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Lindahl, Bernt
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Publications (10 of 81) Show all publications
Ramne, S., Dias, J. A., González-Padilla, E., Olsson, K., Lindahl, B., Engström, G., . . . Sonestedt, E. (2019). Association between added sugar intake and mortality is nonlinear and dependent on sugar source in 2 Swedish population-based prospective cohorts. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 109(2), 411-423
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between added sugar intake and mortality is nonlinear and dependent on sugar source in 2 Swedish population-based prospective cohorts
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2019 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 411-423Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Although sugar consumption has been associated with several risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases, evidence for harmful long-term effects is lacking. In addition, most studies have focused on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), not sugar per se.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between added and free sugar intake, intake of different sugar sources, and mortality risk.

Methods: Two prospective population-based cohorts were examined: the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS; n = 24,272), which collected dietary data by combining a food diary, interview, and food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and the Northern Swedish Health and Disease Study (NSHDS; n = 24,475), which assessed diet with an FFQ. Sugar intakes defined as both added and free sugar and different sugar sources were examined. The associations with mortality were examined using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression.

Results: Higher sugar consumption was associated with a less favorable lifestyle in general. The lowest mortality risk was found with added sugar intakes between 7.5% and 10% of energy (E%) intake in both cohorts. Intakes >20E% were associated with a 30% increased mortality risk, but increased risks were also found at intakes <5E% [23% in the MDCS and 9% (nonsignificant) in the NSHDS]. Similar U-shaped associations were found for both cardiovascular and cancer mortality in the MDCS. By separately analyzing the different sugar sources, the intake of SSBs was positively associated with mortality, whereas the intake of treats was inversely associated.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that a high sugar intake is associated with an increased mortality risk. However, the risk is also increased among low sugar consumers, although they have a more favorable lifestyle in general. In addition, the associations are dependent on the type of sugar source.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2019
Keywords
added sugar, free sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, mortality, cardiometabolic risk marker, nutritional epidemiology
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157790 (URN)10.1093/ajcn/nqy268 (DOI)000460615600020 ()30590448 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061509173 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-04-02Bibliographically approved
Huseinovic, E., Hörnell, A., Johansson, I., Esberg, A., Lindahl, B. & Winkvist, A. (2019). Changes in food intake patterns during 2000–2007 and 2008–2016 in the population-based Northern Sweden Diet Database. Nutrition Journal, 18, Article ID 36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in food intake patterns during 2000–2007 and 2008–2016 in the population-based Northern Sweden Diet Database
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2019 (English)In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 18, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Food intake patterns provide a summary of dietary intake. Few studies have examined trends in food intake patterns over time in large, population-based studies. We examined food intake patterns and related sociodemographic and individual characteristics in the large Northern Sweden Diet Database during the two time windows 2000–2007 and 2008–2016.

Methods: In total, 100 507 participants (51% women) who had filled in a 64-item food frequency questionnaire and provided background and sociodemographic data between 2000 and 2016 were included. Food intake patterns were evaluated for women and men separately for the two time windows 2000–2007 and 2008–2016, respectively. Latent class analysis was used to identify distinct, latent clusters based on 40 food groups.

Results: Among both women and men, a greater proportion of participants were classified into food intake patterns characterized by high-fat spread and high-fat dairy during 2008–2016 compared to 2000–2007. In the earlier time window, these high-fat clusters were related to lower educational level and smoking. Simultaneously, the proportion of women and men classified into a cluster characterized by high intake of fruit, vegetables, and fibre decreased from the earlier to the later time window.

