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Dermineur, E. (2019). Peer-to-peer lending in pre-industrial France. Financial History Review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peer-to-peer lending in pre-industrial France
2019 (English)In: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article explores the world of informal financial transactions and informal networks in pre-industrial France. Often considered merely as simple daily transactions made to palliate a lack of cash in circulation and to smooth consumption, the examination of private transactions reveals not only that they served various purposes, including productive investments, but also that they proved to be dynamic. The debts they incurred helped to smooth consumption but also helped to make investments. Some lenders were more prominent than others, although no one really dominated the informal market. This article also compares informal transactions with formal ones through the study of probate inventories and notarial records respectively. It compares these two credit circuits, their similarities and different characteristics, and their various networks features. The debts incurred in the notarial credit market were more substantial but did not serve a different purpose than in the informal market. Here too, the biggest lenders did not monopolise the extension of capital. Perhaps the most striking result lies in the fact that the total volume of exchange between the informal credit market and the notarial credit market (after projection) was similar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2019
Keywords
early financial markets, credit activities, loans, notarial credit market, notary, peer-to-peer lending
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162093 (URN)10.1017/S0968565019000143 (DOI)
Projects
Debt in pre-industrial Europe
Available from: 2019-08-13 Created: 2019-08-13 Last updated: 2019-08-15
Dermineur, E. M. (2018). Anatomy of early modern patriarchy. In: Elise M. Dermineur, Åsa Karlsson Sjögren and Virginia Langum (Ed.), Revisiting gender in European history, 1400-1800: (pp. 10-28). New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anatomy of early modern patriarchy
2018 (English)In: Revisiting gender in European history, 1400-1800 / [ed] Elise M. Dermineur, Åsa Karlsson Sjögren and Virginia Langum, New York: Routledge, 2018, p. 10-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Thanks to the emergence and dynamism of new research fields over the past forty years, women and gender historians have been able to (re)define essential concepts and tools of analysis in order to examine women's past. Some of these findings and observations, however, came mostly from the examination of recent historical events and experiences, and are often wrongly used and applied to other historical periods. Patriarchy is one of them. In early modern Western historiography, patriarchy is usually described as a social organization marked by the supremacy of the father/husband in the family, the legal dependence of wives and children, and the reckoning of descent and inheritance in the male line. But as patriarchy has been theorized in the light of capitalism's outcomes, this chapter argues that it should not be used as a significant parameter for premodern studies. This chapter proposes, therefore, to revisit the paradigm of patriarchy applied to early modern Europe, with special reference to France. Because it has long been assumed that patriarchy was propped up by a male monopolization of the 'public' sphere of market relations, demonstration of prominent female activity in the latter prompt a re-thinking of the reach of patriarchy in real lives. Looking at the lives and experiences of female peasants in eighteenth-century France, mostly to the light of market activities, I highlight the discrepancy between theory—i.e., the written rules, the custom and even the ancient tradition that supported patriarchy—and new social practices and norms that challenged it.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2018
Keywords
patriarchy, women, gender, women's history, economic history, authority, household politics
National Category
History Gender Studies
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150250 (URN)9781138731547 (ISBN)9781315188966 (ISBN)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Available from: 2018-07-26 Created: 2018-07-26 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved
Dermineur, E. (2018). Credit, strategies, and female empowerment in early modern France. In: Elise M. Dermineur (Ed.), Women and credit in pre-industrial Europe: (pp. 253-280). Turnhout: Brepols
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Credit, strategies, and female empowerment in early modern France
2018 (English)In: Women and credit in pre-industrial Europe / [ed] Elise M. Dermineur, Turnhout: Brepols, 2018, p. 253-280Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter examines female participation and strategies in French local credit markets in the eighteenth century. A sample of about 2,000 notarial loans from two rural manors of south Alsace constitutes the backbone of this analysis. This chapter posits that women's participation in credit markets was of significance not only for their household and their communities, but that it also granted them social benefits in return. This chapter is therefore a tentative exploration of the paradigm of empowerment through the prism of female credit activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Turnhout: Brepols, 2018
Series
Early European research ; 12
Keywords
Credit, women, empowerment, borrowers, creditors, debt, indebtedness, early financial markets, notaries, Alsace, trust, household, notary, loans, informal economy, peasants
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152507 (URN)10.1484/M.EER-EB.5.115756 (DOI)978-2-503-57052-5 (ISBN)978-2-503-57053-2 (ISBN)
Projects
