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Sundell, C.-G., Bergström, E. & Larsén, K. (2019). Low back pain and associated disability in Swedish adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 29, 393-399
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low back pain and associated disability in Swedish adolescents
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, p. 393-399Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Low back pain (LBP) defined as ache or pain in the lowest part of the back is a common experience among people all over the world. The lifetime prevalence is reported to be as high as 84%, and the prevalence of LBP seems to be almost the same among adolescents as among adults. The risk for having LBP later in life if you experienced LBP in adolescence is high.

Material and Methods: In this cross‐sectional study of 2550 students aged 16‐20 years, we used the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire for the analysis of musculo‐skeletal symptoms. We studied gender difference, prevalence, and disability of Low back pain. We also studied differences in LBP in adolescent athletes depending on hours spent on sports or physical activity.

Results: Significantly, more girls than boys had had problems sometimes during their life. Those who participated in sports reported LBP to a significantly higher extent than those who were physically inactive in their spare time. Gender and spare time sports were important risk factors for getting LBP some time in life. There was a higher risk for girls to have low back pain problems more than 30 days or daily the last year if they had had low back pain some time earlier in life.

Conclusion: This study shows that low back pain (LBP) is common among Swedish adolescents, more common among girls than boys. High sport activity was associated with the risk of having LBP, length of time with LBP, and disability due to LBP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
low back pain, adoloscents, disability, back trouble, epidemiology, female, male, sports, Swedish, young people
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Sports Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154449 (URN)10.1111/sms.13335 (DOI)000458294800008 ()30421820 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports
Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2019-04-16Bibliographically approved
Åman, M., Forssblad, M. & Larsén, K. (2019). National injury prevention measures in team sports should focus on knee, head, and severe upper limb injuries. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 27(3), 1000-1008
Open this publication in new window or tab >>National injury prevention measures in team sports should focus on knee, head, and severe upper limb injuries
2019 (English)In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 1000-1008Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To examine acute injuries in licensed floorball, football, handball, and ice hockey players in all ages nationwide in Sweden, and to identify the most common and severe injuries in each body location and recommend injury prevention measures.

Methods: Using national sport insurance data from years 2006–2015 was the incidence and proportion of acute injuries, and injuries leading to permanent medical impairment (PMI), calculated in the four team sports. The most common injury type and injured body part was identified, with a particular focus of the severe injuries. Comparison between sexes was made.

Results: In total, there were 92,162 registered injuries in all sports together. Knee injuries were most common, and also had the highest incidence of PMI, in all ball sports and in female ice hockey players. In male ice hockey, the most common injury was a dental and face injury, and PMI injuries were mostly in the shoulder. The most severe PMI injuries were rare and most often a face/eye injury in male floorball and ice hockey, a concussion in female ice hockey, and a knee injury in female floorball, and in both sexes in football and handball.

Conclusions: To achieve the greatest impact in reducing the adverse effects of acute sport injuries nationwide in Sweden, preventive measures should focus on knee injuries in all the investigated team sports. The severe head/face and upper limb injuries also need attention. Protective equipment, neuromuscular training programs, rules enforcements, and fair-play interventions may reduce the incidence of injuries

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Sport, Accidents, Prevention, Nationwide, Medical impairment, Severe injuries, Insurance, Football, Handball, Soccer, Floorball, Ice hockey
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Sports Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154452 (URN)10.1007/s00167-018-5225-7 (DOI)000461251400042 ()30413861 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056331973 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports
Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Åman, M., Larsén, K., Forssblad, M., Näsmark, A., Waldén, M. & Hägglund, M. (2018). A Nationwide Follow-up Survey on the Effectiveness of an Implemented Neuromuscular Training Program to Reduce Acute Knee Injuries in Soccer Players. The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 6(12), Article ID 2325967118813841.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Nationwide Follow-up Survey on the Effectiveness of an Implemented Neuromuscular Training Program to Reduce Acute Knee Injuries in Soccer Players
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2018 (English)In: The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 2325-9671, Vol. 6, no 12, article id 2325967118813841Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: A cruciate ligament (CL) injury is a severe injury in soccer. Neuromuscular training programs have a well-documented preventive effect, but there are few studies on the effectiveness of such a program at a national level. The Swedish Knee Control Program (KCP) was found to be effective in preventing CL injuries in youth female soccer players. The KCP was implemented nationwide in Sweden in 2010.

