relative index of inequality (RII). Models were adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, marital status, work status and self-rated health.

RESULTS: The prevalence of unmet need was 60, 80, and 62% in China, Ghana and India respectively. The adjusted RII for education was statistically significant for China (1.5, 95% CI:1.2-1.9), Ghana (1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7), and India (1.5, 95% CI:1.2-2.0), whereas the adjusted RII for wealth was significant only in Ghana (1.3, 95% CI:1.1-1.6). Male sex was significantly associated with self-reported unmet need for oral health services in India.

CONCLUSIONS: Given rapid population ageing, further evidence of socioeconomic inequalities in unmet need for oral health services by older adults in LMICs is needed to inform policies to mitigate inequalities in the availability of oral health services. Oral health is a universal public health issue requiring attention and action on multiple levels and across the public private divide.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2018
Keywords
Access to care, Ageing, Dental, Inequalities, Low-and middle-income countries, Oral health policy, Socioeconomic status
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150616 (URN)10.1186/s12939-018-0812-2 (DOI)000438430100001 ()29996847 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85049807540 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-14 Created: 2018-08-14 Last updated: 2018-08-27Bibliographically approved
Rajeev, B., Prasad, K., Shetty, P. J. & Preet, R. (2017). The relationship between orofacial clefts and consanguineous marriages: A hospital register-based study in Dharwad, South India. Journal of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies, 4(1), 3-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between orofacial clefts and consanguineous marriages: A hospital register-based study in Dharwad, South India
2017 (English)In: Journal of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies, ISSN 2348–2125, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Orofacial cleft (OFC) is one of the common craniofacial malformations. The etiology of these OFCs is multifactorial. One of the etiological factors is consanguinity (marriage between blood relatives). There is a lack of literature reporting the number of people affected with OFCs due to consanguinity. Aims: The aim of this study is to report the occurrence of OFC and associated factors in relation to consanguinity from a craniofacial hospital specializing in OFCs, head and neck cancer, and trauma management in South India. Setting and Design: This was a hospital-based study, retrospective case record analysis. Methodology: One thousand two hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients' secondary data records with cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP) and cleft lip and palate (CL/P) were collected from January 2007 to July 2009. Statistics: Frequency of consanguinity in relation to OFC was analyzed using Chi-square test according to the nature of clefts and selected demographic features such as sex, region, and religion. Results: A total of 47.2% patients' parents had consanguineous marriage. Consanguinity was seen in 60.2% of male and 39.7% of female patients. CL/P was noticed in 40.9%, followed by CL (36.7%) and CP (22.2%). Males predominated in all types of clefts proportionally with the study population as compared to females. Statistically, significant association (P = 0.04) was seen with consanguinity and CP. Conclusion: Nearly half of the study population had a positive history of consanguinity. Statistically, a significant association was seen between CP and consanguinity. CL/P cases were the most common type identified, followed by CL and CP. Males predominated in all types of clefts. The prevalence of OFC is high, and there is a potential of congenital disabilities from consanguinity. These findings indicate a clear and urgent need for setting up a National Registry of Congenital Anomalies along with craniofacial defects, to monitor these trends and the corresponding need for supportive services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Medknow Publications, 2017
Keywords
Cleft lip, cleft palate, consanguinity, orofacial clefts, South India
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134358 (URN)10.4103/2348-2125.205410 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-05-03 Created: 2017-05-03 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Wilder-Smith, A., Preet, R., Renhorn, K.-E., Ximenes, R. A., Rodrigues, L. C., Solomon, T., . . . Massad, E. (2017). ZikaPLAN: Zika Preparedness Latin American Network. Global Health Action, 10(1), Article ID 1398485.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ZikaPLAN: Zika Preparedness Latin American Network
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2017 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 1398485Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Islands has underlined the need for a coordinated research network across the whole region that can respond rapidly to address the current knowledge gaps in Zika and enhance research preparedness beyond Zika. The European Union under its Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme awarded three research consortia to respond to this need. Here we present the ZikaPLAN (Zika Preparedness Latin American Network) consortium. ZikaPLAN combines the strengths of 25 partners in Latin America, North America, Africa, Asia, and various centers in Europe. We will conduct clinical studies to estimate the risk and further define the full spectrum and risk factors of congenital Zika virus syndrome (including neurodevelopmental milestones in the first 3 years of life), delineate neurological complications associated with ZIKV due to direct neuroinvasion and immune-mediated responses in older children and adults, and strengthen surveillance for birth defects and Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Laboratory-based research to unravel neurotropism and investigate the role of sexual transmission, determinants of severe disease, and viral fitness will underpin the clinical studies. Social messaging and engagement with affected communities, as well as development of wearable repellent technologies against Aedes mosquitoes will enhance the impact. Burden of disease studies, data-driven vector control, and vaccine modeling as well as risk assessments on geographic spread of ZIKV will form the foundation for evidence-informed policies. While addressing the research gaps around ZIKV, we will engage in capacity building in laboratory and clinical research, collaborate with existing and new networks to share knowledge, and work with international organizations to tackle regulatory and other bottlenecks and refine research priorities. In this way, we can leverage the ZIKV response toward building a long-term emerging infectious diseases response capacity in the region to address future challenges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2017
Keywords
European Commission, Zika, collaboration, congenital Zika syndrome, epidemic preparedness, public health emergency, research capacity building network
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143136 (URN)10.1080/16549716.2017.1398485 (DOI)000419653800001 ()29235414 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Preet, R., Khan, N., Blomstedt, Y., Nilsson, M. & Stewart Williams, J. (2016). Assessing dental professionals' understanding of tobacco prevention and control: a qualitative study in Västerbotten County, Sweden. BDJ Open (2), 1-6, Article ID 16009.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing dental professionals' understanding of tobacco prevention and control: a qualitative study in Västerbotten County, Sweden
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2016 (English)In: BDJ Open, ISSN 2056-807X, no 2, p. 1-6, article id 16009Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To assess dental professionals’ understanding of tobacco prevention and control.

