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Iakovleva, Irina
Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Zhang, J., Grundström, C., Brännström, K., Iakovleva, I., Lindberg, M. J., Olofsson, A., . . . Sauer-Eriksson, A. E. (2018). Interspecies variation between fish and human transthyretins in their binding of thyroid-disrupting chemicals. Environmental Science and Technology, 52(20), 11865-11874
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interspecies variation between fish and human transthyretins in their binding of thyroid-disrupting chemicals
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2018 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 20, p. 11865-11874Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are xenobiotics that can interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse effects in organisms and their offspring. TDCs affect both the thyroid gland and regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone homeostasis. Transthyretin (TTR) is found in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of vertebrates, where it transports thyroid hormones. Here, we explored the interspecies variation in TDC binding to human and fish TTR (exemplified by Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata)). The in vitro binding experiments showed that TDCs bind with equal or weaker affinity to seabream TTR than to the human TTR, in particular, the polar TDCs (>500-fold lower affinity). Crystal structures of the seabream TTR TDC complexes revealed that all TDCs bound at the thyroid binding sites. However, amino acid substitution of Ser117 in human TTR to Thr117 in seabream prevented polar TDCs from binding deep in the hormone binding cavity, which explains their low affinity to seabream TTR Molecular dynamics and in silico alanine scanning simulation also suggested that the protein backbone of seabream TTR is more rigid than the human one and that Thr117 provides fewer electrostatic contributions than Ser117 to ligand binding. This provides an explanation for the weaker affinities of the ligands that rely on electrostatic interactions with Thr117. The lower affinities of TDCs to fish TTR, in particular the polar ones, could potentially lead to milder thyroid-related effects in fish.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153704 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.8b03581 (DOI)000447816100046 ()30226982 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 210-2012-131Swedish Research Council, 521-2011-6427Swedish Research Council, 2015-03607
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Brännström, K., Gharibyan, A. L., Islam, T., Iakovleva, I., Nilsson, L., Lee, C. C., . . . Olofsson, A. (2018). Scanning electron microscopy as a tool for evaluating morphology of amyloid structures formed on surface plasmon resonance chips. Data in Brief, 19, 1166-1170
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scanning electron microscopy as a tool for evaluating morphology of amyloid structures formed on surface plasmon resonance chips
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2018 (English)In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 19, p. 1166-1170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate the use of Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) to probe and verify the formation of amyloid and its morphology on an SPR chip. SPR is a technique that measures changes in the immobilized weight on the chip surface and is frequently used to probe the formation and biophysical properties of amyloid structures. In this context it is of interest to also monitor the morphology of the formed structures. The SPR chip surface is made of a layer of gold, which represent a suitable material for direct analysis of the surface using SEM. The standard SPR chip used here (CM5-chip, GE Healthcare, Uppsala, Sweden) can easily be disassembled and directly analyzed by SEM. In order to verify the formation of amyloid fibrils in our experimental conditions we analyzed also in-solution produced structures by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). For further details and experimental findings, please refer to the article published in Journal of Molecular Biology, (Brännström K. et al., 2018) [1].

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-149049 (URN)10.1016/j.dib.2018.05.129 (DOI)000449869100149 ()30228999 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047834173 (Scopus ID)
Note

Refers to: Kristoffer Brännström, Tohidul Islam, Anna L. Gharibyan, Irina Iakovleva, Lina Nilsson, Cheng Choo Lee, Linda Sandblad, Annelie Pamrén, Anders Olofsson. The Properties of Amyloid-β Fibrils Are Determined by their Path of Formation. Journal of Molecular Biology, Volume 430, Issue 13, 22 June 2018, Pages 1940-1949

Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2019-02-04Bibliographically approved
Brännström, K., Islam, T., Gharibyan, A. L., Iakovleva, I., Nilsson, L., Lee, C. C., . . . Olofsson, A. (2018). The Properties of Amyloid-β Fibrils Are Determined by their Path of Formation. Journal of Molecular Biology, 430(13), 1940-1949
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Properties of Amyloid-β Fibrils Are Determined by their Path of Formation
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 430, no 13, p. 1940-1949Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fibril formation of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) follows a nucleation-dependent polymerization process and is associated with Alzheimer's disease. Several different lengths of Aβ are observed in vivo, but Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 are the dominant forms. The fibril architectures of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 differ and Aβ1-42 assemblies are generally considered more pathogenic. We show here that monomeric Aβ1-42 can be cross-templated and incorporated into the ends of Aβ1-40 fibrils, while incorporation of Aβ1-40 monomers into Aβ1-42 fibrils is very poor. We also show that via cross-templating incorporated Aβ monomers acquire the properties of the parental fibrils. The suppressed ability of Aβ1-40 to incorporate into the ends of Aβ1-42 fibrils and the capacity of Aβ1-42 monomers to adopt the properties of Aβ1-40 fibrils may thus represent two mechanisms reducing the total load of fibrils having the intrinsic, and possibly pathogenic, features of Aβ1-42 fibrils in vivo. We also show that the transfer of fibrillar properties is restricted to fibril-end templating and does not apply to cross-nucleation via the recently described path of surface-catalyzed secondary nucleation, which instead generates similar structures to those acquired via de novo primary nucleation in the absence of catalyzing seeds. Taken together these results uncover an intrinsic barrier that prevents Aβ1-40 from adopting the fibrillar properties of Aβ1-42 and exposes that the transfer of properties between amyloid-β fibrils are determined by their path of formation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Aβ, Cross-templating, Fibril, Surface Plasmon resonance, Thioflavin-T
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148050 (URN)10.1016/j.jmb.2018.05.001 (DOI)29751013 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047103029 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2018-06-14Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, L., Pamrén, A., Islam, T., Brännström, K., Golchin, S. A., Pettersson, N., . . . Olofsson, A. (2018). Transthyretin Interferes with Aβ Amyloid Formation by Redirecting Oligomeric Nuclei into Non-Amyloid Aggregates. Journal of Molecular Biology, 430(17), 2722-2733
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transthyretin Interferes with Aβ Amyloid Formation by Redirecting Oligomeric Nuclei into Non-Amyloid Aggregates
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 430, no 17, p. 2722-2733Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The pathological Aβ aggregates associated with Alzheimer's disease follow a nucleation-dependent path of formation. A nucleus represents an oligomeric assembly of Aβ peptides that acts as a template for subsequent incorporation of monomers to form a fibrillar structure. Nuclei can form de novo or via surface-catalyzed secondary nucleation, and the combined rates of elongation and nucleation control the overall rate of fibril formation. Transthyretin (TTR) obstructs Aβ fibril formation in favor of alternative non-fibrillar assemblies, but the mechanism behind this activity is not fully understood. This study shows that TTR does not significantly disturb fibril elongation; rather, it effectively interferes with the formation of oligomeric nuclei. We demonstrate that this interference can be modulated by altering the relative contribution of elongation and nucleation, and we show how TTR's effects can range from being essentially ineffective to almost complete inhibition of fibril formation without changing the concentration of TTR or monomeric Aβ.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Aβ, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Thioflavin-T, amyloid, transthyretin
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148930 (URN)10.1016/j.jmb.2018.06.005 (DOI)000441645300013 ()29890120 (PubMedID)
Funder
The Dementia Association - The National Association for the Rights of the DementedThe Kempe FoundationsSwedish Research CouncilMagnus Bergvall FoundationTorsten Söderbergs stiftelse
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, L., Larsson, A., Begum, A., Iakovleva, I., Carlsson, M., Kristoffer, B., . . . Olofsson, A. (2016). Modifications of the 7-Hydroxyl Group of the Transthyretin Ligand Luteolin Provide Mechanistic Insights into Its Binding Properties and High Plasma Specificity. PLoS ONE, 11(4), Article ID e0153112.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modifications of the 7-Hydroxyl Group of the Transthyretin Ligand Luteolin Provide Mechanistic Insights into Its Binding Properties and High Plasma Specificity
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 4, article id e0153112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Amyloid formation of the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR) has been linked to familial amyloid polyneuropathy and senile systemic amyloidosis. Binding of ligands within its natural hormone binding site can stabilize the tetrameric structure and impair amyloid formation. We have recently shown that the flavonoid luteolin stabilizes TTR in human plasma with a very high selectivity. Luteolin, however, is inactivated in vivo via glucuronidation for which the preferred site is the hydroxy group at position 7 on its aromatic A-ring. We have evaluated the properties of two luteolin variants in which the 7-hydroxy group has been exchanged for a chlorine (7-Cl-Lut) or a methoxy group (7-MeO-Lut). Using an in vitro model, based on human liver microsomes, we verified that these modifications increase the persistence of the drug. Crystal structure determinations show that 7-Cl-Lut binds similarly to luteolin. The larger MeO substituent cannot be accommodated within the same space as the chlorine or hydroxy group and as a result 7-MeO-Lut binds in the opposite direction with the methoxy group in position 7 facing the solvent. Both 7-Cl-Lut and 7-MeO-Lut qualify as high-affinity binders, but in contrast to luteolin, they display a highly non-specific binding to other plasma components. The binding of the two conformations and the key-interactions to TTR are discussed in detail. Taken together, these results show a proof-of-concept that the persistence of luteolin towards enzymatic modification can be increased. We reveal two alternative high-affinity binding modes of luteolin to TTR and that modification in position 7 is restricted only to small substituents if the original orientation of luteolin should be preserved. In addition, the present work provides a general and convenient method to evaluate the efficacy of TTR-stabilizing drugs under conditions similar to an in vivo environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library Science, 2016
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119997 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0153112 (DOI)000373603500101 ()27050398 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-05-04 Created: 2016-05-04 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Iakovleva, I. (2016). Selection of transthyretin amyloid inhibitors. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selection of transthyretin amyloid inhibitors
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Amyloidosis is a group of clinical disorders caused by the aggregation of specific proteins into abnormal extracellular deposits. Today, 31 different proteins have been linked to amyloid diseases including transthyretin-related amyloidosis (ATTR). ATTR occurs through the aggregation of either wild-type plasma protein transthyretin (TTR) or a mutated form. TTR is a homotetramer that under normal circumstances functions as a carrier of thyroxine and retinol binding protein. The aggregation cascade requires dissociation of the tetramer into monomers, and preventing this dissociation represents a potential mode of intervention. Interestingly, small molecules, referred as kinetic stabilizers, can bind to TTR’s thyroxine-binding site (TBS) and such molecules are currently being used as a therapeutic approach to impair tetramer dissociation.

