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Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
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Publications (10 of 26) Show all publications
Nyroos, M., Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C. & Löfgren, K. (2018). Executive function skills and their importance in education: Swedish student teachers' perceptions. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 27, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Executive function skills and their importance in education: Swedish student teachers' perceptions
2018 (English)In: Thinking Skills and Creativity, ISSN 1871-1871, E-ISSN 1878-0423, Vol. 27, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Executive function (EF) skills are crucial for pupils' learning. Therefore, incorporating well-considered instructional strategies may reduce the EF demands placed on pupils with insufficient EF skills in the classroom. Hence, educators are critically positioned. In the present study, 303 student teachers answered the Mathematics Skills Questionnaire. The aim of the study was to (a) examine how student teachers rated the importance of EF skills and EF-related skills involved in pupils' learning and (b) investigate whether there were any differences in rating between regular student teachers and special needs student educators. The results of a two-way mixed ANOVA showed a significant main effect of skill in the total sample. Follow-up tests revealed that skills such as reasoning and proof, inhibition, shifting, and creativity were rated as more important when compared to other skills. Follow-up comparison of the significant interaction effect between skill and student teacher group revealed that the special needs student teachers regarded working memory skills as more important, while the regular student teachers rated EF-related skills that are grounded in core EF skills to have higher importance. The science of learning and its educational implications are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Working memory, Inhibition, Shifting, Special education
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141944 (URN)10.1016/j.tsc.2017.11.007 (DOI)000427552900001 ()
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Andersson, M., Jonsson, B. & Nyberg, L. (2017). Neural activations associated with feedback and retrieval success. npj Science of Learning, 2(12)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neural activations associated with feedback and retrieval success
2017 (English)In: npj Science of Learning, E-ISSN 2056-7936, Vol. 2, no 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is substantial behavioral evidence for a phenomenon commonly called “the testing effect”, i.e. superior memory performance after repeated testing compared to re-study of to-be-learned materials. However, considerably less is known about the underlying neuro-cognitive processes that are involved in the initial testing phase and thus underlies the actual testing effect. Here, we investigated functional brain activity related to test-enhanced learning with feedback. Subjects learned foreign vocabulary across three consecutive tests with correct-answer feedback. Functional brain-activity responses were analyzed in relation to retrieval and feedback events, respectively. Results revealed up-regulated activity in fronto-striatal regions during the first successful retrieval, followed by a marked reduction in activity as a function of improved learning. Whereas feedback improved behavioral performance across consecutive tests, feedback had a negligable role after the first successful retrieval for functional brain-activity modulations. It is suggested that the beneficial effects of test-enhanced learning is regulated by feedback-induced updating of memory representations, mediated via the striatum, that might underlie the stabilization of memory commonly seen in behavioral studies of the testing effect.

Keywords
test-enhanced learning, feedback, retrieval success, learning
National Category
Neurosciences Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology; Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142064 (URN)10.1038/s41539-017-0013-6 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2014-2099
Available from: 2017-11-20 Created: 2017-11-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Bertilsson, F., Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Stenlund, T. & Jonsson, B. (2017). The Testing Effect and Its Relation to Working Memory Capacity and Personality Characteristics. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 16(3), 241-259
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Testing Effect and Its Relation to Working Memory Capacity and Personality Characteristics
2017 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, ISSN 1945-8959, E-ISSN 1810-7621, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 241-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Retrieval practice is known to lead to better retention of a to-be-learned material than restudy (i.e., the testing effect). However, few studies have investigated retrieval practice in relation to working memory capacity (WMC) and personality characteristics such as grittiness (Grit) and need for cognition (NFC). In two experiments, we examined retrieval practice and restudy of Swahili–Swedish word pairs in relation to individual differences in Grit and NFC. In Experiment 1, using a between-subjects design, a significant main effect of retention interval was qualified by a Group × Retention Interval interaction. However, there were no effects of Grit or NFC. In Experiment 2, a within-subjects design was used, and a measure of WMC was included. The analyses revealed a testing effect; but again, WMC, Grit, and NFC were not significantly associated with performance. These results indicate that retrieval practice levels out the playing field regarding WMC, NFC, and Grit.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2017
Keywords
retrieval practice, the testing effect, need for cognition; grit, working memory capacity, learning
National Category
Learning Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139735 (URN)10.1891/1945-8959.16.3.241 (DOI)000416163800002 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Jonsson, B., Andersson, M. & Nyberg, L. (2016). An fMRI study of the supportive role of feedback during test-enhanced learning. In: ICOM-6 Conference Programme: Konferensbidrag. Abstract (Refereegranskat), 2016: . Paper presented at International Conference on Memory, 17-22 July, Budapest, Hungary, 2016. (pp. 29-29).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An fMRI study of the supportive role of feedback during test-enhanced learning
2016 (English)In: ICOM-6 Conference Programme: Konferensbidrag. Abstract (Refereegranskat), 2016, 2016, p. 29-29Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Considerable research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that testing improves the performance on later retention tests (i.e., the testing-effect).

