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Korhonen, J., Nyroos, M., Jonsson, B. & Eklöf, H. (2018). Additive and multiplicative effects of working memory and test anxiety on mathematics performance in grade 3 students. Educational Psychology, 38(5), 572-595
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive and multiplicative effects of working memory and test anxiety on mathematics performance in grade 3 students
2018 (English)In: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 572-595Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between test anxiety and working memory (WM) on mathematics performance in younger children. A sample of 624 grade 3 students completed a test battery consisting of a test anxiety scale, WM tasks and the Swedish national examination in mathematics for grade 3. The main effects of test anxiety and WM, and the two-way interaction between test anxiety and WM on mathematics performance, were modelled with structural equation modelling techniques. Additionally, the effects were also tested separately on tasks with high WM demands (mathematical problem-solving) versus low WM demands (basic arithmetic). As expected, WM positively predicted mathematics performance in all three models (overall mathematics performance, problem-solving tasks, and basic arithmetic). Test anxiety had a negative effect on problem-solving on the whole sample level but concerning basic arithmetic only students with lower WM were affected by the negative effects of test anxiety on performance. Thus, students with low WM are more vulnerable to the negative effects of test anxiety in low WM tasks like basic arithmetic. The results are discussed in relation to the early identification of test anxiety.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Routledge, 2018
Keywords
Latent interaction, mathematics, test anxiety, working memory
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138003 (URN)10.1080/01443410.2017.1356449 (DOI)000432155600003 ()2-s2.0-85026392897 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Kognitiva implikationer för matematiklärande hos yngre barn
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2011-2331
Available from: 2017-08-01 Created: 2017-08-01 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
Nyroos, M., Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C. & Löfgren, K. (2018). Executive function skills and their importance in education: Swedish student teachers' perceptions. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 27, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Executive function skills and their importance in education: Swedish student teachers' perceptions
2018 (English)In: Thinking Skills and Creativity, ISSN 1871-1871, E-ISSN 1878-0423, Vol. 27, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Executive function (EF) skills are crucial for pupils' learning. Therefore, incorporating well-considered instructional strategies may reduce the EF demands placed on pupils with insufficient EF skills in the classroom. Hence, educators are critically positioned. In the present study, 303 student teachers answered the Mathematics Skills Questionnaire. The aim of the study was to (a) examine how student teachers rated the importance of EF skills and EF-related skills involved in pupils' learning and (b) investigate whether there were any differences in rating between regular student teachers and special needs student educators. The results of a two-way mixed ANOVA showed a significant main effect of skill in the total sample. Follow-up tests revealed that skills such as reasoning and proof, inhibition, shifting, and creativity were rated as more important when compared to other skills. Follow-up comparison of the significant interaction effect between skill and student teacher group revealed that the special needs student teachers regarded working memory skills as more important, while the regular student teachers rated EF-related skills that are grounded in core EF skills to have higher importance. The science of learning and its educational implications are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Working memory, Inhibition, Shifting, Special education
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141944 (URN)10.1016/j.tsc.2017.11.007 (DOI)000427552900001 ()
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Korhonen, J., Nyroos, M., Jonsson, B. & Eklöf, H. (2017). Additive and multiplicative effects of working memory and test anxiety on mathematics performance in grade 3 students. In: : . Paper presented at Oppimisen tutkimuksen päivät Helsingissä, Helsinki, Finland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive and multiplicative effects of working memory and test anxiety on mathematics performance in grade 3 students
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between test anxiety and working memory (WM) on mathematics performance in younger children. A sample of 624 grade 3 students completed a test battery consisting of a test anxiety scale, WM tasks, and the Swedish national examination in mathematics for grade 3. The main effects of test anxiety and WM, and the two-way interaction between test anxiety and WM on mathematics performance, were modelled with structural equation modelling techniques. Additionally, the effects were also tested separately on tasks with high WM demands (mathematical problem-solving) versus low WM demands (basic arithmetic). As expected, WM positively predicted mathematics performance in all three models (overall mathematics performance, problem-solving tasks, and basic arithmetic). Test anxiety had a negative effect on problem solving on the whole sample level but concerning basic arithmetic only students with lower WM were affected by the negative effects of test anxiety on performance. These students probably use counting based strategies that impose more WM load and have lower WM capacity than their peers who are more likely to use memory based strategies (i.e., fact-retrieval) in addition to having higher WM capacity. Thus, students with low WM are more vulnerable to the negative effects of test anxiety in low WM tasks like basic arithmetic. The results are discussed in relation to the early identification of test anxiety.

