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Baskar, J., Janols, R., Guerrero, E., Nieves, J. C. & Lindgren, H. (2017). A Multipurpose Goal Model for Personalised Digital Coaching. In: Agents and Multi-Agent Systems for Health Care: 10th International Workshop, A2HC 2017, São Paulo, Brazil, May 8, 2017, and International Workshop, A-HEALTH 2017, Porto, Portugal, June 21, 2017, Revised and Extended Selected Papers. Paper presented at A2HC 2017 : X Workshop on Agents Applied in Health Care, Sao Paolo, Brazil, May 8-9, 2017 (pp. 94-116). Springer, 10685
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Multipurpose Goal Model for Personalised Digital Coaching
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2017 (English)In: Agents and Multi-Agent Systems for Health Care: 10th International Workshop, A2HC 2017, São Paulo, Brazil, May 8, 2017, and International Workshop, A-HEALTH 2017, Porto, Portugal, June 21, 2017, Revised and Extended Selected Papers, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10685, p. 94-116Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Supporting human actors in daily living activities for improving health and wellbeing is a fundamental goal for assistive technology. The personalisation of the support provided by assistive technology in the form of digital coaching requires user models that handle potentially conflicting goals and motives. The aim of this research is to extend a motivational model implemented in an assistive technology, into a multipurpose motivational model for the human actor who is to be supported, which can be translated into a multipurpose goal model for a team of assistive agents. A team of assistive agents is outlined with supplementary goals following the human’s different properties. A method for generating multipurpose arguments relating to different motives were developed, and implemented in a human-agent dialogue system. The results are exemplified based on a use case from an earlier pilot user study of the assistive technology. Future work includes user studies to validate the model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Series
Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence
National Category
Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer Science; human-computer interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141360 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-70887-4_6 (DOI)
Conference
A2HC 2017 : X Workshop on Agents Applied in Health Care, Sao Paolo, Brazil, May 8-9, 2017
Available from: 2017-10-31 Created: 2017-10-31 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Baskar, J. & Lindgren, H. (2017). Human-Agent Dialogues and Their Purposes. In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2017: . Paper presented at European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE), Umeå, Sweden, September 19-22, 2017 (pp. 101-104). New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human-Agent Dialogues and Their Purposes
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2017, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 101-104Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A common conversation between an older adult and a nurse about health-related issues includes topics such as troubles with sleep, reasons for walking around nighttime, pain conditions, etc. Such a dialogue can be regarded as a "natural" dialogue emerging from the participating agents' lines of thinking, their roles, needs and motives, while switching between topics as the dialogue unfolds. The purpose of this work is to define a generic conceptual model of purposeful human-agent dialogue activity including different types of argumentation dialogues, suitable for health-related topics. This is done based on analyses of a scenario, persona and models of human behaviour. The model will be shared between the human and the agent, allowing for adaptation to the human's reasoning, needs and motives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2017
Keywords
Activity theory, Conversational interfaces, Dialogue systems, End-user development, Formal argumentation, Human-agent interaction, Intention recognition, Multi-agent systems, Ontologies
National Category
Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
computer and systems sciences; human-computer interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141028 (URN)10.1145/3121283.3121303 (DOI)978-1-4503-5256-7 (ISBN)
Conference
European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE), Umeå, Sweden, September 19-22, 2017
Available from: 2017-10-22 Created: 2017-10-22 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Baskar, J., Yan, C. & Lindgren, H. (2017). Instrument-Oriented Approach to Detecting and Representing Human Activity for Supporting Executive Functions and Learning. In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2017: . Paper presented at European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE) 2017, Umeå, Sweden, September 9-22, 2017 (pp. 105-112). New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Instrument-Oriented Approach to Detecting and Representing Human Activity for Supporting Executive Functions and Learning
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2017, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 105-112Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The goal of this study is to develop a computer-interpretable model for activity detection and representation, based on existing informal models of how humans perform activity. Appropriate detection of purposeful human activity is an essential functionality of active assistive technology aiming at providing tailored support to individuals for improving activity performance and completion. The main contribution is the design of a model for detection and representation of human activities based on three categories of instruments, which is implemented as two generic and supplementary terminology models: an event ontology and a core ontology. The core ontology is extended for each new knowledge domain into a domain ontology. The model builds the base for personalization of services generated by the cooperative reasoning performed by a human collaborating with an intelligent and social software agent. Ongoing and future work includes user studies in the different application domains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2017
