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Hult, Agneta
Publications (10 of 72) Show all publications
Lindgren, J., Carlbaum, S., Hult, A. & Segerholm, C. (2019). Cultivating the juridified self?: Regulation, socialisation and new forms of work against degrading treatment in schools. In: NERA 2019 Abstract Book 2019-03-06: . Paper presented at NERA 2019 – Education in a Globalized World, 6–8 March 2019, Uppsala, Sweden (pp. 826-827).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cultivating the juridified self?: Regulation, socialisation and new forms of work against degrading treatment in schools
2019 (English)In: NERA 2019 Abstract Book 2019-03-06, 2019, p. 826-827Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A popular contemporary narrative asserts that Sweden has become “the society of easily offended victims” (Eberhard, 2009; see also Berensten, 2014; Dahlstrand, 2012; Heberlein, 2005; Zaremba, 2008). Official statistics show how defamation of character claims have increased dramatically over time (The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, 2018). Such observations relates to developments in the school system where the number of complaints regarding degrading treatment (DT) have also increased (The Swedish Schools Inspectorate, 2018). Overall, schools’ work against DT is framed by increasing awareness of the role of formal obligations, trials, evidence, damages, individual rights and childrens’ subjective experiences of being offended. Plans, preventions, expanding forms of investigations and documentation are enacted in order to provide guarantees that DT do not occur; that is, that students are not exposed to any behaviour that violates their “dignity” (The Swedish Education Act SFS 2010:800, §6).

The increasing legal framing when it comes to schools’ work with problems of DT has been discussed in terms of juridification (Lindgren, Carlbaum, Hult & Segerholm, in press). The overall aim of this study is to explore how new judicial forms of work against DT in Swedish schools affect young people’s socialisation and identity. In a previous study, based on interviews with students, we could not confirm any radically new patterns of socialisation (Lindgren, Hult, Carlbaum & Segerholm, 2018). The present study then, is an attempt to validate these results by including the perspective of experienced school actors who have a different overview and relation to the issues at hand. We thus analyse interviews with both school actors and students from grade five and grade eight when reasoning about problems of DT and how such problems are understood and acted on in schools.

Our theoretical framework establishes a direct link between juridification and socialisation through Habermas’ ideas on the colonisation of the lifeworld by the instrumental rationality of bureaucracies and market-forces (Habermas, 1987). Juridification thus describe how intuitive forms of everyday communication, norms and values becomes reified by legal logic (Habermas, 1987). Drawing on these ideas Honneth (2014) has offered examples of social pathologies that significantly impairs the ability to take part in important forms of social cooperation.

We interviewed students, teachers, head teachers, school staff and responsible officials at the municipality level at five schools in two municipalities. Both students and school staff talk about the juridified significance of DT, that it is decided by the offended person, but have ambiguous ideas ofthe juridified way that the school handle incidents. Both school staff and students claim that the word DT (kränkning) mostly is used by students jokingly, e.g. when reprimanded. Students hesitate in informing teachers of incidents because it sets in motion disproportionate investigations, e.g. informing parents. Thus, students want the teachers to see and know of incidents, but not necessarily to act upon them according to formal standards. Overall, such preliminary results indicate that increasing regulation in school may cultivate juridified selves by stressing subjective feelings and formal investigations while muting dialogue.

