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Dubois, A. & Carson, D. B. (2019). Die hard: On the persistence of Swedish upland farming. Journal of Rural Studies, 69, 41-52
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Die hard: On the persistence of Swedish upland farming
2019 (English)In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 69, p. 41-52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using an inductive quantitative approach, this article examines empirically the main characteristics of upland farming in the northern periphery of Sweden. This approach allows us to stepwise 'reconstruct' upland farming in its north Swedish manifestation. The data features farm-level and aggregated data from four municipalities stretching from the Bothnian Golf to the Norwegian border. The combination of GIS and advanced statistical analysis (clustering and regression) provides a robust evidence-base characterising upland farming at the nexus of multiple dimensions: territoriality (e.g. remote location, harsh climate, scattered settlement structure), style (e.g. labour extensive, small-scale, mixed fanning) and livelihood (e.g. plurlactive, diversification, subsidy dependent). The article emphasizes the potentially central role of upland farming in bringing into coherent policy initiatives promoting sustainable community development in the periphery. The study also looks ahead and urges scholars to adopt more systematically mixed methods in future upland farming studies in order to render the complexity of this socio-spatial phenomenon.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Upland farming, Northern periphery, Territoriality, Rural policy
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161578 (URN)10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.04.010 (DOI)000472705800005 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-00828Swedish Research Council Formas, 2015-00260
Available from: 2019-07-25 Created: 2019-07-25 Last updated: 2019-07-25Bibliographically approved
Carson, D. B. & Carson, D. A. (2019). Disasters, market changes and 'The Big Smoke': understanding the decline of remote tourism in Katherine, Northern Territory Australia. In: Rhonda L. Koster and Doris A. Carson (Ed.), Perspectives on rural tourism geographies: case studies from developed nations on the exotic, the fringe and the boring bits in between (pp. 93-114). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disasters, market changes and 'The Big Smoke': understanding the decline of remote tourism in Katherine, Northern Territory Australia
2019 (English)In: Perspectives on rural tourism geographies: case studies from developed nations on the exotic, the fringe and the boring bits in between / [ed] Rhonda L. Koster and Doris A. Carson, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 93-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter examines the decline of tourism in Katherine, one of the Northern Territory's iconic remote destinations. While the decline coincided with severe floods damaging much of the town and its tourism infrastructure in 1998, other factors such as the overall decline of Outback tourism in Australia and changes in key markets such as backpackers and self-drive tourists contributed to the difficulty in reviving Katherine's tourism industry following the floods. Katherine tourism demonstrates characteristics consistent with the Beyond Peripherymodel of tourism development in remote or sparsely populated areas. The chapter argues that Katherine has become even more distant and disconnected from tourist markets, investors and policy makers since the floods. Key issues for future development include an increasingly uneven relationship between Katherine and the capital city of Darwin, and an inability to identify alternative markets and development paths independent of the dominant tourism structures in the Northern Territory. Katherine is an example of a remote destination which initially had substantial competitive advantages because of its location and levels of local investment in tourism, but has since lost those advantages due to a failure to respond to changing market forces. The chapter thus emphasises the fragile nature of tourism in remote locations, and its vulnerability to exogenous shocks and changing government priorities, reminding us of the broader challenges for economic development in remote resource peripheries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2019
Series
Geographies of Tourism and Global Change, ISSN 2366-5610, E-ISSN 2366-5629
Keywords
Beyond periphery, Natural disasters, Outback tourism, Road-based tourism
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157695 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-11950-8_6 (DOI)978-3-030-11949-2 (ISBN)978-3-030-11950-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Goicolea, I., Carson, D., San Sebastian, M., Christianson, M., Wiklund, M. & Hurtig, A.-K. (2018). Health care access for rural youth on equal terms?: A mixed methods study protocol in northern Sweden. International Journal for Equity in Health, 17, Article ID 6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health care access for rural youth on equal terms?: A mixed methods study protocol in northern Sweden
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2018 (English)In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to propose a protocol for researching the impact of rural youth health service strategies on health care access. There has been no published comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of youth health strategies in rural areas, and there is no clearly articulated model of how such assessments might be conducted. The protocol described here aims to gather information to; i) Assess rural youth access to health care according to their needs, ii) Identify and understand the strategies developed in rural areas to promote youth access to health care, and iii) Propose actions for further improvement. The protocol is described with particular reference to research being undertaken in the four northernmost counties of Sweden, which contain a widely dispersed and diverse youth population.

METHODS: The protocol proposes qualitative and quantitative methodologies sequentially in four phases. First, to map youth access to health care according to their health care needs, including assessing horizontal equity (equal use of health care for equivalent health needs,) and vertical equity (people with greater health needs should receive more health care than those with lesser needs). Second, a multiple case study design investigates strategies developed across the region (youth clinics, internet applications, public health programs) to improve youth access to health care. Third, qualitative comparative analysis of the 24 rural municipalities in the region identifies the best combination of conditions leading to high youth access to health care. Fourth, a concept mapping study involving rural stakeholders, care providers and youth provides recommended actions to improve rural youth access to health care.