Keywords
latent interaction, mathematics, test anxiety, working memory
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-135865 (URN)
Conference
Oppimisen tutkimuksen päivät Helsingissä, Helsinki, Finland
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-06-08 Created: 2017-06-08 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Nyroos, M., Schéle, I. & Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C. (2016). Implementing test enhanced learning: Swedish teacher students’ perception of quizzing. International Journal of Higher Education, 5(4), 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementing test enhanced learning: Swedish teacher students’ perception of quizzing
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Higher Education, ISSN 1927-6044, E-ISSN 1927-6052, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Given previous findings on test enhanced learning, the present study examined the implementation of this practice in terms of quizzing, during the progress of a course. After completing the university course, 88 Swedish teacher students were asked to answer an adapted Retrieval Practice and Test Anxiety Survey. The results showed that students perceived quizzing to improve learning, and reduce test anxiety. Nonetheless, based on students’ misconceptions regarding why quizzing actually enhances learning, it is suggested that implications of test enhanced learning was not fully conveyed. It is for educational purpose imperative to not forget this application.

Keywords
The testing effect, Test anxiety, Teacher education, Quizzing
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125366 (URN)10.5430/ijhe.v5n4p1 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-09-09 Created: 2016-09-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Jonsson, B., Korhonen, J., Eklöf, H. & Nyroos, M. (2016). Untangling the Contribution of the Subcomponents of Working Memory to Mathematical Proficiency as Measured by the National Tests: A Study among Swedish Third Graders. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, Article ID 1062.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Untangling the Contribution of the Subcomponents of Working Memory to Mathematical Proficiency as Measured by the National Tests: A Study among Swedish Third Graders
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2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1062Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim with the present study was to examine the relationship between the subcomponents in working memory (WM) and mathematical performance, as measured by the National tests in a sample of 597 Swedish third-grade pupils. In line with compelling evidence of other studies, individual differences in WM capacity significantly predicted mathematical performance. Dividing the sample into four groups, based on their mathematical performance, revealed that mathematical ability can be conceptualized in terms of different WM profiles. Pupils categorized as High-math performers particularly differed from the other three groups in having a significant higher phonological ability. In contrast, pupils categorized as Low-math performers were particularly characterized by having a significant lower visuo-spatial ability. Findings suggest that it is important for educators to recognize and acknowledge individual differences in WM to support mathematical achievement at an individual level.

Keywords
National tests, mathematics, working memory, pupils, education, cognitive profiles
National Category
Psychology Pedagogy
Research subject
Psychology; Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124358 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01062 (DOI)000379746100001 ()
External cooperation:
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2011-2331
Available from: 2016-08-05 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Nyroos, M., Jonsson, B., Korhonen, J. & Eklöf, H. (2015). Children’s mathematical achievement and its relation to working memory, test anxiety, self-regulation: a person-centered approach. Education Inquiry, 6(1), 73-97
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s mathematical achievement and its relation to working memory, test anxiety, self-regulation: a person-centered approach
2015 (English)In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 73-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Meeting the challenges of teaching for all individuals requires a multifaceted approach, especially from the Swedish standpoint of inclusive education for all pupils. In the context of applied standards for receiving special educational provision, the present paper strives to shed light on the scope of novel indicators, which can accommodate pupils’ different needs.  Founded upon 3 hitherto established robust psycho-educational concepts – working memory, test anxiety and self-regulation – all of which are important for educational, social, emotional and behavioural development, the present study examined those concepts in terms of profiles and their relations to mathematical achievement. 624 children between the ages of 8 and 10 completed a battery of tests, assessing working memory, test anxiety, self-regulation, and mathematical achievement. Person-centred analyses reiterated the negative academic outcomes associated with the aforementioned variables but also revealed individual variations that warrant attention. Furthermore pupils labelled with an ‘At-risk’ profile were more likely to achieve low Math scores, compared to pupils with an ‘In-vigour’ profile. Implication for special educational provision is discussed, and practical suggestions provided.