National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158896 (URN)
Conference
NERA 2019 – Education in a Globalized World, 6–8 March 2019, Uppsala, Sweden
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2015-00654
Available from: 2019-05-14 Created: 2019-05-14 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Rönnberg, L., Hult, A., Lindgren, J. & Segerholm, C. (2018). Assuring quality assurance in Swedish higher education: A national try-out evaluation. In: Abstract book NERA, 8-10 March 2018: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: 211. Paper presented at 8-10 March 2018 NERA 2018 (pp. 210-210). University of Oslo
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assuring quality assurance in Swedish higher education: A national try-out evaluation
2018 (English)In: Abstract book NERA, 8-10 March 2018: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: 211, University of Oslo , 2018, p. 210-210Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the Nordic countries and beyond, evaluation and quality assurance are becoming increasingly insitutionalised as means to govern the welfare state (Dahler-Larsen, 2011). Higher education is no exception (Leiber, Stensaker & Harvey, 2015; Jarvis, 2014). Since the 1990s, different national evaluation systems have been developed and implemented in Swedish Higher Education (HE) (Segerholm, 2016). Over time, these systems have displayed different political purposes and designs. One major component in the most recent system in operation from 2017 and onwards is national evaluation of the higher education institutions’ (HEIs) own internal quality assurance systems, carried out by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education (SHEA) (Lindgren & Rönnberg, 2017).This paper aims to analyse a SHEA try-out evaluation in which HEIs internal quality assurance were evaluated. The following questions guide our study: What enactments do these try-out exercises entail and what actors are involved? What kind of knowledge is mobilized and used in these enactments? We focus on two cases where the work with and experiences from a) HEI actors, b) officials at the SHEA, and c) external review panels are analysed. We collected data as the national try-out evaluation was implemented. This include near 30 interviews with SHEA staff, HEI actors, and members in external review panels. Extensive documentary materials, such as self-evaluations from the HEIs, schedules, plans and SHEA decisions, were also analysed.This paper is part of a larger research project, “Governing by evaluation in higher education in Sweden”, analyzing how evaluative activities govern Swedish Higher Education policy and practice. We conceptualise governing as activities composed of assemblages of places, people, policies, practices and power (Clarke, 2015). Following this, we analyse the activities and the actual work connected to quality assurance and its policy-making, and how it is enacted and learned (Ball et. al, 2012). Drawing on Freeman and Sturdy (2014), we see knowledge in policy as taking different forms, i.e. as embodied, inscribed and enacted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Oslo, 2018
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145973 (URN)
Conference
8-10 March 2018 NERA 2018
Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2019-08-20
Segerholm, C. & Hult, A. (2018). Learning from and reacting to school inspection: two Swedish case narratives. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 62(1), 125-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning from and reacting to school inspection: two Swedish case narratives
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 125-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Throughout Europe, school inspection has become a visible means of governing education. This education and inspection policy is mediated, brokered, interpreted, and learned through networked activities where the global/European meet the national/local, giving national and local “uptake” a variety of characteristics. We explore the local features of this “uptake” as processes of learning in the interaction between schools and inspectors in Sweden. Drawing theoretically on Jacobsson’s notion of governing as increasingly done through meditative activities and on Leontiev’s activity theory, we suggest that school actors learn compliance through diverse emotions provoked by inspection processes in different local settings. Based on observations of inspections, interviews with teachers, head teachers and inspectors, documents, reports, and decisions, we portray how governing education is done through inspection processes in two Swedish schools. The case narratives underscore the importance of local context in these governing and learning processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
case narratives, compliance, learning policy, school inspection
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124617 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2016.1212257 (DOI)000417602100008 ()
Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-17 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, J., Carlbaum, S., Hult, A. & Segerholm, C. (2018). To see or not to see: challenges in teachers’ enactment of policies on degrading treatment in Sweden. In: Abstract book NERA, 8-10 March 2018: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: 95. Paper presented at NERA, 8-10 March 2018 (pp. 94-94). University of Oslo
Open this publication in new window or tab >>To see or not to see: challenges in teachers’ enactment of policies on degrading treatment in Sweden
2018 (English)In: Abstract book NERA, 8-10 March 2018: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: 95, University of Oslo , 2018, p. 94-94Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

