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Henein, Michael
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Publications (10 of 264) Show all publications
Henein, M. Y., Tossavainen, E., Aroch, R., Söderberg, S. & Lindqvist, P. (2019). Can Doppler echocardiography estimate raised pulmonary capillary wedge pressure provoked by passive leg lifting in suspected heart failure?. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 128-134
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can Doppler echocardiography estimate raised pulmonary capillary wedge pressure provoked by passive leg lifting in suspected heart failure?
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2019 (English)In: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, p. 128-134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIMS: Non-invasive estimation of left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) during stress is important for explaining exertional symptoms in patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to evaluate ability of Doppler echocardiographic measures of elevated LVFP with passive leg lifting (PLL) in patients with suspected HF.

METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with clinical signs of HF who underwent simultaneous Doppler echocardiography and right heart catheterization (RHC) at rest and during PLL were consecutively investigated. Seventeen patients had normal PCWP (≤15 mmHg) at rest and during PLL and 12 with normal PCWP at rest but >15 mmHg with PLL. Conventional echo and 2D strain were used to assess early diastolic blood flow velocity (E), LV strain rate during early diastole (LVSRe), left atrial SR during atrial contraction (LASRa) and myocardial tissue Doppler velocities to assess lateral e' and further calculate E/e' and E/LVSRe and their relationship with PCWP, at rest and during PLL.

RESULTS: Resting LAVI (β = 0·45, P = 0·009) and LASRa (β = -0·51, P = 0·004) were independently related to PCWP during PLL. Also, LASRa (β = -0·77, P<0·001), E/e' (β = 0·40, P = 0·04) and E/LVSRe (β = 0·47, P = 0·021) during PLL correlated with PCWP during PLL. Multiple regression analysis identified E/LVSRe (β = 0·46, P = 0·001) and LASRa (β = -0·58, P = 0·002) during PLL as being independently associated with PCWP during PLL.

CONCLUSION: Left atrial volume and myocardial contraction (LASRa) at rest both predict unstable LV filling pressures measured as raised PCWP when provoked by PLL. Furthermore, LASRa at PLL seems to have the strongest association to PCWP during PLL.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
deformation, passive leg lifting, pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, strain rate
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152550 (URN)10.1111/cpf.12547 (DOI)30298591 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Heart Lung Foundation
Available from: 2018-10-11 Created: 2018-10-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Xue, C., Zhao, Y., Zhang, Y., Gu, X., Han, J., Henein, M. & He, Y. (2019). Double-chambered left ventricle diagnosis by 2D and 3D echocardiography: From fetus to birth. Echocardiography, 36(1), 196-198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Double-chambered left ventricle diagnosis by 2D and 3D echocardiography: From fetus to birth
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2019 (English)In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 196-198Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Double-chambered left ventricle (DCLV) is a rare cardiac anomaly and is characterized by the division of the left ventricle by abnormal muscle and/or fiber bundles into two chambers. We hereby report a fetus which was diagnosed with DCLV in utero by 2D and 3D Fetal echocardiography and the findings were confirmed after birth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
Keywords
double-chambered left ventricle, echocardiography, fetus
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155768 (URN)10.1111/echo.14215 (DOI)000455100300027 ()30592776 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
Charisopoulou, D., Koulaouzidis, G., Rydberg, A. & Henein, M. (2019). Exercise worsening of electromechanical disturbances: a predictor of arrhythmia in long QT syndrome. Clinical Cardiology, 42(2), 235-240
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exercise worsening of electromechanical disturbances: a predictor of arrhythmia in long QT syndrome
2019 (English)In: Clinical Cardiology, ISSN 0160-9289, E-ISSN 1932-8737, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 235-240Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background; Electromechanical (EM) coupling heterogeneity is significant in long QT syndrome (LQTS), particularly in symptomatic patients; EM window (EMW) has been proposed as an indicator of interaction and a better predictor of arrhythmia than QTc. Hypothesis To investigate the dynamic response of EMW to exercise in LQTS and its predictive value of arrhythmia.