Conclusion: From a public health perspective, the increase in clusters with a high conditional mean for high-fat spread and high-fat dairy and decrease in clusters with a high conditional mean for fruit and vegetables, during the time period 2008–2016 compared to 2000–2007, is worrisome as it indicates a shift away from the recommended food habits. Subgroups of women and men with less healthy dietary patterns in the time window 2008–2016 with lower education, lower age, higher body mass index, lower levels of physical activity and more smoking were identified and future interventions may be targeted towards these groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Food intake patterns, Dietary patterns, FFQ, NSDD, Diet, Time trends
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161908 (URN)10.1186/s12937-019-0464-0 (DOI)000475681700001 ()31299991 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85068890784 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-07 Created: 2019-08-07 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Strid, A., Hallström, E., Hjorth, T., Johansson, I., Lindahl, B., Sonesson, U., . . . Huseinovic, E. (2019). Climate impact from diet in relation to background and sociodemographic characteristics in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Public Health Nutrition, 22(17), 3288-3297
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate impact from diet in relation to background and sociodemographic characteristics in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme
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2019 (English)In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 22, no 17, p. 3288-3297Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics in a population-based cohort in northern Sweden.

Design: A cross-sectional study within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Dietary data from a 64-item food frequency questionnaire collected during 1996–2016 were used. Energy-adjusted greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) for all participants, expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents/day and 4184 kJ (1000 kcal), were estimated using data from life cycle analyses. Differences in background and sociodemographic characteristics were examined between participants with low and high GHGE from diet, respectively. The variables evaluated were age, BMI, physical activity, marital status, level of education, smoking, and residence.

Setting: Västerbotten county in northern Sweden.

Participants: In total, 46 893 women and 45 766 men aged 29–65 years.

Results: Differences in GHGE from diet were found across the majority of examined variables. The strongest associations were found between GHGE from diet and age, BMI, education, and residence (all P < 0·001), with the highest GHGE from diet found among women and men who were younger, had a higher BMI, higher educational level, and lived in urban areas.

Conclusions: This study is one of the first to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics. The results show that climate impact from diet is associated with age, BMI, residence and educational level amongst men and women in Västerbotten, Sweden. These results define potential target populations where public health interventions addressing a move towards more climate-friendly food choices and reduced climate impact from diet could be most effective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2019
Keywords
Carbon dioxide equivalents, Climate impact, Diet, Food, Sociodemographic factors
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165790 (URN)10.1017/S1368980019002131 (DOI)31566152 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072911901 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-03Bibliographically approved
Lindahl, B., Norberg, M., Johansson, H., Lindvall, K., Ng, N., Nordin, M., . . . Schulz, P. J. (2019). Health literacy is independently and inversely associated with carotid artery plaques and cardiovascular risk. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health literacy is independently and inversely associated with carotid artery plaques and cardiovascular risk
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Aims: Health literacy, the degree to which individuals understand and act upon health information, may have a pivotal role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with low health literacy potentially explaining poorer adherence to prevention guidelines. We investigated the associations between health literacy, ultrasound-detected carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods: Baseline data (cross-sectional analysis) from a randomized controlled trial, integrated within the Västerbotten Intervention Program, Northern Sweden, was used. We included 3459 individuals, aged 40 or 50 years with ≥1 conventional risk factor or aged 60 years old. The participants underwent clinical examination, blood sampling, carotid ultrasound assessment of intima-media wall thickness (CIMT) and plaque formation, and answered a questionnaire on health literacy – the Brief Health Literacy Screen. The European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation and Framingham Risk Score were calculated.

Results: About 20% of the participants had low health literacy. Low health literacy was independently associated with the presence of ultrasound-detected carotid artery plaques after adjustment for age and education, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.54 (1.28–1.85), demonstrating a similar level of risk as for smoking. Health literacy was associated with CIMT in men. Low health literacy was associated with higher CVD risk scores. Sensitivity analyses with low health literacy set to 9% or 30% of the study sample, respectively, yielded essentially the same results.