Debt in Pre-Industrial Europe
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Dermineur, E. M., Karlsson Sjögren, Å. & Langum, V. (2018). Introduction. In: Dermineur, EM Sjogren, AK Langum, V (Ed.), Revisiting Gender in European History, 1400–1800: (pp. 1-9). Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction
2018 (English)In: Revisiting Gender in European History, 1400–1800, Routledge, 2018, p. 1-9Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The scholarly notion of gender has only recently been framed. In the aftermath of World War II, a series of social demands and protests emerged which shook the Western world. These movements placed social and political inequality at the core of their struggle. In particular, feminist movements, collectively called the second wave, blossomed throughout the Western world in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s. Their powerful socio-political dimension and dynamism quickly attracted worldwide attention. This chapter also presents an overview of this book. The book covers various regions in Europe in different time periods at all levels of society. It covers a wide socio-professional spectrum, from elite women to female artisans, domestics and peasant women. The book redresses a lack of scholarship on gender and 'the dark or unofficial side of the preindustrial economy'. It examines the illness experience articulated by two late medieval mystical writers through the possibilities afforded by medicine and religious culture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Series
Routledge Research in Gender and History
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163049 (URN)10.4324/9781315188966 (DOI)000470280400001 ()9781138731547 (ISBN)9781315188966 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-10-03Bibliographically approved
Dermineur, E. M., Karlsson Sjögren, Å. & Langum, V. (2018). Introduction. In: Elise M. Dermineur, Åsa Karlsson Sjögren, Virginia Langum (Ed.), Revisiting gender in European history, 1400-1800: (pp. 1-9). New York and Oxon: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction
2018 (English)In: Revisiting gender in European history, 1400-1800 / [ed] Elise M. Dermineur, Åsa Karlsson Sjögren, Virginia Langum, New York and Oxon: Routledge, 2018, p. 1-9Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The scholarly notion of gender has only recently been framed. In the aftermath of World War II, a series of social demands and protests emerged which shook the Western world. These movements placed social and political inequality at the core of their struggle. In particular, feminist movements, collectively called the second wave, blossomed throughout the Western world in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s. Their powerful socio-political dimension and dynamism quickly attracted worldwide attention. This chapter also presents an overview of this book. The book covers various regions in Europe in different time periods at all levels of society. It covers a wide socio-professional spectrum, from elite women to female artisans, domestics and peasant women. The book redresses a lack of scholarship on gender and 'the dark or unofficial side of the preindustrial economy'. It examines the illness experience articulated by two late medieval mystical writers through the possibilities afforded by medicine and religious culture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York and Oxon: Routledge, 2018
National Category
History Gender Studies
Research subject
History; gender studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148323 (URN)9781138731547 (ISBN)9781315188966 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-03 Created: 2018-06-03 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved
Dermineur, E. (2018). Rethinking Debt: The Evolution of Private Credit Markets in Preindustrial France. Social science history, 42(2), 317-342
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rethinking Debt: The Evolution of Private Credit Markets in Preindustrial France
2018 (English)In: Social science history, ISSN 0145-5532, E-ISSN 1527-8034, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 317-342Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses on traditional private credit markets in eighteenth-century France through the examination of notarized loan deeds and to a lesser extent civil court records. It examines in particular how credit markets functioned and how they developed in the eighteenth century. It argues that traditional credit markets featured norms of solidarity, cooperation and fairness, and allowed considerable flexibility and input from both creditors and debtors. But in the middle of the eighteenth century, this market experienced several major changes. Not only did the volume of exchange and the number of notarized credit contracts dramatically increase, engendering a standardization of contracts and a greater resort to external institutions, but a new group of investors modified the traditional norms and practices of exchange. This paper concludes that the private credit market shifted from an institution in which input, negotiation and flexibility prevailed to a more rigid institution in which rules and rigour applied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2018
Keywords
credit, debt, France, credit markets, loans, mortgages, peasants, trust
National Category
History and Archaeology
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-140413 (URN)10.1017/ssh.2018.5 (DOI)000430317600007 ()
Projects
debt in pre-industrial Europe
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Available from: 2017-10-10 Created: 2017-10-10 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Dermineur, E. M., Karlsson Sjögren, Å. & Langum, V. (Eds.). (2018). Revisiting gender in European history, 1400-1800. New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting gender in European history, 1400-1800