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Swedish KCP in reducing acute knee injuries in soccer players at a nationwide level.

Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.

Methods: All licensed soccer players in Sweden are covered by the same insurance company. Using this insurance database, around 17,500 acute knee injuries that were reported to the insurance company between 2006 and 2015 were included in the study. By matching the number of licensed soccer players with the number of reported injuries each year, the annual incidence of knee and CL injuries was able to be calculated. To evaluate the spread of the KCP nationally, a questionnaire was sent to all 24 Swedish district football associations (FAs) with questions regarding KCP education. The number of downloads of the KCP mobile application (app) was obtained.

Results: The incidence of CL injuries decreased during the study period for both male (from 2.9 to 2.4 per 1000 player-years) and female players (from 4.9 to 3.9 per 1000 player-years). The overall incidence of knee injuries decreased in both male (from 5.6 to 4.6 per 1000 player-years) and female players (from 8.7 to 6.4 per 1000 player-years). Comparing before and after the nationwide implementation of the KCP, there was a decrease in the incidence of CL injuries by 6% (rate ratio [RR], 0.94 [95% CI, 0.89-0.98]) in male players and 13% (RR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81-0.92]) in female players and a decrease in the incidence of knee injuries by 8% (RR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.89-0.96]) and 21% (RR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.75-0.83]), respectively (P < .01 for all). This trend corresponded to a reduction of approximately 100 CL injuries each year in Sweden. A total of 21 of 24 district FAs held organized KCP educational courses during the study period. The percentage of district FAs holding KCP courses was between 46% and 79% each year. There were 101,236 downloads of the KCP app.

Conclusion: The KCP can be considered partially implemented nationwide, and the incidence of knee and CL injuries has decreased in both sexes at a nationwide level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
injury prevention, cruciate ligament, coach education, insurance data, nationwide implementation
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155094 (URN)10.1177/2325967118813841 (DOI)000454055700001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, DNR 2015-02414
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Bo, K., Artal, R., Barakat, R., Brown, W. J., Davies, G. A. L., Dooley, M., . . . Khan, K. M. (2018). Exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes: 2016/2017 evidence summary from the IOC expert group meeting, Lausanne. Part 5. Recommendations for health professionals and active women. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(17), 1080-1085
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes: 2016/2017 evidence summary from the IOC expert group meeting, Lausanne. Part 5. Recommendations for health professionals and active women
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2018 (English)In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 17, p. 1080-1085Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2018
Keywords
exercise, pregnancy, elite performance
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152221 (URN)10.1136/bjsports-2018-099351 (DOI)000443598200003 ()29895607 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-16Bibliographically approved
Sundell, C.-G., Jonsson, H., Ådin, L. & Larsén, K. (2018). Stress Fractures of Pars Interarticularis in Adolescent Athletes a Classification System with MRI and CT Enabling Evaluation of The Healing Process. Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics, 5(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress Fractures of Pars Interarticularis in Adolescent Athletes a Classification System with MRI and CT Enabling Evaluation of The Healing Process
2018 (English)In: Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics, E-ISSN 2374-6904, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate healing frequency in different stages of stress reactions in the Pars Interarticularis (PI) using a classification system with MRI and CT. The intervention was 3-month rest from physical activity, without a brace, with the exception of activities of daily living.

Materials & Method: Twelve adolescent athletes with different stages of Spondolysis were included in the study. They had pathology in the Pars Interarticularis and were clinically examined with MRI and CT 3-6 weeks after debut of Low Back Pain (LBP) and re-evaluated after 3 months intervention with rest from physical activity.

Results: A combination of MRI and CT scanning to investigate suspected injuries to Pars Interarticularis in adolescent athletes revealed 6 different stages of Spondolysis that ranged from marrow oedema to pseudoarthrosis. After 3 months of rest from physical activity the early stages of Pars Interarticularis injuries healed significantly better than the later stages with rest from physical activity.

Conclusion: The combination of MRI and CT revealed 6 stages of stress reactions instead of 4 as in Hollenberg’s staging with MRI only. In the 3 earliest stages, of these 6, rest from physical activity for 3 months can heal the stress reaction.