One key factor is the inclusion of feedback which enhances the benefits. Participants (n=21) first studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word-pairs. Subsequently, they underwent fMRI while being tested on each study-item either with or without feedback.

Contrary to no feedback, several regions were identified as a feedback-network with the strongest contribution from the bilateral MTL regions (anterior hippocampus, amygdala), insula and left IFC. Several of these responses were modulated by type of response (correct/incorrect) and repetition (1,2,3).

These findings link the effect of feedback on learning to strengthening of semantic representations, providing novel insights about the crucial role of feedback during test-enhanced learning.

Keywords
Feedback, test-enhanced learning, medial temporal lobe
National Category
Psychology Neurosciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124360 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
International Conference on Memory, 17-22 July, Budapest, Hungary, 2016.
Available from: 2016-08-05 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Jonsson, B. & Stenlund, T. (2016). Are episodic memory differentially related to the effects of test-enhanced learning compared to group discussions?. In: ICOM-6 Conference Programme.: Konferensbidrag. Abstract (Refereegranskat). Paper presented at International conference on memory,ICOM-6, 17-22 July, Budapest, Hungary, 2016. (pp. 84-84).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are episodic memory differentially related to the effects of test-enhanced learning compared to group discussions?
2016 (English)In: ICOM-6 Conference Programme.: Konferensbidrag. Abstract (Refereegranskat), 2016, p. 84-84Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Despite compelling evidence for test-enhanced learning as superior compared to other pedagogical methods, less is known about how cognitive level affects performance.

The beneficial effects has been ascribed to an episodic context account; in which subjects rely on the use of a temporal context while retrieving from memory.

We examined individual differences in episodic memory in relation to different learning methods.

Participants (n=103) were randomized to three groups: testing with feedback, group-discussion with or without feedback. The to-be-learned material was a chapter from a psychology textbook.

Learning were assessed immediately, one and, at four weeks after initial learning.

Results revealed that the testing-group performed significantly better across time compared to both group discussion groups. A significant positive relationship between episodic memory and learning for both group-discussion groups, but not the testing-group. The results indicates that individual differences in episodic memory is less sensitive when learning from repeated testing - suggesting that test-enhanced learning is equally beneficial for all individuals independent of cognitive ability. In contrast learning from group discussions relies more on individual differences in episodic memory, so those with better episodic memory learns better compared to those with lower episodic memory.  

 

Keywords
Memory, learning, pedagocical methods
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124291 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
International conference on memory,ICOM-6, 17-22 July, Budapest, Hungary, 2016.
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2014-2099
Available from: 2016-08-03 Created: 2016-08-02 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Nyroos, M., Schéle, I. & Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C. (2016). Implementing test enhanced learning: Swedish teacher students’ perception of quizzing. International Journal of Higher Education, 5(4), 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementing test enhanced learning: Swedish teacher students’ perception of quizzing
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Higher Education, ISSN 1927-6044, E-ISSN 1927-6052, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Given previous findings on test enhanced learning, the present study examined the implementation of this practice in terms of quizzing, during the progress of a course. After completing the university course, 88 Swedish teacher students were asked to answer an adapted Retrieval Practice and Test Anxiety Survey. The results showed that students perceived quizzing to improve learning, and reduce test anxiety. Nonetheless, based on students’ misconceptions regarding why quizzing actually enhances learning, it is suggested that implications of test enhanced learning was not fully conveyed. It is for educational purpose imperative to not forget this application.

