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Lindmark, M. (2019). Rethinking the environmental state: an economic history of the Swedish Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon. In: Marc Ozawa, Jonathan Chaplin,Michael Pollitt, David Reiner, Paul Warde (Ed.), In search of good energy policy: (pp. 139-164). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rethinking the environmental state: an economic history of the Swedish Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon
2019 (English)In: In search of good energy policy / [ed] Marc Ozawa, Jonathan Chaplin,Michael Pollitt, David Reiner, Paul Warde, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 139-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is important to recognize that macroeconomic conditions and dynamics were important for the design of Swedish energy policy and that the transformation pressure on the Swedish energy system was exceptionally high by international comparison. Historic decisions, which were governed by a rationality fostered by the circumstances in the 1940s and early 1950s, came to form important structures which affected the outcome of the energy policy in the 1970s and 1980s. The perhaps most striking consequence of this was the emergence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon with few international counterparts. The transformative change of the Swedish energy system included several steps, which in retrospect seem accidental. The challenge today is to copy the sequence, while at the same time realizing that the structures and historical circumstances that brought about a sequence that was historically determined and of a contingent nature cannot easily serve as a 'copy and paste' learning example.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019
Series
Cambridge Studies on Environment, Energy and Natural Resources Governance
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-160764 (URN)10.1017/9781108639439.012 (DOI)9781108639439 (ISBN)9781108481168 (ISBN)9781108455466 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, M. & Olsson Spjut, F. (2019). The transformation of the organic energy system: the Swedish perspective. Historia Agraria, 77, 59-80
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The transformation of the organic energy system: the Swedish perspective
2019 (English)In: Historia Agraria, ISSN 1139-1472, E-ISSN 2340-3659, Vol. 77, p. 59-80Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article discusses the historical conversion of the Swedish organic energy system into a mineral one. The main argument is that there was a dynamic interaction between the two systems during the Swedish industrialization process. For one, growth of the mineral energy system contributed to open previously inaccessible organic resources in the forests of northern Sweden. Secondly, the development of the pulp and paper industry contributed to the switch from charcoal to coke in the iron manufacturing industry. Thirdly, the development of hydropower, itself an organic source of energy, further contributed to the emergence of a mixed energy system. One can therefore perceive the Swedish transition from an organic to a mineral energy system as a shift from a traditional organic energy system to an industrialized one, that is, an organic energy system dependent on the technologies and organizational structures of the mineral energy system in order to function.

Abstract [es]

En este artículo se analiza en perspectiva histórica la transición de un sistema energético orgánico a otro mineral para el caso de Suecia. Los principales argumentos son que en el proceso de industrialización sueco hubo una interacción dinámica entre ambos sistemas. En primer lugar, observamos que la expansión del sistema energético mineral facilitó el acceso a recursos orgánicos en el norte de Suecia, antes inaccesibles. En segundo lugar, comprobamos que el auge de la industria papelera fue un factor clave en la transición de le industria del hierro desde el carbón vegetal al coque. En tercer lugar, el desarrollo de la energía hidráulica, una fuente de energía orgánica, contribuyó adicionalmente a la coexistencia de un sistema energético mixto. Planteamos, por tanto, que la transición de un sistema energético orgánico a uno mineral en Suecia puede entenderse como el cambio de un sistema de energía orgánica tradicional a otro también orgánico pero industrializado, esto es, a un sistema energético que para su funcionamiento era dependiente de tecnologías y estructuras organizativas del sistema mineral.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universidad de Murcia, 2019
Keywords
organic energy system, energy history, Sweden, firewood, sistema energético orgánico, historia de la energía, Suecia, leña
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153784 (URN)10.26882/histagrar.077e03 (DOI)000475980500003 ()2-s2.0-85062907357 (Scopus ID)881253 (Local ID)881253 (Archive number)881253 (OAI)
Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, M. & Andersson, L. F. (2019). Tillväxten och de stigande förväntningarnas missnöje [Letter to the editor]. Ekonomisk Debatt, 47(2), 75-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tillväxten och de stigande förväntningarnas missnöje
2019 (Swedish)In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 75-76Article in journal, Letter (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2019
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163378 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-17 Created: 2019-09-17 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, M. & Minde, K.-B. (2018). Et energiregnskap for Fastlands-Norge 1835–2012. Heimen, 55(2), 157-177
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Et energiregnskap for Fastlands-Norge 1835–2012
2018 (Norwegian)In: Heimen, ISSN 0017-9841, E-ISSN 1894-3195, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 157-177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy consumption in the Norwegian mainland economy 1835–2012

A characteristic feature of the pre-industrial societies was that they relied on limited energy resources. It was only by using fossil fuels and new technologies that these societies could move the boundaries that the organic economy had set for production and consumption.