Keywords
Low Back Pain, Oedema, Pseudoarthrosis, Spondylolysis, Medical and Health Sciences, Health Sciences, Sport and Fitness Sciences, Medicine/Technology, Oedema, Pseudoarthrosis, Spondylolysis, Medicin och hälsovetenskap, Hälsovetenskaper, Idrottsvetenskap, Medicin/Teknik
National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Research subject
Sports Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154472 (URN)10.15226/2374-6904/5/1/00169 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
Wikström-Frisén, L., Boraxbekk, C. J. & Henriksson-Larsén, K. (2017). Effects on power, strength and lean body mass of menstrual/oral contraceptive cycle based resistance training. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 57(1-2), 43-52
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects on power, strength and lean body mass of menstrual/oral contraceptive cycle based resistance training
2017 (English)In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 57, no 1-2, p. 43-52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of menstrual and oral contraceptive cycle on a high frequency periodized leg resistance training in trained women. METHODS: Two groups performed high frequency leg resistance training for two weeks of each menstrual/oral contraceptive cycle for four months. The remaining part of the cycle they performed the leg training once a week. Group 1 (N.=19) trained with high frequency (5 times-w-') during the first two weeks of each cycle, and group 2 (N.=19) during the last two weeks of each cycle. A control group (N.=21) performed regurlar (3 times.w(-1)) leg resistance training for four months. RESULTS: Significant increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque values in hamstrings for group 1 were observed, but not in group 2. In the control group an increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque (only left hamstring) was also observed. There was also a significant increase in lean body mass of the legs in group 1 only. There were no evident differences in the training effects between women with or without oral contraceptive. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency periodized leg resistance training during the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle is more beneficial to optimize training than in the last two weeks. Resistance training during the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle even resulted in a larger gain of lean body mass than regular training.

Keywords
Women, Muscle strength, Resistance training, Menstrual cycle
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112551 (URN)10.23736/S0022-4707.16.05848-5 (DOI)000398129700006 ()26558833 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Wikström-Frisén, L., Boraxbekk, C.-J. & Henriksson-Larsén, K. (2017). Increasing training load without risking the female athlete triad: menstrual cycle based periodized training may be an answer?. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 57(11), 1519-1525
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing training load without risking the female athlete triad: menstrual cycle based periodized training may be an answer?
2017 (English)In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1519-1525Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects that may lead to the female athlete triad are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential negative effects of high frequency periodized menstrual/OC cycle based leg resistance training on components in the female athlete triad.

METHODS: Fifty-nine women, with experience of resistance training and with regular menstrual/OC cycles were included in the analyses. The participants were randomly assigned a training program consisted of high frequency leg resistance training, periodized to the first two weeks (group 1) or the last two weeks (group 2) of each cycle, or to a control group performing regular training, during four consecutive menstrual/OC cycles. The main analysis was the pre-to-post change of sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass, bone mineral density in the spine. We further examined the participants’ own experience of the training programs.

RESULTS: No significant negative impact on sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass and bone mineral density in the spine, was detected in any of the groups. Moreover, the women in group 1 experienced their training program as positive.

CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency periodized leg resistance training was not associated with exercise-related negative consequences on components in the female athlete triad. Moreover, the training was well accepted when performed during the first two weeks of each cycle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2017
Keywords
Female athlete triad syndrome, estrogens, testosterone, hydrocortisone, growth hormone, bone density
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120381 (URN)10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06444-6 (DOI)000431425400017 ()27167713 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Wikström-Frisén, L., Larsson, P., Mincheva Nilsson, L. & Henriksson-Larsén, K. (2017). Mood and oxytocin blood levels in physically active women with and without oral contraceptive use in relation to seasonal daylight variation. International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine, 3(3), Article ID 058.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mood and oxytocin blood levels in physically active women with and without oral contraceptive use in relation to seasonal daylight variation
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2469-5718, Vol. 3, no 3, article id 058Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

The aim is to provide normative data on oxytocin, and its seasonality in users and non-users of Oral Contraceptives (OC) in physically active women. Further, to elucidate the relationship between Oxytocin and Profile of Mood States (POMS) for further research to see if Oxytocin can be used as an additional diagnostic marker to detect overreaching/overtraining syndrome or other stress disorders.