One of many challenges that teachers face on a daily basis is related to problems with degrading treatment. Teachers work in order to establish a working environment where children can learn; both knowledge and norms and values, i.e how to live together and to understand, care for and respect each other in line with the “fundamental values” in the curriculum (The Swedish National Agency for Education, 2011). All schools are regulated by a policy of zero tolerance towards degrading treatment (The Child and School Student Representative, 2017). The challenge, however, is immense, if not abysmal: hundreds of children obligated to spend year after year in a cramped facility without ever troubling each other with derogatoriness, rumours, ridicule or shoving. Teachers take on this difficult challenge with a broad repertoire of pedagogical tools based on research, theory, experience and tacit knowledge. They deal with chaos and unpredictability in contexts where no single method, plan or manual apply (Cardell, 2017: 226).In this paper we draw attention to how this challenge has been transformed by recent legal regulation of teachers’ work. The School Act has expanded the regulations on degrading treatment and teachers and school staff are today responsible to report any degrading treatment to the principal who in turn has an obligation to report it further to the governing body. This regulation is added to the obligation to quickly investigate and take necessary measures to counteract such treatment (Prop. 2009/10:165; SFS 2010:800).Based on 35 interviews with municipal officials, school directors, school leaders, teachers and other school staff (n 60) in seven schools in two municipalities we describe and analyse how teachers handle issues related to degrading treatment as the pedagogical challenge has been converted into, or complemented by, a judicial challenge primarily oriented towards objective representation of past events. For instance, teachers have to determine, at every incident occurring during the school day, if it should be reported as degrading treatment or not. Reporting has certain consequences, for example time consuming activities of documentation including administration of evolving digital reporting systems, discussions with colleagues and students and communication with parents demanding careful balance and precision. Not reporting has other consequences, e.g. it involves risk taking in terms of accountability since every incident has the potential to later become part of a complaint on degrading treatment issued to The Swedish Schools Inspectorate or The Child and School Student Representative. Thus, to see or not to see incidents is not only a question of teachers’ attention and immediate subsequential action or mindful awaiting – it is a choice that involves a range of strategic and defensive considerations that in a profound way alters teachers’ professional gaze, understanding and practice.The paper is theoretically informed by ideas on policy enactment (Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012) that provide an overall understanding of issues of policy implementation in times of juridification. In order to qualify the analysis of teachers’ challenges and conflicts between different logics we draw on theories on teacher professionalism (e.g. Englund & Solbrekke, 2015; Solbrekke & Englund, 2011).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Oslo, 2018
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145974 (URN)
Conference
NERA, 8-10 March 2018
Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Segerholm, C., Hult, A. & Olofsson, A. (2017). Channels for European Quality Assurance Policy in Higher Education – the Swedish Example. In: : . Paper presented at ECER 2017, European Conference for Educational Research, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 22-25, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Channels for European Quality Assurance Policy in Higher Education – the Swedish Example
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141650 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2017, European Conference for Educational Research, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 22-25, 2017
Available from: 2017-11-10 Created: 2017-11-10 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Baxter, J. & Hult, A. (2017). Different systems, different identities: the work of inspectors in Sweden and England. In: Jacqueline Baxter (Ed.), School inspectors: policy implementers, policy shapers in national policy contexts (pp. 45-69). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different systems, different identities: the work of inspectors in Sweden and England
2017 (English)In: School inspectors: policy implementers, policy shapers in national policy contexts / [ed] Jacqueline Baxter, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 45-69Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

School inspection has formed part of both English and Swedish approaches to governing education for some time now. But latterly due to the neo liberal drive for educational excellence, both countries have remodelled their inspector workforce. Using Jacobsson's theory of governance as a regulative, meditative and inquisitive activity, this chapter investigates the effects that these shifts have had on the operational work of inspectors. Drawing upon interview data with inspectors and head teachers from both systems combined with documentary analysis we examine how the remodelling of the workforce in both countries has impacted on the ways in which inspectors carry out their work. The chapter concludes that inspection operating within a neo liberal framework of regulation must constantly shift and evolve in order to remain credible. It also points out that these shifts in themselves create tensions around the role and operational work of inspectors in both countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2017
Series
Accountability and educational improvement, ISSN 2509-3320
Keywords
Inspection, Policy implementation, Schools, Education policy, Neoliberalism
