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Modig, Lars
Publications (10 of 37) Show all publications
Mostafavi, N., Vlaanderen, J., Portengen, L., Chadeau-Hyam, M., Modig, L., Palli, D., . . . Vermeulen, R. (2017). Associations between genome-wide gene expression and ambient nitrogen oxides (NOx). Epidemiology, 28(3), 320-328
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between genome-wide gene expression and ambient nitrogen oxides (NOx)
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2017 (English)In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: We hypothesize that biological perturbations due to exposure to ambient air pollution are reflected in gene-expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

METHODS: We assessed the association between exposure to ambient air pollution and genome-wide gene-expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from 550 healthy subjects participating in cohorts from Italy and Sweden. Annual air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at time of blood collection (1990 to 2006) were available from the ESCAPE study. In addition to univariate analysis and two variable selection methods to investigate the association between expression and exposure to NOx, we applied gene set enrichment analysis to assess overlap between our most perturbed genes and gene sets hypothesized to be related to air pollution and cigarette smoking. Finally, we assessed associations between NOx and CpG island methylation at the identified genes.

RESULTS: Annual average NOx exposure in the Italian and Swedish cohorts was 94.2 µg/m3, and 6.7 µg/m3, respectively. Long-term exposure to NOx was associated with seven probes in the Italian cohort and one probe in the Swedish (and combined) cohorts. For genes AHCYL2 and MTMR2 changes were also seen in the methylome. Genes hypothesized to be downregulated due to cigarette smoking were enriched among the most strongly downregulated genes from our study.

CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of subtle changes in gene expression related to exposure to long-term NOx. On a global level the observed changes in the transcriptome may indicate similarities between air pollution and tobacco induced changes in the transcriptome.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2017
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131135 (URN)10.1097/EDE.0000000000000628 (DOI)000398158000014 ()28151741 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-02-06 Created: 2017-02-06 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Svanes, C., Koplin, J., Skulstad, S. M., Johannessen, A., Bertelsen, R. J., Benediktsdottir, B., . . . Gomez Real, F. (2017). Father's environment before conception and asthma risk in his children: a multi-generation analysis of the respiratory health in northern Europe study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 49(1), 235-245
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Father's environment before conception and asthma risk in his children: a multi-generation analysis of the respiratory health in northern Europe study
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 235-245Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Whereas it is generally accepted that maternal environment plays a key role in child health, emerging evidence suggests that paternal environment before conception also impacts child health. We aimed to investigate the association between children’s asthma risk and parental smoking and welding exposures prior to conception. Methods: In a longitudinal, multi-country study, parents of 24 168 offspring aged 2–51 years provided information on their life-course smoking habits, occupational exposure to welding and metal fumes, and offspring’s asthma before/after age 10 years and hay fever. Logistic regressions investigated the relevant associations controlled for age, study centre, parental characteristics (age, asthma, education) and clustering by family. Results: Non-allergic early-onset asthma (asthma without hay fever, present in 5.8%) was more common in the offspring with fathers who smoked before conception {odds ratio [OR] = 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18–2.41]}, whereas mothers’ smoking before conception did not predict offspring asthma. The risk was highest if father started smoking before age 15 years [3.24 (1.67–6.27)], even if he stopped more than 5 years before conception [2.68 (1.17–6.13)]. Fathers’ pre-conception welding was independently associated with non-allergic asthma in his offspring [1.80 (1.29–2.50)]. There was no effect if the father started welding or smoking after birth. The associations were consistent across countries. Conclusions: Environmental exposures in young men appear to influence the respiratory health of their offspring born many years later. Influences during susceptible stages of spermatocyte development might be important and needs further investigation in humans. We hypothesize that protecting young men from harmful exposures may lead to improved respiratory health in future generations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2017
Keywords
asthma, epidemiology, smoking, occupational exposure, epigenesis
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125053 (URN)10.1093/ije/dyw151 (DOI)000402724100034 ()27565179 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-09-05 Created: 2016-09-05 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Carlsen, H. K., Bäck, E., Eneroth, K., Gislason, T., Holm, M., Janson, C., . . . Orru, H. (2017). Indicators of residential traffic exposure: Modelled NOX, traffic proximity, and self-reported exposure in RHINE III. Atmospheric Environment, 167, 416-425
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indicators of residential traffic exposure: Modelled NOX, traffic proximity, and self-reported exposure in RHINE III
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2017 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, Vol. 167, p. 416-425Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Few studies have investigated associations between self-reported and modelled exposure to traffic pollution. The objective of this study was to examine correlations between self-reported traffic exposure and modelled (a) NOx and (b) traffic proximity in seven different northern European cities; Aarhus (Denmark), Bergen (Norway), Gothenburg, Ulna and Uppsala (Sweden), Reykjavik (Iceland), and Tartu (Estonia). We analysed data from the RHINE III (Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, www.rhine.nu) cohorts of the seven study cities. Traffic proximity (distance to the nearest road with >10,000 vehicles per day) was calculated and vehicle exhaust (NOx) was modelled using dispersion models and land-use regression (LUR) data from 2011. Participants were asked a question about self-reported traffic intensity near bedroom window and another about traffic noise exposure at the residence. The data were analysed using rank correlation (Kendall's tau) and inter-rater agreement (Cohen's Kappa) between tertiles of modelled NOx and traffic proximity tertile and traffic proximity categories (0-150 metres (m), 150 -200 m, >300 m) in each centre. Data on variables of interest were available for 50-99% of study participants per each cohort. Mean modelled NOx levels were between 6.5 and 16.0 mu g/m(3); median traffic intensity was between 303 and 10,750 m in each centre. In each centre, 7.7-18.7% of respondents reported exposure to high traffic intensity and 3.6-16.3% of respondents reported high exposure to traffic noise. Self-reported residential traffic exposure had low or no correlation with modelled exposure and traffic proximity in all centres, although results were statistically significant (tau = 0.057-0.305). Self reported residential traffic noise correlated weakly (tau = 0.090-0.255), with modelled exposure in all centres except Reykjavik. Modelled NOx\] had the highest correlations between self-reported and modelled traffic exposure in five of seven centres, traffic noise exposure had the highest correlation with traffic proximity in tertiles in three centres. Self-reported exposure to high traffic intensity and traffic noise at each participant's residence had low or weak although statistically significant correlations with modelled vehicle exhaust pollution levels and traffic proximity.