Conclusions: Low health literacy was independently associated with carotid artery plaques and a high level of CVD risk scores. Presenting health information in a fashion that is understood by all patients may improve preventive efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Health literacy, cardiovascular risk scores, carotid artery plaque, ultrasound
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165791 (URN)10.1177/2047487319882821 (DOI)000491457000001 ()31615294 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85074364646 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-04
Klingberg, S., Mehlig, K., Johansson, I., Lindahl, B., Winkvist, A. & Lissner, L. (2019). Occupational stress is associated with major long-term weight gain in a Swedish population-based cohort. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 92(4), 569-576
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occupational stress is associated with major long-term weight gain in a Swedish population-based cohort
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2019 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 569-576Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Occupational stress and obesity are both increasing in prevalence, but prospective findings relating these conditions are inconsistent. We investigated if baseline as well as prolonged exposure to high job demands and low decision latitude were associated with major weight gain (≥ 10% of baseline weight) in 3872 Swedish women and men examined three times over 20 years in the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Program.

Methods: Anthropometry was measured and participants completed questionnaires on job strain, diet, and other lifestyle factors. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for confounders.

Results: Adjusting for age, baseline low decision latitude was associated with major weight gain over 10- and 20-year OR (95% CI) 1.16 (1.00–1.33) and 1.29 (1.13–1.47), respectively (both sexes combined). After adjustment for diet quality and other confounders, the effect over 20 years remained 1.30 (1.13–1.50). Sex modified the effect of prolonged exposure to high job demands over at least 10 years (interaction p = 0.02), showing that high job demands was a risk factor of major weight gain over 20 years in women [1.54 (1.14–2.07)], but not in men [0.87 (0.63–1.19)]. Neither diet nor other lifestyle factors explained these associations.

Conclusions: In conclusion, low decision latitude predicted major weight gain in women and men. In women, the results suggest an additional contribution to major weight gain from high job demands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Job strain, Work stress, Job demand, Decision latitude, Weight gain, Weight change, Prospective study
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158065 (URN)10.1007/s00420-018-1392-6 (DOI)000462612100011 ()30523396 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2006-1506Swedish Cancer SocietySwedish Research CouncilWallenberg FoundationsVästerbotten County Council
Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Otten, J., Ryberg, M., Mellberg, C., Andersson, T., Chorell, E., Lindahl, B., . . . Olsson, T. (2019). Postprandial levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon after two years of weight loss with a Paleolithic diet: a randomized controlled trial in healthy obese women. European Journal of Endocrinology, 180(6), 417-427
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Postprandial levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon after two years of weight loss with a Paleolithic diet: a randomized controlled trial in healthy obese women
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 180, no 6, p. 417-427Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how weight loss by different diets impacts on postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon.

METHODS: In this single-centre, parallel group 2-year trial, 70 healthy postmenopausal obese women were randomized to the Paleolithic diet or a healthy control diet based on Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Both diets were without calorie restriction. The primary outcome was the change in fat mass. Here, secondary analyses on GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon measured during an OGTT are described.

RESULTS: In the Paleolithic diet group, mean weight loss compared to baseline was 11% at 6 months, and 10% at 24 months. In the control diet group, mean weight loss was 6% after 6 and 24 months (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.049 for the comparison between groups at 6 and 24 months respectively). Compared to baseline, the mean incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for GLP-1 increased by 34% and 45% after 6 and 24 months in the Paleolithic diet group, and increased by 59% after 24 months in the control diet group. The mean iAUC for GIP increased only in the Paleolithic diet group. The AUC for glucagon increased during the first 6 months in both groups. The fasting glucagon increase correlated with the β-hydroxybutyrate increase.

CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss caused an increase in postprandial GLP-1 levels and a further rise occurred during weight maintenance. Postprandial GIP levels increased only after the Paleolithic diet. Reduced postprandial glucagon suppression may be caused by a catabolic state.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bioscientifica, 2019
Keywords
glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucose tolerance test, Paleolithic diet, weight loss
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158775 (URN)10.1530/EJE-19-0082 (DOI)000468743400012 ()31042670 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2006-0699Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2010-0398Swedish Research Council, K2011-12237-15-16Swedish Heart Lung FoundationSwedish Diabetes AssociationVästerbotten County Council
Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Näslund, U., Ng, N., Lundgren, A., Fhärm, E., Grönlund, C., Johansson, H., . . . Norberg, M. (2019). Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA): a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 393(10167), 133-142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA): a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial
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2019 (English)In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 393, no 10167, p. 133-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease often fails because of poor adherence among practitioners and individuals to prevention guidelines. We aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-based pictorial information about subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, targeting both primary care physicians and individuals, improves prevention.