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-135040 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-52536-5_3 (DOI)978-3-319-52536-5 (ISBN)978-3-319-52535-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Hult, A. & Segerholm, C. (2017). Making a difference?: The voices of school inspectors and managers in Sweden. In: Jacqueline Baxter (Ed.), School inspectors: policy implementers, policy shapers in national policy contexts (pp. 121-135). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making a difference?: The voices of school inspectors and managers in Sweden
2017 (English)In: School inspectors: policy implementers, policy shapers in national policy contexts / [ed] Jacqueline Baxter, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 121-135Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A cadre of school inspectors with different backgrounds visit thousands of schools annually in Sweden as is also the case in several other European and other nations. Do these inspectors believe that they 'make a difference'? In this chapter we elaborate on inspection effects as they are perceived by Swedish inspectors and inspection managers at different levels of the Inspectorate, and on the policy problems the creation of the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (SI) was intended to solve according to, on the one hand policy documents and on the other hand problems reported in interviews with inspectors and inspection managers. Central to inspection practice are the 'assumptive worlds' of the inspectors and managers at the Inspectorate, i.e. their notions of school inspection. Both groups' notions of the policy problem inspection is to solve, agree with national intentions and motivations the managers stressing the declining school performance, and the inspectors emphasising the lack of equivalence between schools and municipalities. Analysis of interviewees' notions of what problems are indeed solved, points foremost to different types of implementation problems at all levels in a top-down 'chain of governing', also noting problems within the national level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2017
Series
Accountability and educational improvement, ISSN 2509-3320
Keywords
Assumptive worlds, Inspection managers, School inspectors, Policy implementation
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-135039 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-52536-5_6 (DOI)978-3-319-52536-5 (ISBN)978-3-319-52535-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Carlbaum, S., Hult, A., Lindgren, J. & Segerholm, C. (2017). Now I'm Offended! New Regulations and Practices Against Bullying and Degrading Behaviour in Swedish Schools. In: : . Paper presented at ECER 2017, European Conference for Educational Research, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 22-25, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Now I'm Offended! New Regulations and Practices Against Bullying and Degrading Behaviour in Swedish Schools
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141651 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2017, European Conference for Educational Research, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 22-25, 2017
Available from: 2017-11-10 Created: 2017-11-10 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Hult, A. & Olofsson, A. (Eds.). (2017). Utvärdering och bedömning i skolan: för vem och varför? (2ed.). Natur och kultur
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utvärdering och bedömning i skolan: för vem och varför?
2017 (Swedish)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Natur och kultur, 2017. p. 198 Edition: 2
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136806 (URN)9789127817975 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-06-22 Created: 2017-06-22 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Hult, A., Lundström, U. & Edström, C. (2016). Balancing managerial and professional demands: school principals as evaluation brokers. Education Inquiry, 7(3), 283-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balancing managerial and professional demands: school principals as evaluation brokers
2016 (English)In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 283-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The evaluation trend in the global education field implies new professional challenges for school principals. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse Swedish school principals’ experiences of prevailing evaluations and the implications for the profession. Specifically, we examine: a) how principals respond to evaluations and their consequences in their schools; and b) the implications of the evaluations for the profession in light of professional responsibility and accountability. The interviewed principals are ascribed huge evaluation responsibilities and are in this respect key actors but to some extent are also ‘victims’ of external pressures. All schools are embedded in a web of evaluation systems. They share the view that evaluations that are useful for improving teaching, student achievement and everyday school life are those conducted close to practice, and involve teachers. Most of them are also aware of the risks for the reduction of the broad goals of schooling and for work overload. The principals express a desire to protect the fundamental values of professional responsibility but the total demands of the local evaluation web have involved.a shift in their professional role towards professional accountability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Co-Action Publishing, 2016
Keywords
school leader, assessment, governance, professionalism
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125153 (URN)10.3402/edui.v7.29960 (DOI)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-09-06 Created: 2016-09-06 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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