The efficacy of TTR stabilization is directly correlated to the binding affinity of the ligand to TBS. However, the binding of the ligand to TTR in vivo can be affected by other plasma components resulting in poor efficacy. Thus, the selectivity of ligands is an important parameter. We have designed an assay where the ability to stabilize TTR can be directly evaluated in plasma and we have investigated the stabilizing effect of nine potential TTR binders (Paper I). The results, surprisingly, revealed that the binding affinity of molecules has a poor correlation to its selectivity. However, the nature of protein-ligand complex formation can also be described by enthalpic (∆H) and entropic (∆S) energy contributions. ∆H represents the change in chemical bonds and frequently requires a higher order of orientation compared to the ∆S component, which mainly represents the hydrophobic effect via the exclusion of water. We hypothesized that ligands possessing high ΔH in binding to their co-partner would also be more specific in a complex environment such as plasma. By applying a thermodynamic analysis using isothermal titration calorimetry, we found that the selectivity in plasma correlates well with the ∆H contribution and might, therefore, be a better predictor for selectivity.

Luteolin was found to be a highly selective stabilizer of TTR and was investigated further (Paper II). The ligand displayed a significant rescuing effect in both cell culture and animal models. However, luteolin undergoes rapid enzymatic degradation in the liver and this impairs its use as a potential therapeutic drug. To attempt to circumvent this issue, we modified the most exposed hydroxyl group thus rendering the molecule inert towards glucuronidation (Paper III). The substitutions resulted in higher stability in the face of hepatic degradation molecules, but they also affected the selectivity in a negative manner.