METHODS: Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA) is a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial that was integrated within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, an ongoing population-based cardiovascular disease prevention programme in northern Sweden. Individuals aged 40, 50, or 60 years with one or more conventional risk factors were eligible to participate. Participants underwent clinical examination, blood sampling, and ultrasound assessment of carotid intima media wall thickness and plaque formation. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 with a computer-generated randomisation list to an intervention group (pictorial representation of carotid ultrasound plus a nurse phone call to confirm understanding) or a control group (not informed). The primary outcomes, Framingham risk score (FRS) and European systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE), were assessed after 1 year among participants who were followed up. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01849575.

FINDINGS: 3532 individuals were enrolled between April 29, 2013, and June 7, 2016, of which 1783 were randomly assigned to the control group and 1749 were assigned to the intervention group. 3175 participants completed the 1-year follow-up. At the 1-year follow-up, FRS and SCORE differed significantly between groups (FRS 1·07 [95% CI 0·11 to 2·03, p=0·0017] and SCORE 0·16 [0·02 to 0·30, p=0·0010]). FRS decreased from baseline to the 1-year follow-up in the intervention group and increased in the control group (-0·58 [95% CI -0·86 to -0·30] vs 0·35 [0·08 to 0·63]). SCORE increased in both groups (0·13 [95% CI 0·09 to 0·18] vs 0·27 [0·23 to 0·30]).

INTERPRETATION: This study provides evidence of the contributory role of pictorial presentation of silent atherosclerosis for prevention of cardiovascular disease. It supports further development of methods to reduce the major problem of low adherence to medication and lifestyle modification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154318 (URN)10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32818-6 (DOI)000455437100026 ()30522919 (PubMedID)
Funder
Västerbotten County Council, Dnr ALFVLL-298001Swedish Research Council, Dnr 521-2013-2708Swedish Research Council, 2016-01891Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, Dnr 20150369Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20170481
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Manousou, S., Stål, M., Larsson, C., Mellberg, C., Lindahl, B., Eggertsen, R., . . . Nyström, H. F. (2018). A Paleolithic-type diet results in iodine deficiency: a 2-year randomized trial in postmenopausal obese women.. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72(1), 124-129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Paleolithic-type diet results in iodine deficiency: a 2-year randomized trial in postmenopausal obese women.
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 124-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Different diets are used for weight loss. A Paleolithic-type diet (PD) has beneficial metabolic effects, but two of the largest iodine sources, table salt and dairy products, are excluded. The objectives of this study were to compare 24-h urinary iodine concentration (24-UIC) in subjects on PD with 24-UIC in subjects on a diet according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) and to study if PD results in a higher risk of developing iodine deficiency (ID), than NNR diet.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: A 2-year prospective randomized trial in a tertiary referral center where healthy postmenopausal overweight or obese women were randomized to either PD (n=35) or NNR diet (n=35). Dietary iodine intake, 24-UIC, 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-UIE), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyrotropin (TSH) were measured at baseline, 6 and 24 months. Completeness of urine sampling was monitored by para-aminobenzoic acid and salt intake by urinary sodium.

RESULTS: At baseline, median 24-UIC (71.0 μg/l) and 24-UIE (134.0 μg/d) were similar in the PD and NNR groups. After 6 months, 24-UIC had decreased to 36.0 μg/l (P=0.001) and 24-UIE to 77.0 μg/d (P=0.001) in the PD group; in the NNR group, levels were unaltered. FT4, TSH and FT3 were similar in both groups, except for FT3 at 6 months being lower in PD than in NNR group.