Methods: Forty-seven LQTS carriers (45 +/- 15 years, 20 with arrhythmic events), and 35 controls underwent exercise echocardiogram. EMW was measured as the time difference between aortic valve closure on Doppler and the end of QT interval on the superimposed electrocardiogram (ECG). Measurements were obtained at rest, peak exercise (PE) and 4 minutes into recovery.

Results: Patients did not differ in age, gender, heart rate, or left ventricular ejection fraction but had a negative resting EMW compared with controls (-42 +/- 22 vs 17 +/- 5 ms, P < 0.0001). EMW became more negative at PE (-89 +/- 43 vs 16 +/- 7 ms, P = 0.0001) and recovery (-65 +/- 39 vs 16 +/- 6 ms, P = 0.001) in patients, particularly the symptomatic, but remained unchanged in controls. PE EMW was a stronger predictor of arrhythmic events than QTc (AUC:0.765 vs 0.569, P < 0.001). B-blockers did not affect EMW at rest but was less negative at PE (BB: -66 +/- 21 vs no-BB: -113 +/- 25 ms, P < 0.001). LQT1 patients had worse PE EMW negativity than LQT2.

Conclusion: LQTS patients have significantly negative EMW, which worsens with exercise. These changes are more pronounced in patients with documented arrhythmic events and decrease with B-blocker therapy. Thus, EMW assessment during exercise may help improve risk stratification and management of LQTS patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley Periodicals, Inc., 2019
Keywords
arrhythmia, electromechanical window, exercise echocardiography, long QT syndrome
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156883 (URN)10.1002/clc.23132 (DOI)000458424300004 ()30537240 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
D'Ascenzi, F., Piu, P., Capone, V., Sciaccaluga, C., Solari, M., Mondillo, S. & Henein, M. (2019). Reference values of left atrial size and function according to age: should we redefine the normal upper limits?. International Journal of Cardiac Imaging, 35(1), 41-48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reference values of left atrial size and function according to age: should we redefine the normal upper limits?
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Cardiac Imaging, ISSN 1569-5794, E-ISSN 1875-8312, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Different cut-offs have been proposed for left atrial (LA) size. Furthermore, conflicting results have been reported about the influence of age on LA size and data on the impact of age on LA myocardial function are scanty. The aim of this study was to derive references values for LA size and function in healthy subjects and to evaluate the impact of age. We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE database. We included only studies evaluating healthy subjects, with age ranged between 18 and 80years. Parameters were compared among four age groups, <30, 30-45, >45-60, >60years. Three hundred twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and the final population consisted of 62,821 subjects. LA volume index (LAVi) did not differ among different age groups (p=0.21). The normal upper limit of LAVi was 24mL/m(2). LA reservoir function, measured by strain, did not differ among age groups (38 +/- 3%, 32-43%; p=0.74). Left ventricular (LV) size and function were not different among groups, except LV mass index. A decrease in E/A ratio and an increase in E/e ratio were found with advancing age (p<0.0001 and p=0.001, respectively). In healthy subjects the normal upper limit of LAVi was lower than that recommended and is not influenced by advancing age. Furthermore, also LA function measured by strain was not affected by age. The current reference values of LAVi should be used with caution when applied to healthy subjects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Echocardiography, Advanced cardiac imaging, Meta-analysis, Strain, Systematic review
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156899 (URN)10.1007/s10554-018-1427-9 (DOI)000458270500005 ()30076516 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-09 Created: 2019-03-09 Last updated: 2019-03-09Bibliographically approved
Charisopoulou, D., Koulaouzidis, G., Rydberg, A. & Henein, M. Y. (2018). Abnormal ventricular repolarization in long QT syndrome carriers is related to short left ventricular filling time and attenuated stroke volume response during exercise. Echocardiography, 35(8), 1116-1123
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Abnormal ventricular repolarization in long QT syndrome carriers is related to short left ventricular filling time and attenuated stroke volume response during exercise
2018 (English)In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1116-1123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) carriers are characterized by abnormal ventricular repolarization, prolonged systole, and mechanical dispersion. Prolonged left ventricular (LV) systole has been shown to result in disproportionate shortening of LV filling in other conditions. The aim of this study was to assess LV filling, diastolic function, and stroke volume (SV) response to dynamic exercise, in a group of LQTS carriers.