Series
Academic dissertations at the department of Educational Measurement, ISSN 1652-9650
Keywords
Activity recognition, Activity theory, Assistive technology, Decision-support systems, Human-agent interaction, Knowledge representation, Ontology, User modelling
National Category
Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
computer and systems sciences; human-computer interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141026 (URN)10.1145/3121283.3121305 (DOI)978-1-4503-5256-7 (ISBN)
Conference
European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE) 2017, Umeå, Sweden, September 9-22, 2017
Available from: 2017-10-22 Created: 2017-10-22 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, H., Baskar, J., Guerrero, E., Janols, R. & Nieves, J. C. (2017). Towards a Multipurpose Goal Model for Personalised Digital Coaching. In: Agents and Multi-Agent Systems for Health Care: 10th International Workshop, A2HC 2017, São Paulo, Brazil, May 8, 2017, and International Workshop, A-HEALTH 2017, Porto, Portugal, June 21, 2017, Revised and Extended Selected Papers. Paper presented at X Workshop on Agents Applied in Health Care, A2HC 2017, Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 8-9, 2017 (pp. 94-116). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Multipurpose Goal Model for Personalised Digital Coaching
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2017 (English)In: Agents and Multi-Agent Systems for Health Care: 10th International Workshop, A2HC 2017, São Paulo, Brazil, May 8, 2017, and International Workshop, A-HEALTH 2017, Porto, Portugal, June 21, 2017, Revised and Extended Selected Papers, Springer, 2017, p. 94-116Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Supporting human actors in daily living activities for improv- ing health and wellbeing is a fundamental goal for assistive technology. The personalization of the support provided by assistive technology in the form of digital coaching requires user models that handle potentially conflicting goals and motives. The aim of this research is to extend a motivational model implemented in an assistive technology, and outline a team of assistive agents with supplementary goals following the human’s different properties, orchestrated by a companion agent based on the multipurpose motivational model for the human actor who is to be supported. The multi- purpose motivational model and supportive arguments relating to different motives are exemplified based on a use case from an earlier pilot user study of the assistive technology. Future work includes user studies to validate the model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 10685
Keywords
Personalisation, Motivation, MultiagentSystems, AssistiveTechnology, Argumentation, Persuasive Technology, Behaviour Change
National Category
Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
computer and systems sciences; human-computer interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141031 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-70887-4_6 (DOI)
Conference
X Workshop on Agents Applied in Health Care, A2HC 2017, Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 8-9, 2017
Available from: 2017-10-22 Created: 2017-10-22 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, H., Baskar, J., Guerrero, E., Nieves, J. C., Nilsson, I. & Yan, C. (2016). Computer-Supported Assessment for Tailoring Assistive Technology. In: DH'16: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DIGITAL HEALTH CONFERENCE: . Paper presented at 6th International Conference on Digital Health (DH), APR 11-13, 2016,Montreal, CANADA (pp. 1-10). New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computer-Supported Assessment for Tailoring Assistive Technology
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2016 (English)In: DH'16: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DIGITAL HEALTH CONFERENCE, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 1-10Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The main purpose of assistive technology is to support an individual's daily activities, in order to increase ability, autonomy, relatedness and quality of life. The aim for the work presented in this article is to develop automated methods to tailor the behavior of the assistive technology for the purpose to provide just-in-time, adaptive interventions targeting multiple domains. This requires methods for representing and updating the user model, including goals, preferences, abilities, activity and its situation. We focus the assessment and intervention tasks typically performed by therapists and provide knowledge-based technology for supporting the process. A formative evaluation study was conducted as a part of a participatory action research process, involving two rehabilitation experts, two young individuals and one senior individual as end-user participants, in addition to knowledge engineers. The main contribution of this work is a theory-based method for assessing the individual's goals, preferences, abilities and motives, which is used for building a holistic user model. The user model is continuously updated and functions as the base for tailoring the system's assistive behavior during intervention and follow-up.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016
Keywords