2018 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Do women have a history? Did women have a renaissance? These were provocative questions when they were raised in the heyday of women's studies in the 1970s. But how relevant does gender remain to premodern history in the twenty-first century? This book considers this question in eight new case studies that span the European continent from 1400 to 1800. An introductory essay examines the category of gender in historiography and specifically within premodern historiography, as well as the issue of source material for historians of the period. The eight individual essays seek to examine gender in relation to emerging fields and theoretical considerations, as well as how premodern history contributes to traditional concepts and theories within women's and gender studies, such as patriarchy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2018. p. 191
Series
Routledge research in gender and history ; 31
National Category
History General Literature Studies Gender Studies
Research subject
History; gender studies; Literature
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145565 (URN)10.4324/9781315188966 (DOI)9781138731547 (ISBN)9781315188966 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-03-11 Created: 2018-03-11 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved
Dermineur, E. (2018). Rural credit markets in 18th-century France: contracts, guarantees and land. In: Chris Briggs and Jaco Zuijderduijn (Ed.), Land and credit: mortgages in the medieval and early modern European countryside (pp. 205-231). Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rural credit markets in 18th-century France: contracts, guarantees and land
2018 (English)In: Land and credit: mortgages in the medieval and early modern European countryside / [ed] Chris Briggs and Jaco Zuijderduijn, Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 205-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter looks at the significance of land in relation to credit in early modern France with special reference to the eighteenth century. Through a close examination of notarial contracts covering loans and credit practices, this chapter first presents the characteristics of the early modern French rural credit markets. Particular emphasis is placed on the various types of contracts available to agents in which land served as collateral. Obligations and rentes (annuities) are of particular relevance. Focusing on the credit market of a small rural community in Alsace, this chapter analyses in detail the meaning and evolution of landed guarantees over time. It argues that the significance of land as collateral decreased throughout the eighteenth century mostly because the local credit market was disrupted by a group of new investors from the emerging bourgeoisie. Socially and often geographically strangers to the local community, they began to extend credit and demanded not only stronger guarantees to secure their investments but also set rigid deadlines for repayment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan, 2018
Series
Studies in the History of Finance
Keywords
land, credit, mortgage, property, early modern France, debt, contract
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121073 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-66209-1_8 (DOI)978-3-319-66208-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-66209-1 (ISBN)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Available from: 2016-05-25 Created: 2016-05-25 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Dermineur, E. (2018). Sweden’s election: a vote free from meddling?. London
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sweden’s election: a vote free from meddling?
2018 (English)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, pages
London: , 2018
Keywords
Elections, Sweden, Age of Liberty, Queenship, Lovisa Ulrika, Louisa Ulrika, Russia
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152508 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
Dermineur, E. (Ed.). (2018). Women and credit in pre-industrial Europe. Turnhout: Brepols
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women and credit in pre-industrial Europe
2018 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This collection of essays  compare and discuss women's participation and experiences in credit markets in early modern Europe and highlight the characteristics, common mechanisms, similarities, discrepancies, and differences across various periods of time and regions. The essays cover various regions in Europe in different time periods and at all levels of society. The emphasis is placed particularly on their role as creditors and debtors, a topic largely ignored in traditional historiography, but also and above all on the evolution of their roles across time. Were women able to enter the credit market, and how? In what proportion? What was then the meaning of their involvement in this market? What did their involvement mean for the community and for their household? Was credit a vector of female emancipation and empowerment? What were the changes that occurred for them in the transition to capitalism?   

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Turnhout: Brepols, 2018. p. 364
Series
Early European research ; 12
Keywords
Credit, women, financial markets, annuities, mortgage, Europe, widows, married women, Single women, marital status, finance
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145959 (URN)10.1484/M.EER-EB.5.111944 (DOI)978-2-503-57052-5 (ISBN)978-2-503-57053-2 (ISBN)
Funder
Riksbankens JubileumsfondThe Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation
Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Projects
International Symposium Women and Credit in Preindustrial Europe [F15-1281:1_RJ]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5193-9008

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