Keywords
The testing effect, Test anxiety, Teacher education, Quizzing
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125366 (URN)10.5430/ijhe.v5n4p1 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-09-09 Created: 2016-09-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
van den Broek, G., Takashima, A., Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Karlsson Wirebring, L., Segers, E., Verhoeven, L. & Nyberg, L. (2016). Neurocognitive mechanisms of the "testing effect": a review. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 5(2), 52-66
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neurocognitive mechanisms of the "testing effect": a review
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2016 (English)In: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2452-0837, E-ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 52-66Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Memory retrieval is an active process that can alter the content and accessibility of stored memories. Of potential relevance for educational practice are findings that memory retrieval fosters better retention than mere studying. This so-called testing effect has been demonstrated for different materials and populations, but there is limited consensus on the neurocognitive mechanisms involved. In this review, we relate cognitive accounts of the testing effect to findings from recent brain-imaging studies to identify neurocognitive factors that could explain the testing effect. Results indicate that testing facilitates later performance through several processes, including effects on semantic memory representations, the selective strengthening of relevant associations and inhibition of irrelevant associations, as well as potentiation of subsequent learning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Testing effect, Retrieval, Test-potentiated learning, fMRI, Semantic elaboration, Search set restriction
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-122415 (URN)10.1016/j.tine.2016.05.001 (DOI)000392619800002 ()
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-17 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Jonsson, B., Korhonen, J., Eklöf, H. & Nyroos, M. (2016). Untangling the Contribution of the Subcomponents of Working Memory to Mathematical Proficiency as Measured by the National Tests: A Study among Swedish Third Graders. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, Article ID 1062.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Untangling the Contribution of the Subcomponents of Working Memory to Mathematical Proficiency as Measured by the National Tests: A Study among Swedish Third Graders
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2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1062Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim with the present study was to examine the relationship between the subcomponents in working memory (WM) and mathematical performance, as measured by the National tests in a sample of 597 Swedish third-grade pupils. In line with compelling evidence of other studies, individual differences in WM capacity significantly predicted mathematical performance. Dividing the sample into four groups, based on their mathematical performance, revealed that mathematical ability can be conceptualized in terms of different WM profiles. Pupils categorized as High-math performers particularly differed from the other three groups in having a significant higher phonological ability. In contrast, pupils categorized as Low-math performers were particularly characterized by having a significant lower visuo-spatial ability. Findings suggest that it is important for educators to recognize and acknowledge individual differences in WM to support mathematical achievement at an individual level.

Keywords
National tests, mathematics, working memory, pupils, education, cognitive profiles
National Category
Psychology Pedagogy
Research subject
Psychology; Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124358 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01062 (DOI)000379746100001 ()
External cooperation:
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2011-2331
Available from: 2016-08-05 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Nyroos, M., Eklöf, H., Jonsson, B., Korhonen, J. & Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C. (2015). Kognitiva implikationer för matematiklärande hos yngre elever. In: Vetenskapsrådet (Ed.), Resultatdialog 2015: (pp. 160-171). Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kognitiva implikationer för matematiklärande hos yngre elever
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2015 (Swedish)In: Resultatdialog 2015 / [ed] Vetenskapsrådet, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2015, p. 160-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Vårt projekt visar att kognition och emotion har stor betydelse for åk 3 elevers matematikprestation. Det var 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik för elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil. Det fanns inget samband mellan kronologisk ålder och matematikprestation. Låg arbetsminneskapacitet i samverkan med hög provångest bidrog negativt till matematikprestation. Skolklass bidrog till skillnader i elevers rapporterade provångest.

