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Leffler, Eva
Publications (10 of 45) Show all publications
Leffler, E. (2019). An Entrepreneurial Attitude: Implications for Teachers' Leadership Skills?. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 1-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Entrepreneurial Attitude: Implications for Teachers' Leadership Skills?
2019 (English)In: Leadership and Policy in Schools, ISSN 1570-0763, E-ISSN 1744-5043, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Entrepreneurship in school is a widespread issue within the school system and it is therefore important to problematise teachers and their role when entrepreneurship is emphasized in their school practice. The teachers in this study, from the secondary and upper secondary levels, were all participating in a Swedish three-year school improvement programme on entrepreneurship in school. Based on a questionnaire and interviews, the results were categorized into four main teacher leadership skills: teachership, leadership, professional leadership, and "professionship". This study high-lights the importance of teachers' relationship to their students, new thinking about teaching and learning, and subject knowledge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164242 (URN)10.1080/15700763.2019.1668021 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-17 Created: 2019-10-17 Last updated: 2019-10-22
Leffler, E. & Svedberg, G. (2019). Entrepreneurial learning through distributed leadership. In: Abstract book: 2019-03-06. Paper presented at Education in a Globalized World, NERA Uppsala 6-8 mars 2019 (pp. 929-930). Uppsala: Uppsala universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial learning through distributed leadership
2019 (English)In: Abstract book: 2019-03-06, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2019, p. 929-930Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Research topic: This study examined how a Swedish elementary school K-9 organised their improving process of entrepreneurial learning through teacher leaders ’professional development. 

Theoretical framework: The schools’ point of departure and the pedagogical perspective werebased on entrepreneurial learning (Falk-Lundqvist, Hallberg, Leffler & Svedberg, 2011;Peltonen, 2015; Sagar, 2013; Surlemont, 2007), distributed leadership (Harris & Muijs,2005; Harris & DeFlaminis, 2016) that was grounded in collegial learning (cf. Harris & Muijs,2005; Timperley, 2011) as well as collegial mentoring. The pupils and the teachers in this school were divided in six teams according to grade level. Each team had a “teacher leader for professional development” (TLPD), appointed by the principal. The TLPDs mission was to lead the school development and to support their colleagues’ professional development. They had ongoing process oriented training (cf Scherp, 2013; Timperley, 2011) with external educators, focusing on teacher leadership, colleagues’ learning and entrepreneurial learning. Every third week they met their principals and discussed ongoing development strategies. The process included reading and discussing research literature about teaching and learning. The analysis of the data was grounded in theories of distributed leadership and collegial learning.

Methodological design: The study involved individual in-depth interviews with six TLPDs, andobservations of TLPDs meetings and TLPDs leadership in their teams.Conclusions: A preliminary analysis of the data showed not only the importance of continuousprofessional development for teacher leaders but also the importance of a school organisation that provides teachers with opportunities and legitimacy to lead their colleagues. Another finding showed that reading the same literature and have collegial discussions were important both for school development and for the legitimacy of the TLPDs, thus narrowing the knowledge practice gap (Kennedy, 2014) On the ‘darker’ side of teacher leadership were all the different experiences on leading colleagues and identifying their role as TLPDs. Difficulties in managing team members’ different ambitions and willingness for common development were also evident. This paper argues for considering these challenges in future professional learning practices to support teacher leaders. It also calls for unpacking of potential cultural practices to support teacher leadership, for example, issues of power and hierarchies.

