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Steinvall, Erik
Publications (5 of 5) Show all publications
Rebbling, A., Fagerström, J., Steinvall, E., Carlborg, M., Öhman, M. & Boman, C. (2019). Reduction of Alkali Release by Two Fuel Additives at Different Bed Temperatures during Grate Combustion of Woody Biomass. Energy & Fuels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction of Alkali Release by Two Fuel Additives at Different Bed Temperatures during Grate Combustion of Woody Biomass
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2019 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The use of small- and medium-scale combustion of biomass for energy utilization is expected to grow in the coming decades. To meet standards and legislation regarding particle emissions and to reduce corrosion and deposit formation, it is crucial to reduce the release of alkali species from the fuel. This can be achieved by capturing the volatile alkali in the residual bottom ash as more thermally stable compounds. In this work, we investigate the combination of primary measures, i.e., process parameters and fuel additives, for reduction of the release of K and Na from the fuel bed during fixed bed combustion. In addition, the influence of these combined measures on fine particle emissions was explored. The results showed a clear influence of the process parameters, herein bed temperature, and that a significant reduction of the alkali release and PM1 emissions can be achieved by correct settings. Furthermore, the application of additives (kaolin and diammonium sulfate) reduced both K and Na release even further. The observed effects on the release behavior was mainly explained by the formation of KAlSiO4 and K2SO4 during addition of kaolin and diammonium sulfate, respectively. This work therefore emphasizes the importance of good control over the fuel bed conditions, especially temperature, when these additives are applied. To reduce the potential deactivation (for kaolinite) and melting (for K2SO4), the control of bed temperature is vital. Thus, it was concluded that the release of volatile alkali species and related fine particle emissions in small- and medium-scale biomass heat and power plants using wood fuels could be significantly reduced by a correct combination of controlling the combustion parameters and the use of fuel additives.

National Category
Chemical Process Engineering Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165214 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b02391 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2019-11-18
Fagerström, J., Steinvall, E., Boström, D. & Boman, C. (2016). Alkali transformation during single pellet combustion of soft wood and wheat straw. Fuel processing technology, 143, 204-212
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alkali transformation during single pellet combustion of soft wood and wheat straw
2016 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 143, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Controlling slag and deposit formation during thermochemical fuel conversion requires a fundamental understanding about ash transformation. In this work, a macro-TGA reactor was used to determine the release of ash forming elements during devolatilization and char combustion of single pellets. Soft wood and wheat straw were combusted at two temperatures (700 °C and 1000 °C) and the residual ashes were collected and analyzed for morphology, elemental and phase composition. The results showed that the single pellet combustion exhibit similar release character as in grate boilers. The temporal release was found to be both temperature and fuel dependent. For wood, the release of potassium occurred mostly during char combustion regardless of furnace temperature. Similar results were found for straw at 700 °C, but the temperature increase to 1000 °C implied that the release occurred already during devolatilization. The differences are presumably explained by different fuel phase compositions. The residual ash were composed of three different categories of phases; crystalline compounds, molten ash (glass) and char, and the work concludes that K was captured by crystalline K/Ca-carbonates as well as in amorphous glassy silicates for wood, and by almost fully molten ash of glassy silicates for straw. The fuel conversion processes occurring on a grate influence the fuel combustibility in terms of e.g. burnout, slag formation and release of fine particle and deposit forming matter, and the present work has given novel insights into the specific alkali behavior during biomass fuel conversion.

Keywords
Biomass, Combustion, Ash, Alkali, Release, Single pellet
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102732 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.11.016 (DOI)000369455300023 ()
Projects
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Valiev, D., Qu, Z., Steinvall, E. & Schmidt, F. (2016). Measurement and simulation of atomic potassium in the plume above potassium hydroxide in a methane-air flat flame. In: : . Paper presented at 36th International Symposium on Combustion, Seoul, Korea, July 31 - August 5, 2016. , Article ID 4P057.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement and simulation of atomic potassium in the plume above potassium hydroxide in a methane-air flat flame
2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124996 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
36th International Symposium on Combustion, Seoul, Korea, July 31 - August 5, 2016
Available from: 2016-09-01 Created: 2016-09-01 Last updated: 2018-06-07
Qu, Z., Steinvall, E., Ghorbani, R. & Schmidt, F. M. (2016). Tunable Diode Laser Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for Detection of Potassium under Optically Thick Conditions. Analytical Chemistry, 88(7), 3754-3760
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tunable Diode Laser Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for Detection of Potassium under Optically Thick Conditions
2016 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 88, no 7, p. 3754-3760Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Potassium (K) is an important element related to ash and fine-particle formation in biomass combustion processes. In situ measurements of gaseous atomic potassium, K(g), using robust optical absorption techniques can provide valuable insight into the K chemistry. However, for typical parts per billion K(g) concentrations in biomass flames and reactor gases, the product of atomic line strength and absorption path length can give rise to such high absorbance that the sample becomes opaque around the transition line center. We present a tunable diode laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (TDLAAS) methodology that enables accurate, calibration-free species quantification even under optically thick conditions, given that Beer−Lambert’s law is valid. Analyte concentration and collisional line shape broadening are simultaneously determined by a least-squares fit of simulated to measured absorption profiles. Method validation measurements of K(g) concentrations in saturated potassium hydroxide vapor in the temperature range 950−1200 K showed excellent agreement with equilibrium calculations, and a dynamic range from 40 pptv cm to 40 ppmv cm. The applicability of the compact TDLAAS sensor is demonstrated by real-time detection of K(g) concentrations close to biomass pellets during atmospheric combustion in a laboratory reactor. 

National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118864 (URN)10.1021/acs.analchem.5b04610 (DOI)000373656300046 ()
Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Qu, Z., Fagerström, J., Steinvall, E., Broström, M., Boman, C. & Florian, S. (2014). Real-time In-Situ Detection of Potassium Release during Combustion of Pelletized Biomass using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. In: Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production October 26 –31, 2014, Snowbird, Utah, USA: . Paper presented at Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production October 26 –31, 2014 Snowbird Resort & Conference Center Snowbird, Utah (pp. 1-14).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-time In-Situ Detection of Potassium Release during Combustion of Pelletized Biomass using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy
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2014 (English)In: Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production October 26 –31, 2014, Snowbird, Utah, USA, 2014, p. 1-14Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was used for quantitative in-situ detection of gaseous elemental potassium (K) at distances 2-11 mm above biomass pellets combusted in a macro-thermogravimetric analyzer (macro-TGA). Single pellets of energy wood (EW) and wheat straw (WS) were converted in air at a furnace temperature of 850 °C and a carrier flow rate of 15 liters per minute. A second TDLAS system measured water vapor concentration and temperature above the pellets. In addition, semi-time-resolved K release data was obtained from conventional ICP-MS/AES analysis of fuel/ash residues collected at several occasions during devolatilization and char combustion. It was found that the fuels differ with respect to relative K-release and temporal release histories. Significant concentrations of K(g) were detected with TDLAS above the pellets during devolatilization, but no K(g) was observed during char combustion, independent of the fuel type. The amount of K(g)tot measured above the pellets during devolatilization was larger for EW than for WS, even though the total K content of WS was a factor of 60 higher. By combining TDLAS and ICP data, and supported by equilibrium calculations, these results indicate that, during devocalization, K is mainly released as KCl from wheat straw, whereas both KCl and KOH are released from energy wood.

National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-95732 (URN)
Conference
Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production October 26 –31, 2014 Snowbird Resort & Conference Center Snowbird, Utah
Available from: 2014-11-04 Created: 2014-11-04 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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