Q1) Provångest och arbetsminne predicerade enskilt elevs matematikprestation; hög provångest respektive låg arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till låg matematikprestation, och låg provångest respektive god arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till god matematikprestation. Därtill fanns en samverkanseffekt vilken var ogynnsam för elever med låg arbetsminneskapacitet, jämfört med elever med medel och hög arbetsminneskapacitet.

Q2) Elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil hade 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik. Elever som presterade lågt i matematik hade dock inte uteslutande en risk-kognitiv profil. Likaväl fanns andra profiler än den stödjande-kognitiva profilen i gruppen med bra matematikprestation. Lika lovande som att 75 % av elever med en risk-profil inte presterade lågt i matematik, lika nedslående är det att endast 16 % av elever med en stödjande-kognitiv profil presterade bra i matematik.

Q3) Grad av matematikprestation ar en funktion av arbetsminneskapacitet, men olika subkomponenter i arbetsminnet karaktariserar olika nivaer av matematikprestation. Lågpresterande elever påvisade framförallt betydande sämre visuospatial förmåga (bearbeta visuell och spatial information), medan god fonologisk förmåga (auditivt material) var karaktaristiskt för den högpresterande elevgruppen. I ett didaktiskt perspektiv pekar dessa resultat på vikten av anpassade pedagogiska insatser i relation till kognitiva förmågor.

Q4) Skolklass har en betydande inverkan på elevers skattade provångest. För skolklasser med ett högt medelvärde på provångest verkade självregleringsförmåga ytterligare bidra till rapporterad provångest.

Q5) Resultatet visar inte på någon relativ ålderseffekt och modereras inte heller av arbetsminneskapacitet. Resultatet tyder på att biologisk mognad i termer av arbetsminnet är viktigare än relativa åldereffekter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet, 2015
Keywords
arbetsminne, självreglering, provångest, nationella prov, matematik, åk 3, skolklassnivå, individnivå, relativ ålderseffekt, kronologisk och biologisk ålder
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-113453 (URN)978-91-7307-305-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-12-18 Created: 2015-12-18 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
Karlsson Wirebring, L., Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Eriksson, J., Andersson, M., Jonsson, B. & Nyberg, L. (2015). Lesser neural pattern similarity across repeated tests is associated with better long-term memory retention. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(26), 9595-9602
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lesser neural pattern similarity across repeated tests is associated with better long-term memory retention
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 35, no 26, p. 9595-9602Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Encoding and retrieval processes enhance long-term memory performance. The efficiency of encoding processes has recently been linked to representational consistency: the reactivation of a representation that gets more specific each time an item is further studied. Here we examined the complementary hypothesis of whether the efficiency of retrieval processes also is linked to representational consistency. Alternatively, recurrent retrieval might foster representational variability—the altering or adding of underlying memory representa- tions. Human participants studied 60 Swahili–Swedish word pairs before being scanned with fMRI the same day and 1 week later. On Day 1, participants were tested three times on each word pair, and on Day 7 each pair was tested once. A BOLD signal change in right superior parietal cortex was associated with subsequent memory on Day 1 and with successful long-term retention on Day 7. A representational similarity analysis in this parietal region revealed that beneficial recurrent retrieval was associated with representational variability, such that the pattern similarity on Day 1 was lower for retrieved words subsequently remembered compared with those subsequently forgot- ten. This was mirrored by a monotonically decreased BOLD signal change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on Day 1 as a function of repeated successful retrieval for words subsequently remembered, but not for words subsequently forgotten. This reduction in prefrontal response could reflect reduced demands on cognitive control. Collectively, the results offer novel insights into why memory retention benefits from repeated retrieval, and they suggest fundamental differences between repeated study and repeated testing. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society for Neuroscience, 2015
Keywords
fMRI, memory, pattern similarity, repeated testing, retrieval, RSA
National Category
Psychology Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96392 (URN)10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3550-14.2015 (DOI)000358252600007 ()
Available from: 2014-11-19 Created: 2014-11-19 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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