METHODS: Forty-seven LQTS carriers (45 ± 15 years, 20 symptomatic) and 35 healthy individuals underwent bicycle stress echocardiogram. Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic measurements were obtained at rest, peak exercise, and 4 minutes into recovery.

RESULTS: Long QT syndrome carriers and controls did not differ in age, gender, heart rate, QRS duration, or LV ejection fraction. At rest, LQTS carriers had longer QTc and shorter filling time (FT). At peak exercise, QTc increased and remained longer than controls at recovery. A negative correlation was found between QTc and FT (r = -.398, P = .001) with greater fall in FT in LQTS carriers than in controls at peak exercise (-23% ± 10 vs +2% ± 3, P < .0001). FT correlated with SV (r = +.27, P = .001), which increased more in controls than in LQTS carriers (+32% ± 4 vs +2% ± 1, P < .05). These differences were more pronounced in symptomatic LQTS carriers who had shorter FT and smaller SV at peak exercise and during recovery compared to asymptomatics (P < .05).

CONCLUSIONS: Long QT syndrome carriers have longer QTc, but also shorter FT. These disturbances worsen at peak exercise (particularly in symptomatics) compromising LV filling and SV, hence a potential pathomechanism for adverse events.

Keywords
exercise echocardiography, left ventricular filling, long QT Syndrome
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148429 (URN)10.1111/echo.13891 (DOI)000440648000005 ()29648704 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-06-05 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Poniku, A., Bajraktari, G., Elezi, S., Ibrahimi, P. & Henein, M. Y. (2018). Adiponectin correlates with body mass index and to a lesser extent with left ventricular mass in dialysis patients. Cardiology Journal, 25(4), 501-511
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adiponectin correlates with body mass index and to a lesser extent with left ventricular mass in dialysis patients
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2018 (English)In: Cardiology Journal, ISSN 1897-5593, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 501-511Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Adiponectin is a serum protein produced by adipose tissue which exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherosclerotic properties, hence is considered a cardio-protective marker. With the current uncertain role of adiponectin in dialysis patients to the aim of this study was to investigate its relationship with left ventricular (LV) structure and function in these patients.

Methods: This study included 89 (age 56 +/- 13 years, 43% male) patients treated with regular dialysis for > 6 months, and 55 control subjects with normal renal function. A complete two-dimensional, M- ode and tissue-Doppler echocardiographic study, and biochemical blood analyses, adiponectin and anthropometric parameters were obtainedon the same day.

Results: Dialysis patients had lower body mass index (BMI) and lower body surface area (BSA) (p < 0.001 for both), lower waist/hips ratio (p = 0.005), higher LV mass index (LVMI, p < 0.001), higher adiponectin level (p < 0.001) and LV end-systolic volume p = 0.003), lower LV ejection fraction (p = 0.006), longer isovolumic relaxation time (p < 0.001), lower mean LV strain (p = 0.002), larger left atrium volume (p = 0.022) and lower left atrium emptying fraction (p = 0.026), compared to controls. In dialysis patients, adiponectin correlated with waist circumference (r = -0.427, p < 0.001), BMI (r = -0.403, p < 0.001) and BSA (r = -0.480, p < 0.001), and to a lesser extent with LVMI (r = 0.296, p = 0.005), waist/hips ratio (r = -0.222, p = 0.037) and total cholesterol (r = -0.292, p = 0.013). But in controls, it correlated only modestly with age (r = 0.304, p = 0.024), hemoglobin (r = 0.371, p = 0.005), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.315, p = 0.019) and LVMI (r = 0277, p = 0.043).