CONCLUSIONS: A PD results in a higher risk of developing ID, than a diet according to the NNR. Therefore, we suggest iodine supplementation should be considered when on a PD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-140504 (URN)10.1038/ejcn.2017.134 (DOI)000419795000017 ()28901333 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-10-12 Created: 2017-10-12 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Lukic, M., Nilsson, L. M., Skeie, G., Lindahl, B. & Braaten, T. (2018). Coffee consumption and risk of rare cancers in Scandinavian countries. European Journal of Epidemiology, 33(3), 287-302
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coffee consumption and risk of rare cancers in Scandinavian countries
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 287-302Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies on the association between heavy coffee consumption and risk of less frequently diagnosed cancers are scarce. We aimed to quantify the association between filtered, boiled, and total coffee consumption and the risk of bladder, esophageal, kidney, pancreatic, and stomach cancers. We used data from the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Information on coffee consumption was available for 193,439 participants. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the investigated cancer sites by category of total, filtered, and boiled coffee consumption. Heavy filtered coffee consumers (C 4 cups/day) had a multivariable adjusted HR of 0.74 of being diagnosed with pancreatic cancer (95% CI 0.57-0.95) when compared with light filtered coffee consumers (<= 1 cup/day). We did not observe significant associations between total or boiled coffee consumption and any of the investigated cancer sites, neither in the entire study sample nor in analyses stratified by sex. We found an increased risk of bladder cancer among never smokers who were heavy filtered or total coffee consumers, and an increased risk of stomach cancer in never smokers who were heavy boiled coffee consumers. Our data suggest that increased filtered coffee consumption might reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find evidence of an association between coffee consumption and the risk of esophageal or kidney cancer. The increased risk of bladder and stomach cancer was confined to never smokers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Coffee, Filtered, Boiled, Cancer, Bladder, Esophageal, Kidney, Pancreatic, Stomach, Prospective cohort study
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147357 (URN)10.1007/s10654-018-0369-9 (DOI)000429475100005 ()29476356 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-07 Created: 2018-05-07 Last updated: 2018-08-21Bibliographically approved
Blomquist, C., Chorell, E., Ryberg, M., Mellberg, C., Worrsjö, E., Makoveichuk, E., . . . Olsson, T. (2018). Decreased lipogenesis-promoting factors in adipose tissue in postmenopausal women with overweight on a Paleolithic-type diet. European Journal of Nutrition, 57(8), 2877-2886
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decreased lipogenesis-promoting factors in adipose tissue in postmenopausal women with overweight on a Paleolithic-type diet
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 57, no 8, p. 2877-2886Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: We studied effects of diet-induced postmenopausal weight loss on gene expression and activity of proteins involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue.

Methods: Fifty-eight postmenopausal women with overweight (BMI 32.5 ± 5.5) were randomized to eat an ad libitum Paleolithic-type diet (PD) aiming for a high intake of protein and unsaturated fatty acids or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Anthropometry, plasma adipokines, gene expression of proteins involved in fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and mass in SAT were measured at baseline and after 6 months. LPL mass and activity were also measured after 24 months.

Results: The PD led to improved insulin sensitivity (P < 0.01) and decreased circulating triglycerides (P < 0.001), lipogenesis-related factors, including LPL mRNA (P < 0.05), mass (P < 0.01), and activity (P < 0.001); as well as gene expressions of CD36 (P < 0.05), fatty acid synthase, FAS (P < 0.001) and diglyceride acyltransferase 2, DGAT2 (P < 0.001). The LPL activity (P < 0.05) and gene expression of DGAT2 (P < 0.05) and FAS (P < 0.05) were significantly lowered in the PD group versus the CD group at 6 months and the LPL activity (P < 0.05) remained significantly lowered in the PD group compared to the CD group at 24 months.

Conclusions: Compared to the CD, the PD led to a more pronounced reduction of lipogenesis-promoting factors in SAT among postmenopausal women with overweight. This could have mediated the favorable metabolic effects of the PD on triglyceride levels and insulin sensitivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
diet, fat metabolism, lipoprotein lipase, obesity, postmenopausal women
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141559 (URN)10.1007/s00394-017-1558-0 (DOI)000450829600020 ()29075849 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-08 Created: 2017-11-08 Last updated: 2019-05-10Bibliographically approved
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