Keywords
Traffic exposure, Noise exposure, Dispersion models, Land-use regression models, NOx, Cohort study
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142482 (URN)10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.08.015 (DOI)000412612200036 ()2-s2.0-85028350198 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-30 Created: 2017-11-30 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Temam, S., Burte, E., Adam, M., Antó, J. M., Basagaña, X., Bousquet, J., . . . Jacquemin, B. (2017). Socioeconomic position and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure in Western Europe: a multi-city analysis. Environment International, 101, 117-124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socioeconomic position and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure in Western Europe: a multi-city analysis
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2017 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 101, p. 117-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and outdoor air pollution have been reported in Europe, but methodological differences prevent any direct between-study comparison.

OBJECTIVES: Assess and compare the association between SEP and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure as a marker of traffic exhaust, in 16 cities from eight Western European countries.

METHODS: Three SEP indicators, two defined at individual-level (education and occupation) and one at neighborhood-level (unemployment rate) were assessed in three European multicenter cohorts. NO2 annual concentration exposure was estimated at participants' addresses with land use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE; http://www.escapeproject.eu/). Pooled and city-specific linear regressions were used to analyze associations between each SEP indicator and NO2. Heterogeneity across cities was assessed using the Higgins' I-squared test (I(2)).

RESULTS: The study population included 5692 participants. Pooled analysis showed that participants with lower individual-SEP were less exposed to NO2. Conversely, participants living in neighborhoods with higher unemployment rate were more exposed. City-specific results exhibited strong heterogeneity (I(2)>76% for the three SEP indicators) resulting in variation of the individual- and neighborhood-SEP patterns of NO2 exposure across cities. The coefficients from a model that included both individual- and neighborhood-SEP indicators were similar to the unadjusted coefficients, suggesting independent associations.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed for the first time using homogenized measures of outcome and exposure across 16 cities the important heterogeneity regarding the association between SEP and NO2 in Western Europe. Importantly, our results showed that individual- and neighborhood-SEP indicators capture different aspects of the association between SEP and exposure to air pollution, stressing the importance of considering both in air pollution health effects studies.