Materials and methods: In Sweden dental hygienists receive training in tobacco prevention and control. The study setting is Västerbotton County in the north of Sweden where a number of successful tobacco control initiatives have been established. A purposeful sample comprising five male and four female dental professionals and trainees was selected. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured individual interviews and analysed using content analysis.

Results: Informants acknowledged limited adherence to tobacco prevention. They were not confident of their knowledge of tobacco and non-communicable disease prevention and had limited awareness of global oral health policies. Reasons for poor adherence included professional fragmentation, lack of training, and the absence of reimbursement for time spent on prevention activities.

Discussion: The success of efforts to reduce smoking in Västerbotton County is attributed to the network of local public health initiatives with very limited involvement by local dental professionals.

Conclusions: The findings highlight the need to more actively engage the dental workforce in tobacco control and prevention. Moreover, it is important to recognise that dental professionals can be public health advocates for tobacco control and prevention at global, national and local levels.

Keywords
Health care, Oral cancer
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129790 (URN)10.1038/bdjopen.2016.9 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-01-09 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Kailembo, A., Preet, R. & Stewart Williams, J. (2016). Common risk factors and edentulism in adults, aged 50 years and over, in China, Ghana, India and South Africa: results from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). BMC Oral Health, 17, Article ID 29.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Common risk factors and edentulism in adults, aged 50 years and over, in China, Ghana, India and South Africa: results from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)
2016 (English)In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 17, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Edentulism (loss of all teeth) is a final marker of disease burden for oral health common among older adults and poorer populations. Yet most evidence is from high-income countries. Oral health has many of the same social and behavioural risk factors as other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) which are increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries with ageing populations. The "common risk factor approach" (CRFA) for oral health addresses risk factors shared with NCDs within the broader social and economic environment. Methods: The aim is to improve understanding of edentulism prevalence, and association between common risk factors and edentulism in adults aged 50 years and above using nationally representative samples from China (N = 11,692), Ghana (N = 4093), India (N = 6409) and South Africa (N = 2985). The data source is the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 (2007-2010). Multivariable logistic regression describes association between edentulism and common risk factors reported in the literature. Results: Prevalence of edentulism: in China 8.9 %, Ghana 2.9 %, India 15.3 %, and South Africa 8.7 %. Multivariable analysis: in China, rural residents were more likely to be edentulous (OR 1.36; 95 % CI 1.09-1.69) but less likely to be edentulous in Ghana (OR 0.53; 95 % CI 0.31-0.91) and South Africa (OR 0.52; 95 % CI 0.30-0.90). Respondents with university education (OR 0.31; 95 % CI 0.18-0.53) and in the highest wealth quintile (OR 0.68; 95 % CI 0.52-0.90) in China were less likely to be edentulous. In South Africa respondents with secondary education were more likely to be edentulous (OR 2.82; 95 % CI 1.52-5.21) as were those in the highest wealth quintile (OR 2.78; 95 % CI 1.16-6.70). Edentulism was associated with former smokers in China (OR 1.57; 95 % CI 1.10-2.25) non-drinkers in India (OR 1.65; 95 % CI 1.11-2.46), angina in Ghana (OR 2.86; 95 % CI 1.19-6.84) and hypertension in South Africa (OR 2.75; 95 % CI 1.72-4.38). Edentulism was less likely in respondents with adequate nutrition in China (OR 0.68; 95 % CI 0.53-0.87). Adjusting for all other factors, compared with China, respondents in India were 50 % more likely to be edentulous. Conclusions: Strengthening the CRFA should include addressing common determinants of health to reduce health inequalities and improve both oral and overall health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2016
Keywords