DISCUSSION: The implementation of this research protocol will contribute to 1) generating knowledge that could contribute to strengthening rural youth access to health care, as well as to 2) advancing the application of mixed methods to explore access to health care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2018
Keywords
Access, Equity, Health care, Mixed methods, Rural, Youth
National Category
Nursing Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144569 (URN)10.1186/s12939-018-0718-z (DOI)000422697300001 ()29325552 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85040462616 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-06 Created: 2018-02-06 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Carson, D. B., Govan, J. & Carson, D. A. (2018). Indigenous Experiences of the Mining Resource Cycle in Australia’s Northern Territory: Benefits, Burdens and Bridges?. Journal of Northern Studies, 12(2), 11-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indigenous Experiences of the Mining Resource Cycle in Australia’s Northern Territory: Benefits, Burdens and Bridges?
2018 (English)In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 11-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a model of how Indigenous communities may engage with the mining sector to better manage local development impacts and influence governance processes. The model uses a resource lifecycle perspective to identify the various development opportunities and challenges that remote Indigenous communities and stakeholders may face at different stages of the mining project. The model is applied to two case studies located in the Northern Territory of Australia (Gove Peninsula and Ngukurr) which involved different types and scales of mining and provided different opportunities for development and governance engagement for surrounding Indigenous communities. Both cases emphasise how the benefits and burdens associated with mining, as well as the bridges between Indigenous and outsider approaches to development and governance, can change very quickly due to the volatile nature of remote mining operations. There is thus a need for more flexible agreements and more dynamic relationships between Indigenous, mining and other governance stakeholders that can be adjusted and renegotiated as the conditions for mining change. The final discussion reflects on how the model may be applied in the context mining governance and Indigenous stakeholder engagement in the Fennoscandian north.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University & The Royal Skyttean Society, 2018
Keywords
Indigenous communities, mining impacts, resource lifecycle, governance, remote
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162433 (URN)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-08-26Bibliographically approved
Carson, D. A. & Carson, D. B. (2018). International lifestyle immigrants and their contributions to rural tourism innovation: Experiences from Sweden's far north. Journal of Rural Studies, 64, 230-240
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International lifestyle immigrants and their contributions to rural tourism innovation: Experiences from Sweden's far north
2018 (English)In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 64, p. 230-240Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper discusses the contributions of international lifestyle immigrants to new tourism development and innovation in the sparsely populated north of Sweden. Based on a qualitative case study, the paper examines how lifestyle immigrants contributed as tourism entrepreneurs to the formation of local capital in tourism, and stimulated local learning and innovation spillover through networks of interaction and collaboration. The theoretical framework integrates concepts from rural lifestyle migration, local community development, and local tourism innovation systems. The results document how immigrants emerged as important drivers of new tourism products, processes and markets, and introduced a range of new ideas, skills and external networks to the region. Yet, an in-depth social network analysis reveals that immigrants made more limited contributions to networks, collaborations and knowledge exchange with local tourism stakeholders, thus limiting learning outcomes and innovation spillover at a broader local system level. Reasons for this lack of systemic interaction included socio-cultural distance between immigrants and locals, limited levels of trust and reciprocity, diverging development and lifestyle priorities, and issues around exclusive immigrant networking. Finally, the relevance of the theoretical framework is discussed in relation to its applicability to other immigrant mobilities in sparsely populated rural areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
International lifestyle migration, Lifestyle tourism entrepreneurs, Local tourism innovation system, Rural tourism, Social network analysis, Sparsely populated north
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153358 (URN)10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.08.004 (DOI)000452566100023 ()2-s2.0-85028320959 (Scopus ID)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2011-72Swedish Research Council Formas, 2015-260Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-344
Available from: 2018-11-16 Created: 2018-11-16 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Carson, D. A., Carson, D. B. & Eimermann, M. (2018). International winter tourism entrepreneurs in northern Sweden: understanding migration, lifestyle, and business motivations. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 18(2), 183-198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International winter tourism entrepreneurs in northern Sweden: understanding migration, lifestyle, and business motivations
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 183-198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines the migration, lifestyle and business motivations of international winter tourism entrepreneurs who have moved to a “low-amenity” rural area in northern Sweden. Low-amenity areas are characterised by economic decline, outmigration and limited tourism development. Based on qualitative interviews, the research applied a multi-dimensional framework to the study of migrant tourism entrepreneurship, considering personal migration drivers, the value of location-specific amenities, desired consumptive experiences, previous familiarity with the destination, business-related goals, as well as temporal and technological dimensions of mobility and self-employment. The findings suggest that the northern winter and the undeveloped low-amenity character of the place were key factors in migration choices. Consumptive lifestyle interests around counter-urban living and winter outdoor hobbies were prominent, yet there was diversity in terms of business aspirations and considerable seasonal lifestyle-business balancing. Despite noticeable contributions to winter tourism development in the low-amenity north, the study also identified a sense of temporariness and expected onward migration among migrants, raising questions about the longevity of this development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
international lifestyle migration, lifestyle tourism entrepreneur, winter tourism, low-amenity rural area, northern Sweden