Conclusions: It seems that in dialysis patients, adiponectin modest correlation with anthropometric measurements suggests an ongoing catabolic process rather than a change in ventricular function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Via Medica, 2018
Keywords
adiponectin, dialysis, left ventricular mass, body mass index
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152280 (URN)10.5603/CJ.a2017.0108 (DOI)000444545500009 ()28980284 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Nicoll, R. & Henein, M. Y. (2018). Caloric Restriction and Its Effect on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability and Arterial Stiffness and Dilatation: A Review of the Evidence. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(3), Article ID 751.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Caloric Restriction and Its Effect on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability and Arterial Stiffness and Dilatation: A Review of the Evidence
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 19, no 3, article id 751Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Essential hypertension, fast heart rate, low heart rate variability, sympathetic nervous system dominance over parasympathetic, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and poor flow-mediated arterial dilatation are all associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. This review of randomised controlled trials and other studies demonstrates that caloric restriction (CR) is capable of significantly improving all these parameters, normalising blood pressure (BP) and allowing patients to discontinue antihypertensive medication, while never becoming hypotensive. CR appears to be effective regardless of age, gender, ethnicity, weight, body mass index (BMI) or a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes, but the greatest benefit is usually observed in the sickest subjects and BP may continue to improve during the refeeding period. Exercise enhances the effects of CR only in hypertensive subjects. There is as yet no consensus on the mechanism of effect of CR and it may be multifactorial. Several studies have suggested that improvement in BP is related to improvement in insulin sensitivity, as well as increased nitric oxide production through improved endothelial function. In addition, CR is known to induce SIRT1, a nutrient sensor, which is linked to a number of beneficial effects in the body.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
blood pressure, heart rate variability, arterial stiffness, flow-mediated dilatation, caloric restriction fasting
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151188 (URN)10.3390/ijms19030751 (DOI)000428309800108 ()29518898 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85043595673 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-04 Created: 2018-09-04 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Jashari, F., Ibrahimi, P., Johansson, E., Grönlund, C., Wester, P. & Henein, M. Y. (2018). Carotid IM-GSM is better than IMT for identifying patients with multiple arterial disease. Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, 52(2), 93-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carotid IM-GSM is better than IMT for identifying patients with multiple arterial disease
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective. Atherosclerosis is a systemic inflammatory disease that can affect more than one arterial bed simultaneously. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ultrasound markers of atherosclerosis and multiple arterial disease. Design. We have included 87 currently asymptomatic carotid disease patients (mean age 69 +/- 6 year, 34% females) in this study. Intima media thickness (IMT) and intima media-grey scale median (IM-GSM) were measured in the common carotid artery (CCA), and correlated with previous and/or current atherosclerotic vascular disease in the coronary, carotid and lower extremities. Patients were divided into three groups: (1) asymptomatic, (2) previous symptoms in one arterial territory and (3) previous symptoms in multiple arterial territories. Results. Patients with previous disease in the coronary arteries had higher IMT (p=.034) and lower IM-GSM (p<.001), and those with prior stroke had lower IM-GSM (p=.007). Neither IMT nor IM-GSM was different between patients with and without previous lower extremity vascular disease. IM-GSM was significantly different between groups, it decreased significantly with increasing number of arterial territories affected (37.7 +/- 15.4 vs. 29.3 +/- 16.4 vs. 20.7 +/- 12.9) p<.001, for asymptomatic, symptoms in one and in multiple arterial systems, respectively. Conventional IMT was not significantly different between groups p=.49. Conclusion. Carotid IMT was higher and IM-GSM lower in patients with symptomatic nearby arterial territories but not in those with peripheral disease. In contrast to conventional IMT, IM-GSM can differentiate between numbers of arterial territories affected by atherosclerosis, suggesting that it is a better surrogate for monitoring multiple arterial territory disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
Atherosclerosis, carotid artery, intimal-media complex, IMT, IM-GSM
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146595 (URN)10.1080/14017431.2018.1435903 (DOI)000428305000006 ()29402147 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-08 Created: 2018-05-08 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Bajraktari, G., Jashari, H., Ibrahimi, P., Alfonso, F., Jashari, F., Ndrepepa, G., . . . Henein, M. Y. (2018). Complete revascularization for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Coronary Artery Disease, 29(3), 204-215
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complete revascularization for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of randomized trials
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2018 (English)In: Coronary Artery Disease, ISSN 0954-6928, E-ISSN 1473-5830, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 204-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