Methods

Forty-eight women (18-35 years old), 19 with and 29 without OC use, physically active at least 3 times a week at > 13 on the Borg RPE scale. Thirty-three subjects completed the study, 15 with and 18 without OC use. The number of hours from sunrise to sunset averaged 10 h during the autumn, 6 h during the winter, and 15 h during the spring. Once a month, blood samples were taken, weight and the day of menstrual cycle was documented, the POMS questionnaire was filled out as well as a personal daily logbook recording exercise type, duration, and intensity. To evaluate seasonal variations in Oxytocin and Global POMS, repeated measures analysis of variance was used.

Results

A significant seasonal variation in Oxytocin levels within the groups with and without OC respectively and significant differences in Oxytocin levels between the groups at diverse seasons were found. No significant difference in seasonal variation of Global POMS within the groups and no significant differences in levels of Global POMS between the groups with and without OC were seen. Furthermore, no clear relationship between Oxytocin, Global POMS scores, and hours of daylight respectively were detected.

Conclusions

Due to seasonality, impact of OC use on oxytocin levels, methodological considerations, and no convincing relationship to Global POMS, oxytocin is not suggested to be an optimal, diagnostic marker alone or in combination with others to detect overreaching and overtraining syndrome in physically active women.

Keywords
Oxytocin, Profile of Mood State, oral contraceptive use, females, hormone, seasonal variation, daylight
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124822 (URN)10.23937/2469-5718/1510058 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-08-26 Created: 2016-08-26 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Wikström-Frisén, L. & Larsén, K. (2017). Periodisering av träning under menstruationscykeln. Svensk Idrottsmedicin, 36(3), 12-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Periodisering av träning under menstruationscykeln
2017 (Swedish)In: Svensk Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 12-14p. 12-14Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Kroppens variationer under menstruationscykeln är en central del av kvinnors vardag och därför behöver vi bli bättre på att ta hänsyn till detta när vi optimerar träning för idrottande kvinnor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Järna: Svensk Förening för Fysisk Aktivitet och Idrottsmedicin, 2017. p. 12-14
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153022 (URN)
Available from: 2018-11-01 Created: 2018-11-01 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
Wikström-Frisén, L., Nordström, A., Mincheva-Nilsson, L. & Larsén, K. (2016). Impact of Season and Oral Contraceptive use on Cortisol Levelsin Physically Active Women. Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics, 3(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Season and Oral Contraceptive use on Cortisol Levelsin Physically Active Women
2016 (English)In: Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics, ISSN 2374-6904, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When athletes optimize their physical performance, an imbalance could occur between the strain of training, time for recovery and the athlete’s individual tolerance of stress that could lead to overreaching and overtraining syndrome. Cortisol has been suggested to be a biological, diagnostic marker to detect overreaching and overtraining syndrome, since it is thought to indicate stress. This study aimed to provide normative data on cortisol levels, hence investigate seasonality and impact of oral contraceptive use to elucidate if cortisol could be used as a diagnostic marker to detect overreaching and overtraining syndrome in female athletes. The women, divided in two groups, oral contraceptive users (n = 15) and non-users (n = 18), were followed over a nine-month period with monthly blood sampling for cortisol testing and a Profile of Mood State questionnaire (POMS) as a subjective measure of overreaching and overtraining syndrome.Findings indicated seasonal variations in cortisol levels, with different pattern in oral contraceptive users to non-users and moreover, higher cortisol levels in users to nonusers irrespective of season. No differences in seasonal variation in Global POMS score within the groups and no differences in Global POMS score between the groups were detected. Due to seasonality, impact of oral contraceptive use on cortisol levels, methodological considerations and standardization, as well as due to no convincing relationship to Global POMS score, cortisol is not suggested to be an optimal biological, diagnostic marker to detect overreaching and overtraining syndrome in physically active women.

Keywords
hormones, overreaching, overtraining syndrome, female athletes, Profile of Mood State
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124841 (URN)
Available from: 2016-08-26 Created: 2016-08-26 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4578-1122

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