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138129 (URN)10.1080/15022250.2017.1339503 (DOI)000428305200005 ()881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Projects
Mobilising the rural: Post-productivism and the new economy (FORMAS)Modelling demographic change in small villages of Sweden’s sparsely populated north (FORMAS)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2011-72Swedish Research Council Formas, 2015-260
Available from: 2017-08-11 Created: 2017-08-11 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Carson, D. A. & Carson, D. B. (2017). Path Dependence in Remote Area Tourism Development: Why institutional legacies matter. In: Patrick Brouder, Salvador Anton Clavé, Allison Gill, Dimitri Ioannides (Ed.), Tourism Destination Evolution: (pp. 103-122). Milton Park: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Path Dependence in Remote Area Tourism Development: Why institutional legacies matter
2017 (English)In: Tourism Destination Evolution / [ed] Patrick Brouder, Salvador Anton Clavé, Allison Gill, Dimitri Ioannides, Milton Park: Routledge, 2017, p. 103-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Milton Park: Routledge, 2017
Series
New directions in tourism analysis ; 39
Keywords
tourism, staples, remote resource peripheries, institutional legacies
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124437 (URN)881251 (Local ID)9781472453990 (ISBN)9781315550749 (ISBN)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-08-11 Created: 2016-08-11 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Hodge, H., Carson, D., Carson, D., Newman, L. & Garrett, J. (2017). Using Internet technologies in rural communities to access services: the views of older people and service providers. Journal of Rural Studies, 54, 469-478
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Internet technologies in rural communities to access services: the views of older people and service providers
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 54, p. 469-478Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Older people in rural communities increasingly rely on the Internet to access essential health, finance, education, and other social services. However, their abilities to participate in the online service system are often undermined by a continuing 'digital divide'. This divide may be exacerbated by the strategies of service providers who fail to recognise and respond to the needs of older rural clients. This paper is based on a case study in Clare, a small rural town in South Australia, and examines the experiences of older residents and local service providers in trying to engage online for digital service delivery. Drawing on two sets of in-depth interviews, the study uses a mix of thematic content analysis and social network analysis to identify the nature and extent of digital interactions between older people and service providers, and the enablers and challenges for online service engagement. Older participants demonstrated considerable interest in learning how to use the Internet for accessing particular services, with social support networks and third party facilitators being crucial enablers. Service providers' ambitions to engage with older people online appeared more limited as a result of entrenched stereotypes of older non-users, a lack of internal digital skills, as well as organisational and funding constraints. The case study findings emphasise the importance of balancing the views of older people and service providers in the design of online engagement strategies. These insights are critical for improving online service delivery in rural communities affected by an increasing withdrawal of physical services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Internet use, Older people, Digital divide, Service providers, Rural communities, South Australia
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125352 (URN)10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.06.016 (DOI)000411545000041 ()881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-09 Created: 2016-09-09 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Carson, D. B. (2016). Conclusion. In: Settlements at the edge: remote human settlements in developed nations (pp. 427-434). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conclusion
2016 (English)In: Settlements at the edge: remote human settlements in developed nations, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 427-434Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016
Series
New Horizons in Regional Science series
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125348 (URN)10.4337/9781784711962 (DOI)9781784711955 (ISBN)9781784711962 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-09-09 Created: 2016-09-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Carson, D. B., Carson, D. A., Porter, R., Yoshida Ahlin, C. & Sköld, P. (2016). Decline, Adaptation or Transformation: New Perspectives on Demographic Change in Resource Peripheries in Australia and Sweden. Comparative Population Studies, 41(3-4), 1-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decline, Adaptation or Transformation: New Perspectives on Demographic Change in Resource Peripheries in Australia and Sweden
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2016 (English)In: Comparative Population Studies, ISSN 1869-8980, E-ISSN 1869-8999, Vol. 41, no 3-4, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many sparsely populated resource peripheries in developed countries are perceived to suffer from periods of demographic decline due to loss of employment opportunities and services, youth out-migration and population ageing. While these trends tend to apply at broad regional scales and for particular time periods, diverse patterns of demographic change may be apparent if different spatial, temporal and social scales of analysis are taken into consideration. Comparing the experiences of two case study regions in northern Sweden and inland South Australia, this paper proposes an alternative conceptual framework to the ‘discourse of decline’, which could be used to examine the nuances of demographic change within resource peripheries. The framework includes spatial scale considerations that contrast broader regional demographic patterns with the experiences of sub-regions and individual settlements. It also includes temporal scale aspects, examining demographic change over different time periods to understand the pace, duration and frequency of population growth and decline. The framework finally includes social unit considerations, emphasising that demographic change affects different social groups in different ways. The results of the case studies suggest that considering demographic change as adaptation or transformation rather than decline may be more useful for identifying new – and qualitatively different – demographic pathways that emerge over time. 

Keywords
demographic decline; resource peripheries; population ageing; youth out-migration; female flight
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131123 (URN)10.12765/CPoS-2016-11en (DOI)000394693600003 ()881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 942-2015-260
Available from: 2017-02-06 Created: 2017-02-06 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8143-123x

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