Norwegian energy history is, from the 1900th Century on, about the movement of those boundaries and is composed of two stories. One deals with the mainland economy, the other deals with the foreign economy (the merchant marine, etc.). These two stories are closely connected but are nonetheless dissimilar.

In this article, we present a sketch of the first story about energy consumption in the mainland economy, in the form of an energy accounting for the Norwegian mainland 1835–2012. The accounts show the accumulated consumption of energy from nine selected energy carriers in Norway. Our work is the first overall accounting 1835–2012, and gives new insights into the field of energy consumption research. Specifically, we provide a new accounting of Norwegian energy consumption in the years 1835–1900 and 1950–1976.

In the result section we first present figures for energy consumption 1835–2012. Secondly, we briefly outline an energy history for the foreign sector. We round out the result section with a brief reflection on whether the Norwegian energy history is so deviant from other countries that we can talk about a separate Norwegian development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universitetsforlaget, 2018
Keywords
Energy history, Norway, Economic History
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151275 (URN)10.18261/issn.1894-3195-2018-02-05 (DOI)881253 (Local ID)881253 (Archive number)881253 (OAI)
Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, M. & Olsson Spjut, F. (2018). From organic to fossil and in-between: new estimates of energy consumption in the Swedish manufacturing industry during 1800–1913. Scandinavian Economic History Review, 66(1), 18-33
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From organic to fossil and in-between: new estimates of energy consumption in the Swedish manufacturing industry during 1800–1913
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 18-33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, new estimates of energy consumption in the Swedish manufacturing industry during 1800–1913 are used for interpreting the Swedish industrialisation process from an energy economic perspective. For one we conclude that the revision of previous estimates is substantial when it comes to manufacturing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the increase of coal consumption, the expansion of the fossil or mineral energy system, to a high degree can be explained by the increased use of steam engines in manufacturing and the transport sector. Finally, we conclude that overall energy intensity patterns is largely determined by assumptions on household firewood consumption. A narrative interpretation of the interplay between energy system transformation and the industrialisation in Sweden concludes the article.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
Energy history, Sweden, industrialisation, coal, energy system, Sverige, energihistoria, ekonomisk historia, industrialisering, industri
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141949 (URN)10.1080/03585522.2017.1401554 (DOI)000434456000003 ()881253 (Local ID)881253 (Archive number)881253 (OAI)
Projects
RBJ "The limits to growth in a sustainable society" (Dnr P10-0701:1)Jan Wallander och Tom Hedelius stiftelse "Engines for sustainability"
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, Dnr P10-0701:1
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Adams, M., Andersson, L. F., Lindmark, M., Eriksson, L. & Veprauskaite, E. (2018). Managing policy lapse risk in Sweden’s life insurance market between 1915 and 1947. Business History
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing policy lapse risk in Sweden’s life insurance market between 1915 and 1947
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

We examine the challenges that Swedish life insurers faced in managing the lapse risk of policies written on the lives of the industrial urban working class between 1915 and 1947. We observe that with the threat of State socialisation of insurance in the 1930s, industrial life insurers modified their business practices to better control policy lapses. Using firm-level data, we also analyse the effect of socio-economic changes, such as rising real wages, interest rate fluctuations and unemployment on life insurance policy lapses. Our results support contemporary tests of the emergency fund and interest rate explanations for the voluntary premature termination of life insurance policies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
policy lapse risk, life insurance, Sweden
National Category
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145253 (URN)10.1080/00076791.2017.1418331 (DOI)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Projects
Effektivitet och jämlikhet i privat och offentlig försäkring: En analys av det svenska sjukförsäkringssystemet 1900-1955
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Andersson, L. F. & Lindmark, M. (2018). Välfärden, skatterna, baumoleffekten och högerpopulismens framväxt. Ekonomisk Debatt, 46(7), 33-44
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Välfärden, skatterna, baumoleffekten och högerpopulismens framväxt
2018 (Swedish)In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Vi ser i dag en förtroendekris för de politiska krafter som under hela efterkrigstiden har fört en kamp kring avvägningen mellan skatter och offentligt finansierad välfärd under förutsättning att den makroekonomiska jämvikten inteäventyras. Utmanare är högerpopulismen som vunnit mark genom utpekandetav invandring som en allmän förklaring till höga skatter och upplevda brister ivälfärden. Men lika lite som invandringen egentligen kan förklara långsiktigtstigande skatter, lika bortglömd tycks Baumoleffekten vara. Bristen på strukturellekonomisk-historisk analys för att förstå utmaningarna för välfärdsfinansieringär uppenbara