The screening for new TTR stabilizers resulted in the discovery of tetrabromobisphenol A, which displayed a very high selectivity (Paper IV). This study also included a comparison with the drug Vyndaqel™ which currently is in clinically use, and showed how the dosage could be altered to acquire a better level of saturation and possibly also a better clinical effect.

Taken together we present new molecules with the ability to stabilize TTR, and these can serve as scaffolds for the design of new drugs. We present a method to measure the efficacy of a TTR-stabilizing drugs in a complex matrix and as well as a way to adjust the dosage of existing drugs. We also show that the selectivity of a drug is affected by the relative proportion of ∆H and ∆S, and this is of interest for drug design in general.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2016. p. 72
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1826
Keywords
Transthyretin, TTR, ATTR, TTR-stabilizing drugs, selectivity
National Category
Other Basic Medicine
Research subject
Medical Biochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-123939 (URN)978-91-7601-528-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-09-09, KB3A9, byggnad KBC, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-08-18 Created: 2016-07-06 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Zhang, J., Begum, A., Brännström, K., Grundström, C., Iakovleva, I., Olofsson, A., . . . Andersson, P. L. (2016). Structure-based Virtual Screening Protocol for in silico Identification of Potential Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Targeting Transthyretin. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(21), 11984-11993
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structure-based Virtual Screening Protocol for in silico Identification of Potential Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Targeting Transthyretin
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2016 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 21, p. 11984-11993Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thyroid disruption by xenobiotics is associated with a broad spectrum of severe adverse outcomes. One possible molecular target of thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals (THDCs) is transthyretin (TTR), a thyroid hormone transporter in vertebrates. To better understand the interactions between TTR and THDCs, we determined the crystallographic structures of human TTR in complex with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (BP2). The molecular interactions between the ligands and TTR were further characterized using molecular dynamics simulations. A structure-based virtual screening (VS) protocol was developed with the intention of providing an efficient tool for the discovery of novel TTR-binders from the Tox21 inventory. Among the 192 predicted binders, 12 representatives were selected, and their TTR binding affinities were studied with isothermal titration calorimetry, of which seven compounds had binding affinities between 0.26 and 100 mu M. To elucidate structural details in their binding to TTR, crystal structures were determined of TTR in complex with four of the identified compounds including 2,6-dinitro-p-cresol, bisphenol S, clonixin, and triclopyr. The compounds were found to bind in the TTR hormone binding sites as predicted. Our results show that the developed VS protocol is able to successfully identify potential THDCs, and we suggest that it can be used to propose THDCs for future toxicological evaluations.