IntroductionDespite the recent findings in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with limited sample sizes and the updates in clinical guidelines, the current available data for the complete revascularization (CR) in hemodynamically stable patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at the time of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are still contradictory.AimThe aim of this meta-analysis of the existing RCTs was to assess the efficacy of the CR versus revascularization of infarct-related artery (IRA) only during primary PCI in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease (MVD).Patients and methodsWe searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and ClinicalTrials.gov databases aiming to find RCTs for patients with STEMI and MVD which compared CR with IRA-only. Random effect risk ratios (RRs) were calculated for efficacy and safety outcomes.ResultsTen RCTs with 3291 patients were included. The median follow-up duration was 17.5 months. Major adverse cardiac events (RR=0.57; 0.43-0.76; P<0.0001), cardiac mortality (RR=0.52; 0.31-0.87; P=0.014), and repeat revascularization (RR=0.50; 0.30-0.84; P=0.009) were lower in CR compared with IRA-only strategies. However, there was no significant difference in the risk of all-cause mortality, recurrent nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, major bleeding events, and contrast-induced nephropathy.ConclusionFor patients with STEMI and MVD undergoing primary PCI, the current evidence suggests that the risk of major adverse cardiac events, repeat revascularization, and cardiac death is reduced by CR. However, the risk for all-cause mortality and PCI-related complications is not different from the isolated culprit lesion-only treatment. Although these findings support the cardiac mortality and safety benefit of CR in stable STEMI, further large trials are required to provide better guidance for optimum management of such patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2018
Keywords
complete revascularization, coronary artery disease, infarct-related artery-only revascularization, multivessel disease, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150707 (URN)10.1097/MCA.0000000000000602 (DOI)000430474900006 ()29346126 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045855798 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-21 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Boles, U., Johansson, A., Wiklund, U., Sharif, Z., David, S., McGrory, S. & Henein, M. Y. (2018). Cytokine Disturbances in Coronary Artery Ectasia Do Not Support Atherosclerosis Pathogenesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(1), Article ID 260.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cytokine Disturbances in Coronary Artery Ectasia Do Not Support Atherosclerosis Pathogenesis
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is a rare disorder commonly associated with additional features of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we aimed to examine the systemic immune-inflammatory response that might associate CAE.

METHODS: Plasma samples were obtained from 16 patients with coronary artery ectasia (mean age 64.9 ± 7.3 years, 6 female), 69 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and angiographic evidence for atherosclerosis (age 64.5 ± 8.7 years, 41 female), and 140 controls (mean age 58.6 ± 4.1 years, 40 female) with normal coronary arteries. Samples were analyzed at Umeå University Biochemistry Laboratory, Sweden, using the V-PLEX Pro-Inflammatory Panel 1 (human) Kit. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between patient groups and controls were determined using Mann-Whitney U-tests.

RESULTS: The CAE patients had significantly higher plasma levels of INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (p = 0.007, 0.01, 0.001, and 0.002, respectively), and lower levels of IL-2 and IL-4 (p < 0.001 for both) compared to CAD patients and controls. The plasma levels of IL-10, IL-12p, and IL-13 were not different between the three groups. None of these markers could differentiate between patients with pure (n = 6) and mixed with minimal atherosclerosis (n = 10) CAE.

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate an enhanced systemic pro-inflammatory response in CAE. The profile of this response indicates activation of macrophages through a pathway and trigger different from those of atherosclerosis immune inflammatory response.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2018
Keywords
atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, coronary artery ectasia, cytokines, immune inflammatory response, macrophage activation
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144041 (URN)10.3390/ijms19010260 (DOI)000424407200254 ()29337902 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Heart Lung Foundation
Available from: 2018-01-26 Created: 2018-01-26 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
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