Oral health, Tooth loss, Periodontal, Caries, Common risk factor approach, CRFA, Non-communicable seases, NCDs, Low- and middle-income countries, LMICs
National Category
Dentistry Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125552 (URN)10.1186/s12903-016-0256-2 (DOI)000381733200001 ()27465011 (PubMedID)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-09-15 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Ivarsson, A., Kinsman, J., Johansson, K., Mohamud, K. B., Weinehall, L., Freij, L., . . . Omar, S. (2015). Healing the health system after civil unrest. Global Health Action, 8, 1-4
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Healing the health system after civil unrest
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2015 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, p. 1-4Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Keywords
Diaspora, action, health systems, research collaboration, war and conflicts
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103570 (URN)10.3402/gha.v8.27381 (DOI)000352006300001 ()25828070 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-21 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Preet, R. (2015). INDEPTH training and research centres of excellence (INTREC): building research capacity in social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries. Paper presented at The 9th European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health (ECTMIH), Basel, Switzerland, September 6-10, 2015. Tropical medicine & international health, 20(Suppl. 1), 428-428
Open this publication in new window or tab >>INDEPTH training and research centres of excellence (INTREC): building research capacity in social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries
2015 (English)In: Tropical medicine & international health, ISSN 1360-2276, E-ISSN 1365-3156, Vol. 20, no Suppl. 1, p. 428-428Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The major causes of poor health are rooted in society. Achieving health equity requires a global action in support of building the limited evidence on health and its determinants from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This intentionally demands building capacity for mobilizing research in these countries. The INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC), an EU FP7 project was established with the aim of undertaking capacity-building activities to facilitate research on the social determinants of health (SDH) in LMICs. Therefore, a six members' consortium initiated this coordination action project in Jan 2012, which is due to conclude in June 2015. INTREC activities covered recruiting a social scientist from each participating country of INDEPTH network, three from Africa (Tanzania, Ghana, South Africa) and four from Asia (Bangladesh, India, Vietnam, and Indonesia) who were trained to produce a standardized-format country needs assessment. These reports provided the basis for the subsequent development of the INTREC training curriculum, including five individual training blocks developed to cover qualitative and quantitative research methods. These were delivered sequentially in five educational blocks over a 12 month period during 2014. The first block was an online course of video lectures and assignments. The second block was a two-week methods workshop, held in both Indonesia (16 students) and Ghana (15 students). A one-week data analysis workshop held at Harvard University comprised the third block, translating research findings to policy and practice comprised Block 4 and the final block had the students share their papers on the course website. The main result of the INTREC action is the development of a conceptual framework detailing how to build a sustainable capacity for research on SDH in LMICs; currently being developed using documentation produced. Furthermore, a total of 31 young researchers are now trained in SDH, and they themselves constitute a network that is promising to develop into the future. The findings indicate a pressing need for mentors who are available to support young researchers in these countries. Also, such a research capacity development has the potential for identifying critical areas requiring policy attention; contributing to health equity in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2015
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-109935 (URN)000360758802311 ()
Conference
The 9th European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health (ECTMIH), Basel, Switzerland, September 6-10, 2015
Available from: 2015-10-16 Created: 2015-10-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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