National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125630 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.6b02771 (DOI)000386991100063 ()27668830 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-09-13 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Iakovleva, I., Begum, A., Brännström, K., Wijsekera, A., Nilsson, L., Zhang, J., . . . Olofsson, A. (2016). Tetrabromobisphenol A Is an Efficient Stabilizer of the Transthyretin Tetramer. PLoS ONE, 11(4), Article ID e0153529.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tetrabromobisphenol A Is an Efficient Stabilizer of the Transthyretin Tetramer
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 4, article id e0153529Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Amyloid formation of the human plasma protein transthyretin (TTR) is associated with several human disorders, including familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) and senile systemic amyloidosis. Dissociation of TTR’s native tetrameric assembly is the rate-limiting step in the conversion into amyloid, and this feature presents an avenue for intervention because binding of an appropriate ligand to the thyroxin hormone binding sites of TTR stabilizes the native tetrameric assembly and impairs conversion into amyloid. The desired features for an effective TTR stabilizer include high affinity for TTR, high selectivity in the presence of other proteins, no adverse side effects at the effective concentrations, and a long half-life in the body. In this study we show that the commonly used flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) efficiently stabilizes the tetrameric structure of TTR. The X-ray crystal structure shows TBBPA binding in the thyroxine binding pocket with bromines occupying two of the three halogen binding sites. Interestingly, TBBPA binds TTR with an extremely high selectivity in human plasma, and the effect is equal to the recently approved drug tafamidis and better than diflunisal, both of which have shown therapeutic effects against FAP. TBBPA consequently present an interesting scaffold for drug design. Its absorption, metabolism, and potential side-effects are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library Science, 2016
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119999 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0153529 (DOI)000374541200025 ()27093678 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-05-04 Created: 2016-05-04 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Iakovleva, I., Brännström, K., Nilsson, L., Gharibyan, A., Begum, A., Intissar, A., . . . Olofsson, A. (2015). Enthalpic Forces Correlate with Selectivity of Transthyretin-Stabilizing Ligands in Human Plasma. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 58(16), 6507-6515
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enthalpic Forces Correlate with Selectivity of Transthyretin-Stabilizing Ligands in Human Plasma
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 58, no 16, p. 6507-6515Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The plasma protein transthyretin (TTR) is linked to human amyloidosis. Dissociation of its native tetrameric assembly is a rate-limiting step in the conversion from a native structure into a pathological amyloidogenic fold. Binding of small molecule ligands within the thyroxine binding site of TTR can stabilize the tetrameric integrity and is a potential therapeutic approach. However, through the characterization of nine different tetramer-stabilizing ligands we found that unspecific binding to plasma components might significantly compromise ligand efficacy. Surprisingly the binding strength between a particular ligand and TTR does not correlate well with its selectivity in plasma. However, through analysis of the thermodynamic signature using isothermal titration calorimetry we discovered a better correlation between selectivity and the enthalpic component of the interaction. This is of specific interest in the quest for more efficient TTR stabilizers, but a high selectivity is an almost universally desired feature within drug design and the finding might have wide-ranging implications for drug design.

Keywords
transthyretin, entalpic, enthropic
National Category
Medicinal Chemistry
Research subject
biological chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106724 (URN)10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00544 (DOI)000360415800015 ()26214366 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-08-04 Created: 2015-08-04 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Iakovleva, I., Begum, A., Pokrzywa, M., Walfridsson, M., Sauer-Eriksson, A. E. & Olofsson, A. (2015). The flavonoid luteolin, but not luteolin-7-o-glucoside, prevents a transthyretin mediated toxic response. PLoS ONE, 10(5), Article ID e0128222.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The flavonoid luteolin, but not luteolin-7-o-glucoside, prevents a transthyretin mediated toxic response
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2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0128222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric plasma protein with amyloidogenic properties that has been linked to the development of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), familial amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, and senile systemic amyloidosis. The in vivo role of TTR is associated with transport of thyroxine hormone T4 and retinol-binding protein. Loss of the tetrameric integrity of TTR is a rate-limiting step in the process of TTR amyloid formation, and ligands with the ability to bind within the thyroxin binding site (TBS) can stabilize the tetramer, a feature that is currently used as a therapeutic approach for FAP. Several different flavonoids have recently been identified that impair amyloid formation. The flavonoid luteolin shows therapeutic potential with low incidence of unwanted side effects. In this work, we show that luteolin effectively attenuates the cytotoxic response to TTR in cultured neuronal cells and rescues the phenotype of a Drosophila melanogaster model of FAP. The plant-derived luteolin analogue cynaroside has a glucoside group in position 7 of the flavone A-ring and as opposed to luteolin is unable to stabilize TTR tetramers and thus prevents a cytotoxic effect. We generated high-resolution crystal-structures of both TTR wild type and the amyloidogenic mutant V30M in complex with luteolin. The results show that the A-ring of luteolin, in contrast to what was previously suggested, is buried within the TBS, consequently explaining the lack of activity from cynaroside. The flavonoids represent an interesting group of drug candidates for TTR amyloidosis. The present investigation shows the potential of luteolin as a stabilizer of TTR in vivo. We also show an alternative orientation of luteolin within the TBS which could represent a general mode of binding of flavonoids to TTR and is of importance concerning the future design of tetramer stabilizing drugs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library Science, 2015
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103893 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0128222 (DOI)000355187300089 ()26020516 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-06-02 Created: 2015-06-02 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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