Relevance to Nordic educational research: Entrepreneurial learning as well as distributed leadership is one key factor in school improvement strategies in the Nordic countries  (cf Dal et al. 2016).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2019
Keywords
distributed leadership, teacher professional learning, entrepreneurial learning
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158866 (URN)
Conference
Education in a Globalized World, NERA Uppsala 6-8 mars 2019
Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
Leffler, E. & Svedberg, G. (2019). Practice Schools, a Swedish National Improvement Program Focusing School Based Studies. In: ECER 2019 - European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany 3rd-6th September 2019: "Education in an Era of Risk – the Role of Educational Research for the Future", 2019: . Paper presented at ECER 2019, European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany, 3 - 6 September 2019. European Educational Research Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Practice Schools, a Swedish National Improvement Program Focusing School Based Studies
2019 (English)In: ECER 2019 - European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany 3rd-6th September 2019: "Education in an Era of Risk – the Role of Educational Research for the Future", 2019, European Educational Research Association , 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Teacher Education in Sweden, as well as in the rest of Europe, struggle with issues about how to increase the quality of teacher education programs. A strong drive for this is that the quality of Teacher Education has an important impact on pupils' achievement in school (European Commission, 2008). Another reason is that a high quality in education will make teachers more likely to stay in the profession, and thus reduce the lack of teachers. Research has shown that it is a common challenge in the European countries to train and develop student teachers with valid qualifications, both at a practical and scientific level (Råde, 2014). In Sweden a current issue is how to develop the practical part of the teacher student education, the school based studies (SBS), and to link theory to practice and integrate university-based knowledge with work-place knowledge (Karlsson Lohmader (2015). The importance of well-educated and qualified teachers, and thus a high-quality Teacher Education who can respond to these demands, are highlighted in policies (e.g. European Commission, 2013, 2014; Swedish Ministry of Education and Research 2010), as well as in research (e.g. Kelchtermans, G. Smith, K. & Vanderlinde, R. 2018; Valliant and Manso, 2013; Ievers et al., 2013; White, Dickerson & Weston, 2015).

In order to find ways to develop the practical part of student teachers' education, a national improvement program over five years has been launched in Sweden, concerning the establishment of ‘advanced’ education training schools, so called practice schools.  According to the Swedish Higher Education Authority (UKÄ) decision, 15 Universities have received funding to participate in the improvement program (UKÄ, 2014:2). The programs’ framework is wide and conditions and strategies differ between the Universities. However, three quality aspects have crystallized: concentration, competence and collaboration. A higher concentration of students and competent supervisors (SBTEs) in a school is expected to increase opportunities for sharing experiences. The aspect competence investigates if the Universities contribute with supervisors- training for school based teacher educators (SBTEs) and ensures that there are teachers at the Universities (institute- based teacher educators, IBTEs) which follow up the students' development during school based education (SBE). The aspect collaboration investigate organizational conditions and activities where the Teacher Education and the schools jointly develop student teachers' practical part of their education.

The present study is the third part study of the Swedish national improvement program. The first two studies took a local and a regional perspective. In addition, this study covers a national perspective on the improvement program by answering the following questions:

How have the three quality aspects, concentration, competence and collaboration, developed in the program?

What kind of challenges do the improvement program face?

Method

In the present study statistic material, documents, interviews with project leaders from Universities as well as principals and SBTEs experiences have informed us through different useful methods (Bryman, 1997; Patel & Davidson, 2011) and can be seen as an explorative study. Our aim has been to present the problem area in an overall and a general way by using different methods and information sources. One of the authors has been a part of the Swedish Higher Education Authority assessment group (UKÄ report, 2017) and contributes with knowledge from an interview study on a national level,  which together with knowledge from an ongoing evaluation (both authors)  on a regional level, including interviews with stakeholders,  school leaders and  SBTEs, have formed the basis for this study. The material has been analysed in relation to the quality aspects that have emerged from obstructive as well as supportive aspects. 