Keywords
Working memory; test anxiety; self-regulation; mathematics; primary school level
National Category
Psychology Educational Sciences Mathematics
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-97277 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2011-2331
Available from: 2014-12-12 Created: 2014-12-12 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Nyroos, M., Korhonen, J., Peng, A., Linnanmäki, K., Svens-Liavåg, C., Bagger, A. & Sjöberg, G. (2015). Cultural and Gender Differences in Experiences and Expression of Test Anxiety Among Chinese, Finnish, and Swedish Grade 3 Pupils. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 3(1), 37-48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cultural and Gender Differences in Experiences and Expression of Test Anxiety Among Chinese, Finnish, and Swedish Grade 3 Pupils
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2015 (English)In: International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, ISSN 2168-3603, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While test anxiety has been studied extensively, little consideration has been given to the cultural impacts of children's experiences and expressions of test anxiety. The aim of this work was to examine whether variance in test anxiety scores can be predicted based on gender and cultural setting. Three hundred and ninety-eight pupils in Grade 3 in China, Finland, and Sweden, each of which has different testing realities, completed the Children's Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS). Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) results indicated that the Chinese sample scored more highly on the autonomic reactions component, whereas the Nordic sample scored higher on the off-task behaviors component. Significant interaction effects between gender and culture were also observed: The Nordic girls exhibited higher levels of autonomic reactions, but the opposite was seen in the Chinese sample, with boys reporting higher levels of the cognitive component. The conceptualization of test anxiety encompassing the off-task behaviors component does not appear to be universal for children. It is also suggested that gender differences vary as a function of culture.

Keywords
Children, Confucianism, cross-cultural, exploratory structural equation modeling, gender, high-stakes testing, test anxiety
National Category
Psychology Educational Sciences
Research subject
Psychology; educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100927 (URN)10.1080/21683603.2014.915773 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-03-14 Created: 2015-03-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Åhlén, S., Sandelin, H. & Nyroos, M. (2015). En granskning av ett särskilt boende med stödverksamhet inom Umeå kommun. Umeå: Socialpsykiatriskt Kunskapscentrum, FoU-panelen, Region Västerbotten
Open this publication in new window or tab >>En granskning av ett särskilt boende med stödverksamhet inom Umeå kommun
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Våren 2015 fick FoU-panelen vid Socialpsykiatriskt kunskapscentrum i uppdrag från socialpsykiatrin i Umeå kommun att genomföra en brukarrevision vid en av kommunens särskilda boende med stödverksamhet. FoU-panelen består av personer med egen erfarenhet av psykisk ohälsa och därigenom unik erfarenhet av från vård- och stödsystemen ur ett brukarperspektiv. Panelenmedarbetarna har en stor bredd i utbildning och yrkeserfarenhet med ett särskilt intresse för forsknings och utvecklingsfrågor. Panelens medlemmar har genomgått en brukarrevisionsutbildning och utgör även stöd för forskare inom det socialpsykiatriska fältet. Under april-maj 2015 genomfördes revisionen med ett team av tre brukarrevisorer från FoU-panelen. Intervjuer med boende och personal genomfördes på boendeområdet vid tre tillfällen, boende informerades även om att det gick bra att intervjuas på telefon eller via e-post. En av de boende föredrog att svara på frågorna i en enkät. Analys av materialet ligger till grund för denna rapports innehåll. Sammanfattningsvis visar revisionen att det särskilda boendet är uppskattat bland de boende och har varit viktig för den egna utvecklingen och måendet. Boendet ligger i ett lugnt och centralt område med naturen nära inpå. Lägenheterna är oftast placerade högt upp i husen och är ljusa och luftiga. Stämningen är god mellan de boende och personalen. De boende har stort inflytande i den individuella planen som alla har och en enkät skickas ut ett par gånger om året med syfte att öka delaktigheten kring aktiviteter. Dock finns det områden som bör ses över och förbättras. Verksamhetens gemensamma lokal är för liten för att kunna rymma alla boenden och begränsar vilka aktiviteter som kan genomföras. Lokalens lilla utrymme medför också mindre plats för att kunna samtala ostört med varandra eller personal. Hög ljudnivå och trängsel uppstår också lätt. Möjligheten för de boende att påverka verksamheten kan utvecklas. Att återinföra husmöten men i en annan form kan öka boendes delaktighet. Till sist bör samverkansformer kring samordningen av LSS och SoL insatser i en och samma verksamhet utvecklas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Socialpsykiatriskt Kunskapscentrum, FoU-panelen, Region Västerbotten, 2015. p. 24
Series
Brukarrevision
National Category
Social Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-113383 (URN)
Available from: 2015-12-17 Created: 2015-12-17 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Nyroos, M., Eklöf, H., Jonsson, B., Korhonen, J. & Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C. (2015). Kognitiva implikationer för matematiklärande hos yngre elever. In: Vetenskapsrådet (Ed.), Resultatdialog 2015: (pp. 160-171). Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kognitiva implikationer för matematiklärande hos yngre elever
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2015 (Swedish)In: Resultatdialog 2015 / [ed] Vetenskapsrådet, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2015, p. 160-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Vårt projekt visar att kognition och emotion har stor betydelse for åk 3 elevers matematikprestation. Det var 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik för elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil. Det fanns inget samband mellan kronologisk ålder och matematikprestation. Låg arbetsminneskapacitet i samverkan med hög provångest bidrog negativt till matematikprestation. Skolklass bidrog till skillnader i elevers rapporterade provångest.