Knowledge-based systems, User modeling, Personalization, Assistive technology, End-user development, Ambient assisted living, Multi-agent systems, Mental health, Behavior change systems, Participatory action research
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128874 (URN)10.1145/2896338.2896352 (DOI)000390308300001 ()978-1-4503-4224-7 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Conference on Digital Health (DH), APR 11-13, 2016,Montreal, CANADA
Available from: 2016-12-17 Created: 2016-12-17 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Baskar, J. & Lindgren, H. (2015). Human-Agent Dialogues on Health Topics - An Evaluation Study. In: Highlights of practical applications of agents, multi-agent systems, and sustainability: The PAAMS Collection, PAAMS 2015. Paper presented at 13th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents, Multi-Agent Systems, and Sustainability (PAAMS), JUN 03-04, 2015, Salamanca, SPAIN (pp. 28-39).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human-Agent Dialogues on Health Topics - An Evaluation Study
2015 (English)In: Highlights of practical applications of agents, multi-agent systems, and sustainability: The PAAMS Collection, PAAMS 2015, 2015, p. 28-39Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A common conversation between an older adult and a nurse about health-related issues includes topics such as troubles with sleep, reasons for walking around nighttime, pain conditions, etc. This dialogue emerges from the participating human's lines of thinking, their roles, needs and motives, while switching between topics as the dialogue unfolds. This paper presents a dialogue system that enables a human to engage in a dialogue with a software agent to reason about health-related issues in a home environment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a pilot evaluation study of a prototype system for human-agent dialogues, which is built upon a set of semantic models and integrated in a web application designed for older adults. Focus of the study was to receive qualitative results regarding purpose and content of the agent-based dialogue system, and to evaluate a method for the agent to evaluate its behavior based on the human agent's perception of appropriateness of moves. The participants include five therapists and 11 older adults. The results show users' feedback on the purpose of dialogues and the appropriateness of dialogues presented to them during the interaction with the software agent.

Series
Communications in Computer and Information Science, ISSN 1865-0929 ; 524
Keywords
Human-agent interaction, Human agent dialogue, Health, Active assistive technology, Evaluation, User experience
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-122595 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-19033-4_3 (DOI)000375012700003 ()978-3-319-19033-4; 978-3-319-19032-7 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Conference
13th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents, Multi-Agent Systems, and Sustainability (PAAMS), JUN 03-04, 2015, Salamanca, SPAIN
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Baskar, J. (2014). Adaptive human-agent dialogues for reasoning about health. (Licentiate dissertation). Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive human-agent dialogues for reasoning about health
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this research is to develop new theories, methods and technology, which enables adaptive and personalised dialogues between a human and a software agent, to handle everyday queries about health that are perceived as meaningful and useful to the human. Some of the challenges to build such human-agent dialogue system are the following. The agent needs to have knowledge about the human, the topic of the dialogue, the knowledge domain of the topic, and also about the physical and social environment. Moreover, the agent must know about itself, its role, purpose and limitations. It must know how to be cooperative and be able to behave and express with empathy while conducting a dialogue activity. In some situations, it needs to reason and make decisions about a topic together with the human and about its own behavior. To be able to do this, it needs the capability to evaluate its behavior in the context in which the dialogue takes place. These challenges are addressed by developing formal semantic models to provide the agent with tools to build their knowledge and to be able to reason and make decisions. These models were developed based on literature studies, theories of human activity, argumentation theory, personas and scenarios.

The models were formalised and implemented using Semantic Web technology, and integrated into a human-agent dialogue system. The system was evaluated with a group of therapists and a group of elderly people, who showed curiosity and interest in having dialogues with a software agent on various topics.

The formal models that the agent constructs are adapted to the specific situation and to the human actor participating in a dialogue. They are based on four models: a model with knowledge about the human actor, a model of itself, a domain model, and a dialogue activity model. The dialogue activity is based on argumentation schemes, which function as patterns of reasoning and for the dialogue execution. These models allow the agent and the human actor to conduct flexible and nested sub-dialogues with different purposes within a main dialogue about a topic. The agent can adapt its moves to the human actor's trail of reasoning, to the human's priorities and goals, and to some human's emotional state. A method for the agent to be able to evaluate its behavior was also developed and evaluated. The proportion of appropriate moves in relation to the local context of earlier moves in the dialogue was 90% in the pilot study, which indicates that the agent's strategies for selecting moves can be improved.