Results            

The results show that the 15 Universities have had extensive possibilities to develop their own design of their projects, linked to the improvement program but according to interpretation of the three quality aspects concentration, competence and collaboration. However, consensus prevails in terms of competence and is concretized by: all SBTEs must be given supervisor training. Surprisingly, there is no specific competence demands for IBTEs. All schools have organized for SBTEs to be able to attend a supervisors’ education. The mobility among SBTEs  and IBTEs have been a challenge in the improvement program. Competence has been more connected to the individual rather than a position as SBTEs and IBTEs, which have made the organisation around school based studies vulnerable. The concentration of SBTEs and students have also been affected by the mobility and has given rise to discussions and questioning of the relationship between more students and increased quality. The collaboration between Universities and the schools has in many ways been connected to assessment. The IBTEs visit students during a lesson and afterwards, together with the student and the SBTE, they discuss the lesson and the students’ different abilities and knowledge linked to the course goals, a so called “ three-part-discussion”. From all school units there have been a desire for closer cooperation between school and University to make schools a clearer and more important part of Teacher Education, which has not been the case for several schools. This was one important reason for schools to join the project - a way to increase the opportunities to participate in research projects and/or gain access to current school research.  This democratic way of letting Universities and practice schools develop the VFU in a variety of ways has given important knowledge to the improvement program.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Educational Research Association, 2019
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164245 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2019, European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany, 3 - 6 September 2019
Available from: 2019-10-17 Created: 2019-10-17 Last updated: 2019-10-25Bibliographically approved
Svedberg, G., Falk Lundqvist, Å. & Leffler, E. (2018). Collegial learning – an opportunity for educational development of entrepreneurial learning?. In: NERA 2018: Abstract book: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges. Paper presented at NERA 2018 - 46th CONGRESS Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges, 8-10 March 2018 University of Oslo, Norway (pp. 562-562). Research Council of Norway
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collegial learning – an opportunity for educational development of entrepreneurial learning?
2018 (English)In: NERA 2018: Abstract book: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges, Research Council of Norway, 2018, p. 562-562Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Research topic/aim Entrepreneurship in a school setting, and what is called entrepreneurial learning, has been problematized over the last twenty years and also implemented in various ways and with varying success in both the Nordic and other European countries' school systems. In many ways, the introduction of the concept has been linked to school development and teachers' professional development (Sagar, 2013) and various forms of in-service training have contributed to this. Different kinds of mentoring processes to enhance teachers’ collective learning and professional development have become more and more common as in-service training, for example Teacher Learning Communities. In this paper we use the concept collegial learning for those different methods aimed at teachers together and under supervision creating knowledge for development. However, and surprisingly, collegial learning does not seem to be discussed or studied as a method for developing teachers’ knowledge about entrepreneurial learning in school. The purpose of this study is to investigate and discuss collegial learning as a strategy for teachers’ in-service training and knowledge development and especially, as a strategy for understanding and developing entrepreneurial learning in schools.  Theoretical framework The study is based on several theoretical approaches and research, especially theories of collegial learning (Langelotz 2017), leadership (Ruskovaara & Pihkala, 2015) and entrepreneurial learning (Jones & Iredale, 2010). Methodology/research design The study is based on two part-studies. In the first part-study, four questionnaires have been continuously sent out and answered by mentors who lead teacher groups in collegial learning. In the second part-study, observations of teaching and interviews with mentors at an elementary K-9 school have been conducted. Common to both sub-studies is that the educators receive training and guidance in managing these processes. Expected conclusions/findings Preliminary results of these studies show that supervisors face structural barriers and interpersonal challenges. Teachers' experience exchanges prove to lead to both adaptation and development of the tasks they have to solve together. An adaptive learning leads to more routine and reproductive action, while development-oriented learning involves discovering and testing new action options. In terms of educational development towards increased entrepreneurial learning, the preliminary results show that adaptive learning is counterproductive. In order to meet changes in the surrounding world and promote entrepreneurial learning and diversity, different ways of action and reasoning are needed, which according to research should benefit from a development-oriented approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Research Council of Norway, 2018
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148126 (URN)
Conference
NERA 2018 - 46th CONGRESS Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges, 8-10 March 2018 University of Oslo, Norway
Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Hoppe, M., Westerberg, M. & Leffler, E. (2017). Educational approaches to entrepreneurship in higher education: a view from the Swedish horizon. Education + Training, 59(7/8), 751-767
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Educational approaches to entrepreneurship in higher education: a view from the Swedish horizon
2017 (English)In: Education + Training, ISSN 0040-0912, E-ISSN 1758-6127, Vol. 59, no 7/8, p. 751-767Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present and develop models of educational approaches to entrepreneurship that can provide complementary analytical structures to better study, enact and reflect upon the role of entrepreneurship in higher education.

Design/methodology/approach: A general framework for entrepreneurship education is developed by using theory as well as practical experiences from the fields of business, engineering and pedagogy. The paper is mainly conceptual where the unfolding Swedish practice is used as contextual backdrop.

Findings: The FOR/IN/THROUGH/ABOUT (FITA) taxonomy is presented and used to develop three models of how to approach entrepreneurship in higher education depending on purpose. As there exists a didactical divide between entrepreneurial education for business and entrepreneurial approach to teaching and learning, educators and researchers ought to let their specific context influence the adoption of the taxonomy as well as the presented models.

Research limitations/implications: The differentiations suggested by the presented models can be used to both structure the designs and limit claims of future research. More heuristic research is called for.