Q1) Provångest och arbetsminne predicerade enskilt elevs matematikprestation; hög provångest respektive låg arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till låg matematikprestation, och låg provångest respektive god arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till god matematikprestation. Därtill fanns en samverkanseffekt vilken var ogynnsam för elever med låg arbetsminneskapacitet, jämfört med elever med medel och hög arbetsminneskapacitet.

Q2) Elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil hade 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik. Elever som presterade lågt i matematik hade dock inte uteslutande en risk-kognitiv profil. Likaväl fanns andra profiler än den stödjande-kognitiva profilen i gruppen med bra matematikprestation. Lika lovande som att 75 % av elever med en risk-profil inte presterade lågt i matematik, lika nedslående är det att endast 16 % av elever med en stödjande-kognitiv profil presterade bra i matematik.

Q3) Grad av matematikprestation ar en funktion av arbetsminneskapacitet, men olika subkomponenter i arbetsminnet karaktariserar olika nivaer av matematikprestation. Lågpresterande elever påvisade framförallt betydande sämre visuospatial förmåga (bearbeta visuell och spatial information), medan god fonologisk förmåga (auditivt material) var karaktaristiskt för den högpresterande elevgruppen. I ett didaktiskt perspektiv pekar dessa resultat på vikten av anpassade pedagogiska insatser i relation till kognitiva förmågor.

Q4) Skolklass har en betydande inverkan på elevers skattade provångest. För skolklasser med ett högt medelvärde på provångest verkade självregleringsförmåga ytterligare bidra till rapporterad provångest.

Q5) Resultatet visar inte på någon relativ ålderseffekt och modereras inte heller av arbetsminneskapacitet. Resultatet tyder på att biologisk mognad i termer av arbetsminnet är viktigare än relativa åldereffekter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet, 2015
Keywords
arbetsminne, självreglering, provångest, nationella prov, matematik, åk 3, skolklassnivå, individnivå, relativ ålderseffekt, kronologisk och biologisk ålder
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-113453 (URN)978-91-7307-305-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-12-18 Created: 2015-12-18 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
Nyroos, M. (2015). Special education a provision and an adjacent system: exemplified through test anxiety. Journal of psychology and behavioral science, 3(2), 10-19, Article ID PBS-1125.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Special education a provision and an adjacent system: exemplified through test anxiety
2015 (English)In: Journal of psychology and behavioral science, ISSN ISSN 2374-2380 (Print) 2374-2399 (Online), Vol. 3, no 2, p. 10-19, article id PBS-1125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the context of the recently released DSM-5, here is discussed a common emotional experience among pupils and students, test anxiety, and demonstrated its multifaceted character, which terminates eligibility for both special educational and medical services. Severe test anxiety is associated with a huge range of deleterious life trajectories. However, it is also a biological reality; normative in its origin and in essence benign. Present paper merges the latest knowledge from different disciplines, and presents measures for theory and practice. Because intense and excessive test anxiety seems to be highly prevalent and the pathological symptoms are similar to those of other childhood anxiety disorders childhood test anxiety warrants attention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Research Institute for Policy Development, 2015
Keywords
childhood; special education; school health care; generative knowledge; DSM-5
National Category
Learning
Research subject
educational work; Psychology; Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-113382 (URN)10.15640/jpbs.v3n2a2 (DOI)
Note

This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council under Grant number 721-2011-2331.

Available from: 2015-12-17 Created: 2015-12-17 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Projects
Cognitive Implications for Mathematical Learning in Young Pupils [2011-02331_VR]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9195-4816

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