Future research will focus on further development of reasoning methods, learning and assessment methods, and interface design. The results will be applied to additional knowledge domains to test its domain independence and will be evaluated with different groups of potential users.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2014. p. 32
Series
Report / UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 14.19
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96756 (URN)978-91-7601-135-5 (ISBN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-12-02 Created: 2014-12-02 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Baskar, J. & Lindgren, H. (2014). Cognitive Architecture of an Agent for Human-Agent Dialogues. In: Highlights of Practical Applications of Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Systems: the PAAMS Collection. Paper presented at International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (PAAMS), JUN 04-06, 2014, Salamanca, SPAIN (pp. 89-100). Springer, 430
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive Architecture of an Agent for Human-Agent Dialogues
2014 (English)In: Highlights of Practical Applications of Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Systems: the PAAMS Collection, Springer, 2014, Vol. 430, p. 89-100Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a cognitive architecture of an intelligent agent that can have a dialogue with a human agent on health-related topics. This architecture consists of four main components, namely, the Belief Base, the Dialogue Manager, the Task Manager and the Plan Generator. Each component has sub-components that perform a set of tasks for the purpose to enable the agent to be enrolled in a dialogue. In this paper the particular sub-component of the Dialogue Manager, the Dialogue Strategy has been discussed in detail. A notion of scheme is introduced, which functions as a template with variables that are instantiated each time a state is entered. The agent’s dialogue strategy is implemented as a combination of the schemes and the state transitions that the agent makes in response to the human’s request. We used a combination of finite-state and agent-based dialogue strategies for dialogue management. This combined dialogue strategy enables a multi-topic dialogue between a human and an agent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2014
Series
Communications in Computer and Information Science, ISSN 1865-0929 ; 430
Keywords
Human-computer interaction, dialogue, agent, architecture
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-89675 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-07767-3_9 (DOI)000357810200009 ()978-3-319-07767-3 (ISBN)978-3-319-07766-6 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (PAAMS), JUN 04-06, 2014, Salamanca, SPAIN
Available from: 2014-06-09 Created: 2014-06-09 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Nieves, J. C., Guerrero, E., Baskar, J. & Lindgren, H. (2014). Deliberative Argumentation for Smart Environments. In: Hoa Khanh Dam, Jeremy Pitt, Yang Xu, Guido Governatori, Takayuki Ito (Ed.), PRIMA 2014: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems. Paper presented at 17th International Conference, Gold Coast, QLD Australia, December 1-5, 2014 (pp. 141-149). Springer International Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deliberative Argumentation for Smart Environments
2014 (English)In: PRIMA 2014: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems / [ed] Hoa Khanh Dam, Jeremy Pitt, Yang Xu, Guido Governatori, Takayuki Ito, Springer International Publishing , 2014, p. 141-149Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, an argumentation-based deliberative approach for fusing contextual information obtained from heterogeneous sources using a multi-agent system is introduced. The system is characterized by three different agents: an Environment Agent, an Activity Agent and a Coach Agent. These agents consider data from heterogenous sources of data. As a method for aggregating data and supporting decision-making, so-called agreement rules are instrumental in the argumentation-based deliberative method. The aggregation rules will be associated to specific beliefs related to the services of each agent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer International Publishing, 2014
Series
Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 8861
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-98462 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-13191-7_12 (DOI)000345592100012 ()978-3-319-13191-7 (ISBN)978-3-319-13190-0 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Conference
17th International Conference, Gold Coast, QLD Australia, December 1-5, 2014
Available from: 2015-01-30 Created: 2015-01-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Baskar, J. & Lindgren, H. (2014). Semantic model for adaptive human-agent dialogues.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Semantic model for adaptive human-agent dialogues
2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A common conversation between an older adult and a nurse about health-related issues includes topics such as troubles with sleep, reasons for walking around nighttime, pain conditions, etc. Such a dialogue can be regarded as a "natural" dialogue emerging from the participating agents' lines of thinking, their roles, needs and motives, while switching between topics as the dialogue unfolds. The purpose of this work is to define a generic model of purposeful human-agent dialogues suitable for health-related topics. This is done based on analyses of scenarios, personas and models of human behavior. The results include four models, which need to be included in a software agent's belief base; i) a user model, ii) a model of the domain knowledge related to the topic of the dialogue, iii) an agent model, and iv) a dialogue activity model. The models were implemented into a prototype system for human-agent dialogues, which was evaluated by therapists and a group of older adults.

Keywords
personalization, dialogue systems, health promotion, argumentation, intelligent agent, user model
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96755 (URN)
Available from: 2014-12-02 Created: 2014-12-02 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7267-6534

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