Practical implications: The use of FITA in the designing of entrepreneurship education offers new opportunities for enhancing complementary student learning in higher education.

Social implications: The study suggests that any political or scholarly initiative must acknowledge the diversity of entrepreneurship education and chose different approaches depending on what is to be achieved.

Originality/value: The multidisciplinary approach has made it possible to present and create models that denote a common ground for a productive discussion on how to better understand and make use of entrepreneurship in higher education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017
Keywords
Entrepreneurship education, Higher education, Entrepreneurial learning, Educational approaches, Educational models, FITA
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138130 (URN)10.1108/ET-12-2016-0177 (DOI)000406795200008 ()2-s2.0-85026447547 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-11 Created: 2017-08-11 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Norqvist, L. & Leffler, E. (2017). Learning in non-formal education: is it “youthful” for youth in action?. International Review of Education, 63(2), 235-256
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning in non-formal education: is it “youthful” for youth in action?
2017 (English)In: International Review of Education, ISSN 0020-8566, E-ISSN 1573-0638, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 235-256Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article offers insights into the practices of a non-formal education programme for youth provided by the European Union (EU). It takes a qualitative approach and is based on a case study of the European Voluntary Service (EVS). Data were collected during individual and focus group interviews with learners (the EVS volunteers), decision takers and trainers, with the aim of deriving an understanding of learning in non-formal education. The research questions concerned learning, the recognition of learning and perspectives of usefulness. The study also examined the Youthpass documentation tool as a key to understanding the recognition of learning and to determine whether the learning was useful for learners (the volunteers). The findings and analysis offer several interpretations of learning, and the recognition of learning, which take place in non-formal education. The findings also revealed that it is complicated to divide learning into formal and non-formal categories; instead, non-formal education is useful for individual learners when both formal and non-formal educational contexts are integrated. As a consequence, the division of formal and non-formal (and possibly even informal) learning creates a gap which works against the development of flexible and interconnected education with ubiquitous learning and mobility within and across formal and non-formal education. This development is not in the best interests of learners, especially when seeking useful learning and education for youth (what the authors term "youthful" for youth in action).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Non-formal learning, Non-formal education, European Voluntary Service (EVS), Youth, Recognition, Youthpass
National Category
Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120682 (URN)10.1007/s11159-017-9631-8 (DOI)000401635400006 ()
Note

Originally published in thesis in manuscript form with title: "Non-formal learning: 'youthful' or 'youthless' for youths in action?"

Available from: 2016-05-18 Created: 2016-05-18 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Leffler, E. & Svedberg, G. (2017). Quality Through Increased Concentration of Student Teachers?. In: : . Paper presented at ECER 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark, 22-25 August, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality Through Increased Concentration of Student Teachers?
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: The Teacher Education at the University of Umeå is one of fifteen universities in Sweden participating in a National Project over five years concerning the establishment of ‘advanced’ education training schools. The goal is threefold: 1) to develop teacher education with a focus on developing the school based studies (VFU) for student teacher, 2) to increase the knowledge and skills of the SBTEs (school based teacher educators) and IBTEs (institute- based teacher educators) by offering in-service education and 3) to initiate research programs with the participating municipality schools (Umeå teacher education application document, 2014). The background is that Teacher Education in Sweden as well as in the rest of Europe struggle with issues concerning how to increase the quality of teachers in our schools, not only as a single problem for the schools but also the effects on student teachers’ practical part of teacher education, and in the end, it has shown that the quality of Teacher Education has a strong influence on pupils’ performance in school (European Commission, 2008).  Research has shown that there is a common challenge in the European countries to educate and develop student teachers with valid qualifications, both on a practical and a scientific level (Råde, 2014). The importance of well-educated and qualified teachers, and thus a high-quality Teacher Education who can respond to these demands, are highlighted in policies (e.g. European Commission, 2013, 2014; Swedish Ministry of Education and Research 2010), as well as in research (e.g. Harris & Muijs, 2005; Timperley, 2011; Darling –Hammond, 2006; Valliant and Manso, 2013; Ievers et al., 2013; White, Dickerson & Weston, 2015). The Swedish pilot project is trying to face these challenges by using different strategies to increase the qualities in Teacher Education.