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2018
Keywords
Offentlig ekonomi
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163376 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-09-17 Created: 2019-09-17 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, M., Nguyen Thu, H. & Stage, J. (2018). Weak support for weak sustainability: genuine savings and long-term wellbeing in Sweden, 1850–2000. Ecological Economics, 145, 339-345
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Weak support for weak sustainability: genuine savings and long-term wellbeing in Sweden, 1850–2000
2018 (English)In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 145, p. 339-345Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We study genuine savings as an indicator of long-term welfare for Sweden for the period 1850 to 2000. Sweden has developed long series of comprehensive ‘green’ national accounts for this entire period and is, therefore, interesting as a testing ground for the hypotheses linking green accounting and sustainability. We find support for the weakest of the hypotheses in the theoretical literature on weak sustainability and genuine savings, namely that genuine savings are correlated with future economic well-being. However, the stronger hypotheses in this literature are not supported: there is no one-to-one relationship between genuine savings and prosperity, there is no indication that the relationship becomes stronger for longer time horizons, or with more comprehensive savings measures. The findings suggest that genuine savings, at least as currently measured in national accounts and satellite accounts, may not be a good forward-looking indicator of future prosperity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Genuine savings, Green national accounting, Weak sustainability, national accounts, Sweden
National Category
Economics Economic History
Research subject
Economics; Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143176 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.11.015 (DOI)000424316700029 ()881253 (Local ID)881253 (Archive number)881253 (OAI)
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Acar, S. & Lindmark, M. (2017). Convergence of CO2 emissions and economic growth in the OECD countries: did the type of fuel matter?. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, 12(7), 618-627
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Convergence of CO2 emissions and economic growth in the OECD countries: did the type of fuel matter?
2017 (English)In: Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, ISSN 1556-7249, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 618-627Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study analyzes convergence in CO2 emissions in the OECD countries with respect to the source of emissions (oil versus coal). The investigated period 1973-2010 is divided into two sub-periods, 1973-1991 and 1992-2010. The first period covers the OPEC oil price shocks, where the OECD oil policy was to a high extent governed by energy security concerns and cold war strategic considerations. The second period corresponds to the end of the cold war and the rise of climate policy in several OECD countries. Due to such contextual differences, oil and coal behave differently in the two sub-periods. The generally stronger convergence with respect to oil-related emissions until 1991 conditional on GDP per capita is compatible with a situation where the rising oil prices led to a strong transformation in the countries of interest. Besides, we evidence decoupling of economic growth from oil-related emissions in the post-cold war period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
carbon convergence, coal, OPEC crisis, oil
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History; Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130414 (URN)10.1080/15567249.2016.1249807 (DOI)000406554600004 ()881253 (Local ID)881253 (Archive number)881253 (OAI)
Projects
Carbon Convergence: Driving Forces and Policy Implications”, Project carried out at the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Umeå University, Sweden, funded by Swedish Energy Agency (01.12.2011- 31.12.2014)
Available from: 2017-01-19 Created: 2017-01-19 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, M. & Olsson Spjut, F. (2017). Perspectives on the transformation of the organic energy system in 19th century Sweden. Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perspectives on the transformation of the organic energy system in 19th century Sweden
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This article discusses the transformation from an organic to a mineral energy system from a Swedish historical perspective. Main arguments are that there was a dynamic interaction between the two systems during the Swedish industrialization process. For one, a diffusion of the mineral energy system contributed to opening previously inaccessible organic resources in the forest of northern Sweden. Secondly, the development of the pulp- and paper industry contributed to the switch from charcoal to coke in the iron industry. Thirdly, the development of hydropower, itself an organic source of energy, further contributed to the emergence of a mixed energy system. One can therefore see the Swedish transition from an organic to a mineral energy system as a shift from a traditional organic energy system to an industrialized organic energy system, which is to say an organic energy system which for its operation was depending on technologies and organizational structures of the mineral energy system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2017. p. 21
Series
CERE Working Paper ; 6
Keywords
Organic energy system, energy history, Sweden, forest history, firewood
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142340 (URN)881253 (Local ID)881253 (Archive number)881253 (OAI)
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Projects
Financial modernisation and economic growth: Is the financial revolution compatible with neoclassic growth theory? [2008-02029_VR]; Umeå UniversityThe limits to growth in a sustainable society: energy use and area requirements in early modern Sweden [P10-0701:1_RJ]; Umeå UniversityConditions for Green Structural Change. The evolution of the Environmental Goods and Service Sector in Sweden 1970-2015 [2016-03024_VR]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3293-2318

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