Keywords
Europe, Socioeconomic position, Air pollution, Environmental inequality
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131133 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2016.12.026 (DOI)000397687600012 ()28159394 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-02-06 Created: 2017-02-06 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Hagenbjörk, A., Malmqvist, E., Mattisson, K., Sommar, N. J. & Modig, L. (2017). The spatial variation of O3, NO, NO2 and NOx and the relation between them in two Swedish cities. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, 189(4), Article ID UNSP 161.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The spatial variation of O3, NO, NO2 and NOx and the relation between them in two Swedish cities
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 189, no 4, article id UNSP 161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ozone and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are air pollutants with known associations to adverse health effects on humans. Few studies have simultaneously measured ozone and nitrogen oxides with high spatial resolution. The main aim of this paper was to assess the levels and variation of ground-level ozone, NO2 and NO x in two Swedish cities. An additional aim was to describe the levels of these pollutants within and between three different types of measurement sites (regional background, urban background and traffic sites) and within and between different measurement periods of the year. Three weekly sampling campaigns of NO x and ozone were conducted simultaneously at 20 sites in two Swedish regions using Ogawa badges. Ozone was measured at 20 additional sites in each area. The median ozone concentration for all measurements was statistically significantly higher in Malmö (67 μg/m(3)) compared to Umeå (56 μg/m(3)), and in both cities, ozone levels were highest in April. Measurement period was a more important factor for describing the variation in ozone concentrations than the type of measurement site. The levels of NO2 and NO x were statistically significantly higher in the Malmö area (8.1 and 12 μg/m(3)) compared to the Umeå area (4.5 and 8.9 μg/m(3)). The levels were generally highest at the sites categorized as traffic, while the variability between different seasons was sparse.

Keywords
Determinants of exposure, Diffusive sampler, Measurements, Nitrogen oxides, Ozone, Spatial variation
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132584 (URN)10.1007/s10661-017-5872-z (DOI)000398714200027 ()28290139 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-03-17 Created: 2017-03-17 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Oudin, A., Forsberg, B., Nordin Adolfsson, A., Lind, N., Modig, L., Nordin, M., . . . Nilsson, L.-G. (2016). Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern Sweden: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(3), 306-312
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern Sweden: A Longitudinal Study
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 124, no 3, p. 306-312Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden.

METHODS: Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed with a Land Use Regression Model with a spatial resolution of 50 m x 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) was used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution.

RESULTS: Out of 1806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the highest exposure group were more likely to be diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia), with a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.43 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.998, 2.05 for the highest versus lowest quartile). The estimates were similar for Alzheimer's disease (HR 1.38) and vascular dementia (HR 1.47). The HR for dementia associated for the third quartile versus the lowest quartile was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.11). A sub-analysis that excluded a younger sample that had been re-tested after only 5 years of follow-up suggested stronger associations with exposure than in the full cohort (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73 for the highest versus lowest quartile).

CONCLUSIONS: If the associations we observed are causal, then air pollution from traffic might be an important risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

Keywords
Air Pollution, Alzheimer Disease, Follow-Up Studies, Betula
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107999 (URN)10.1289/ehp.1408322 (DOI)000371442500016 ()26305859 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-09-01 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Jacquemin, B., Siroux, V., Sanchez, M., Carsin, A.-E., Schikowski, T., Adam, M., . . . Kauffmann, F. (2015). Ambient Air Pollution and Adult Asthma Incidence in Six European horts ESCAPE). Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, 123(6), 613-621
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ambient Air Pollution and Adult Asthma Incidence in Six European horts ESCAPE)
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 123, no 6, p. 613-621Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Short-term exposure to air pollution has adverse effects among patients with asthma, but whether long-term exposure to air pollution is a cause of adult-onset asthma is unclear. Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between air pollution and adult onset asthma. Methods: Asthma incidence was prospectively assessed in six European cohorts. Exposures studied were annual average concentrations at home addresses for nitrogen oxides assessed for 23,704 participants (including 1,257 incident cases) and particulate matter (PM) assessed for 17,909 participants through ESCAPE land-use regression models and traffic exposure indicators. Meta-analyses of cohort-specific logistic regression on asthma incidence were performed. Models were adjusted for age, sex, overweight, education, and smoking and included city/area within each cohort as a random effect. Results: In this longitudinal analysis, asthma incidence was positively, but not significantly, associated with all exposure metrics, except for PMcoarse. Positive associations of borderline significance were observed for nitrogen dioxide [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.21 per 10 μg/m3; p = 0.10] and nitrogen oxides (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.08 per 20 μg/m3; p = 0.08). Nonsignificant positive associations were estimated for PM10 (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.23 per 10 μg/m3), PM2.5 (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.23 per 5 μg/m3), PM2.5absorbance (adjusted OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.19 per 10–5/m), traffic load (adjusted OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.30 per 4 million vehicles × meters/day on major roads in a 100-m buffer), and traffic intensity (adjusted OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.30 per 5,000 vehicles/day on the nearest road). A nonsignificant negative association was estimated for PMcoarse (adjusted OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.14 per 5 μg/m3). Conclusions: Results suggest a deleterious effect of ambient air pollution on asthma incidence in adults. Further research with improved personal-level exposure assessment (vs. residential exposure assessment only) and phenotypic characterization is needed.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107095 (URN)10.1289/ehp.1408206 (DOI)000357296200023 ()25712593 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-09-22 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Modig, L., Meister, K., Strömgren, M., Jonsson, L. & Forsberg, B. (2015). Betydelsen av förändring i befolkningens geografiska utbredning över tid för resultaten i en hälsokonsekvensbedömning för ett större vägprojekt: Slutrapport. Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Betydelsen av förändring i befolkningens geografiska utbredning över tid för resultaten i en hälsokonsekvensbedömning för ett större vägprojekt: Slutrapport
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2015. p. 15
Series
Yrkes- och miljömedicin i Umeå rapporterar, ISSN 1654-7314 ; 2015:1
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103593 (URN)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2015-05-22 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Pindus, M., Orru, H. & Modig, L. (2015). Close proximity to busy roads increases the prevalence and onset of cardiac disease: results from RHINE Tartu. Public Health, 129(10), 1398-1405
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Close proximity to busy roads increases the prevalence and onset of cardiac disease: results from RHINE Tartu
2015 (English)In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 129, no 10, p. 1398-1405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To analyze whether living close to a busy road would increase the risk of having cardiac disease and hypertension.

STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cross-sectional study.

METHODS: We used cross-sectional longitudinal questionnaire data from the RHINE study for Tartu in 2000/2001 and 2011/2012. Home addresses of the respondents were geocoded and traffic data obtained from annually conducted traffic counts in Tartu. Relationships between proximity to a busy road and self-reported cardiac disease and hypertension were analyzed with multiple logistic regression.

RESULTS: In terms of total traffic (≥10,000 vehicles per day) within a 150-m zone of a busy road, the odds ratio (OR) for prevalence of cardiac disease was significant in 2000/2001 (1.91, 95% CI 1.15-3.16) and 2011/2012 (1.58, 95% CI 1.01-2.47). Prevalence of hypertension was significant only in 2011/2012 (1.61, 95% CI 1.08-2.39). In terms of heavy duty vehicle traffic (≥500 vehicles per day) within a 150-m zone in 2000/2001, the OR was 1.52 (95% CI 1.04-2.24) and 1.49 (95% CI 1.02-2.17) respectively for the prevalence of cardiac disease and hypertension. In 2011/2012 no significant relationship between heavy duty vehicle traffic and cardiac disease or hypertension was found. We also saw a significant relationship between total traffic and the onset of cardiac disease (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.07-3.87).

CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that living closer than 150 m to a busy road can increase the odds of having cardiac disease and hypertension, which should be taken into account in city planning.

Keywords
Traffic proximity, Cardiac disease, Odds ratio, Prevalence, Onset
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111240 (URN)10.1016/j.puhe.2015.07.029 (DOI)000364536100012 ()26298587 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-11-11 Created: 2015-11-11 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
Carlsen, H. K., Modig, L., Levinsson, A., Kim, J.-L., Toren, K., Nyberg, F. & Olin, A.-C. (2015). Exposure to traffic and lung function in adults: a general population cohort study. BMJ Open, 5(6), Article ID e007624.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to traffic and lung function in adults: a general population cohort study
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2015 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, no 6, article id e007624Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To investigate the association between living near dense traffic and lung function in a cohort of adults from a single urban region. Design: Cross-sectional results from a cohort study. Setting: The adult-onset asthma and exhaled nitric oxide (ADONIX) cohort, sampled during 2001-2008 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Exposure was expressed as the distance from participants' residential address to the nearest road with dense traffic (>10 000 vehicles per day) or very dense traffic (>30 000 vehicles per day). The exposure categories were: low (>500 m; reference), medium (75-500 m) or high (<75 m). Participants: The source population was a population-based cohort of adults (n=6153). The study population included 5441 participants of European descent with good quality spirometry and information about all outcomes and covariates. Outcome measures: Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were measured at a clinical examination. The association with exposure was examined using linear regression adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status and education in all participants and stratified by sex, smoking status and respiratory health status. Results: We identified a significant dose-response trend between exposure category and FEV1 (p=0.03) and borderline significant trend for FVC (p=0.06) after adjusting for covariates. High exposure was associated with lower FEV1 (-1.0%, 95% CI -2.5% to 0.5%) and lower FVC (-0.9%, 95% CI -2.2% to 0.4%). The effect appeared to be stronger in women. In highly exposed individuals with current asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FVC was lower (-4.5%, 95% CI -8.8% to -0.1%). Conclusions: High traffic exposure at the residential address was associated with lower than predicted FEV1 and FVC lung function compared with living further away in a large general population cohort. There were particular effects on women and individuals with obstructive disease.

Keywords
Air Pollution, Cohort Studies, Nitric Oxide
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111778 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2015-007624 (DOI)000363479900068 ()26109116 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84937239405 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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