One of the main strategies in VFU is to increase the concentration of teacher students at advanced teacher training schools and thus also increase the concentration of the educated supervisors (SBTEs). The idea is that an elevated concentration of both SBTEs and student teachers at the advanced teacher training school, will have a positive impact of the quality as a variation of supervising and peer learning will occur (Government Offices, 2013).

The present study is the second part of a process evaluation of a pilot project on School Based Studies (VFU) in teacher education at the University of Umeå, Sweden, which was launched in 2015 and will be finished in 2019. An organizational focus was in the first part of the evaluation. In this second part the focus is on quality, identified as increased concentration of student teachers in VFU. The purpose with the present study is thus to take a closer look at the chosen strategy for raised quality in VFU and the following questions have guided the study:

  • Has the concentration of student teachers and SBTEs increased?
  • In what ways have the concentration of student teachers and SBTEs been utilized?

Methodology: In the previous study the first step was to map the project organization and to get in contact with vital stakeholders both from university level and municipality level (Blossing, 2004).  In the present study, the second step, statistic material as well as student teachers’ experiences have informed us through different methods:  observations in class rooms, interviews, surveys and seminars (Bryman, 1997). Student teachers and their work-based training has been observed at the advanced teacher training schools and in connection, ten interviews with student teachers were performed. In conjunction with the regular evaluations that follow completed periods of school based studies, questions related to the purpose of the training schools have been added to the survey. 105 student teachers have responded to the survey. In addition seminars have been conducted at four of the advanced teacher training schools led by lecturer from the University which resulted in that SBTEs and student teachers jointly discussed and made notes about their experience of VFU both as student teachers and as SBTEs. The triangulation have aimed to provide a composite picture of the project and demonstrate strengths, weaknesses and areas for improvement. Both the quantitative and the qualitative material have been compiled and analyzed.

Results: The purpose of the project is to increase the quality of VFU in Teacher Education. The results show that the main purpose to increase the concentration of student teachers at the advanced teacher training schools has not yet been full filled. This can be understood in two ways; on the one hand, there are more students in the areas of advanced teacher training schools, on the other hand, the areas have expanded and include more schools. This means that in practice there can be less student teachers than before in one school and the benefits that can be gained from increased concentration cannot be reached. We are aware of that the outcome of this study is context dependent on a regional level. However, there are a few teacher training schools, especially upper secondary schools where there has been a high concentration of student teachers and qualified SBTEs. These schools and SBTEs have developed the learning environment in several ways, for example joint seminars, group supervising and student-to-student- auscultations. The student teachers at these schools express the benefits of peer learning and flexible ways of being supervised. Overall there is a lack of knowledge of the goal, possibilities and benefits with the advanced teacher training school both among student teachers and SBTEs. However, as this is an ongoing project it is possible to make improvement. The contribution of the present study is to highlight development opportunities as well as demands in relation to quality aspects on VFU in Teacher Education.

Keywords
student teachers, school-based teacher educators, high concentration
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138765 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark, 22-25 August, 2017
Available from: 2017-08-30 Created: 2017-08-30 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Leffler, E. & Svedberg, G. (2016). A pilot project concerning the establishment of 'advanced' education training schools: dilemmas and problems for the Swedish teacher education. In: Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers. Paper presented at ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, Dublin, Ireland, 22-26 August, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A pilot project concerning the establishment of 'advanced' education training schools: dilemmas and problems for the Swedish teacher education
2016 (English)In: Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
student teachers, school-based teacher educators, municipalities
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125187 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, Dublin, Ireland, 22-26 August, 2016
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Leffler, E. & Falk-Lundqvist, Å. (2016). Entrepreneurial learning and school improvement - a Swedish perspective. In: : . Paper presented at ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, Dublin, Ireland, 22-26 August, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial learning and school improvement - a Swedish perspective
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Keywords
entrepreneurial learning, school improvement, peer learning
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125188 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, Dublin, Ireland, 22-26 August, 2016
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Hoppe, M., Westerberg, M. & Leffler, E. (2016). Entreprenörskap och entreprenöriellt lärande (1ed.). In: Thomas Hansson (Ed.), Pedagogik för högskolelärare: (pp. 311-334). Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entreprenörskap och entreprenöriellt lärande
2016 (Swedish)In: Pedagogik för högskolelärare / [ed] Thomas Hansson, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2016, 1, p. 311-334Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2016 Edition: 1
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114725 (URN)9789178449378 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-01-27 Created: 2016-01-27 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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